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FIGURE 10.

Heating and cooling of


jacketed dryers. Top: Heating or cooling
source fluid is sent directly to the dryer

jacket. Bottom: A thermal fluid circulates
through the dryer jacket and is heated or

cooled via heat exchangers

FIGURE 11. A multiple- FIGURE 12. As the chart shows, specific vapor volume
tion of these methods. Time-con- cartridge dust filter, [m3/kg] and liquid boiling point have a significant impact
FIGURE 7. In addition to FIGURE 8. The geometry trolled filter blowback is often completely blocked by solids on the success of a drying process
drying, the conical screw dryer of a spherical dryer makes
more efficient than the pressure
can be used for powder-blending, it relatively easy to clean-
reactions and crystallization in-place drop-controlled method because Reduction of the vapor load on the points produce different vapor volumes, Summer/winter operation modes
it is done at regular intervals vacuum pump permits the use of a with resultant different vapor velocities must often be taken into consider-
and is less disruptive to the dry- smaller-sized pump, whose main in the piping to the condenser and the ation, especially if river water is used
ing process. For example, at low task is to maintain vacuum and re- pump. Speed limits have to be kept in for cooling
vacuum levels (below 100 mbars), move inerts mind to assure total condensation for A vapor speed limit of approximately
it is important not to blow back Condensate collection can be mea- full recovery of solvents. 25 m/s should be set in the condenser
too often, in order to avoid loss sured and combined with a mass For example, consider a typical dry- tubes
of dryer vacuum caused by the balance to allow indirect, real-time ing operation for a sensitive product
blow-back gas. monitoring of product moisture dur- that is wet with a solvent, such as eth- Final words
For dust filters used for ac- ing the drying process anol, that is to be dried at 50C, and a In summary, while careful selection of
tive pharmaceutical ingredients While most of the vapor is removed condenser designed for this process. If an appropriate dryer is the key element,

(API), the following limit values upstream of the vacuum pump, an the system is later required to dry a peripheral equipment plays an impor-
have shown to be useful for cal- after-condenser is often located on the similar, but water-wet, product at the tant role in a successful drying result. No
culating and checking filter sur- discharge side of the pump to recover same rate, the difference in molecular matter how appropriate the dryer for the
faces: additional solvent. Condensers are weight and the vacuum required will application, the potential always exists
25 m/s maximum vapor speed often supplied with collection vessels produce vapor volumes (and there- to improve efficiency by adjusting the pe-
in vapor line for condensate. The collection vessel fore tube velocities) that are six times ripherals to the machine and the process.
0.53.0 g/m3 maximum should be drained periodically to avoid larger (Figure 12). This illustrates the Also, a sophisticated control system
estimated vapor dust load reboiling. As an additional precaution, importance of designing the condenser ensures that all parameters come to-
FIGURE 9. A typical flow diagram of a horizontal paddle dryer, showing the rela- 100 m3/m2-h maximum it may also be jacketed to keep it cold. for the most severe case likely to be en- gether by combining relevant process
tionships between the dryer and its peripherals: dust filter, solvent condenser/re-
ceiver, heating/cooling unit and vacuum system
flowrate for textile filter cloth Depending on the type of vapors (sol- countered. Additionally, coolant tem- data with peripherals and machine
300 m3/m2-h maximum vents) that must be condensed during peratures have to be chosen carefully data. Feedback about product changes
flowrate for metallic filters the drying process, condensers have to for total condensation. during the drying process can be trans-
stream that is extracted by the vacuum The required surface area can be cal- cover a wide range of solvent proper- Some guidelines for proper design ferred into well-defined operational ad-
pump. Therefore, it is essential to in- culated by using empirical maximum Condensers ties. Cooling media include cold water, and operation ranges are: justments of the dryer and its peripher-
sert a dust filter between the dryer and vapor flowrates through the filter media Condensers are used mostly to recover glycol-water mixtures, and various Coolant return temperatures from als. Thus the whole drying process can
the condenser to prevent the passage (fabric filters, 100 m3/m2-h; metal filters, valuable process solvents, which are evap- thermal fluids. the condenser should be at least 5C be operated more reliably, repetitively
of particles to the condenser and into 300 m3/m2-h) and through the vapor pip- orated during drying. They are typically Design criteria are: below the boiling point of liquids and safely.
the pump. The filter has to fulfill three ing. Sophisticated filter equations that shell-and-tube type surface condensers, Easy cleaning In case of a process (which is also the condensation tem-
main tasks: include such parameters as vapor dust arranged either vertically or horizontally. upset or product changeover, condenser perature) at condenser pressure Edited by Gerald Ondrey
Separate and collect around 99.9% or load (grams per cubic meter) and maxi- Condensers used with dryers are oper- tubes should be readily cleanable by
more of the particles from the vapor mum pressure drop can be used for cal- ated in a different manner from those solvent flush or manual rodding
Be chemically resistant to solvents culation, but have the disadvantage of used for other evaporation applications, Low fouling Carryover of solids or Authors
Reiner Laible is process
and the dust requiring hard-to-obtain product data. in that the vapors are usually condensed liquid droplets in the vapor stream technology manager for Rosen- Mark Lattman is a con-
Minimize pressure drop to maintain Over time, the product dust forms a inside the tubes instead of outside. The should be avoided to minimize depos- mund VTA AG, a member of sulting engineer for De Di-
De Dietrich Process Systems etrich Process Systems, Inc.
the vacuum inside the dryer layer on the filter. In many applications, advantage is that the tubes are easier to its on the inner tube wall (Gestadeckplatz 6, CH-4410, (DDPS; 9110 Forsyth Park
Two types of surface-layer-formation the layer acts like an absorbent it be- clean, provided that straight tube bundles Avoidance of the accumulation of Liestal, Switzerland; Phone: Drive, Charlotte, N.C. 28273;
+41-61-9251-695; Fax: +41- Phone: 704-587-5312; Fax:
dust filters are used in drying technol- comes wet from the vapors and particles are used instead of U-tube bundles. inert gases, which can reduce the ef- 704-588-6866; E-mail: mark.
61-9251-699; Email: reiner.
ogy: metallic filter cartridges and fabric tend to build a crusty layer that blocks Besides recovering solvent, condens- fective tube area for condensation. laible@rosenmund.org). He lattman@ddpsinc.com). He is
responsible for testing, pro-
filters. Although fabric filters are less the pores of the filter. This reduces the ers assist the drying process in the fol- In the design and operation of a con- joined Rosenmund VTA in
cess design, scaleup, and trou-
1995 as head of the Dryer
expensive than metallic filters, they vapor flow and can cause a dramatic lowing ways: denser, it is important to take into ac- Pilot Plant Laboratory. In his bleshooting of batch-filtration
can normally collect particles only as drop in the drying speed (Figure 11). The great reduction of vapor volume count the nature of the solvent that has current position since 2002 he is also responsi- and drying equipment. He
ble for drying technology and process design at worked for Rosenmund Inc. (now part of DDPS)
small as 10m, versus 1 m or less for To avoid this problem, it is necessary creates its own suction effect, thus to be handled. When the solvent changes Rosenmund. Previously (19831988), he worked from 1983 to 2005. Previously (19771982), he
metallic types. However, fabric filters to clean the filter regularly by blow- helping to achieve a deeper process from the vapor phase to liquid, there is in thermal-process design for thermal seawater did process development and plant-assistance
desalination plants, and later (19891994) on engineering for a company in the specialty
can also achieve 1-m separation when back with pressurized gas. Initiation vacuum in the dryer a dramatic decrease in volume. The spe- chemical and food industries. Lattman received
process design of thin-film evaporators. He holds
given a surface treatment, such as a of the blowback cycle may be triggered Removal of the vapor has a buffering cific vapor volume strongly depends on a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the Tech- his B.S. in chemical engineering from the State
University of New York at Buffalo, and an M.S.
membrane coating. when the pressure rises to a predeter- effect on the vacuum pump, thereby the liquid boiling point at the condenser nical University of Munich, Germany, and is an
in chemical engineering from MIT. He has been
affiliate of VDI (the professional association of
It is important to provide sufficient mined level (usually 3070 mbars), by a enabling the drying process to oper- pressure (Figure 12). engineers in Germany). an AIChE member since 1977.
filter surface to minimize pressure drop. specific elapsed time, or by a combina- ate closer to a steady-state condition Solvents that have different boiling
Reprinted from the November 2005 Chemical Engineering magazine. 2005 Access Intelligence, LLC.
Cover Story Illustrations:
David Whitcher

Batch Drying: The Indirect





FIGURE 5. A pan FIGURE 6. A filter/

dryer has a nozzle on dryer is similar to a

Solution to Sensitive Drying


the sidewall, through pan dryer but with

which dried product a filter plate and

is discharged by the filtrate chamber on

machines agitator the bottom, so that
it does both drying

Problems
and filtering

Guidelines on specifying an indirect dryer and peripheral



equipment for sensitive or hazardous chemicals



Mark Lattman and Reiner Laible, De Dietrich, Process Systems

FIGURE 1. The conical

tumble dryer rotates on a FIGURE 2. The multiple-


rying is one of the more com- self, but also on the optimal adjustment ploy a rotating vessel, while others have horizontal axis for drying
very fact that it can perform multiple shape makes the dryer relatively easy ling temperatures
paddle agitator in a paddle
mon and important operations of peripheral equipment associated agitators, high-speed mixers and baffles and is shifted to a vertical dryer promotes efficient operations. However, these additional to clean-in-place and the cleaning liq- Buffering against temperature fluc-
in the manufacture of chemi- with the dryer. Peripherals include the to move and mix the product. Dryer ef- position for discharge mixing and drying of FIGURE 4. The disc dryer can be features come at a price, as a filter/ uid is easily drained out. The geometry tuations in the source
cal products, since it is used heating and cooling system used with ficiency varies widely, depending on the the product mounted in the vertical or horizontal dryer loses some of its heat-transfer ca- also results in a small footprint with To calculate the required heating/cool-
in practically every plant that the dryer, a condenser, a vacuum pump, machines design and the nature of the plane and can operate in either a batch pability with the substitution of a filter respect to installation. In general, the ing capacity required for a batch dryer,
makes solid products in the and a dust filter to prevent product internal equipment. or continuous mode. plate for a solid base. spherical dryer is ideally suited to the the following factors must be consid-
form of powder and granules. Drying particles from reaching the condenser Conical (double-cone) tumble dryer: Conical screw dryer: The conical drying of pharmaceuticals and other ered:
is often required at various stages of a or pump. Details on the roles of periph- One of the simplest and least expensive conduction from the heated above the wet solids to reduce viscous screw dryer (Figure 7) is a vertically high-value solids. Energy to heat mass of dryer and
process, for the removal of moisture or eral equipment are presented later in dryers is the conical tumble dryer (Figure surfaces, since these dryers resistance. It also reduces the initial oriented, conically shaped vessel whose dust filter = Qm
solvents from feedstocks, intermediate this article. 1). It can take many variations in shape, have the capability of hot-gas load on the motor. A bottom-driven pan walls slope inward to a central outlet Optimizing the drying process Energy to heat mass of heating media
products and the final products. but its basic form is true to its name. The blow-through. Consequently, dryer does not have agitator transla- at the bottom. It has an agitator that To optimize dryer performance, it is im- inside the coils = Qh
Equipment used for drying falls The basics dryer is mounted on a horizontal axis for the disc dryer is very versa- tional movement, but the short distance is typically top-driven and forms an portant to adjust the peripheral equip- Energy to heat mass of wet product,
into two basic categories: direct dryers While indirect dryers vary in design the drying operation and rotates fully tile. It can be used to process between the gearbox and the agitator inverted L, whereby the screw arm is ment to match the specific needs of the including solvent = Qpr
and indirect dryers. In direct drying, a and method of operation, they have through 360 deg. Like other batch dry- wet cake or even slurry, in ei- blades makes for much greater torque. positioned close to the vessel wall. On drying operation. This equipment, as Energy for evaporation of solvent
warm or hot gas stream (usually air or some common elements. All are sealed ers, it has a heated wall, and a vacuum is ther batch or continuous mode. As in the case of a paddle dryer, the most models, the complete agitator as- noted above, includes the dryers heat- = Qs
an inert gas) is applied directly to the vessels, heated by a heat-transfer fluid applied to remove vapor. When drying is For continuous operation, the agitator for a pan dryer provides good sembly rotates, along with the screw ing and cooling system, the dust filter, Heat loss by radiation
product and the operation is typically that circulates through heating coils complete, the machine is moved to a ver- residence time can be adjusted mixing and efficient contact between arm, providing excellent mixing of the the condenser and the vacuum pump Type of solvent
continuous. In contrast, indirect dry- on the vessel wall. Since these dryers tical position for discharge of the dried FIGURE 3. Arrangement of a horizontal pad- from minutes to several hours. the product and the heated vessel solid and continual movement across (Figure 9). Cleaning procedure (possibly liquid
ing is a batch (or continuous) operation are mostly used for fine chemicals, they solids from a nozzle at the bottom of the dle dryer with peripherals: dust filter (top), con- Because the disc dryer has surfaces, including the agitator itself. the heated walls. These units make critical contribu- evaporation)
in which the product is contained in a are generally made of stainless steel or cone. trol panel (left), and condensers plus receiver a high heat transfer area per In pan dryers, the agitator also helps A special feature of this type of dryer tions to the success of the drying pro- Dryer efficiency
sealed vessel and heated by a hot fluid higher-grade alloys. The tumbling action generally pro- vessels (rear) unit volume, its footprint is discharge dried solids: A large nozzle, is that it, too, can be used for more cess. Process problems such as lump The dryers material of construction
that circulates through a jacket around Most batch dryers may be run ei- vides good mixing and regular contact small relative to its capacity. mounted on the sidewall, is opened, than just drying. Its other capabilities formation or crust buildup can actually (for example, stainless steel)
the vessel. ther under vacuum or under pressure, between the solids and the heated wall. handled. On the other hand, the agita- However, the complexity of the dryer and the agitator arms push product include powder-blending, crystalliza- be compounded by incorrect adjust- The total energy required Qtotal
Indirect batch drying, the subject of but they are almost always run under However, while tumbling is ideal for tor requires seals at both ends, and this internals present challenges for clean- through the opening whenever they tion, extraction, and alkalization and ment of the peripherals. Overall, an is thus:
this article, is used for products made vacuum to save energy, minimize the free-flowing materials, those that tend aspect of design, operation and mainte- ing, so this dryer is not often applied to pass by it (Figure 5). other reactions. Conical screw dryers electronic control system can ensure
Qtotal = Qm + Qh + Qpr + Qs + Qloss
in small or medium-sized batches (up drying temperature, and protect opera- to agglomerate can form lumps or balls, nance is critical for the successful opera- multi-purpose production of high-value The design of the actuating device can perform well for a wide range of that every item of equipment can run
to approximately 6,000 L) and that are tors and the environment. Liquid (usu- which are not only undesirable but also tion of the dryer. pharmaceuticals. to seal this solid discharge nozzle can products, but can cause size degrada- under optimal conditions. The following special cases may
liable to be contaminated or degraded ally process solvent) is evaporated from complicate the discharge operation. Discharge of the dried solid is typi- This type of dryer is often used as a take many forms, from a manual plug tion when used for drying crystals. The apply:
by exposure to the atmosphere, or the wet product by heating the solvent This dryer can be provided in a num- cally via an outlet in the bottom of the cooker or rendering device in the food to a substantial, hydraulically driven conical shape of the vessel promotes Heating/cooling units If the cleaning procedure involves
chemicals that should not be released above its boiling point corresponding ber of materials of construction, includ- cylindrical shell or from the bottom of and animal products industry. In these valve with a metal-to-metal seal. Be- easy solids discharge. Heat-transfer fluid is typically cir- evaporation/reflux of solvent, the re-
to the environment because they are to the absolute pressure. The vapor is ing glass-lined steel a popular option, one of the circular end faces. applications, the throughputs are gen- cause the agitator cannot be allowed Because of its versatility, this dryer culated from a heating/cooling skid sultant heat load may be greater than
toxic or hazardous. Such products in- pulled toward the vacuum pump and re- as the glass lining provides some non- Achieving total discharge of the solid is erally higher and the design is limited to contact the base of the dryer (which design is favored in many industries. that is connected to the plants main the total energy calculated above for
clude pharmaceuticals, photochemicals, covered by a condenser located between stick property and corrosion resistance. typically not possible, but discharge can to the horizontal-rotor form. would mean metal-to-metal contact), However, the screw can be difficult to steam or pressurized-water system. the drying process and may become
agricultural chemicals, explosives, and the dryer and the pump. Recovery of the The fact that the entire dryer rotates be improved by tilting the vessel slightly Pan dryer: A pan dryer consists of a cir- a certain quantity of solid, or heel, is clean in place. Two types of arrangement are possible the design basis of the heat transfer
various specialty chemicals. liquid also reduces the load on the pump. requires a relatively large installation toward the discharge end and shaping cular, pressure-rated vessel with a flat retained in the vessel. This heel may Spherical dryer: A spherical dryer con- with jacketed batch dryers: direct fluid unit
Batch drying is an important ele- In some cases (such as those involving footprint and some access restriction the paddles so that they move solids to- or conical-shaped bottom. An agitator, become part of the next batch. Alterna- sists of a machined sphere fitted with ei- heating or indirect heating via primary Sensitive products may require rapid
ment in the manufacture of chemical flammable products) the dryer may be for safety reasons. ward the outlet. A paddle dryer tends to often heated, is top or bottom-mounted, tively, it can be physically removed or ther a top- or bottom-mounted agitator, and secondary circuits (Figure 10). cooling at the end of the drying step
and pharmaceutical products. Besides purged during the drying process by an Paddle dryer: Like the conical dryer, require a relatively large footprint for in- the former configuration being preferred simply washed away. the latter having a shape specially de- In direct fluid heating, steam or ther- to maintain product quality, so care
drying the product, it recovers process inert gas, such as nitrogen. Dryers typi- the paddle dryer operates in the hori- stallation in order to have room to access for most fine-chemical and pharmaceu- Filter/dryer: In appearance, a filter/ signed to conform to the spherical wall. mal liquids are directly supplied to the must be taken not to undersize the
solvents, which may be recycled to the cally have a dust filter to prevent par- zontal plane, but it consists of a cylin- and remove the agitator (Figure 3). tical applications because it eliminates dryer is identical to a pan dryer, except The solids outlet is at the very bottom dryer jacket from the source, which cooling capacity.
plant. Also, dryers strongly influence ticles from passing to the condenser and drical vessel and is equipped with a Disc dryer: A disc dryer (Figure 4) dead spots where product can accumu- that the bottom plate is replaced by a of the sphere, thus allowing almost com- may be a boiler or chiller. More often, In summary, the total energy require-
overall production times. A typical pro- the vacuum pump. horizontal centrally located agitator consists of a vessel shell encompassing late. Heated jackets are provided on the filter plate and the base has a filtrate plete product discharge (Figure 8). The indirect systems are used, in which a ment should be viewed as a set of in-
duction train consists of reactors, evapo- that has multiple paddles and is sup- a tubular rotor, which can be mounted vessel sidewall and base. The top head chamber (Figure 6). The advantage of a outlet is typically sealed by a full port thermal liquid such as water, a glycol- fluences that are interdependent. In
rators, filters/centrifuges and, finally, Indirect dryer types ported at both ends. Heating fluid is in in the vertical or horizontal plane. At- of the vessel can also be heated, thereby filter/dryer is that it can perform mul- ball valve that incorporates a metal-to- water mixture, or thermal oil circulates particular, when a sensitive product is
dryers (the last step before the final There are various criteria for differenti- many cases circulated through the agi- tached to the rotor are a series of discs, reducing the likelihood of solvent con- tiple operations, including filtration metal seal. through the dryer jacket. This liquid involved, it is prudent to base energy
product is discharged and packaged). ating the types of indirect dryers that are tator as well as through the vessel wall set at an angle to the rotor. Heated densing on this surface during the dry- and washing, prior to solids drying and The agitator provides excellent solids passes through heat exchangers that calculations on experience or test data
Drying is typically the most time-con- available. For a start, batch dryers may (Figure 2). fluid can be flowed through these discs, ing operation. discharge. By filtering and washing the mixing and contact with the heated wall respectively transfer the heat from the as much as possible.
suming step, so the efficiency of the be oriented vertically or horizontally. A The action of the agitator makes for as well as through the rotor and the The top-mounted agitator is provided product, the filter/dryer avoids the chal- surface. This results in good heat transfer heat source (typically steam) or remove
drying process significantly affects the dryer may also be selected according to efficient mixing of the product and good vessel walls. with both rotational and translational lenging task of charging wet cake to the and drying times, even though the spheri- heat into the coolant (Figure 10). Dust filter
overall efficiency of the plant. the flow pattern of the product during contact with all the heated surfaces. Drying can be performed under pres- (up and down) movement. The latter fea- dryer, since wet cake is not pumpable. cal geometry gives this dryer a low ratio of Advantages of indirect heating/cool- During the drying process, the prod-
Successful drying depends not only the drying process. For example, some Since the agitator is supported at both sure or vacuum and can be achieved ture saves wear and tear on the agitator The primary reason the filter/dryer is heated wall area to enclosed volume. ing are: uct tends to become dusty and dust
on correct selection of the dryer type it- dryers, such as double-cone dryers, em- ends, high-shear or lumpy solids can be by convection as well as through direct during startup by raising it sufficiently chosen over other dryer types is the On the other hand, the spherical Flexibility and precision in control- particles are entrained in the vapor
Cover Story Illustrations:
David Whitcher

Batch Drying: The Indirect





FIGURE 5. A pan FIGURE 6. A filter/

dryer has a nozzle on dryer is similar to a

Solution to Sensitive Drying


the sidewall, through pan dryer but with

which dried product a filter plate and

is discharged by the filtrate chamber on

machines agitator the bottom, so that
it does both drying

Problems
and filtering

Guidelines on specifying an indirect dryer and peripheral



equipment for sensitive or hazardous chemicals



Mark Lattman and Reiner Laible, De Dietrich, Process Systems

FIGURE 1. The conical

tumble dryer rotates on a FIGURE 2. The multiple-


rying is one of the more com- self, but also on the optimal adjustment ploy a rotating vessel, while others have horizontal axis for drying
very fact that it can perform multiple shape makes the dryer relatively easy ling temperatures
paddle agitator in a paddle
mon and important operations of peripheral equipment associated agitators, high-speed mixers and baffles and is shifted to a vertical dryer promotes efficient operations. However, these additional to clean-in-place and the cleaning liq- Buffering against temperature fluc-
in the manufacture of chemi- with the dryer. Peripherals include the to move and mix the product. Dryer ef- position for discharge mixing and drying of FIGURE 4. The disc dryer can be features come at a price, as a filter/ uid is easily drained out. The geometry tuations in the source
cal products, since it is used heating and cooling system used with ficiency varies widely, depending on the the product mounted in the vertical or horizontal dryer loses some of its heat-transfer ca- also results in a small footprint with To calculate the required heating/cool-
in practically every plant that the dryer, a condenser, a vacuum pump, machines design and the nature of the plane and can operate in either a batch pability with the substitution of a filter respect to installation. In general, the ing capacity required for a batch dryer,
makes solid products in the and a dust filter to prevent product internal equipment. or continuous mode. plate for a solid base. spherical dryer is ideally suited to the the following factors must be consid-
form of powder and granules. Drying particles from reaching the condenser Conical (double-cone) tumble dryer: Conical screw dryer: The conical drying of pharmaceuticals and other ered:
is often required at various stages of a or pump. Details on the roles of periph- One of the simplest and least expensive conduction from the heated above the wet solids to reduce viscous screw dryer (Figure 7) is a vertically high-value solids. Energy to heat mass of dryer and
process, for the removal of moisture or eral equipment are presented later in dryers is the conical tumble dryer (Figure surfaces, since these dryers resistance. It also reduces the initial oriented, conically shaped vessel whose dust filter = Qm
solvents from feedstocks, intermediate this article. 1). It can take many variations in shape, have the capability of hot-gas load on the motor. A bottom-driven pan walls slope inward to a central outlet Optimizing the drying process Energy to heat mass of heating media
products and the final products. but its basic form is true to its name. The blow-through. Consequently, dryer does not have agitator transla- at the bottom. It has an agitator that To optimize dryer performance, it is im- inside the coils = Qh
Equipment used for drying falls The basics dryer is mounted on a horizontal axis for the disc dryer is very versa- tional movement, but the short distance is typically top-driven and forms an portant to adjust the peripheral equip- Energy to heat mass of wet product,
into two basic categories: direct dryers While indirect dryers vary in design the drying operation and rotates fully tile. It can be used to process between the gearbox and the agitator inverted L, whereby the screw arm is ment to match the specific needs of the including solvent = Qpr
and indirect dryers. In direct drying, a and method of operation, they have through 360 deg. Like other batch dry- wet cake or even slurry, in ei- blades makes for much greater torque. positioned close to the vessel wall. On drying operation. This equipment, as Energy for evaporation of solvent
warm or hot gas stream (usually air or some common elements. All are sealed ers, it has a heated wall, and a vacuum is ther batch or continuous mode. As in the case of a paddle dryer, the most models, the complete agitator as- noted above, includes the dryers heat- = Qs
an inert gas) is applied directly to the vessels, heated by a heat-transfer fluid applied to remove vapor. When drying is For continuous operation, the agitator for a pan dryer provides good sembly rotates, along with the screw ing and cooling system, the dust filter, Heat loss by radiation
product and the operation is typically that circulates through heating coils complete, the machine is moved to a ver- residence time can be adjusted mixing and efficient contact between arm, providing excellent mixing of the the condenser and the vacuum pump Type of solvent
continuous. In contrast, indirect dry- on the vessel wall. Since these dryers tical position for discharge of the dried FIGURE 3. Arrangement of a horizontal pad- from minutes to several hours. the product and the heated vessel solid and continual movement across (Figure 9). Cleaning procedure (possibly liquid
ing is a batch (or continuous) operation are mostly used for fine chemicals, they solids from a nozzle at the bottom of the dle dryer with peripherals: dust filter (top), con- Because the disc dryer has surfaces, including the agitator itself. the heated walls. These units make critical contribu- evaporation)
in which the product is contained in a are generally made of stainless steel or cone. trol panel (left), and condensers plus receiver a high heat transfer area per In pan dryers, the agitator also helps A special feature of this type of dryer tions to the success of the drying pro- Dryer efficiency
sealed vessel and heated by a hot fluid higher-grade alloys. The tumbling action generally pro- vessels (rear) unit volume, its footprint is discharge dried solids: A large nozzle, is that it, too, can be used for more cess. Process problems such as lump The dryers material of construction
that circulates through a jacket around Most batch dryers may be run ei- vides good mixing and regular contact small relative to its capacity. mounted on the sidewall, is opened, than just drying. Its other capabilities formation or crust buildup can actually (for example, stainless steel)
the vessel. ther under vacuum or under pressure, between the solids and the heated wall. handled. On the other hand, the agita- However, the complexity of the dryer and the agitator arms push product include powder-blending, crystalliza- be compounded by incorrect adjust- The total energy required Qtotal
Indirect batch drying, the subject of but they are almost always run under However, while tumbling is ideal for tor requires seals at both ends, and this internals present challenges for clean- through the opening whenever they tion, extraction, and alkalization and ment of the peripherals. Overall, an is thus:
this article, is used for products made vacuum to save energy, minimize the free-flowing materials, those that tend aspect of design, operation and mainte- ing, so this dryer is not often applied to pass by it (Figure 5). other reactions. Conical screw dryers electronic control system can ensure
Qtotal = Qm + Qh + Qpr + Qs + Qloss
in small or medium-sized batches (up drying temperature, and protect opera- to agglomerate can form lumps or balls, nance is critical for the successful opera- multi-purpose production of high-value The design of the actuating device can perform well for a wide range of that every item of equipment can run
to approximately 6,000 L) and that are tors and the environment. Liquid (usu- which are not only undesirable but also tion of the dryer. pharmaceuticals. to seal this solid discharge nozzle can products, but can cause size degrada- under optimal conditions. The following special cases may
liable to be contaminated or degraded ally process solvent) is evaporated from complicate the discharge operation. Discharge of the dried solid is typi- This type of dryer is often used as a take many forms, from a manual plug tion when used for drying crystals. The apply:
by exposure to the atmosphere, or the wet product by heating the solvent This dryer can be provided in a num- cally via an outlet in the bottom of the cooker or rendering device in the food to a substantial, hydraulically driven conical shape of the vessel promotes Heating/cooling units If the cleaning procedure involves
chemicals that should not be released above its boiling point corresponding ber of materials of construction, includ- cylindrical shell or from the bottom of and animal products industry. In these valve with a metal-to-metal seal. Be- easy solids discharge. Heat-transfer fluid is typically cir- evaporation/reflux of solvent, the re-
to the environment because they are to the absolute pressure. The vapor is ing glass-lined steel a popular option, one of the circular end faces. applications, the throughputs are gen- cause the agitator cannot be allowed Because of its versatility, this dryer culated from a heating/cooling skid sultant heat load may be greater than
toxic or hazardous. Such products in- pulled toward the vacuum pump and re- as the glass lining provides some non- Achieving total discharge of the solid is erally higher and the design is limited to contact the base of the dryer (which design is favored in many industries. that is connected to the plants main the total energy calculated above for
clude pharmaceuticals, photochemicals, covered by a condenser located between stick property and corrosion resistance. typically not possible, but discharge can to the horizontal-rotor form. would mean metal-to-metal contact), However, the screw can be difficult to steam or pressurized-water system. the drying process and may become
agricultural chemicals, explosives, and the dryer and the pump. Recovery of the The fact that the entire dryer rotates be improved by tilting the vessel slightly Pan dryer: A pan dryer consists of a cir- a certain quantity of solid, or heel, is clean in place. Two types of arrangement are possible the design basis of the heat transfer
various specialty chemicals. liquid also reduces the load on the pump. requires a relatively large installation toward the discharge end and shaping cular, pressure-rated vessel with a flat retained in the vessel. This heel may Spherical dryer: A spherical dryer con- with jacketed batch dryers: direct fluid unit
Batch drying is an important ele- In some cases (such as those involving footprint and some access restriction the paddles so that they move solids to- or conical-shaped bottom. An agitator, become part of the next batch. Alterna- sists of a machined sphere fitted with ei- heating or indirect heating via primary Sensitive products may require rapid
ment in the manufacture of chemical flammable products) the dryer may be for safety reasons. ward the outlet. A paddle dryer tends to often heated, is top or bottom-mounted, tively, it can be physically removed or ther a top- or bottom-mounted agitator, and secondary circuits (Figure 10). cooling at the end of the drying step
and pharmaceutical products. Besides purged during the drying process by an Paddle dryer: Like the conical dryer, require a relatively large footprint for in- the former configuration being preferred simply washed away. the latter having a shape specially de- In direct fluid heating, steam or ther- to maintain product quality, so care
drying the product, it recovers process inert gas, such as nitrogen. Dryers typi- the paddle dryer operates in the hori- stallation in order to have room to access for most fine-chemical and pharmaceu- Filter/dryer: In appearance, a filter/ signed to conform to the spherical wall. mal liquids are directly supplied to the must be taken not to undersize the
solvents, which may be recycled to the cally have a dust filter to prevent par- zontal plane, but it consists of a cylin- and remove the agitator (Figure 3). tical applications because it eliminates dryer is identical to a pan dryer, except The solids outlet is at the very bottom dryer jacket from the source, which cooling capacity.
plant. Also, dryers strongly influence ticles from passing to the condenser and drical vessel and is equipped with a Disc dryer: A disc dryer (Figure 4) dead spots where product can accumu- that the bottom plate is replaced by a of the sphere, thus allowing almost com- may be a boiler or chiller. More often, In summary, the total energy require-
overall production times. A typical pro- the vacuum pump. horizontal centrally located agitator consists of a vessel shell encompassing late. Heated jackets are provided on the filter plate and the base has a filtrate plete product discharge (Figure 8). The indirect systems are used, in which a ment should be viewed as a set of in-
duction train consists of reactors, evapo- that has multiple paddles and is sup- a tubular rotor, which can be mounted vessel sidewall and base. The top head chamber (Figure 6). The advantage of a outlet is typically sealed by a full port thermal liquid such as water, a glycol- fluences that are interdependent. In
rators, filters/centrifuges and, finally, Indirect dryer types ported at both ends. Heating fluid is in in the vertical or horizontal plane. At- of the vessel can also be heated, thereby filter/dryer is that it can perform mul- ball valve that incorporates a metal-to- water mixture, or thermal oil circulates particular, when a sensitive product is
dryers (the last step before the final There are various criteria for differenti- many cases circulated through the agi- tached to the rotor are a series of discs, reducing the likelihood of solvent con- tiple operations, including filtration metal seal. through the dryer jacket. This liquid involved, it is prudent to base energy
product is discharged and packaged). ating the types of indirect dryers that are tator as well as through the vessel wall set at an angle to the rotor. Heated densing on this surface during the dry- and washing, prior to solids drying and The agitator provides excellent solids passes through heat exchangers that calculations on experience or test data
Drying is typically the most time-con- available. For a start, batch dryers may (Figure 2). fluid can be flowed through these discs, ing operation. discharge. By filtering and washing the mixing and contact with the heated wall respectively transfer the heat from the as much as possible.
suming step, so the efficiency of the be oriented vertically or horizontally. A The action of the agitator makes for as well as through the rotor and the The top-mounted agitator is provided product, the filter/dryer avoids the chal- surface. This results in good heat transfer heat source (typically steam) or remove
drying process significantly affects the dryer may also be selected according to efficient mixing of the product and good vessel walls. with both rotational and translational lenging task of charging wet cake to the and drying times, even though the spheri- heat into the coolant (Figure 10). Dust filter
overall efficiency of the plant. the flow pattern of the product during contact with all the heated surfaces. Drying can be performed under pres- (up and down) movement. The latter fea- dryer, since wet cake is not pumpable. cal geometry gives this dryer a low ratio of Advantages of indirect heating/cool- During the drying process, the prod-
Successful drying depends not only the drying process. For example, some Since the agitator is supported at both sure or vacuum and can be achieved ture saves wear and tear on the agitator The primary reason the filter/dryer is heated wall area to enclosed volume. ing are: uct tends to become dusty and dust
on correct selection of the dryer type it- dryers, such as double-cone dryers, em- ends, high-shear or lumpy solids can be by convection as well as through direct during startup by raising it sufficiently chosen over other dryer types is the On the other hand, the spherical Flexibility and precision in control- particles are entrained in the vapor
Cover Story Illustrations:
David Whitcher

Batch Drying: The Indirect





FIGURE 5. A pan FIGURE 6. A filter/

dryer has a nozzle on dryer is similar to a

Solution to Sensitive Drying


the sidewall, through pan dryer but with

which dried product a filter plate and

is discharged by the filtrate chamber on

machines agitator the bottom, so that
it does both drying

Problems
and filtering

Guidelines on specifying an indirect dryer and peripheral



equipment for sensitive or hazardous chemicals



Mark Lattman and Reiner Laible, De Dietrich, Process Systems

FIGURE 1. The conical

tumble dryer rotates on a FIGURE 2. The multiple-


rying is one of the more com- self, but also on the optimal adjustment ploy a rotating vessel, while others have horizontal axis for drying
very fact that it can perform multiple shape makes the dryer relatively easy ling temperatures
paddle agitator in a paddle
mon and important operations of peripheral equipment associated agitators, high-speed mixers and baffles and is shifted to a vertical dryer promotes efficient operations. However, these additional to clean-in-place and the cleaning liq- Buffering against temperature fluc-
in the manufacture of chemi- with the dryer. Peripherals include the to move and mix the product. Dryer ef- position for discharge mixing and drying of FIGURE 4. The disc dryer can be features come at a price, as a filter/ uid is easily drained out. The geometry tuations in the source
cal products, since it is used heating and cooling system used with ficiency varies widely, depending on the the product mounted in the vertical or horizontal dryer loses some of its heat-transfer ca- also results in a small footprint with To calculate the required heating/cool-
in practically every plant that the dryer, a condenser, a vacuum pump, machines design and the nature of the plane and can operate in either a batch pability with the substitution of a filter respect to installation. In general, the ing capacity required for a batch dryer,
makes solid products in the and a dust filter to prevent product internal equipment. or continuous mode. plate for a solid base. spherical dryer is ideally suited to the the following factors must be consid-
form of powder and granules. Drying particles from reaching the condenser Conical (double-cone) tumble dryer: Conical screw dryer: The conical drying of pharmaceuticals and other ered:
is often required at various stages of a or pump. Details on the roles of periph- One of the simplest and least expensive conduction from the heated above the wet solids to reduce viscous screw dryer (Figure 7) is a vertically high-value solids. Energy to heat mass of dryer and
process, for the removal of moisture or eral equipment are presented later in dryers is the conical tumble dryer (Figure surfaces, since these dryers resistance. It also reduces the initial oriented, conically shaped vessel whose dust filter = Qm
solvents from feedstocks, intermediate this article. 1). It can take many variations in shape, have the capability of hot-gas load on the motor. A bottom-driven pan walls slope inward to a central outlet Optimizing the drying process Energy to heat mass of heating media
products and the final products. but its basic form is true to its name. The blow-through. Consequently, dryer does not have agitator transla- at the bottom. It has an agitator that To optimize dryer performance, it is im- inside the coils = Qh
Equipment used for drying falls The basics dryer is mounted on a horizontal axis for the disc dryer is very versa- tional movement, but the short distance is typically top-driven and forms an portant to adjust the peripheral equip- Energy to heat mass of wet product,
into two basic categories: direct dryers While indirect dryers vary in design the drying operation and rotates fully tile. It can be used to process between the gearbox and the agitator inverted L, whereby the screw arm is ment to match the specific needs of the including solvent = Qpr
and indirect dryers. In direct drying, a and method of operation, they have through 360 deg. Like other batch dry- wet cake or even slurry, in ei- blades makes for much greater torque. positioned close to the vessel wall. On drying operation. This equipment, as Energy for evaporation of solvent
warm or hot gas stream (usually air or some common elements. All are sealed ers, it has a heated wall, and a vacuum is ther batch or continuous mode. As in the case of a paddle dryer, the most models, the complete agitator as- noted above, includes the dryers heat- = Qs
an inert gas) is applied directly to the vessels, heated by a heat-transfer fluid applied to remove vapor. When drying is For continuous operation, the agitator for a pan dryer provides good sembly rotates, along with the screw ing and cooling system, the dust filter, Heat loss by radiation
product and the operation is typically that circulates through heating coils complete, the machine is moved to a ver- residence time can be adjusted mixing and efficient contact between arm, providing excellent mixing of the the condenser and the vacuum pump Type of solvent
continuous. In contrast, indirect dry- on the vessel wall. Since these dryers tical position for discharge of the dried FIGURE 3. Arrangement of a horizontal pad- from minutes to several hours. the product and the heated vessel solid and continual movement across (Figure 9). Cleaning procedure (possibly liquid
ing is a batch (or continuous) operation are mostly used for fine chemicals, they solids from a nozzle at the bottom of the dle dryer with peripherals: dust filter (top), con- Because the disc dryer has surfaces, including the agitator itself. the heated walls. These units make critical contribu- evaporation)
in which the product is contained in a are generally made of stainless steel or cone. trol panel (left), and condensers plus receiver a high heat transfer area per In pan dryers, the agitator also helps A special feature of this type of dryer tions to the success of the drying pro- Dryer efficiency
sealed vessel and heated by a hot fluid higher-grade alloys. The tumbling action generally pro- vessels (rear) unit volume, its footprint is discharge dried solids: A large nozzle, is that it, too, can be used for more cess. Process problems such as lump The dryers material of construction
that circulates through a jacket around Most batch dryers may be run ei- vides good mixing and regular contact small relative to its capacity. mounted on the sidewall, is opened, than just drying. Its other capabilities formation or crust buildup can actually (for example, stainless steel)
the vessel. ther under vacuum or under pressure, between the solids and the heated wall. handled. On the other hand, the agita- However, the complexity of the dryer and the agitator arms push product include powder-blending, crystalliza- be compounded by incorrect adjust- The total energy required Qtotal
Indirect batch drying, the subject of but they are almost always run under However, while tumbling is ideal for tor requires seals at both ends, and this internals present challenges for clean- through the opening whenever they tion, extraction, and alkalization and ment of the peripherals. Overall, an is thus:
this article, is used for products made vacuum to save energy, minimize the free-flowing materials, those that tend aspect of design, operation and mainte- ing, so this dryer is not often applied to pass by it (Figure 5). other reactions. Conical screw dryers electronic control system can ensure
Qtotal = Qm + Qh + Qpr + Qs + Qloss
in small or medium-sized batches (up drying temperature, and protect opera- to agglomerate can form lumps or balls, nance is critical for the successful opera- multi-purpose production of high-value The design of the actuating device can perform well for a wide range of that every item of equipment can run
to approximately 6,000 L) and that are tors and the environment. Liquid (usu- which are not only undesirable but also tion of the dryer. pharmaceuticals. to seal this solid discharge nozzle can products, but can cause size degrada- under optimal conditions. The following special cases may
liable to be contaminated or degraded ally process solvent) is evaporated from complicate the discharge operation. Discharge of the dried solid is typi- This type of dryer is often used as a take many forms, from a manual plug tion when used for drying crystals. The apply:
by exposure to the atmosphere, or the wet product by heating the solvent This dryer can be provided in a num- cally via an outlet in the bottom of the cooker or rendering device in the food to a substantial, hydraulically driven conical shape of the vessel promotes Heating/cooling units If the cleaning procedure involves
chemicals that should not be released above its boiling point corresponding ber of materials of construction, includ- cylindrical shell or from the bottom of and animal products industry. In these valve with a metal-to-metal seal. Be- easy solids discharge. Heat-transfer fluid is typically cir- evaporation/reflux of solvent, the re-
to the environment because they are to the absolute pressure. The vapor is ing glass-lined steel a popular option, one of the circular end faces. applications, the throughputs are gen- cause the agitator cannot be allowed Because of its versatility, this dryer culated from a heating/cooling skid sultant heat load may be greater than
toxic or hazardous. Such products in- pulled toward the vacuum pump and re- as the glass lining provides some non- Achieving total discharge of the solid is erally higher and the design is limited to contact the base of the dryer (which design is favored in many industries. that is connected to the plants main the total energy calculated above for
clude pharmaceuticals, photochemicals, covered by a condenser located between stick property and corrosion resistance. typically not possible, but discharge can to the horizontal-rotor form. would mean metal-to-metal contact), However, the screw can be difficult to steam or pressurized-water system. the drying process and may become
agricultural chemicals, explosives, and the dryer and the pump. Recovery of the The fact that the entire dryer rotates be improved by tilting the vessel slightly Pan dryer: A pan dryer consists of a cir- a certain quantity of solid, or heel, is clean in place. Two types of arrangement are possible the design basis of the heat transfer
various specialty chemicals. liquid also reduces the load on the pump. requires a relatively large installation toward the discharge end and shaping cular, pressure-rated vessel with a flat retained in the vessel. This heel may Spherical dryer: A spherical dryer con- with jacketed batch dryers: direct fluid unit
Batch drying is an important ele- In some cases (such as those involving footprint and some access restriction the paddles so that they move solids to- or conical-shaped bottom. An agitator, become part of the next batch. Alterna- sists of a machined sphere fitted with ei- heating or indirect heating via primary Sensitive products may require rapid
ment in the manufacture of chemical flammable products) the dryer may be for safety reasons. ward the outlet. A paddle dryer tends to often heated, is top or bottom-mounted, tively, it can be physically removed or ther a top- or bottom-mounted agitator, and secondary circuits (Figure 10). cooling at the end of the drying step
and pharmaceutical products. Besides purged during the drying process by an Paddle dryer: Like the conical dryer, require a relatively large footprint for in- the former configuration being preferred simply washed away. the latter having a shape specially de- In direct fluid heating, steam or ther- to maintain product quality, so care
drying the product, it recovers process inert gas, such as nitrogen. Dryers typi- the paddle dryer operates in the hori- stallation in order to have room to access for most fine-chemical and pharmaceu- Filter/dryer: In appearance, a filter/ signed to conform to the spherical wall. mal liquids are directly supplied to the must be taken not to undersize the
solvents, which may be recycled to the cally have a dust filter to prevent par- zontal plane, but it consists of a cylin- and remove the agitator (Figure 3). tical applications because it eliminates dryer is identical to a pan dryer, except The solids outlet is at the very bottom dryer jacket from the source, which cooling capacity.
plant. Also, dryers strongly influence ticles from passing to the condenser and drical vessel and is equipped with a Disc dryer: A disc dryer (Figure 4) dead spots where product can accumu- that the bottom plate is replaced by a of the sphere, thus allowing almost com- may be a boiler or chiller. More often, In summary, the total energy require-
overall production times. A typical pro- the vacuum pump. horizontal centrally located agitator consists of a vessel shell encompassing late. Heated jackets are provided on the filter plate and the base has a filtrate plete product discharge (Figure 8). The indirect systems are used, in which a ment should be viewed as a set of in-
duction train consists of reactors, evapo- that has multiple paddles and is sup- a tubular rotor, which can be mounted vessel sidewall and base. The top head chamber (Figure 6). The advantage of a outlet is typically sealed by a full port thermal liquid such as water, a glycol- fluences that are interdependent. In
rators, filters/centrifuges and, finally, Indirect dryer types ported at both ends. Heating fluid is in in the vertical or horizontal plane. At- of the vessel can also be heated, thereby filter/dryer is that it can perform mul- ball valve that incorporates a metal-to- water mixture, or thermal oil circulates particular, when a sensitive product is
dryers (the last step before the final There are various criteria for differenti- many cases circulated through the agi- tached to the rotor are a series of discs, reducing the likelihood of solvent con- tiple operations, including filtration metal seal. through the dryer jacket. This liquid involved, it is prudent to base energy
product is discharged and packaged). ating the types of indirect dryers that are tator as well as through the vessel wall set at an angle to the rotor. Heated densing on this surface during the dry- and washing, prior to solids drying and The agitator provides excellent solids passes through heat exchangers that calculations on experience or test data
Drying is typically the most time-con- available. For a start, batch dryers may (Figure 2). fluid can be flowed through these discs, ing operation. discharge. By filtering and washing the mixing and contact with the heated wall respectively transfer the heat from the as much as possible.
suming step, so the efficiency of the be oriented vertically or horizontally. A The action of the agitator makes for as well as through the rotor and the The top-mounted agitator is provided product, the filter/dryer avoids the chal- surface. This results in good heat transfer heat source (typically steam) or remove
drying process significantly affects the dryer may also be selected according to efficient mixing of the product and good vessel walls. with both rotational and translational lenging task of charging wet cake to the and drying times, even though the spheri- heat into the coolant (Figure 10). Dust filter
overall efficiency of the plant. the flow pattern of the product during contact with all the heated surfaces. Drying can be performed under pres- (up and down) movement. The latter fea- dryer, since wet cake is not pumpable. cal geometry gives this dryer a low ratio of Advantages of indirect heating/cool- During the drying process, the prod-
Successful drying depends not only the drying process. For example, some Since the agitator is supported at both sure or vacuum and can be achieved ture saves wear and tear on the agitator The primary reason the filter/dryer is heated wall area to enclosed volume. ing are: uct tends to become dusty and dust
on correct selection of the dryer type it- dryers, such as double-cone dryers, em- ends, high-shear or lumpy solids can be by convection as well as through direct during startup by raising it sufficiently chosen over other dryer types is the On the other hand, the spherical Flexibility and precision in control- particles are entrained in the vapor















FIGURE 10. Heating and cooling of
jacketed dryers. Top: Heating or cooling
source fluid is sent directly to the dryer

jacket. Bottom: A thermal fluid circulates
through the dryer jacket and is heated or

cooled via heat exchangers

FIGURE 11. A multiple- FIGURE 12. As the chart shows, specific vapor volume
tion of these methods. Time-con- cartridge dust filter, [m3/kg] and liquid boiling point have a significant impact
FIGURE 7. In addition to FIGURE 8. The geometry trolled filter blowback is often completely blocked by solids on the success of a drying process
drying, the conical screw dryer of a spherical dryer makes
more efficient than the pressure
can be used for powder-blending, it relatively easy to clean-
reactions and crystallization in-place drop-controlled method because Reduction of the vapor load on the points produce different vapor volumes, Summer/winter operation modes
it is done at regular intervals vacuum pump permits the use of a with resultant different vapor velocities must often be taken into consider-
and is less disruptive to the dry- smaller-sized pump, whose main in the piping to the condenser and the ation, especially if river water is used
ing process. For example, at low task is to maintain vacuum and re- pump. Speed limits have to be kept in for cooling
vacuum levels (below 100 mbars), move inerts mind to assure total condensation for A vapor speed limit of approximately
it is important not to blow back Condensate collection can be mea- full recovery of solvents. 25 m/s should be set in the condenser
too often, in order to avoid loss sured and combined with a mass For example, consider a typical dry- tubes
of dryer vacuum caused by the balance to allow indirect, real-time ing operation for a sensitive product
blow-back gas. monitoring of product moisture dur- that is wet with a solvent, such as eth- Final words
For dust filters used for ac- ing the drying process anol, that is to be dried at 50C, and a In summary, while careful selection of
tive pharmaceutical ingredients While most of the vapor is removed condenser designed for this process. If an appropriate dryer is the key element,

(API), the following limit values upstream of the vacuum pump, an the system is later required to dry a peripheral equipment plays an impor-
have shown to be useful for cal- after-condenser is often located on the similar, but water-wet, product at the tant role in a successful drying result. No
culating and checking filter sur- discharge side of the pump to recover same rate, the difference in molecular matter how appropriate the dryer for the
faces: additional solvent. Condensers are weight and the vacuum required will application, the potential always exists
25 m/s maximum vapor speed often supplied with collection vessels produce vapor volumes (and there- to improve efficiency by adjusting the pe-
in vapor line for condensate. The collection vessel fore tube velocities) that are six times ripherals to the machine and the process.
0.53.0 g/m3 maximum should be drained periodically to avoid larger (Figure 12). This illustrates the Also, a sophisticated control system
estimated vapor dust load reboiling. As an additional precaution, importance of designing the condenser ensures that all parameters come to-
FIGURE 9. A typical flow diagram of a horizontal paddle dryer, showing the rela- 100 m3/m2-h maximum it may also be jacketed to keep it cold. for the most severe case likely to be en- gether by combining relevant process
tionships between the dryer and its peripherals: dust filter, solvent condenser/re-
ceiver, heating/cooling unit and vacuum system
flowrate for textile filter cloth Depending on the type of vapors (sol- countered. Additionally, coolant tem- data with peripherals and machine
300 m3/m2-h maximum vents) that must be condensed during peratures have to be chosen carefully data. Feedback about product changes
flowrate for metallic filters the drying process, condensers have to for total condensation. during the drying process can be trans-
stream that is extracted by the vacuum The required surface area can be cal- cover a wide range of solvent proper- Some guidelines for proper design ferred into well-defined operational ad-
pump. Therefore, it is essential to in- culated by using empirical maximum Condensers ties. Cooling media include cold water, and operation ranges are: justments of the dryer and its peripher-
sert a dust filter between the dryer and vapor flowrates through the filter media Condensers are used mostly to recover glycol-water mixtures, and various Coolant return temperatures from als. Thus the whole drying process can
the condenser to prevent the passage (fabric filters, 100 m3/m2-h; metal filters, valuable process solvents, which are evap- thermal fluids. the condenser should be at least 5C be operated more reliably, repetitively
of particles to the condenser and into 300 m3/m2-h) and through the vapor pip- orated during drying. They are typically Design criteria are: below the boiling point of liquids and safely.
the pump. The filter has to fulfill three ing. Sophisticated filter equations that shell-and-tube type surface condensers, Easy cleaning In case of a process (which is also the condensation tem-
main tasks: include such parameters as vapor dust arranged either vertically or horizontally. upset or product changeover, condenser perature) at condenser pressure Edited by Gerald Ondrey
Separate and collect around 99.9% or load (grams per cubic meter) and maxi- Condensers used with dryers are oper- tubes should be readily cleanable by
more of the particles from the vapor mum pressure drop can be used for cal- ated in a different manner from those solvent flush or manual rodding
Be chemically resistant to solvents culation, but have the disadvantage of used for other evaporation applications, Low fouling Carryover of solids or Authors
Reiner Laible is process
and the dust requiring hard-to-obtain product data. in that the vapors are usually condensed liquid droplets in the vapor stream technology manager for Rosen- Mark Lattman is a con-
Minimize pressure drop to maintain Over time, the product dust forms a inside the tubes instead of outside. The should be avoided to minimize depos- mund VTA AG, a member of sulting engineer for De Di-
De Dietrich Process Systems etrich Process Systems, Inc.
the vacuum inside the dryer layer on the filter. In many applications, advantage is that the tubes are easier to its on the inner tube wall (Gestadeckplatz 6, CH-4410, (DDPS; 9110 Forsyth Park
Two types of surface-layer-formation the layer acts like an absorbent it be- clean, provided that straight tube bundles Avoidance of the accumulation of Liestal, Switzerland; Phone: Drive, Charlotte, N.C. 28273;
+41-61-9251-695; Fax: +41- Phone: 704-587-5312; Fax:
dust filters are used in drying technol- comes wet from the vapors and particles are used instead of U-tube bundles. inert gases, which can reduce the ef- 704-588-6866; E-mail: mark.
61-9251-699; Email: reiner.
ogy: metallic filter cartridges and fabric tend to build a crusty layer that blocks Besides recovering solvent, condens- fective tube area for condensation. laible@rosenmund.org). He lattman@ddpsinc.com). He is
responsible for testing, pro-
filters. Although fabric filters are less the pores of the filter. This reduces the ers assist the drying process in the fol- In the design and operation of a con- joined Rosenmund VTA in
cess design, scaleup, and trou-
1995 as head of the Dryer
expensive than metallic filters, they vapor flow and can cause a dramatic lowing ways: denser, it is important to take into ac- Pilot Plant Laboratory. In his bleshooting of batch-filtration
can normally collect particles only as drop in the drying speed (Figure 11). The great reduction of vapor volume count the nature of the solvent that has current position since 2002 he is also responsi- and drying equipment. He
ble for drying technology and process design at worked for Rosenmund Inc. (now part of DDPS)
small as 10m, versus 1 m or less for To avoid this problem, it is necessary creates its own suction effect, thus to be handled. When the solvent changes Rosenmund. Previously (19831988), he worked from 1983 to 2005. Previously (19771982), he
metallic types. However, fabric filters to clean the filter regularly by blow- helping to achieve a deeper process from the vapor phase to liquid, there is in thermal-process design for thermal seawater did process development and plant-assistance
desalination plants, and later (19891994) on engineering for a company in the specialty
can also achieve 1-m separation when back with pressurized gas. Initiation vacuum in the dryer a dramatic decrease in volume. The spe- chemical and food industries. Lattman received
process design of thin-film evaporators. He holds
given a surface treatment, such as a of the blowback cycle may be triggered Removal of the vapor has a buffering cific vapor volume strongly depends on a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the Tech- his B.S. in chemical engineering from the State
University of New York at Buffalo, and an M.S.
membrane coating. when the pressure rises to a predeter- effect on the vacuum pump, thereby the liquid boiling point at the condenser nical University of Munich, Germany, and is an
in chemical engineering from MIT. He has been
affiliate of VDI (the professional association of
It is important to provide sufficient mined level (usually 3070 mbars), by a enabling the drying process to oper- pressure (Figure 12). engineers in Germany). an AIChE member since 1977.
filter surface to minimize pressure drop. specific elapsed time, or by a combina- ate closer to a steady-state condition Solvents that have different boiling
Reprinted from the November 2005 Chemical Engineering magazine. 2005 Access Intelligence, LLC.















FIGURE 10. Heating and cooling of
jacketed dryers. Top: Heating or cooling
source fluid is sent directly to the dryer

jacket. Bottom: A thermal fluid circulates
through the dryer jacket and is heated or

cooled via heat exchangers

FIGURE 11. A multiple- FIGURE 12. As the chart shows, specific vapor volume
tion of these methods. Time-con- cartridge dust filter, [m3/kg] and liquid boiling point have a significant impact
FIGURE 7. In addition to FIGURE 8. The geometry trolled filter blowback is often completely blocked by solids on the success of a drying process
drying, the conical screw dryer of a spherical dryer makes
more efficient than the pressure
can be used for powder-blending, it relatively easy to clean-
reactions and crystallization in-place drop-controlled method because Reduction of the vapor load on the points produce different vapor volumes, Summer/winter operation modes
it is done at regular intervals vacuum pump permits the use of a with resultant different vapor velocities must often be taken into consider-
and is less disruptive to the dry- smaller-sized pump, whose main in the piping to the condenser and the ation, especially if river water is used
ing process. For example, at low task is to maintain vacuum and re- pump. Speed limits have to be kept in for cooling
vacuum levels (below 100 mbars), move inerts mind to assure total condensation for A vapor speed limit of approximately
it is important not to blow back Condensate collection can be mea- full recovery of solvents. 25 m/s should be set in the condenser
too often, in order to avoid loss sured and combined with a mass For example, consider a typical dry- tubes
of dryer vacuum caused by the balance to allow indirect, real-time ing operation for a sensitive product
blow-back gas. monitoring of product moisture dur- that is wet with a solvent, such as eth- Final words
For dust filters used for ac- ing the drying process anol, that is to be dried at 50C, and a In summary, while careful selection of
tive pharmaceutical ingredients While most of the vapor is removed condenser designed for this process. If an appropriate dryer is the key element,

(API), the following limit values upstream of the vacuum pump, an the system is later required to dry a peripheral equipment plays an impor-
have shown to be useful for cal- after-condenser is often located on the similar, but water-wet, product at the tant role in a successful drying result. No
culating and checking filter sur- discharge side of the pump to recover same rate, the difference in molecular matter how appropriate the dryer for the
faces: additional solvent. Condensers are weight and the vacuum required will application, the potential always exists
25 m/s maximum vapor speed often supplied with collection vessels produce vapor volumes (and there- to improve efficiency by adjusting the pe-
in vapor line for condensate. The collection vessel fore tube velocities) that are six times ripherals to the machine and the process.
0.53.0 g/m3 maximum should be drained periodically to avoid larger (Figure 12). This illustrates the Also, a sophisticated control system
estimated vapor dust load reboiling. As an additional precaution, importance of designing the condenser ensures that all parameters come to-
FIGURE 9. A typical flow diagram of a horizontal paddle dryer, showing the rela- 100 m3/m2-h maximum it may also be jacketed to keep it cold. for the most severe case likely to be en- gether by combining relevant process
tionships between the dryer and its peripherals: dust filter, solvent condenser/re-
ceiver, heating/cooling unit and vacuum system
flowrate for textile filter cloth Depending on the type of vapors (sol- countered. Additionally, coolant tem- data with peripherals and machine
300 m3/m2-h maximum vents) that must be condensed during peratures have to be chosen carefully data. Feedback about product changes
flowrate for metallic filters the drying process, condensers have to for total condensation. during the drying process can be trans-
stream that is extracted by the vacuum The required surface area can be cal- cover a wide range of solvent proper- Some guidelines for proper design ferred into well-defined operational ad-
pump. Therefore, it is essential to in- culated by using empirical maximum Condensers ties. Cooling media include cold water, and operation ranges are: justments of the dryer and its peripher-
sert a dust filter between the dryer and vapor flowrates through the filter media Condensers are used mostly to recover glycol-water mixtures, and various Coolant return temperatures from als. Thus the whole drying process can
the condenser to prevent the passage (fabric filters, 100 m3/m2-h; metal filters, valuable process solvents, which are evap- thermal fluids. the condenser should be at least 5C be operated more reliably, repetitively
of particles to the condenser and into 300 m3/m2-h) and through the vapor pip- orated during drying. They are typically Design criteria are: below the boiling point of liquids and safely.
the pump. The filter has to fulfill three ing. Sophisticated filter equations that shell-and-tube type surface condensers, Easy cleaning In case of a process (which is also the condensation tem-
main tasks: include such parameters as vapor dust arranged either vertically or horizontally. upset or product changeover, condenser perature) at condenser pressure Edited by Gerald Ondrey
Separate and collect around 99.9% or load (grams per cubic meter) and maxi- Condensers used with dryers are oper- tubes should be readily cleanable by
more of the particles from the vapor mum pressure drop can be used for cal- ated in a different manner from those solvent flush or manual rodding
Be chemically resistant to solvents culation, but have the disadvantage of used for other evaporation applications, Low fouling Carryover of solids or Authors
Reiner Laible is process
and the dust requiring hard-to-obtain product data. in that the vapors are usually condensed liquid droplets in the vapor stream technology manager for Rosen- Mark Lattman is a con-
Minimize pressure drop to maintain Over time, the product dust forms a inside the tubes instead of outside. The should be avoided to minimize depos- mund VTA AG, a member of sulting engineer for De Di-
De Dietrich Process Systems etrich Process Systems, Inc.
the vacuum inside the dryer layer on the filter. In many applications, advantage is that the tubes are easier to its on the inner tube wall (Gestadeckplatz 6, CH-4410, (DDPS; 9110 Forsyth Park
Two types of surface-layer-formation the layer acts like an absorbent it be- clean, provided that straight tube bundles Avoidance of the accumulation of Liestal, Switzerland; Phone: Drive, Charlotte, N.C. 28273;
+41-61-9251-695; Fax: +41- Phone: 704-587-5312; Fax:
dust filters are used in drying technol- comes wet from the vapors and particles are used instead of U-tube bundles. inert gases, which can reduce the ef- 704-588-6866; E-mail: mark.
61-9251-699; Email: reiner.
ogy: metallic filter cartridges and fabric tend to build a crusty layer that blocks Besides recovering solvent, condens- fective tube area for condensation. laible@rosenmund.org). He lattman@ddpsinc.com). He is
responsible for testing, pro-
filters. Although fabric filters are less the pores of the filter. This reduces the ers assist the drying process in the fol- In the design and operation of a con- joined Rosenmund VTA in
cess design, scaleup, and trou-
1995 as head of the Dryer
expensive than metallic filters, they vapor flow and can cause a dramatic lowing ways: denser, it is important to take into ac- Pilot Plant Laboratory. In his bleshooting of batch-filtration
can normally collect particles only as drop in the drying speed (Figure 11). The great reduction of vapor volume count the nature of the solvent that has current position since 2002 he is also responsi- and drying equipment. He
ble for drying technology and process design at worked for Rosenmund Inc. (now part of DDPS)
small as 10m, versus 1 m or less for To avoid this problem, it is necessary creates its own suction effect, thus to be handled. When the solvent changes Rosenmund. Previously (19831988), he worked from 1983 to 2005. Previously (19771982), he
metallic types. However, fabric filters to clean the filter regularly by blow- helping to achieve a deeper process from the vapor phase to liquid, there is in thermal-process design for thermal seawater did process development and plant-assistance
desalination plants, and later (19891994) on engineering for a company in the specialty
can also achieve 1-m separation when back with pressurized gas. Initiation vacuum in the dryer a dramatic decrease in volume. The spe- chemical and food industries. Lattman received
process design of thin-film evaporators. He holds
given a surface treatment, such as a of the blowback cycle may be triggered Removal of the vapor has a buffering cific vapor volume strongly depends on a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the Tech- his B.S. in chemical engineering from the State
University of New York at Buffalo, and an M.S.
membrane coating. when the pressure rises to a predeter- effect on the vacuum pump, thereby the liquid boiling point at the condenser nical University of Munich, Germany, and is an
in chemical engineering from MIT. He has been
affiliate of VDI (the professional association of
It is important to provide sufficient mined level (usually 3070 mbars), by a enabling the drying process to oper- pressure (Figure 12). engineers in Germany). an AIChE member since 1977.
filter surface to minimize pressure drop. specific elapsed time, or by a combina- ate closer to a steady-state condition Solvents that have different boiling
Reprinted from the November 2005 Chemical Engineering magazine. 2005 Access Intelligence, LLC.