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FORM NO.

SENR2333 ,
FOR USE IN SERVICE MANUA:
D8L TRACTOR. SENR2329

SYSTEMS OPERATION
TESTING AND ADJUSTING

3408 VEHICULAR ENGINE


FOR D8l TRACTOR
SERIAL NUMBERS
48W1-UP
&,WARNING

IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE

Proper repair is important to the safe and reliable operation of a machine. This
Service Manual outlines basic recommended procedures, some of which require
special tools, devices or work methods. Although not necessarily all inclusive, a list
of additional skills, precautions and knowledge required to safely perform repairs is
provided in the SAFETY section of this Manual.
Improper repair procedures can be dangerous and could resul t in injury or death.

READ AND UNDERSTAND ALL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND


WARNINGS BEFORE PERFORMING REPAIRS ON THIS MACHINE

Basic safety precautions, skills and knowledge are listed in the SAFETY section
of this Manual and in the descriptions of operations where hazards exist. Warning
labels have also been put on the machine to provide instructions and identi fy
specific hazards which if not heeded could cause bodily injury or death to you or
other persons. These labels identify hazards which may not be apparent to a trained
mechanic. There are many potentIal hazards during repair for an untrained
mechanic and there is no way to label. the machine against all such hazards. These
warnings in the Service Manual and on the machine are identified by this symbol:

A WARNING

Operations that may result only in machine damage are identified by labels on the
machine and in the Service Manual by the word CAUTION.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a
potential hazard. The warnings in this Manual are therefore not all inclusive. If a
procedure, tooL device or work method not speci fically recommended by
Caterpillar is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is sak for you and others. You
should also ensure that the machine will not be damaged or made unsafe by the
procedures you choose.
IMPORTANT

The information, specifications and illustrations in this hook are on the hasis of
information availahle at the time it was written. The specifications, torques,
pressures of operation, measurements, adjustments, illustrations and other items
can change at any ti me. These changes can effect the service given to the product.
Get the complete and most current information before you start any job. Caterpillar
Dealers have the most current infomlation which is available. For a list of the most
current modules and form numhers availahle for each Service Manual, see the
SERVICE MANUAL CONTENTS MICROFICHE REG1139F.

67 200X 2
3408 VEHICULAR ENGINE INDEX

SYSTEMS OPERATION

AI r Inlet and Exhaust System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..


Turbocharger.........................................
Valve System Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Basic Block
Camshaft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Crankshaft
Cylinder Block. Liners and Heads......................
10
10
11

19

19

19

19

Electrical System
Charging System Components
Starting System Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Other Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Engine Design. .. . . . . .. ..

Air-Fuel Ratio Control.. . . . . ..... . ..


. . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . . .

Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. . . . . .. . .
21

21

21

22

Pistons. Rings and Connecting Rods................... 19


Automatic Timing Advance Unit. . . . .... .. 9

Vibration Damper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19
Fuel Injection Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Fuel Injection Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Cooling System 17 Governor (Hydra-Mechanical) 7

Coolant Conditioner.. . ..... . 18

Radiator Cooled System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 17


Lubrication System 13

Oil Flow Through Oil Coolers. Oil Filters.

and the Engine 13

TESTING AND ADJUSTING

Air Inlet and Exhaust System , 60 Engine Timing and Automatic Timing

Bridge Adjustment. . . . . . .. . . . 62 Advance Unit (Dynamic Check). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 45

Compression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 61 Finding Top Center Compression Position for

Crankcase (Crankshaft Compartment) Pressure 61 NO.1 Piston........................................ 44

Cylinder Head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 62 Flow Checking Fuel Injection Pump Timing.. .. .. . 47

Measurement of Exhaust Temperature , 61 Fuel Bypass Valve 44

Measurement of Pressure in Inlet Manifold. .. . . . . .. 60 Fuel Injection Lines , . . . .. .. . . . . 44

Restriction of Air Inlet and Exhaust.... . . . . ... . . . .. 60 Fuel Injection Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 41

Valve Clearance Setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 63 Fuel Rack Setting.. . .......... .... .. 51

Turbocharger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 60 Fuel System Adjustments (Off Engine) . .. 53

Fuel System Adjustments (On Engine) 46

Basic Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 70
Fuel System Inspection 36

Connecting Rod and Main Bearings..... ... . .. ... . . . . .. 70


Governor Adjustments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 54

Connecting Rods and Pistons. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 70


Governor Control Adjustments 58

Cylinder Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 70
Hydraulic Air-Fuel Ratio Control Adjustment.. .. 56

Flywheel and Flywheel Housing 72


Installation of Injection Pump.. .. .. . . . .. 42

Piston Rings. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. 70
Measuring Engine Speed. .. 55

Projection of Cylinder Liner...... . . . .. . 70


Measuring Fuel Injection Pump Timing Dimension

(On Engine) 50

Cooling System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 67

Removal of Injection Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 41

Testing the Cooling System. . . . .. 67

Setting the Injection Pump Timing Dimension


Vee Belt Tension Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 69

(Off Engine) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 53

Visual Inspection of the Cooling System 67

Testing Capsule-Type Fuel Injection Nozzles........... 36

Electrical System. . .. . . . .. .. . . . . .. 74
Test Sequence for Fuel Nozzle 38

Electrical System Components 75

Lubrication System... . . . .. .. 65

Testing the Electrical System. .. . . . .. 74

Increased Oil Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 66

Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 36
Measuring Engine Oil Pressure.............. . .. . . . 65

Adjustment of Air-Fuel Ratio Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 56


Oil Pressure is High. . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. ... 66

Checking Balance Point , 55


Oil Pressure is Low. . .. . . . .. .. .. 66

Checking Engine Cylinders Separately...... . . .. 36


Too Much Bearing Wear.. . . .. . . . .. .. .. 66

Checking the Plunger and Lifter Washer of an


Too Much Oil Consumption. . . . . 65

Injection Pump.. . . . . . . . .. .. . 43

Troubleshooting 23-35

SPECIFICATIONS

NOTE: For Specifications with illustrations, make reference to SPECIFI


CATIONS FOR 3408 VEHICULAR ENGINE, Form No. SENR2332. If
the Specifications in Form SENR2332 are not the same as in the Systems
Operation and the Testing and Adjusting, look at the printing date on the
back cover of each book. Use the Specifications given in the book with the
latest date.

3
,. - -

3408 VEHICULAR ENGINE SYSTEMS OPERATION

ENGINE DESIGN

7--5--3--1

~;)(8~~~
o
INTAKE @@@CD
FUEL
VALVES


EXHAUST

VALVES

INJECTION
PUMPS

A23799X2

CYLINDER, VALVE AND INJECTION


PUMP LOCATION

Bore 137.2 mm (5.40 in.)

Stroke 152.4 mm (6.00 in.)

Number and Arrangement of Cylinders V-8

Firing Order (Injection Sequence) 1, 8. 4. 3, 6, 5. 7. 2

Rotation of Crankshaft
(when seen from flywheel end) counterclockwise

Rotation of Fuel Pump Camshaft


(when seen from pump drive end) counterclockwise

NOTE: Front end of engine is opposite to flywheel end


Left side and right side of engine are as seen from flywheel end.
NO.1 cylinder IS the front cylinder on the left side.
NO.2 cylinder is the front cylinder on the right side.

FUEL SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

FUEL SYSTEM

2 3 4 5

r-
I

I
I

I I
7
__ .J

8 9

11 12

lLI ~=======-'-_~\===\_-======-======--=_:I~_
13
__

14 A531361X1
FUEL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC
1. Fuel tank. 2. Tank shutoff valve. 3. Direct injection adapter. 4. Fuel manifolds. 5. Fuel injection pump housing. 6. Bleed
orifice. 7. Fuel inlet line from secondary filters. 8. Fuel inlet line from primary filter. 9. Check valve. 10. Fuel transfer pump.
11. Secondary fuel filter. 12. Primary fuel filter. 13. Fuel priming pump. 14. Fuel transfer pump relief valve.

There is one fuel injection pump and one fuel and an adapter on the valve cover base. Another
injection valve for each cylinder. The fuel injection section of line on the inside of the valve cover base
pumps are located in the fuel injection pump hous connects between the adapter and the fuel injection
ing. The fuel injection valves are located in direct valve in direct injection adapter (3).
injection adapter (3).
The fuel filters and priming pump are located in
When the engine is running, fuel is pulled from a compartment at the front of the fuel tank. The
the fuel tank through the fuel supply line and pri fuel transfer pump is mounted on a drive adapter
mary fuel filter (12) by fuel transfer pump (10). The on the fuel injection pump housing, and is driven
fuel is then pushed to secondary fuel filters (II), by a shaft connected to the fuel injection pump
and into the fuel filter housing. A bleed orifice (6) camshaft. Fuel transfer pump relief valve (14) is
in the fuel filter housing cover vents air in the sys located in the cover of the pump.
tem through a line back to fuel tank (I). Fuel from Fuel priming pump (13) is used before the engine
the fuel filter housing goes through inlet line (7) to is started to put pressure in the fuel system and to
fuel manifolds (4) in fuel injection pump housing

vent air from the system. A check valve (9) located


(5). The fuel manifolds supply fuel to each fuel in the fuel transfer pump adapter housing will let
injection pump. fuel go around the fuel transfer pump when the
Individual fuel injection lines carry fuel from the priming pump is in use.
fuel injection pumps to each cylinder. One section There is no bleed orifice or valve installed on the
of line connects between the fuel injection pump fuel injection pump housing to vent air from this

5
3408 VEHICULAR ENGINE SYSTEMS OPERATION

ENGINE DESIGN

o
INTAKE
FUEL
@@CD
VALVES


EXHAUST
VALVES
INJECTION
PUMPS

A2.3799X2.

CYLINDER, VALVE AND INJECTION


PUMP LOCATION

Bore 137.2 mm (5.40 in.)

Stroke 152.4 mm (6.00 in.)

Number and Arrangement of Cylinders V-8

Firing Order (Injection Sequence) 1.8.4.3,6.5.7.2

Rotation of Crankshaft
(when seen from flywheel end) counterclockwise

Rotation of Fuel Pump Camshaft


(when seen from pump drive end) counterclockwise

NOTE: Front end of engine is opposite to flywheel end

Left side and right side of engine are as seen from flywheel end

NO.1 cylinder is the front cylinder on the left side.

NO.2 cylinder is the front cylinder on the right side.

4
FUEL SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

FUEL SYSTEM


2 3 4

~J

L
r-
I
I
I
I
I

I I
7
__ .J

8 9
10

11 12
It~======-l-
! _-==t\_===-=======-
13
_-=====--=-:I~_---------,
14 A531361X1
FUEL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC
1. Fuel tank. 2. Tank shutoff valve. 3. Direct injection adapter. 4. Fuel manifolds. 5. Fuel injection pump housing. 6. Bleed
orifice. 7. Fuel inlet line from secondary filters. 8. Fuel inlet line from primary filter. 9. Check valve. 10. Fuel transfer pump.
11. Secondary fuel filter. 12. Primary fuel filter. 13. Fuel priming pump. 14. Fuel transfer pump relief valve.

There is one fuel injection pump and one fuel and an adapter on the valve cover base. Another
injection valve for each cylinder. The fuel injection section of line on the inside of the valve cover base
pumps are located in the fuel injection pump hous connects between the adapter and the fuel injection
ing. The fuel injection valves are located in direct valve in direct injection adapter (3).
injection adapter (3).
The fuel filters and priming pump are located in
When the engine is running, fuel is pulled from a compartment at the front of the fuel tank. The
the fuel tank through the fuel supply line and pri fuel transfer pump is mounted on a drive adapter
mary fuel filter ( 12) by fuel transfer pump (10). The on the fuel injection pump housing, and is driven
fuel is then pushed to secondary fuel filters (II), by a shaft connected to the fuel injection pump
and into the fuel filter housing. A bleed orifice (6) camshaft. Fuel transfer pump relief valve (14) is
in the fuel filter housing cover vents air in the sys located in the cover of the pump.
tem through a line back to fuel tank (I). Fuel from Fuel priming pump (13) is used before the engine
the fuel filter housing goes through inlet line (7) to is started to put pressure in the fuel system and to
fuel manifolds (4) in fuel injection pump housing


vent air from the system. A check valve (9) located
(5). The fuel manifolds supply fuel to each fuel in the fuel transfer pump adapter housing will let
injection pump. fuel go around the fuel transfer pump when the
Individual fuel injection lines carry fuel from the priming pump is in use.
fuel injection pumps to each cylinder. One section There is no bleed orifice or valve installed on the
of linc connects between the fuel injection pump fuel injection pump housing to vent air from this

I
FUEL SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

part of the fuel system. Air trapped in the fuel in It is driven by the engine camshaft gear inside the
jection lines can be vented by loosening all of the front timing gear housing. The automatic timing
fuel injection line nuts where they connect to the advance unit gives easier starting and smooth low
adapters in the valve cover base. Move the governor speed operation. It will also advance timing as
lever to the 10\\ idle position. Crank the engine engine speed increases to give correct engine opera
with the starter motor until fuel without air comes ting efficiency.
from the fuel line connections. Tighten the fuel FUEL INJECTION PUMP
lIne nuts. This proced ure is necessary beca use the
fuel priming pump will not give enough pressure The rotation of the cams on the camshaft (12)
to push fuel though the reverse flow check valves cause lifters (9) and pump plungers (5) to move
in the fuel injection pumps of a direct injection sys up and down. The stroke of each pump plunger is
tem. always the same. fhe force of springs (6) hold
lifters (9) agaInst the cams of the camshaft.
The pump housing is a "V" shape (similar to the
engine cylinder block). with four pumps on each
side.
When the pump plunger is down. fuel from fuel
manifold (I) goes through inlet passage (2) and
fills the chamber above pump plunger (5). As the
plunger moves up it closes the inlet passage.
The pressure of the fuel in the chamber above
the plunger increases until it is high enough to cause
check valve (3) to open. Fuel under high pressure
flows out of the check valve. through the fuel line
to the injection valve. until the inlet passage opens
into pressure relief passage (4) in the plunger. The
pressure in the chamber decreases and check valve
(3) closes.
LOCATION OF FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
The longer inlet passage (2) is closed. the larger
4. Fuel manifolds. 5. Fuel injection pump housing. 7.
Fuel inlet line from secondary filters. 8. Fuel inlet line the amount of fuel which will be forced through
from primary filter. 10. Fuel transfer pump. check valve (3). The period for which the inlet pas
sage is closed is controlled by pressure relief pas
sage (4). The design of the passage makes it possible
to change the inlet passage closed time by rotation
of the plunger. When the governor moves fuel
racks (8). they move gears (7) that are fastened to
plungers (5). This causes a rotation of the plungers.
3

10
11
LOCATION OF FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS 12
1. Fuel tank. 6. Bleed orifice in cover. 11. Secondary
fuel filters. 12. Primary fuel filter. 13. Priming pump. CROSS SECTION OF THE FUEL

INJECTION PUMP HOUSING

An automatic timing advance unit is mounted


1. Fuel manifold. 2. Inlet passage. 3. Check valve. 4.
on the front of the fuel injection pump camshaft. Pressure relief passage. 5. Pump plunger. 6. Spring.
7. Gear. 8. Fuel rack (left). 9. Lifter. 10. Link. 11. Lever.
6 12. Camshaft.
FUEL SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

The governor is connected to the left rack. The


spring load on lever (II) removes the play between
the racks and link (10). The fuel racks are con
nected by link (10). They move in opposite direc
tions (when one rack moves in, the other rack moves
out).
FUEL INJECTION VALVES (NOZZLES)
The fuel injection valves fit into direct injection
adapters that are installed in the cylinder head. 4
Fuel, under high pressure from the injection
pump, is sent through the fuel injection line to the
injection valve in the nOlzle. The injection valve 6
will not open until the fuel in the injection lines
reaches a very high pressure. The valve then opens
quickly to release the fuel directly into the engine
cylinder through six orifices in the tip of the nozzle.
HYDRA-MECHANICAL GOVERNOR
The throttle lever, or governor control. is con
nected to the control lever on the engine governor.
The governor then controls the amount of fuel
needed to keep the desired engine rpm at the throttle
lever setti ng. 14
The governor has governor weights (5) driven
13
by the engine through the drive assembly (15). The
16
governor has a governor spring (6), valve (9) and 15-----

piston ( II). The valve and piston are connected to


one fuel rack through pin (17) and lever (18). The
pressure oil for the governor comes from the gover
nor oil pump, on top of the injection pump housing.
The oil used is from the engine lubrication system.
Pressure oil goes through passage (14) and around
A64879X1

HYDRA-MECHANICAL GOVERNOR
1. Collar. 2. Bolt. 3. Lever assembly. 4. Upper spring
sleeve (13). The throttle lever, or governor control.
seat. 5. Weights. 6. Governor spring. 7. Lower spring
controls only the compression of governor spring
seat. 8. Thrust bearing. 9. Valve. 10. Upper oil passage in
(6). Compression of the spring always pushes down piston. 11. Piston. 12. Lower oil passage in piston. 13.
to give more fuel to the engine. The centrifugal Sleeve. 14. Oil passage in cylinder. 15. Drive assembly.
16. Cylinder. 17. Pin. 18. Lever.
force of governor weights (5) always pulls to get a
reduction of fuel to the engine. When these two
forces are in balance, the engine runs at the desired
When there is a reduction in engine load there will
be an increase in engine rpm and the rotatio~ of gover
rpm (governed rpm).
The governor valve (9) is shown in the position when nor weights (5) will get faster. This will move valve (9)
the force of the governor weights and the force of the up. This stops oil tlow from the lower passage (12), and
governor spring are in balance. oil pressure above piston (I 1) goes out through the top,
When the engine load increases, the engine rpm around valve (9). Now, the pressure between the sleeve
decreases and the rotation of governor weights (5) will (13) and piston (11) pushes the piston and pin (17) up.
get slower. (The governor weights will move toward This causes a reduction in the amount of fuel to the
engine. Engine rpm goes down until the centrifugal
, each other). Governor spring (6) moves valve (9)
force (rotation) of the governor weights is in balance
down. This lets the oil flow from the lower passage (12)
around the valve (9) and through the upper passage (10) with the force of the governor spring. When these two
to fill the chamber behind piston (11 ). This pressure oil forces are in balance, the engine will run at the desired
pushes the piston (11 ) and pin (17) down to give more rpm (governed rpm).

fuel to the engine. (The upper end of the valve stops the
oil flow through the top of the piston, around the
valve). Engine rpm goes up until the rotation of the
governor weights is fast enough to be in balance with
the force of the governor spring.
When engine rpm is at LOW I DLE, a spring
loaded plunger in lever assembly (3) comes in con
tact with a shoulder on the adjustment screw for
low idle. To stop the engine, push throttle lever to

7
FUEL SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

vertical position. This will let the spring-loaded When the engine is started, oil flows through oil inlet
plunger move over the shoulder on the low idle (7) into pressure oil chamber (5). From chamber (5) the
adjustment screw and move the fuel rack to the oil flows through large oil passages (6), inside valve
fuel closed position. With no fuel to the engine (II), and out small oil passages (8) to oil outlet (9).
cylinders. the engine will stop.
A hose assembly connects inlet air chamber (1) to the
inlet air system. As the inlet air pressure increases, it
The governor oil pump supplies oil to the valve causes diaphragm assembly (3) to move down. Valve
(9) to increase governor power and response. Oil (2), that is part of the diaphragm assembly, closes large
from the governor oil pump gives lubrication to and small oil passages (6 and 8). When these passages
the governor weight support (with gear), thrust are closed, oil pressure increases in chamber (5). This
bearing (8), and drive gear bearing. The other parts increase in oil pressure moves valve (11) up. The
of the governor get lubrication from "splash control is now ready for operation.
lubrication" (oil thrown by other parts). Oil from
the governor runs down into the housing for the When the governor control is moved to increase fuel
fuel injection pumps. to the engine, valve (II) limits the movement of fuel
rack linkage (10) in the "Fuel On" direction. The oil in
HYDRAULIC AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL chamber (5) acts as a restriction to the movement of
valve (11) until inlet air pressure increases.

o OIL WITHOUT PRESSURE


2
INLET AI R PRESSURE 2
Bill PRESSURE 01 L

5---...-f:~---rt

5 8

11

A75108Xl

AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL


(Engine stopped) (Ready for operation)
1. Inlet air chamber. 2. Valve. 3. Diaphragm assembly. 4. 1. Inlet air chamber. 2. Valve. 5. Pressure oil chamber. 6.
Oil drains. 5. Pressure oil chamber. 6. Large oil pas Large oil passages. 8. Small oil passages. 11. Valve.
sages. 7. Oil inlet. 8. Small oil passages. 9. Oil outlet. 10.
Fuel rack linkage. 11. Valve.

With the engine stopped, valve (11) is in the fully


extended position. The movement of fuel rack linkage
(10) is not limited by valve (11).

8
FUEL SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

As the inlet air pressure increases, valve (2) moves AUTOMATIC TIMING ADVANCE UNIT
down and lets oil from chamber (5) drain through large
oil passages (6) and out through oil drains (4). This lets The automatic timing advance unit is installed
valve (11) move down so fuel rack linkage (10) can on the front of the camshaft (6) for the fuel injec
move gradually to increase fuel to the engine. The tion pump and is gear driven through the tin~ing
control is designed not to let the fuel increase until the gears. The drive gear (5) for the fuel injection pump
air pressure in the inlet manifold is high enough for is connected to camshaft (6) through a system ot
complete combustion. It prevents large amounts of weights (2), springs (3). slides (4) and flange (ll.
exhaust smoke caused by an air-fuel mixture with too Each one of the two slides (4) is held on gear (5)
much fuel. by a pin. The two weights (2) can move in guide~
inside flange (l) and over slides (4). but the notch
The control movements take a very short time. No for the slide in each weight is at an angle with the
change in engine acceleration (rate at which speed guides for the weight in the flange. As centrifugal
increases) can be felt. force (rotation) moves the weights away from the
center, against springs (3), the guides in the flange
and the slides on the gear make the flange turn a
~
small amount in relation to the gear. Since the flange
INLET AIR PRESSURE 2
o OIL WITHOUT PRESSURE
is connected to the camshaft for the fuel injection
illillill PRESSURE OIL pump. the fuel injection timing is also changed. I': 0
adjustment can be made in the timing advance unit.

5----L~_t--

10-------1~~::::J
A75107Xl

AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL


(Increase in inlet air pressure)
2. Valve. 4. Oil drains. 5. Pressure oil chamber. 10. Fuel
rack linkage. 11. Valve.

A23835 tXt

AUTOMATIC TIMING ADVANCE UNIT


1. Flange. 2. Weight. 3. Springs. 4. Slide. 5. Drive

gear. 6. Camshaft.

9
..
AIR INLET & EXHAUST SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM

The air inlet and exhaust system components are: air the exhaust gases go out of the engine cylinders and
cleaner. turbocharger, inlet manifold (passages inside into exhaust manifold (I). From exhaust manifold,
the cylinder block), cylinder head, valves and valve the exhaust gases go through the blades of turbine
system components, and exhaust manifold. wheel (6). This causes the turbine wheel and com
pressor wheel to turn. The exhaust gases then go
out exhaust outlet (7) of the turbocharger.

7
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM
1. Exhaust manifold. 2. Pipe to inlet manifold. 3. Engine
cylinders. 4. Air inlet. 5. Turbocharger compressor
wheel. 6. Turbocharger turbine wheel. 7. Exhaust out
let.

AIR FLOW SCHEMATIC


1. Exhaust manifold. 2. Pipe to inlet manifold. 4. Air in
let. 7. Exhaust outlet. 8. Turbocharger.

TURBOCHARGER
The turbocharger is installed at the top, rear of
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM the engine on a cross pipe for the two exhaust mani
1. To exhaust manifold. 2. Pipe to inlet manifold. 4. Air folds. All the exhaust gases from the engine go
inlet. 7. Exhaust outlet. 8. Turbocharger. 9. Cross pipe. through the turbocharger.

The exhaust gases go through the blades of turbine


wheel (6). This causes the turbine wheel and compres
sor wheel (5) to turn, which causes a compression of the
Clean inlet air from the air cleaner is pulled inlet air.
through air inlet (4) of the turbocharger by the When the load on the engine is increased, more fuel
turning of compressor wheel (5). The compressor is put into the engine. This makes more exhaust gases
wheel causes a compression of the air. The air then and will cause the turbine and compressor wheels of the
goes through pipe to inlet manifold (2) of the en turbocharger to turn faster. As the turbocharger turns
gine. When the intake valves open, the air goes faster, it gives more inlet air and makes it possible for
into engine cylinders (3) and is mixed with the fuel the engine to burn more fuel and will give the engine
for combustion. When the exhaust valves open, more power.

10
AIR INLET & EXHAUST SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

tion of the bearings. Oil from the turbocharger


goes out through the oil outlet port (15) In the
bottom of the center section and goes back to the
engine lubrication system.
This type turbocharger has coolant passages (17)
around the bearings to cool the oil in these areas.
Engine coolant is taken from the top, rear of the
engine and sent into the rear of the turbocharger
(center section). fhe coolant tlows through the
passages around the bearings, and out the front
of the turbocharger (center section) back to the
radiator top tank.
The fuel rack adjustment is done at the factory for a
specific engine application. The governor housing and
turbocharger are sealed to prevent changes in the ad
TURBOCHARGER justment of the rack and the high idle speed setting.
1. Turbocharger. 2. Cross pipes. 3. To exhaust manifold.
VALVE SYSTEM COMPONENTS
The valve system components control the flow of
4
inlet air and exhaust gases into and out of the cylinders
during engine operation.
The crankshaft gear drives the camshaft gear. The
camshaft gear must be timed to the crankshaft gear to
get the correct relation between piston and valve
movement.
The camshaft has two cams for each cylinder. One
cam controls the exhaust valves, the other controls the
intake valves.

13

14 15 16 17 18 19 B15932Xl

TURBOCHARGER

4. Air inlet. 5. Compressor wheel. 6. Turbine wheel. 7.


Exhaust outlet. 8. Compressor housing. 9. Oil inlet
port. 10. Thrust collar. 11. Thrust bearing. 12. Turbine
housing. 13. Spacer. 14. Air outlet. 15. Oil outlet port.
16. Bearing. 17. Coolant passages. 18. Bearing. 19.
Exhaust inlet.

Maximum rpm of the turbocharger is controlled by


the rack setting, the high idle speed setting and the
height above sea level at which the engine is operated.
CAUTION

, If the high idle rpm or the rack setting is higher


than given in the FUEL SETTING INFORMA
TION (for the height above sea level at which
the engine is operated), there can be damage
to engine or turbocharger parts. Damage will
result when increased heat and/or friction,
due to the higher engine output, goes beyond
the engine cooling and lubrication systems
abilities.
Bearings (16 and 18) for the turbocharger use
engine oil under pressure for lubrication. The oil
88249X2

VALVE SYSTEM COMPONENTS


----9
1. Intake bridge. 2. Intake rocker arm. 3. Push rod. 4. Ro
('omes in through the oil inlet port (9) and goes
tocol!. 5. Valvesprlng. 6. Valve guide. 7. Intake valves. 8.
through passages in the center section for lubrica- LIfter. 9. Camshaft.

11
AIR INLET & EXHAUST SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

As the camshaft turns. the lobes of camshaft (9)


cause lifters (8) to go up and down. This movement
makes push rods (3) move rocker anns (2). Movement
of the rocker anns makes bridges (I) move up and down
on dowels mounted in the cylinder head. The bridges
let one rocker ann open and close two valves (intake or
exhaust). There are two intake and two exhaust valves
for each cylinder.
Rotocoils (4) cause the valves to tum while the
engine is running. The rotation of the valves keeps the
deposit of carbon on the valves to a minimum and gives
the valves longer service life.

Valve springs (5) cause the valves to close when the


lifters move down.

VALVE SYSTEM COMPONENTS


(TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION)
1. Intake bridge. 2. Intake rocker arm. 7. Intake valves.
10. Exhaust rocker arm. 11. Exhaust bridge. 12. Exhaust
valves.

12
LUBRICATION SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

LUBRICATION SYSTEM

OIL FLOW THROUGH THE OIL COOLER, (21), through an outside oil supply line ( IJ) that
OIL FILTERS AND THE ENGINE connects to the oil pan, and through a line inside
the oil pan to the other side of the cylinder block.
The oil now flows through oil passage in filter base
(29), through oil filters and back to oil manifold
(8) on left side of engine.

From oil manifold (8) in left side of the cylinder


block, oil is sent to right oil manifold (II) through
drilled passages in the cylinder block that connect

I
main bearings (12) and camshaft bearings (6). Oil
goes through drilled holes in the crankshaft to
give lubrication to the connecting rod bearings.
A small amount of 011 is sent through tubes (7) to
make the pistons cooler. Oil goes through grooves
in the bores for the front a nd rear camshaft bearings
and then into passages (5) that connect the valve
lifter bores. These passages give oil under pressure
for the lubrication of the valve lifters.
LUBRICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS
(Right Side of Engine) Oil is sent through passages (I), on front and
13. Oil supply line to filters. 21. Engine oil cooler. 25. Oil rear, to rocker arm shafts (4) on both cylinder
pan. 28. Transmission oil cooler.
heads. Holes in the rocker arm shafts let the oil
give lubrication to the valve system components
in the cylinder head.
The fuel injection pump and governor gets oil
from passage (3) in the cylinder block. There is a
small gear pump between the injection pump hous
ing and the governor. This pump sends oil under
pressure for the hydraulic operation of the hydra
mechanical governoL The automatic timing ad
vance unit gets oil from the injection pump hous
ing, through the camshaft for the fuel injection
pumps.

The idler gear bores get oil from passages (10)


in the cylinder block, oil then goes through the
shaft for the bearings of the idler gears installed
on the front and rear of the cylinder block.
The rear gear bearings get oil from an external
LUBRICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS line (2) that connects to the flywheel housing.
(Left Side of Engine)
, 14. Oil filters. 25. Oil pan. Pressure oil is sent to the turbocharger bearings
through external supply line (15). The oil goes out
With the engme warm (normal operation), oil of turbocharger (20) back to the top of flywheel
comes from oil pan (25) through a suction bell on housing through oil return line (22). This oil flows
suction line (26) to oil pump (27). The oil pump over the gears in flywheel housing to give them
sends warm oil, under pressure, to engine oil cooler lubrication and then goes back to oil pan (25).

13

I
LUBRICATION SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

There is a bypass valve in the oil pump. This


bypass valve controls the maximum pressure of
the oil from the oil pump. The oil pump can put
more oil into the system than is needed. When there
is more oil than needed, the oil pressure goes up
and the bypass valve will open. This allows the
oil that is not needed to go back to the inlet oil
passage of the oil pump.
After the oil for lubrication has done its work,
it goes back to the engine oil pan.
This lubrication system also has a scavenge oil
pump. Scavenge oil pump (24) is connected to and
is driven by main oil pump (27). Oil is taken from
the small reservoir at the rear of the oil pan through
suction line (23) and is pumped into main reservoir
at front of oil pan (25).
When the front of vehicle is tilted up on a long
slope, the oil that returns to oil pan (after engine
lubrication) will accumulate at the rear of the oil
pan. This can let the main reservoir level decrease
enough to cause oil pump (27) to not have any
output.
Scavenge oil pump (24) is in operation all the
time that the engine is in operation. The only
purpose of the scavenge oil pump is to take the
extra oil from the rear of the oil pan and put it
back into the main reservoir at the front of the
oil pan.

14
LUBRICATION SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

2 3 4

10

11

13

15

16

20

22

B26156Xl

ENGINE OIL FLOW DURING NORMAL OPERATION


1. To rocker arm shaft. 2. To gear bearings in flywheel housing. 3. To fuel injection pump housing, governor and air
fuel ratio control. 4. Rocker arm shaft. 5. To valve lifters. 6. Camshaft bearings. 7. Piston cooling tubes. 8. Left oil
manifold. 9. To timing gear housing. 10. To idler gear shaft. 11. Right oil manifold. 12. Main bearings. 13. Oil supply
line to filters on left side of block. 14. Oil filters. 15. Oil supply line to turbocharger. 16. Oil bypass line to right manifold
in cylinder block. 17. Filter bypass valve. 18. Cooler bypass line. 19. Cooler bypass valve. 20. Turbocharger. 21. Engine
oil cooler. 22. Oil return line from turbocharger. 23. Suction line for scavenge oil pump. 24. Scavenge oil pump. 25. Oil
pan. 26. Oil pump suction line. 27. Oil pump.

15

LUBRICATION SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

When the engme IS cold (starting condition), When the oil gets warm, the pressure difference
bypass valves (17 and 19) open because cold oil in the bypass valves decreases and the bypass valves
with high viscosity causes a restriction to the oil close. I\' ow there is a normal flow through oil
flow through oil cooler (21) and oil filters (14). cooler (21) and oil filters ( 14).
\Vith the bypass valves open, oil flows directly
The bypass valves will also open when there is
from the oil pump to right oil manifold (II) through
a restriction in the oil cooler or oil filter. This action
bypass lines (16 and 18). This will give immediate
does not let an oil cooler or oil filter with a restric
lubrication to all components until engine becomes
tion prevent the lubrication of the engine.
warm.

11

13

15

16

20

22

FLOW OF OIL (ENGINE COLD)


11. Right oil manifold. 13. Oil supply line to filters. 14. Oil filters. 15. Oil supply line to turbocharger. 16. Oil bypass line
to right manifold in cylinder block. 17. Filter bypass valve. 18. Cooler bypass line. 19. Cooler bypass valve. 20. Turbo
charger. 21. Engine oil cooler. 22. Oil return line from turbocharger. 23. Suction line for scavenge oil pump. 24.
Scavenge oil pump. 25. Oil pan. 26. Oil pump suction line. 27. Oil pump.

16
COOLING SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

COOLING SYSTEM

I"

RADIATOR COOLED SYSTEM

This engine has a pressure type cooling system.


made cooler as it moves through the radiator. When
-\ pressure type cooling system gives two advan
the coolant gets to the bottom of the radiator, it goes
I,
tage~. The first advantage is that the cooling sys
to water pump inlet (14).
tem can have safe operation at a temperature that
i~ higher than the normal boiling (steam) point of NOTE: The water temperature regulator is an
\\ater. The second advantage is that this type sys important part of the cooling system. It divides
tem prevents cavitation (the sudden making of low coolant flow between radiator (6) and radiator
pressure bubbles in liquids by mechanical forces) bypass lines (15) as necessary to maintain the cor
in the water pump. With this type system, it is rect temperature. If the water temperature regu
more difficult for an air or steam pocket to be lator is not installed in the system, there is no
made in the cooling system. mechanical control, and most of the coolant will
In normal operation (engine warm), water pump take the path of least resistance through the by
( 13) sends coola nt through engine oil cooler (l 0), pass. This will ca use the engine to overheat in hot
transmission oil cooler (8) and hydraulic oil cooler weather. In cold weather, even the small amount
(9). Water from the engine oil cooler flows into the of coolant that goes through the radiator is too
block while water from the other two oil coolers much. and the engine will not get to normal opera
110ws into the inlet of the water pump. Coolant tion temperatures.
moves through the cylinder block to both cylinder When the engine is cold, the water temperature
heads, and then goes to the housings for the regulator is closed, and the coolant is stopped from
temperature regulators (5). The temperature going to the radiator. The coolant goes from the
regulators are open and most of the coolant goes temperature regulator housing (5) back to the water
through the outlets (4) to radia tor (6). The coolant is pump (13) through radiator bypass lines ( 15).

4 6

10

13 15 B26155Xl

RADIATOR COOLED SYSTEM SCHEMATIC


1. Turbocharger inlet coolant line for bearings. 2. Turbocharger. 3. Coolant outlet line from turbocharger. 4. Outlet
from temperature regulator housing to radiator top (one on each side at front of engine). 5. Temperature regulator hous
ing (both sides). 6. Radiator. 7. Outlet bonnet of engine oil cooler, transmission oil cooler and hydraulic oil cooler.
8. Transmission oil cooler. 9. Hydraulic oil cooler. 10. Engine oil cooler. 11. Inlet bonnet of engine oil cooler. 12.
Inlet bonnet of transmission oil cooler. 13. Water pump. 14. Water pump inlet, from radiator bottom. 15. Radiator by
pass lines.
17

COOLING SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

A small amount of coolant also moves con The "PRECHARGE" element has more than the
stantly through line (I) that connects from the normal amount of inhibitor, and is used when a system
water pump outlet to the center section of turbo is first filled with new coolant. This element has to add
charger (2). The coolant flows through passages enough inhibitor to bring the complete cooling system
around the turbocharger bearings and then out up to the correct concentration.
the front of the center section. The coolant then
flows through line (3) back to the top center of the
cylinder block. The .. MAINTEN ANCE" elements have a normal
amount of inhibitor and are installed at the first change
COOLANT CONDITIONER interval and provide enough inhibitor to keep the corro
sion protection at an acceptable level. After the first
Some conditIons of operation have been found to change period, only "MAINTENANCE" elements
cause pitting (small holes in the metal ~urface) from are installed at specified intervals to give protection to
corrosion or cavitation erosion (wear caused by air the cooling system.
bubbles in the coolant) on the outer surface of the
cylinder lIners and the inner surface of the cylinder CAUTION
block next to the lIners. The addition of a corrosion
inhibitor (a chemical that gives a reduction of pitting) Do not use Dowtherm 209 Full-Fill in a cooling
can keep this type of damage to a minimum. system that has a coolant conditioner. These
two systems are not compatible (corrosion in
The "spin-on" coolant condItioner element (2), hibitor is reduced) when used together.
similar to the fuel filter and oil filter elements,
fastens to a base (I) that is part of the regulator
housing on the left front of the engine. Coolant
flows from the water pump through the cylinder
head to the base, through the element and back
through bypass line to water pump inlet. There is
a constant flow of coolant through the element
when valve (3) is in the ON position.

The element has a specific amount of inhibitor for


acceptable cooling system protection. As coolant flows
through the element, the corrosion inhibitor, which is a
dry materiaL dissolves (goes Into solution) and mixes
to the correct concentration. Two basic types of ele
ments are used for the cooling system. and they are COOLANT CONDITIONER
called the "PRECHARGE" and the "MAINTE 1. Base (part of regulator housing). 2. Element. 3. Valve.
NANCE" elements. Each type of element has a spe
cific use and must be used correctly to get the necessary
concentration for cool ing system protection.

18
BASIC BLOCK SYSTEMS OPERATION

BASIC BLOCK


CYLINDER BLOCK, LINERS AND HEADS
Th~ cylinders in the left side of the block make an
ctngk of 65 with the cylinders in the right side of the
bll)ck. The main bearing caps are fastened to the block
\\ lth two bolts per cap .
CRANKSHAFT
The crankshaft changes the combustion force" in the
cylinder into usable rotating torque which power" the
machine. Vibration, caused by combustion impact-.
along the crankshaft. is kept small by a vibration damp
er on the front of the crankshaft.
The cylinder liners can be removed for replacement.
The top surface of the block is the seat for the cylinder
There is a gear at the front of the crankshaft to
Imer flange. Engine coolant flows around the liners to
drive the timing gears and the oil pump. Lip seals
k~ep them cool. Three O-ring seals around the bottom
and wear sleeves are used at both ends of the crank
of the liner make a seal between the liner and the block.
shaft for easy replacement and a reduction of
-\ hiler band at the top of each liner forms a seal
maintenance cost. Pressure oil is supplied to all
b~tween the liner and the cylinder block.
bearing surfaces through drilled holes in the crank
shaft. The crankshaft is supported by five main
The engine has a single, cast head on each side.
bearings. A thrust plate at either side of the center
Four vertical valves (two intake and two exhaust),
main bearing controls the end play of the crank
controlled by a push rod valve system, are used
shaft.
p~r each cylinder. The opening for the fuel noz
lies is located between the four valves. Series ports CAMSHAFT
(passages) are used for both intake and exhaust
The engine has a single camshaft that is driven
\ alves.
at the front end. It is supported by five bearings.
As the camshaft turns, each cam (lobe) (through
A steel spacer plate is used between the cylinder
the action of valve systems components) moves
head and block. A thin gasket is used between the plate
either two exhaust valves or two intake valves for
and the block to seal water and oil. A thick gasket of
each cylinder. The camshaft gear must be timed
metal and asbestos is used between the plate and the
to the crankshaft gear. The relation of the cam
head to seal combustion gases, water and oi I.
(lobes) to the camshaft gear cause the valves in
The size of the pushrod openings through the head each cylinder to open and close at the correct time.
permits the removal of the valve lifters with the head
installed. VIBRATION DAMPER

Valve guides without shoulders are pressed into the


cylinder head.

PISTONS, RINGS AND CONNECTING RODS


The aluminum pistons have three rings: two com 2-------_{t;tjtit1
pression rings and one oil ring. All rings are located
above the piston pin bore. The two compression rings
are of the KEYSTONE type, which have a tapered
shape. The seat for the rings is an iron band that is cast
into the piston. The action of the rings in the piston
groove, which is also tapered, helps prevent seizure of
the rings caused by too much carbon deposits. The oil
ring is a standard (conventional) type. Oil returns to the
crankcase through holes in the oil ring groove.

The piston pin is held in place by two snap rings


that fit in grooves in the pin bore of the piston. The
connecting rod has a taper on the pin bore end.
This gives the rod and piston more strength in the
areas with the most load.
A05398Xl

:4w Oil spray tubes, located on the cylinder block main CROSS SECTION OF A VIBRATION DAMPER
\\ eb". direct oil to cool and gi\'c lubrication to the 1. Flywheel ring. 2. Rubber ring. 3. Inner hub.
~l"t\)n components and cylinder wall-..

19

SYSTEMS OPERA TIO


BASIC BLOCK

The twisting of the crankshaft. due to the regular


power impacts along its length, is called twisting
(torsional) vibration. The vibration damper is in
stalled on the front end o[ the crankshaft. It is
used [or red uction o[ torsional vi brations and stops
the vibration [rom building up to amounts that
cause damage.
The damper is made of a flywheel ring (I) con
nected to an inner hub (3) by a rubber ring (2). The
rubber makes a flexible coupling between the fly
wheel ring and the inner hub.

20
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

~I I

The electrical system can have three separate cir
(uits: the charging circuit, the starting circuit and the
The rotor assembly has many magnetic poles like
fingers with air space between each opposite pole. The
10\\ amperage circuit. Some of the electrical system poles have residual magnetism (like permanent mag
(omponents are used in more than one circuit. The nets) that produce a small amount of magnet-like lines
battery (batteries), circuit breaker, ammeter, cables of force (magnetic field) between the poles. As the
and wires from the battery are all common in each of the rotor assembly begins to turn between the field winding
ci rcuits. and the stator windings, a small amount of alternating
current (AC) is produced in the stator windings from
The charging circuit is in operation when the engine
the small magnetic Iines of force made by the residual
IS running. An alternator makes electricity for the
magnetism of the poles. This AC current is changed to
charging ~ircuit. A voltage regulator in the circuit con
direct current (DC) when it passes through the diodes
trols the electrical output to keep the battery at full
of the rectifier bridge. Most of this current goes to
charge. charge the battery and to supply the low amperage
The starting circuit is in operation only when the start circuit, and the remainder is sent on to the field wind
switch is activated. ings. The DC current flow through the field windings
(wires around an iron core) now increases the strength
of the magnetic lines of force. These stronger lines of
The electrical systems include a Diagnostic Con
force now increase the amount of AC current produced
nector which is used when testing the charging
in the stator windings. The increased speed of the rotor
and starting circuits.
assembly also increases the current and voltage output
of the al ternator.
CHARGING SYSTEM COMPONENTS
The voltage regulator is a solid state (transistor,
Alternators
stationary parts) electronic switch. It feels the voltage
in the system and switches on and off many times a
The alternator is driven by V-type belts. This second to control the field current (DC current to the
alternator is a three phase, self-rectifying charging field windings) for the alternator to make the needed
unit, and the regulator is part of the alternator. voltage output.
This alternator design has no need for slip rings
or brushes, and the only part that has movement
CAUTION
is the rotor assembly. All conductors that carry Never operate the alternator without the bat
current are stationary. The conductors are: the field tery in the circuit. Making or breaking an alter
winding, stator windings, rectifying diodes, and the nator connection with heavy load on the circuit
regulator circuit components. can cause damage to the regulator.
4 STARTING SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Solenoid
1 3


T89118-1Xl
A77377Xl

6N9294 ALTERNATOR SCHEMATIC OF A SOLENOID


1. Regulator. 2. Roller bearing. 3. Stator winding. 4. Ball 1. Coil. 2. Switch terminal. 3. Battery terminal. 4. Con

bearing. 5. Rectifier bridge. 6. Field winding. 7. Rotor as tacts. 5. Spring. 6. Core. 7. Component terminal.

sembly. 8. Fan.

21

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM SYSTEMS OPERATION

A solenoid is a magnetic switch that uses low current the starter motor too fast. When the start switch
to close a high current circuit. The solenoid has an is released. the starter pinion will move away from
electromagnet with a core (6) which moves. the flywheel ring gear.

There are contacts (4) on the end of core (6). The Magnetic Switch
contacts are held in the open position by spri ng (5) that
pushes core (6) from the magnetic center of coil (1). A magnetic switch (relay) is used sometimes for
Low current will energize coil (I ) and make a magnetic the starter solenoid circuit. Its operation elec
field. The magnetic field pulls core (6) to the center of trically is the same as the solenoid. Its function is
coil (I) and the contacts close. to red uce the current load on the start switch and
control current to the starter solenoid.

Starter Motor OTHER COMPONENTS

The starter motor is used to tum the engine flywheel Circuit Breaker
fast enough to get the engine running. The cIrcuit breaker is a switch that opens the battery
circuit if the current in the electrical system goes higher
than the rating of the circuit breaker.

A heat activated metal disc with a contact point


completes the electric circui t through the circuit break
er. If the current in the electrical system gets too high, it
causes the metal disc to get hot. This heat causes a
distortion of the metal disc which opens the contacts
and breaks the circuit. A circuit breaker that is open can
be reset after it cools. Push the reset button to close the
contacts and reset the circuit breaker.

STARTER MOTOR
1. Field. 2. Solenoid. 3. Clutch. 4. Pinion. 5. Commuta
tor. 6. Brush assembly. 7. Armature.

The starter motor has a solenoid. When the start


switch is turned to the START position, the sole
noid will be activated electrically. The solenoid
core will now move to push the starter pinion, by
a mechanical linkage, to engage with the ring gear 4
on the flywheel of the engine. The starter pinion
will engage with the ring gear before the electric
contacts in the solenoid close the circuit between
the battery and the starter motor. When the circuit
between the battery and the starter motor is com
TSQl19xl
5
plete, the pinion will turn the engine ny\\ heel. A CIRCUIT BREAKER SCHEMATIC
clutch gives protection for the starter motor so 1. Reset button. 2. Disc in open position. 3. Contacts. 4.
that the engine, when it starts to run. can not turn Disc. 5. Battery circuit terminals.

22
TROUBLESHOOTING TESTING AND ADJUSTING

TROUBLESHOOTING

Troubleshooting can be difficult. The TROUBLESHOOTING INDEX gives a


list of possible problems. To make a repair to a problem, make reference to the
cause and correction on the pages that follow.

This list of problems, causes, and corrections will only give an indication of where
a possible problem can be, and what repairs are needed. Normally, more or other
repair work is needed beyond the recomendations in the list.

Remember that a problem is not normally caused only by one part. but by the
relation of one part with other parts. This list is only a guide and can not give all
possible problems and corrections. The serviceman must find the problem and its
source, then make the necessary repairs.

TROUBLESHOOTING INDEX

Item Problem Item Problem

I. Engine Will Not Turn When Start Switch Is On. 16. Oil at the Exhaust.
2. Engine Will Not Start. 17. Little or No Valve Clearance.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Engine Misfires or Runs Rough .
Stall at Low rpm.
Sudden Changes In Engine rpm.
Not Enough Power.
Too Much Vibration.
Loud Combustion Noise.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
Engine Has Early Wear.
Coolant In Lubrication Oil.
Too Much Black or Gray Smoke.
Too Much White or Blue Smoke.
Engine Has Low Oil Pressure.
Engine Uses Too Much Lubrication Oil.
9. Valve Train Noise (Clicking). 24. Engine Coolant Is Too Hot.
10. Oil In Cooling System. 25. Exhaust Temperature Is Too High.
II. Mechanical Noise (Knock) In Engine. 26. Starter Motor Does Not Tum.
12. Fuel Consumption Too High. 27. Alternator Gives No Charge.
13. Loud Valve Train Noise. 28. Alternator Charge Rate Is Low or Not Regular.
14. Too Much Valve Lash. 29. Alternator Charge Rate is Too High.
15. Valve Rotocoil or Spring Lock is Free . 30. Alternator Has Noise.

23

TROUBLESHOOTI NG TESTING AND ADJUSTING

1. ENGINE CRANKSHAFT WILL NOT TURN WHEN START SWITCH IS ON

Cause Correction

Battery Has Low Output Make Reference to Item 26.

Wires or Switches Have Defect Make Reference to Item 26.

Starter Motor Solenoid Has Make Reference to Item 26.


A Defect

Starter Motor Has A Defect Make Reference to Item 26.

Inside Problem Prevents Engine If the crankshaft can not be turned after the dl;ve equipment is discon
Crankshaft From Turning nected, remove the fuel nozzles and check for tluid in the cylinders
while the crankshaft is turned. If tluid in the cylinders is not the
problem, the engine must be disassembled to check for other inside
problems. Some of these inside problems are bearing seizure, piston
seizure, wrong pistons installed in the engine, and valves making
contact with pistons.

2. ENGINE WILL NOT START

Cause Correction

Starter Motor Turns Too Slow Make Reference to Items 26 and 27.

Dirty Fuel Filter Install new fuel filter.

Dirty or Broken Fuel Lines Clean or install new fuel lines as necessary.

Fuel Transfer Pump At starting rpm, the minimum fuel pressure from fuel transfer pump

must be 35 kPa (5 psi). If fuel pressure is less than 35 kPa (5 psi),

change the fuel filter element. Look for air in the fuel system. If

fuel pressure is still low, install a new fuel transfer pump.

No Fuel To Cylinders Put fuel in fuel tank. "Prime" (remove the air and/or low quality fuel)

the fuel system.

Bad Quality Fuel Remove the fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter element. Put

a good grade of clean fuel in the fuel tank.

Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing.

24
TR OU BL ESHOOTI NG TESTING AND ADJUSTING

3. ENGINE MISFIRES OR RUNS ROUGH

Cause Correction

Fuel Pressure is Low Make sure there is fuel in the fuel tank. Look for leaks or bad bends
in the fuel line between fuel tank and fuel transfer pump. Look for
air in the fuel system, sticking, binding or defective fuel bypass
valve. Check fuel pressure. The outlet pressure of the fuel transfer
pump is 230 35 kPa (33 5 psi) at full load speed.

If fuel pressure is lower than 140 kPa (20 psi). install a new filter
element. If fuel pressure is still low . install a new fuel transfer pump.

Air in Fuel System Find the air leak in the fuel system and correct it. If air is in the fuel
system, it will probably get in on the suction side of fuel transfer pump.

Leak or Break in Fuel Line Install a new fuel line.

Between Injection Pump and

Injection Valve

Wrong Valve Clearance Make adjustment according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE
SETTING.

Defect in Fuel Injection Valve(s) Run at rpm that causes engine to misfire the most or run the rough
or Injection Pump(s) est. Then loosen a fuel injection line nut at the valve cover base
for each cylinder, one at a time. Find the cylinder where a loosened
fuel line nut does not change the way the engine runs. Test the in


jection pump and injection valve for that cylinder. Install new
parts where needed.
Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing.

Bent or Broken Push Rod Replacement of push rod is necessary.

Fuel Has "Cloud Point" Higher Drain the fuel tank, lines, and fuel injection pump housing. Change the
Than Atmospheric Temperature fuel filter. Fill the tank with fuel which has the correct "cloud point"
C'Cloud Point" = Temperature and remove the air from the system with the priming pump.
Which Makes Wax Form In Fuel.)

4. STALL AT LOW RPM

Cause Correction

Fuel Pressure is Low Make sure there is fuel in the fuel tank. Look for leaks or bad bends
in the fuel line between fuel tank and fuel transfer pump. Look for
air in the fuel system, sticking, binding or defective fuel bypass
valve. Check fuel pressure. The outlet pressure of the fuel transfer
pump is 230 35 kPa (33 5 psi) at full load speed.
If fuel pressure is lower than 140 k Pa (20 psi), install a new filter
element. If fuel pressure is still low , install a new fuel transfer pump.

" (Cont. next page)

25

TROUBLESHOOTI NG TESTING AND ADJUSTING

4. STALL AT LOW RPM (Cont.)

Cause Correction

Idle rpm Too Low


Make adjustment to governor so idle rpm is the same as given in

the FUEL SETTING INFORMATION.

Defect in Fuel Injection Valve(s)


Install a new fuel injection valve.

Engine Accessories
Check engine accessories for damage and correct adjustment. If neces

sary, disconnect the accessories and test the engine.

Defect in Fuel Injection Pump(s)


Install new parts if needed.

5. SUDDEN CHANGES IN ENGINE SPEED (rpm)

Cause Correction

Failure of Governor or Fuel Look for damaged or broken springs, linkage or other parts. Remove the
Injection Pump governor. Check for free travel of the fuel racks. Be sure fuel injection
pumps are installed correctly. Check for correct governor spring. Install
new parts for those that have damage or defects.

6. NOT ENOUGH POWER

Cause Correction

Bad Quality Fuel Remove the fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter element. Put
a good grade of clean fuel in the fuel tank.
Make sure there is fuel in the fuel tank. Look for leaks or bad bends
Fuel Pressure is Low
in the fuel line between fuel tank and fuel transfer pump. Look for
air in the fuel system, sticking, binding or defective fuel bypass
valve. Check fuel pressure. The outlet pressure of the fuel transfer
pump is 230 35 kPa (33 5 psi) at full load speed.

If fuel pressure is lower than 140 kPa (20 psi), install a new fuel
filter element. If fuel pressure is still low, install a new fuel transfer
pump.
Leaks in Air Inlet System Check the pressure in the air inlet manifold. Look for restrictions in the
air cleaner.
Governor Linkage Make adjustment to get full travel of linkage. Install new parts for those
that have damage or defects.

Wrong Valve Clearance Make adjustment according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE
SETTING.
(Cont. next page)

26
TROUBLESHOOTI NG TESTING AND ADJUSTING

6. NOT ENOUGH POWER (Cont.)

Cause Correction

Defect in Fuel Injection Valve(s) Run at rpm that causes engine to misfire the most or run the roughest.
or Fuel Injection Pump(s) Then loosen a fuel line nut on the injection pump for each cylinder, one
at a time. Find the cylinder where a loosened fuel line nut does not
change the way the engine runs. Test the injection pump and injection
valve for that cylinder. Install new parts where needed.

Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing.

Rack Setting Too Low Make reference to the FUEL SETTING INFORMATION.

A ir-Fuel Ratio Control Control either needs an adjustment or it is damaged and a new control is
needed.

Turbocharger Has Carbon Deposit Inspect and repair turbocharger as necessary.


or Other Causes of Friction

7. TOO MUCH VIBRATION

Cause Correction


Loose Bolt or Nut For Pulley Tighten bolt or nut.
or Damper

Pulley or Damper Has A Defect Install a new pulley or damper.

Engine Supporh Are Loose, Worn, Tighten all bolts that hold engine supports. Install new components if
or H ave A Defect necessary.

Engine Misfires or Runs Rough Make Reference to Item 3.

Fan Blade Not in Balance Loosen or remove fan belts and operate engine for a short time at the rpm .
that the vibration was present. If vibration is not still present, make a
replacement of the fan assembly.

8. LOUD COMBUSTION NOISE (SOUND)

Cause Correction

Bad Quality Fuel Remove the fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter element. Put
a good grade of clean fuel in the fuel tank .
Defect in Fuel Injection Valve(s) Install new fuel injection valve(s).

Defect in Fuel Injection Pump( s) Install new fuel injection pump(s).

Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing.

27

I
TROUBLESHOOTI NG TESTI NG AND ADJUSTI NG

9. VALVE TRAIN NOISE (CLICKING)

Cause Correction

Damage to Valve Spring(s), Locks, Install new parts where necessary. Broken locks can cause the valve to
or Broken or Worn Valve Lifter get into the cylinder. This will cause much damage.

Not Enough Lubrication Check lubrication in valve compartment. There must be a strong flow of
oil at engine high rpm, but only a small flow of oil at low rpm. Oil
passages must be clean, especially those that send oil to the cylinder
head.

Too Much Valve Clearance Make adjustment according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE
SETTING.

10. OIL IN COOLING SYSTEM

Cause Correction

Defect In Core of Engine Oil Install a new engine oil cooler or transmission oil cooler. Drain and
Cooler or Transmission Oil Cooler flush cooling system and refill with new coolant.

Defect in S pacer Plate Gasket Install new spacer plate gasket.

Failure of Cylinder Head Gasket Install a new head gasket.

11. MECHANICAL NOISE (KNOCK) IN ENGINE

Cause Correction

Failure of Bearing For Inspect the bearing for the connecting rod and the bearing surface

Connecting Rod (journal) on the crankshaft. Install new parts where necessary.

Damaged Timing Gears Install new parts where necessary.

Damaged Crankshaft Make replacement of the crankshaft.

Defect in Attachment Repair or install new components.

12. FUEL CONSUMPTION TOO HIGH

Cause Correction

Fuel System Leaks Large changes in fuel consumption may be the result. Inside leaks
probably will cause low engine oil pressure and an increase in oil level in
the engine. Tighten loose connections or make a replacement of the
component that leaks.
Fuel and Combustion Noise Make Reference to Item 3 and Item 6.
(Knock)

Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing.

28
TROUBLESHOOTI NG TESTING AND ADJUSTING

13. LOUD VALVE TRAIN NOISE

Cause Correction

Damage to Valve Springes) Make replacement of parts with damage.

Damage to Camshaft Make replacement of parts with damage. Clean engine thoroughly. If
replacement of camshaft is made, new valve lifters are also necessary.
Damage to Valve Lifter Clean engine thoroughly. Make a replacement of the damaged valve
lifters. Inspect camshaft cams (lobes) for damage. Look for valves that
do not move freely. Make an adjustment to valve clearance according to
the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING.

Damage to Bridge for Valves Make a replacement of the bridge and/or bridge dowel, and adjust as
or Bridge Dowel necessary.

14. TOO MUCH VALVE LASH

Cause Correction

Not Enough Lubrication Check lubrication in valve compartment. There must be a strong flow of
oil at engine high rpm, but only a small flow at low rpm. Oil passages
must be clean, especially those that send oil to the cylinder head.

Rocker Arm Worn at Face That If there is too much wear, install new parts or rocker arms. Make
Makes Contact With Bridge adjustment of valve clearance according to the Subject, VALVE
CLEARANCE SETTING.

B ridge or Bridge Dowel for Make replacement of the bridge and/or bridge dowel, and adjust as
Valves Worn necessary.

End of Valve Stem Worn If there is too much wear, install new valves. Make adjustment to valve
clearance according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE
SETTING.

Worn Push Rods If there is too much wear, install new push rods. Make adjustment of
valve clearance according to the Subject, VALVE CLEARANCE
SETTING.

Broken or Worn Valve Lifters Install new valve lifters. Check camshaft for wear. Check for free
movement of valves or bent valve stem. Clean engine thoroughly. Make
adjustment of valve clearance according to the Subject, VALVE
CLEARANCE SETTING.

Worn Cams (Lobes) on Camshaft Install a new camshaft. Install new valve lifters if damaged. Check
for free movement of valves or bent valve stems. Make adjust
ment of valve clearance according to the Subject, VALVE CLEAR
ANCE SETTING.

15. VALVE ROTOCOIL OR SPRING LOCK IS FREE

.. Broken Locks
Cause Correction

Broken locks can cause the valve to get into the cylinder. This will cause
much damage.


Broken Val ve S pring(s) Install new valve springes).

Broken Valve Replace valve and other damaged parts.

29

I
TROUBLESHOOTING TESTING AND ADJUSTING

16. OIL AT THE EXHAUST

Cause Correction

Too Much Oil in the Valve Look at both ends of the rocker ann shaft. Be sure a plug is in each end of
Compartment the shaft.

Worn Valve Guides Reconditioning of the cylinder head is needed.

Worn Piston Rings Inspect and install new parts as needed.

17. LITTLE OR NO VALVE CLEARANCE

Cause Correction

Worn Valve Seat or Face of Valve Reconditioning of cylinder head is needed. Make adjustment of valve
clearance according to the Subject. VALVE CLEARANCE
SETTING.

18. ENGINE HAS EARLY WEAR

Cause Correction

Dirt in Lubrication Oil Remove dirty lubrication oil. Install new oil filter elements. Put clean
oil in the engine.

Air Inlet Leaks Inspect all gaskets and connections. Make repairs if leaks are found.

Fuel Leakage Into Lubrication Oil This will cause high fuel consumption and low engine oil pressure.
Make repairs if leaks are found. Install new parts where needed.

19. COOLANT IN LUBRICATION OIL

Cause Correction

Failure of Engine Oil Cooler Core Install a new engine oil cooler. Drain crankcase and refill with clean
engine oil. Install new oil filter elements.

Failure of Cylinder Head Gasket Check cylinder liner projection. Install a new spacer plate gasket and
or Water Seals new water seals in the spacer plate. Install a new cylinder head gasket.
Tighten the bolts that hold the cylinder head according to the
Specifications.

(Cont. next page)

30
TROUB LESHOOTING TESTING AND ADJUSTING

19. COOLANT IN LUBRICATION OIL (CONT.)

Cause Correction

Crack or Defect in Cylinder Head Install a new cylinder head.

Crack or Defect in Cylinder Block Install a new cylinder block.

Failure of Liner Seals Replace seals.

Crack or Defect in Cartridge Install a new turbocharger cartridge.


of Turbocharger

20. TOO MUCH BLACK OR GRAY SMOKE

Cause Correction

Not Enough Air For Combustion Check air cleaner for restrictions.

Bad Fuel Injection Valve(s) Install new fuel injection valve(s).

Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing.

Defect in Fuel Ratio Control Make adjustment to or install new control.

Cause

Too Much Lubrication Oil in


Engine
21. TOO MUCH WHITE OR BLUE SMOKE

Correction

Remove extra oil. Find where extra oil comes from. Put correct amount
of oil in engine.

Engine Misfires or Runs Rough Make Reference to Item 3.

Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing.

Worn Valve Guides Reconditioning of cylinder head is necessary.

Worn Piston Rings Install new piston rings. Check condition of cylinder liners.

Failure of Turbocharger Oil Seal Check inlet manifold for oil. Replace seals and repair turbocharger if
necessary.

Coolant in Combustion System Check for cracked head .

31

I
TROUB LESHOOTING TESTING AND ADJUSTING

22. ENGINE HAS LOW OIL PRESSURE

Cause Correction

Dirty Oil Filter or Oil Cooler Check the operation of bypass valve for the filter. Install new oil filter
elements if needed. Clean or install new oil cooler core. Remove dirty
oil from engine. Put clean oil in engine.

Diesel Fuel In Lubrication Oil Find the place where diesel fuel gets into the lubrication oil. Make
repairs as needed. Remove the lubrication oil that has diesel fuel in it.
Install new oil filter elements. Put clean oil in the engine.

Too Much Clearance Between Check lubrication in valve compartment. Install new parts as necessary.
Rocker Arm Shaft and
Rocker Arms

Oil Pump Suction Pipe Has Replacement of pipe is necessary.


A Defect

Relief Valve for Oil Pump Clean valve and housing. Install new parts as necessary.
Does Not Operate Correctly

Oil Pump Is Worn or Has A Defect Repair or make replacement of necessary parts.

Too Much Clearance Between Inspect crankshaft and bearings. Install new parts as necessary.

Crankshaft and Crankshaft


Bearings

Too Much Clearance Between Install new camshaft bearings. Install new camshaft if necessary.

Camshaft and Camshaft Bearings

Defect in Oil Pressure Gauge Install new gauge.

Too Much Bearing Clearance Inspect bearings and make replacement as necessary.

for Idler Gear

23. ENGINE USES TOO MUCH LUBRICATION OIL

Cause Correction

Too Much Lubrication Oil Remove extra oil. Find where extra oil comes from. Put correct amount
in Engine of oil in engine.

Oil Leaks Find all oil leaks. Make repairs as necessary.

Oil Temperature is Too High Check operation of engine oil cooler. Clean the core of the engine oil
cooler. Install new parts if necessary.

Too Much Oil in the Valve Look at both ends of the rocker arm shaft. Be sure a plug is in each end of
Compartment the shaft.

(Cont. next page)

32
TROUBLESHOOTING TESTING AND ADJUSTING

23. ENGINE USES TOO MUCH LUBRICATION OIL (Cont.)


Cause Correction

\Vorn Valve Guides Reconditioning of the cylinder head is necessary.

Worn Piston Rings and Cylinders Inspect and install new parts as necessary. Reconditioning of the cylin
der block can be necessary.
Failure of Seal Rings Check inlet manifold for oil and make repair to turbocharger if
in Turbocharger necessary .

24. ENGINE COOLANT IS TOO HOT

Cause Correction

Restriction To Flow of Coolant Clean and flush radiator.


Through Radiator Core Tubes

Restriction to Air Flow Remove all restrictions to air flow.


Through Radiator

Low Fan Speed Check for worn or loose fan belts.

Not Enough Coolant in System Add coolant to cooling system.


Pressure Relief Valve Has
A Defect

Combustion Gases in Coolant


Check operation of pressure relief valve. Install a new pressure relief
valve if necessary.

Find out where gases get into the cooling system. Make repairs as
necessary.

Water Temperature Regulators Check water temperature regulators for correct operation. Check tem
(Thermostats) or Temperature perature gauge operation. Install new parts as necessary.
Gauge Has A Defect

Water Pump Has A Defect Make repairs or replacement of the water pump as necessary.

Too Much Load On The System Make a reduction to the load.

Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing.

Torque Converter or Transmission Make corrections for torque converter or transmission running too hot.

Does Not Operate Correctly. This


Can Cause An Increase In The
Coolant Temperature

33

I
TROUB LESHOOTING TESTING AI\ID ADJUSTING

25. EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IS TOO HIGH

Cause Correction

Air Inlet or Exhaust System Remove restriction.


Has A Restriction

Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make an adjustment to the timing.

26. STARTER MOTOR DOES NOT TURN

Cause Correction

Battery Has Low Output Check condition of battery. Charge battery or make replacement as

necessary.

Wires or Switch Has Defect Make repairs or replacement as necessary.

Starter Motor Solenoid Install a new solenoid.

Has A Defect

Starter Motor Has A Defect Make repair or replacement of starter motor.

27. ALTERNATOR GIVES NO CHARGE

Cause Correction

Loose Drive Belt For Alternator Make an adjustment to put the correct tension on the drive belt.

Charging or Ground Retum Circuit Inspect all cables and connections. Clean and tighten all connections.
or Battery Connections Make replacement of parts with defect.
H ave A Defect

Rotor (Field Coil) Has A Defect Install a new rotor.

28. ALTERNATOR CHARGE RATE IS LOW OR NOT REGULAR

Cause Correction

Loose Drive Belt For Alternator Make an adjustment to put the correct tension on the drive belt.
Charging or Ground Return Circuit Inspect all cables and connections. Clean and tighten all connections.
or Battery Connections Make replacement of parts with defects.
Have A Defect

Alternator Regulator Has A Defect Install a new alternator regulator.


(Cont. next page)

34
TROUBLESHOOTING TESTING AND ADJUSTING

28. ALTERNATOR CHARGE RATE IS LOW OR NOT REGULAR (Cont.)


Cause Correction

Alternator Regulator See ELECTRICAL SYSTEM in Testing and Adjusting. Some alter
Not Adjusted Correctly nator regulators can be adjusted and some can not be adjusted.

Rectifier Diodes Have A Defect Make replacement of rectifier diode that has a defect.

Rotor (Field Coil) Has A Defect Install a new rotor.

29. ALTERNATOR CHARGE RATE IS TOO HIGH

Cause Correction

Alternator or Alternator Regulator Tighten all connections to alternator or alternator regu lator.
Has Loose Connections

Alternator Regulator Has A Defect Install a new alternator regulator.

30. ALTERNATOR HAS NOISE

Cause Correction

Drive Belt For Alternator is Worn Install a new drive belt for the alternator.
or H as A Defect

Loose Alternator Drive Pulley Check groove in pulley for key that holds pulley in place. If groove is
worn, install a new pulley. Tighten pulley nut according to
Spec ifications.

Drive Belt and Drive Pulley For Make an adjustment to put drive belt and drive pulley in correct
Alternator Are Not in Alignment alignment.

Worn Alternator Bearings Install new bearings in the alternator.

Rotor Shaft is Bent Make a replacement of the rotor shaft.

Rectifiers in the Alternator Make a replacement of the diode assembly.


Are Shorted

..

35

I
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING ADJUSTING

FUEL SYSTEM

Either too much fuel or not enough fuel for combus Run the engine at the speed that is the roughest.
tion can be the cause of a problem in the fuel system. Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This
will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for
Many times work is done on the fuel system when each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that
the problem is really with some other part of the engine. makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to
The source of the problem is difficult to find, especially tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next
when smoke comes from the exhaust. Smoke that fuel line nut is loosened. Check each cylinder by this
comes from the exhaust can be caused by a bad fuel method. When a cylinder is found where the loosened
injection valve, but it can also be caused by one or more fuel line nut does not make a difference in engine
of the reasons that follow: performance, test the injection pump and injection
a. Not enough air for good combustion. valve for that cylinder.
Temperature of an exhaust manifold port, when the
b. An overload at high altitude. engine runs at low idle speed, can also be an indication
of the condition of a fuel injection valve. Low tempera
c. Oil leakage into combustion chamber.
ture at an exhaust manifold port is an indication of no
d. Not enough compression. fuel to the cylinder. This can possibly be an indication
of an injection valve with a defect. Extra high tempera
ture at an exhaust manifold port can be an indication of
FUEL SYSTEM INSPECTION
too much fuel to the cylinder, also caused by an injec
A problem wi th the components that send fuel to the tion valve with a defect.
engine can cause low fuel pressure. This can decrease The most common defects found with the fuel injec
engine performance. tion valves are:
I. Carbon on tip of the nozzle or in the nozzle orifice.
I. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Look at the
cap for the fuel tank to make sure the vent is not 2. Orifice wear.
filled with dirt.
3. Dirty nozzle screen.
2. Check the fuel lines for fuel leakage. Be sure the
fuel supply line does not have a restriction or a bad TESTING CAPSULE-TYPE FUEL INJECTION
bend. NOZZLES
3. Install a new fuel filter. Clean the primary Tools Needed:
fuel filter. 5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group
5P4720 Fitting
4. To remove air from the fuel system, use the
5P8744 Adapter or
procedure that follows: 5P4717 Adapter
8S2270 Fuel Collector
a. Use the priming pump to remove air from
FT1384 Extension
the low pressure side of the fuel system. 8S2245 Cleaning Kit
b. Loosen one-half turn the fuel injection
line nuts at each adapter in the valve cover CAUTION
base. Move throttle lever to LOW IDLE Be sure to use clean SAE J967 Calibration Oil
position. Use the starter motor to turn the when tests are made. Dirty test oil will damage
engine until fuel without air flows from components of fuel injection nozzles. The
the loose connections. Tighten the nuts. temperature of the test oil must be 18 to 24 C
NOTE: Because of the check assemblies in the injec (65 to 75 F) for good test results.
tion pump outlets for the DI engine, the priming pump
will not give enough pressure to remove air from the Order calibration oil by part number, in the quanti
fuel injection lines. ties needed, according to the information that follows:
5. Inspect the fuel bypass valve to see that there is no Kent-Moore Tool Division
restriction to good operation. 29784 Little Mack
Roseville, M I 48066
CHECKING ENGINE CYLINDERS Attn: Diesel and Allied Products Order Desk
SEPARATELY Order:
J-26400-5 [18.9 liter (5 U.S. gal.)]
An easy check can be made to find the cylinder that J-26400-15 [56.7 liter (15 U.S. gal.)]
runs rough (misfires) and causes black smoke to come J -26400-30 [113.5 liter (30 U. S. gal.)]
out of the exhaust pipe. J-26400-55 [208.2 liter (55 U.S. gal.)]

36
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

Viscosity Oil Company The test procedures that follow will give an indica

3200 South Western Ave. tion of nozzle condition. A nozzle that has a defect is
Chicago, II. 60608 not always the only cause for a specific engine
Order: problem.
Viscor Calibration Fluid
Nozzle Tester Preparation
1487C-SAE J-967C
Find an old capsule-type fuel nozzle and weld the
Available in 113.5 liter (30 U.S. gal.) or 208.2
orifice closed. Keep this fuel nozzle with the tester
liter (55 U.S. gal.) drums.
group for use in the future.

NOTE: Do not weld the fuel nozzles that are to be


tested.

5P4150 NOZZLE TESTING GROUP


A. 5P4721 Tube. B. 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 6900 kPa (0 to
1000 psi) used to test PC capsule-type nozzles. C.2P2324
Gauge, 0 to 34500 kPa (0 to 5000 psi) used to test 01 cap
sule-type nozzles and pencil-type nozzles. O. Gauge ILLUSTRATION I
protector valve for 5P4146 Gauge (B). E. Gauge protector 1. Test nozzle (welded orifice). 2. Bottom part of 5P8744
valve for 2P2324 Gauge (C). F. On-off valve. G. Pump Adapter (J). J. 5P8744 Adapter. M. FT1384 Extension. N.

isolator valve. H. 5P4720 Fitting. J. 5P8744 Adapter for 8S2270 Collector.


capsule-type nozzles. K. 5P4244 Adapter for pencil-type
nozzles.
Illustration I shows the latest 5P8744 Adapter. Illus
tration II shows the former 5P4717 Adapter. Unless
some indication is made, the procedure is the same for
use of either adapter.

EXTRA VALVE
L. Gauge protector valve (must be in open position at all
times).

&. WARNING
ILLUSTRATION II
1. Test nozzle (welded orifice). 2. Bottom part of 5P4717

When fuel injection nozzles are tested, be sure Adapter (J). J. 5P4717 Adapter.

to wear eye protection. Test oil comes from the


orifices in the nozzle tip with high pressure. 1. Install the top part of adapter (1) that holds the
The test oil can pierce (go thru) the skin and capsule nozzle.

cause serious injury to 'the operator. Keep the 2. Put test nozzle (1) (with welded orifice) in the
tip of 'the nozzle pointed away from the opera
bottom part (2) of adapter (1) that holds the capsule
tor and into the 852270 Collector and FT1384 nozzle. Install and tighten bottom part (2) to top
Extension. part of adapter (1).

37
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

3. Close on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve I. Nozzle Installation
(G). Open gauge protector valve (E).
1. Put one of the nozzles to be tested in the bottom
4. Operate the tester pump until a pressure of part (2) of adapter (1). Install and tighten bottom
24000 kPa (3500 psi) is read on 2P2324 Gauge part (2) to top part of adapter (1).
(C). Now, close pump isolator valve (G).
2. Close on-off valve (F). Open gauge protector
5. Check all connections for leaks. Tighten connec valve (E) one-half tum. Open pump isolator valve
tions to stop any leaks that are found. (G) one-half tum.

6. Open on-off valve (F) and remove test (welded)


fuel nozzle (I).

AWARNING .

Do not loosen the bottom half of the adapter to


remove fuel nozzle until on-off valve is opened
and no pressure is read on the gauge. Unless
high pressure is released in the pump, the fluid
discharge from the adapter can cause injury to
the operator.
A18157X2

NOTE: To prevent fluid leakage, the top surface of the


TESTER NOMENCLATURE
test (welded) nozzle, and all other nozzles that are to be
C. 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 34500 kPa (0 to 5000 psi). E.
tested, must be free of scratches or burrs (sharp edges). Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isola
tor valve.
The procedure for NOZZLE TESTER PREP
ARATION must be done each time any of the condi
3. Bleed (remove) air from the tester as follows:
tions that follow exist: a. Loosen bottom part (2) of adapter (1) one-half
a. The complete 5P8744 or 5P4717 Adapter is tum.
removed and installed again. b. Operate the pump until clear test oil (free of air
b. Before and after a series of tests. bubbles) leaks past the threads at top of adapter
(1).
c. There is an indication of a problem with the
nozzle tester.
TEST SEQUENCE FOR FUEL NOZZLE
To test 01 capsule-type fuel nozzles, use the se
quence that follows:
I. Nozzle Installation
II. Pressure Loss Test
III. Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test
IV. Flush the Nozzle
V. Tip Leakage Test
VI. Orifice Restliction Test AIR REMOVAL FROM TESTER
2. Bottom part of adapter (J). J. 5P8744 Adapter.

CAUTION
NOTE: With some 5P8744 Adapters, pressure may
Do not use a drill or reamer on the orifice of a start to increase before there is an indication of clear test
nozzle. Do not use a steel brush or a wire wheel oil. To correct this condition, do Step c.
to clean the tip of the nozzle. The orifice and the
valve can be damaged easily. c. Tighten bottom part (2) of adpater (1).

38
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING ADJUSTING

NOTE: The 5P8744 Adapter makes its own seal, and


normally needs very little force when turned on bottom
part (2) of the adapter. It is possible. however. that it
will be necessary to use a 1P2853 Spanner Wrench and
a 1 1/8" open end wrench to tighten the adapter to
prevent excessive leakage from some 01 fuel nozzles.

II. Pressure Loss Test


i
.
;
I
"
I. Open gauge protector valve (E) an extra amount
of one-half tum (the total amount is now one tum
'f
open).
o 5000
PSI A75073-l Xl

PRESSURE LOSS RANGE FOR A GOOD NOZZLE

III. Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test


1. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half tum.

A18157X2

TESTER NOMENCLATURE
C. 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 34500 kPa (0 to 5000 psi). E. Gauge
protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.

-
2. Operate pump to increase pressure slowly to
15200 kPa (2200 psi), and close pump isolator
valve (G). Now turn gauge protector valve (E)
to adjust pressure again to 15200 kPa (2200
psi). A18157X2

NOTE: It is possible that the pressure loss could TESTER NOMENCLATURE


be so rapid that the IS 200 k Pa (2200 psi) pressure C. 2P2324 Guage, 0 to 34 500 kPa (0 to 5000 psi). E. Gauge
can not be adjusted. If this should happen, the protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.
nozzle is still good. Go on to the Valve Opening
Pressure (VOP) Test. h::. WARNING
3. After 30 seconds. take a pressure reading from
the gauge. The pressure reading at this time When a fuel injection nozzle is to be tested,
must be 13800 kPa (2000 psi) or less. keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the
operator and into the FT1384 Extension and
PRESSURE LOSS SPECIFICATIONS 852270 Collector. Test oil from the orifices in
Time Period Pressure Loss Must Be At Least: the tip of the nozzle is under high pressure and
30 seconds 1380 kPa (200 psi)
can cause injury to the operator.

4. If the pressure loss is not within the range 2. Operate the pump to increase the pressure slowly
shown as GOOD [0 to 13800 kPa (0 to 2000 until test oil comes from the nozzle tip.
psi)]. stop the test sequence. Do not use the
fuel nozzle again. 3. The pressure reading on the gauge at this time
5. If nozzle is in the specification range, see must be in the pressure range that follows:

-
Y AL YE OPENING PRESSURE (YOP)
TEST.
VOP
SPECIFICATIONS
I
16550 to 21 390 kPa
(2400 to 3100 psi)

39
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING ADJUSTING

2. Open gauge protector valve (E). Be sure the


nozzle tip is completely dry.
3100
3. Make and hold for 30 seconds a pressure of
3450 to 6900 kPa (500 to 1000 psi).

TIP LEAKAGE SPECIFICATION


A drop may form, but must not fall from nozzle tip.

4. If nozzle is not within specification, do not use


a 5000
A,75075X1 PSI the nozzle again.
VOP RANGE FOR A GOOD NOZZLE 5. If fuel injection nozzle is within specification, see
subject ORIFICE RESTRICTION TEST.
4. If the valve opening pressure (YOP) is not in
the 16500 to 21390 kPa (2400 to 3100 psi)
range shown as GOOD, do not use the fuel
nozzle again.
5. If the fuel nozzle is within specification range, see
subject FLUSH THE NOZZLE.

IV. Flush the Nozzle


1. Close gauge protector valve (E). Close on-off
valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G). VI. Orifice Restriction Test
NOTE: Make sure the nozzle tip extends inside and I. Close gauge protector valve (E) and on-off valve
below the top of FTI384 Extension. (F). Open pump isolator valve (G).

2. Operate the pump rapidly for three full strokes. 2. Point the tip of the fuel injection nozzle into the
8S2270 Collector and FT 1384 Extension.

3. Make a slow increase in pressure and look at the


orifice discharge pattern (shape of discharge)
when fluid begins to flow from the nozzle tip. The
discharge must be the same through all six ori
fices. Any change, either vertically or horizontal
ly, is an indication of a bad nozzle.

A87942Xl

A18157X2
\\.7
" Y "-.,

\W.
.

TESTER NOMENCLATURE '''-,,\

C. 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 34500 kPa (0 to 5000 psi). E. Gauge

//'~
protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.

/
V. Tip Leakage Test GOOD NOZZLE
(USE AGAIN)

I. Remove all fluid from the nozzle tip and adap


ter with a cloth. Put a clean cloth around the 4. Use the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush from 8S2245
lower part of the adapter to catch any outside Cleaning Kit to remove any loose carbon from the
leakage that may run down to the tip. nozzle tip.

40
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING ADJUSTING

A87942-l Xl FUEL INJECTION SERVICE

Injection Valve (Capsule-Type Nozzle)

Tools Needed:
5P144 Socket
5P5195 Fuel Line Wrench
5P6229 Extractor

If a fuel injection nozzle has been removed from


1 the direct injection
it is again installed
adapter, test the nozzle before
in the adapter. See TESTING
J CAPSULE-TYPE FUEL INJECTION NOZ
TYPICAL DISCHARGE PATTERN FOR ORIFICE ZLES.
WITH A RESTRICTION
(REPLACEMENT NECESSARY) Make sure the contact surfaces of the nozzle and
direct injection adapter are clean and smooth before
installation of the nozzle. Tighten the nut that
A87942 2X 1
holds the nozzle in position to 75 7 Nem (55

\
5 lb. ft.).
CAUTION
The nut that holds the nozzle in position must
have the correct torque. There will be damage
to the nozzle if the nut is too tight. If 'the nut is
not tight enough, the nozzle can leak.
\
\ Install the inner fuel injection line to the adapter
and to the nozzle. Tighten nuts of both ends to 40
7 Nem (30 5 lb. ft.). Use the 5Pl44 Socket to


TYPICAL DISCHARGE PATTERN WITH
HORIZONTAL DISTORTION tighten the fuel line nut at the nozzle. Use 5 P5195
(REPLACEMENT NECESSARY)
Fuel Line Wrench to tighten fuel line nut at the
adapter.
A87942-3X 1

\
/ Removal of Injection Pump
Tools Needed:
5P9697 Timing Pin
8S4613 Wrench
8S2244 Extractor
I. Remove plug from fuel injection pump housing
(2).

\
TYPICAL DISCHARGE PATTERN WITH

2. Install 5 P9697 Timing Pin (A) with the Oat


end down in the hole that the plug was removed
from.

,
VERTICAL DISTORTION
3. Turn governor control shaft (I) toward H IG H
(REPLACEMENT NECESSARy)
IOLE and push down on timing pin (A) until
it engages in the slot (groove) in the rack. The
rack is now centered (at zero position). The
CAUTION
fuel injection pumps can now be removed.

4
Do not use a steel brush or wire wheel to clean
the nozzle body or 'the nozzle tip. Use of these
4. Disconnect the fuel lines from the injection
pumps.
tools can cause a small reduction of orifice
size, and this will cause a large reduction in 5. Use the 8S4613 Wrench to loosen the bushing that


engine horsepower. holds the fuel injection pump in the housing .

41
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

6. In~tall852244 Extractor (7) on the threads of the To install a fuel injectIon pump back into the housing
injection pump. Pull the pump straight out of the bore, use the procedure that follows:
bore.
I. Put 852244 Extractor (5) on threads of in
jection pump.
2. Put groove of barrel (3) in alignment with slot
of gear segment (4) (slot is on opposite side
of gear segment teeth).

PUT RACK AT ZERO POSITION


1. Governor control shaft. 2. Fuel injection pump hous
ing. A. 5P9697 Timing Pin.
FUEL PUMP INSTALLATION
When injection pumps and spacers are removed from (TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION)
the injection pump housing, keep the parts for each 3. Barrel. 4. Gear segment. 5. 8S2244 Extractor. 6.
Bushing.
pum p together so they can be installed back in their
original location. Make reference to subject, CHECK
ING THE PLUNGER AND LIFTER WASHER
ON AN INJECTION PUMP. 3. Look inside the bore of the injection pump hous
ing to find the dowel. Put groove of the barrel in
Be careful when injection pumps are disassembled. alignment with the dowel and put the injection
Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The plunger pump straight down into the bore.
and barrel for each pump are made as a set. Do not put
the plunger of one pump in the barrel of another pump. 4. Push down on extractor (5) (hand force only)
If one part is worn, install a complete new pump assem and install bushing (6) that holds the injec
bly. Be careful when the plunger is put in the bore of the tion pump in the pump housing. If the pump
barrel. is in the correct position, the bushing will turn
into the threads of the injection pump hous
ing with the fingers until it is even with the
Installation of Injection Pump top of the housing (except for the pump that
Tools Needed: is in the position to fire). When bushing is
9S240 Rack Position Tool Group installed correctly, tighten the bushing to
8S4627 Circuit Tester. 205 14 N-m (150 10 lb. ft.).
9S215 Dial Indicator.
9S8883 Contact Point, 12.7 mm (.50 in.) long.
3P1565 Collet Clamp.
5P9697 Timing Pin. CAUTION
8S4613 Wrench.
8S2244 Extractor. Damage to the housing will be 'the result if the
bushing is too tight. If the bushing is not tight
enough, the pump will have leakage.
CAUTION
The fuel rack MUST BE IN THE CENTER POSI 5. Remove the 5P9697 Timing Pin from injection
TION before the correct installation of an injec pump housing and install the plug back in the hole.
tion pump is possible.
The procedure to center the fuel rack is shown in the
subject, REMOVAL OF INJECTION PUMP.

42
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

6. Move the governor control hack to shut-off pOSI

tion. Check to be sure governor control moves


freely hetween fuel-on and shut-off position.

Check for the correct installation of mjectlon pump


with the engine stopped. Rack travel from the center
po~ition in the fuel-on direction can be checked with
governor installed. hut the governor and governor pis
ton must be removed to check for full rack travel. Use
95240 Rack Position Tool Group and the chart that
follows to check rack travel. Make reference to FUEL
RACK SETTING for installation of 95240 Rack POSI
tion Tool Group.
TURBOCHARGER WITH OPEN AIR INLET

EXAMPLE OF RACK TRAVEL 7. Air inlet.

TOTAL RACK
TRAVEL II TOTAL b. If a pump has been installed wrong and the
FROM CENTER REDUCTION
TRAVEL engine does not run in a normal way. put a steel
TEETH POSITION OF TRAVEL
OFF
plate over the air inlet opening as shown to stop
mm in. mm in. mm in. the engine.

0 20 .8 10 .4 0 0

1 15 .6 7 .3 5 .2

The same results can be obtained for 2 and 3 teeth off.


Reduction of rack travel is greater but will not have a
constant ratio. A65355-1Xl


With the governor piston and valve removed. the
total amount of fuel rack travel (from shut-off
position to full load position) is approximately
20.32 mm (.800 in.). If the pump is installed wrong
(center tooth of gear segment is not in correct notch
of fuel rack) fuel rack travel will be less than 20.32
mm (.800 in.). The injection pump will have to be STOPPING THE ENGINE
removed and then installed correctly.

Checking The Plunger and Lifter


Washer On an Injection Pump
A WARNING
Check timing dimension for the fuel injection
pumps. Make an adjustment if necessary, with the
If one or more of the fuel injection pumps have pump housing off the engine. When an adjustment to
been installed wrong, it is possible for the en the timing dimension is done correctly, fuel injection in
gine to run out of control when started. When the cylinder will be at the correct time. If the timing
any of the fuel injection pumps have been re dimension is too small, fuel injection will be early. If

, moved and installed with the fuel injection


pump housing on the engine, take the precau
tions (steps) that follow to stop the engine if it
starts to overspeed (run out of control).
the timing dimension is too large, fuel injection will be
late.

An injection pump can have a good fuel flow coming


from it but not be a good pump because of slow timing
that is caused by wear on the bottom end of the plunger.

When making a test on a pump that has been used for a


a. Remove the air cleaner so that turbo long time, use a micrometer and measure the length of
charger air inlet (7) is open as shown. the plunger. If the length of the plunger is shorter than
the minimum length (worn) dimension given in the
chart, install a new pump.

43

lI \L

<i
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

FUEL PUMP PLUNGER FINDING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION


POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON
Length (new) 66.424 0.038 mm (2.6151 1 .0015 in.)
Tools Needed:
Min permissible
length (worn)
66.385 mm (2.6136 in.) 959082 Engine Turning Tool.

NOTE: No. I piston at top center (TC) on the com


pression stroke is the starting point for all timing
Look for wear at the top part of the plunger. Check procedures.
the operation of the plunger according to the instruc
tions for the Fuel Injection Test Bench. I. Remove tirl1lng bolt (I), bolt (3) and cover (4).

2. Remove plug (2).

T33512 A B c
WEAR BETWEEN LIFTER WASHER AND PLUNGER
Fig. A. shows the contact surfaces of a new pump plunger
and a new lifter washer. In Fig. B the pump plunger and
lifter washer have worn a large amount. Fig. C shows how
the flat end of a new plunger makes bad contact with a
worn lifter washer, causing rapid wear to both parts.

When there is too much wear on the pump plunger,


the lifter washer may also be worn and there will not be LOCATING TOP CENTER
good contact between the two parts. To stop fast wear (RIGHT SIDE OF ENGINE)
on the end of a new plunger. install new lifters in the 1. Timing bolt (in storage location). 2. Plug. 3. Bolt. 4.
Cover.
place of lifters that have washers with wear.
3. Install 959082 Engine Turning Tool (5) in the
Fuel Injection Lines housing.

Fuel from the fuel injection pumps is sent through


the fuel injection lines to the fuel injection valves.

Each fuel injection line of an engine has a special


design and must be installed in a certain location. When
fuel injection lines are removed from an engine, put
identification marks or tags on the fuel lines as they are
removed, so they can be put in the correct location
when they are installed.
The nuts that hold a fuel injection line to an in
jection valve and injection pump must be kept tight.
Use a torque wrench and the 2P5494 Crowfoot
Wrench to tighten the fuel line nuts to 40 7 Nem LOCATION FOR 959082 ENGINE TURNING TOOL
(30 5 lb. ft.). 1. Timing bolt installed. 5. 959082 Engine Turning

Fuel Bypass Valve Tool.

4. Hold timing bolt (I) against the flywheel through


The fuel bypass valve controls fuel pressure to
the hole from which plug (2) was removed.
the fuel injection pump at full speed to a pressure
of 230 35 kPa (33 5 psi). 5. Use a 1/2" drive ratchet and tool (5) to tum the
flywheel counterclockwise (as seen from the rear
of the engine). Stop when the timing bolt goes into
a threaded hole in the flywheel. If the timing bolt

44
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

can be turned freely in the threaded hole in the

flywheel, the No. 1 piston of the engine is on top


center.
~OTE: If the hole in the flywheel is turned beyond the
hole in the flywheel housing, tum the flywheel back
(clockwise) a minimum of 30. Do Step 5 again. This
will prevent timing error caused by play in the timing
gears .

7--5--3--1

~~~(8#) v~~~_
o ~~ '12)
INTAKE
FUEL
@@<D
VALVES


EXHAUST

VALVES

INJECTION
PUMPS
6V3100 DIESEL ENGINE TIMING INDICATOR
1. Engine timing indicator. 2. Magnetic transducer. 3.
Pipe adapter. 4. Injection transducer. 5. 5P7437 Adap
ter. 6. 5P7435 Tee Adapter. 7. 5P7436 Adapter.

A23799X2
I. Make reference to Operation Instructions
inside the lid of 6V3100 Diesel Engine Timing
Indicator (I) for complete instructions and
CYLINDER AND VALVE LOCATION
calibration.

6. Remove the left front valve cover. Look at the


A WARNING

valves of No. I cylinder. The valves will be


The engine must be stopped before the timing
closed if No. 1 piston is on the compression
indicator group is installed. A high pressure
stroke. You should be able to move the rocker
fuel line must be disconnected and a probe
arms up and down with your hand. If NO.1 piston
must be installed in the flywheel housing.
is not on the compression stroke, do the steps that
follow.

7. Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel.

8. Tum the flywheel 360 counterclockwise and in


stall the timing bolt.

NOTE: If the hole in the flywheel is turned beyond the


hole in the flywheel housing, tum the flywheel back
(clockwise) a minimum of 30. Do Step 5 again. This
will prevent timing error caused by play in the timing
gears.

ENGINE TIMING AND AUTOMATIC TIMING


ADVANCE UNIT (DYNAMIC CHECK)

TRANSDUCER IN POSITION
The DYN AM IC check of an engine means that

4. Injection transducer. 8. Fuel injection line for No.1

the engine is checked while in operation (in motion) .


cylinder.

The ST ATIC check of an engine means that the


engine is ~hecked while stopped (not in motion).
2. Disconnect fuel injection line (8) for No. I
cylinder. Slide the nut up and out of the way.
6V3100 Diesel Engine Timing Indicator Group
Put 5P7436 Adapter (7) in its place and turn
Special Instruction Form :\0. SE HS7742 is with the adapter onto the fuel pump bonnet until
the tool group and gives instructions for the test the top of the bonnet threads are a pproxi
procedure. mately even with the bottom of the "window"
in 5P7436 Adapter (7).

45
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

3. Put 5P7435 Tee Adapter (6) on Injection trans NOTE: The DYNAMIC TIMING CHART gives
ducer (4) and put the end of 5P7435 Tee Adap the acceptable dynamic (engine in motion) timing
ter (6) in the "window" of 5P7436 Adapter (7). range as read on the Timing Indicator Group.
Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7742 is with
4. Move the end of fuel Ii ne (8) down on top of
the group and explains how dynamic tolerances
5P7435 Tee Adapter (6). Hold fuel line (8) in
are different than static tolerances.
place with 5P7437 Adapter (5) and tighten to
a torque of no more than 40 Nem (30 lb. ft.).
DYNAMIC TIMING CHART
5. Remove plug (9) from timing hole in flywheel Permissible Dynamic Timing Range at
RPM
housing. Install pipe adapter (3) into the tim (28 0 Static Timing)
ing hole and tighten just a small amount more 800 27.6 to 30.0
than finger tight.
1760 28.9 to 32.3

1960 313 to 34.7

2100 31.8 to 35.2

9. If the timing is not within the range shown in


the chart, make reference to CAMSHAFT
TIM ING FOR THE FUEL INJECTION
PUMP for the correct procedure to change
the timing.
10. If the timing advance is still not correct, or
TIMING HOLE LOCATION
if the operation of the advance is not smooth,
9. Plug. make a replacement of the automatic advance
unit. There is no adjustment to the unit.
6. Push magnetic transducer (2) into adapter
(3) until it makes contact with the flywheel. FUEL SYSTEM ADJUSTMENTS: ON ENGINE
Pull it back out 1.5 mm (.06 in.) and finger
tighten the knurled locknut. Camshaft Timing For The Fuel
Injection Pump
Tools Needed:
5P9697 Timing Pin.

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on compres


sion stroke. Make reference to FINDING TOP
CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR
NO. 1 PISTON.
J\OTE: A I P3566 9; 16" Hex Bit cut to a length
of 25 mm (1.0 in.) can be used to remove the plug
from the front end of the injection pump housing.

TRANSDUCER IN POSITION
2. Magnetic transducer.

7. Connect the cables from the transducer to


engine timing indicator (I). Calibrate and
make adjustments. For calibration procedure,
refer to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS
7742.
8. Start the engine. With the engine at operating
temperature, run the engine through the rpm
~ B42394X1
check points shown in DY1\AMIC TIMING
CHART. TIMING PIN INSTALLED
A. 5P9697 Timing Pin.

46
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

') Remove the plug at the front end of the fuel c. TIghten the bolts (2) with fingers until there is a
Injection pump housing.

small amount of friction (slight drag) between


3. Install 5P9697 Timing Pin (A) [end with taper] the retainer (4) and the timing advance unit (3).
through the hole in the injection pump hous This friction will hold the unit against the tim
mg. ing gears. This prevents play (backlash) when
gears are turned to the correct position.
-+. If timing is correct, the timing pin will go into the d. Remove the timing bolt. Tum the flywheel
notch in the camshaft and the timing bolt will turn until the timing pin will go into the groove in
into the threaded hole in the flywheel. If tIming is the injection pump camshaft.
NOT correct, the timing must be changed .
e. With the timing pin installed, turn the flywheel
NOTE: If timing is correct, BE SURE TO REMOVE clockwise (opposite the direction of engine ro
TIMING PIN AND TIMING BOLT. tation) a minimum of 30 degrees. The reason
for this step is to be sure the play is removed
from the timing gears when the engine is put on
top center (TC).

f. Tum the tlywheel in the direction of engine


rotation until the No. I piston of the engine is
on top center compression stroke. Then, tum
the timing bolt into the threaded hole in the
flywheel.

g. Tighten bolts (2) to 25 N-m (20 lb. ft.). Then


remove the timing pin from the injection
pump housing.
ACCESS COVER TO AUTOMATIC TIMING
h. Tighten bolts (2) to 135 7 N-m (l00


ADVANCE UNIT
5 lb. ft.). Then remove the timing bolt from
1. Cover. the flywheel.
If timing was NOT correct, remove timing pin and
use the procedure that follows to change the timing. 5. Tum the crankshaft two complete revolutions and
check the timing again to see that timing pin will
a. Remove access cover (1) to the four bolts of the go into notch in camshaft with bolt in tlywheel.
automatic timing advance unit.
6. If timing is not correct, do the procedure of Steps b
b. BE SURE the timing pin IS removed before thru h again.
you loosen the bolts. Loosen the four bolts (2)
which hold automatic timing advance unit (3) NOTE: If timing is correct, BE SURE TO REMOVE
on the fuel pump camshaft. TIMING PIN AND TIMING BOLT.

Flow Checking Fuel Injection


Pump Timing
Tools Needed:
1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group.
6V2023 Adapter Group.
5P6524 Engine Timing Indicator Group.
5P7268 Adapter.

9S215 Dial Indicator.

3P1565 Collet.

5P7261 Contact Point, 31.8 mm (1.25 in.) long .

3S3264 Rod, 180.9 mm (7.12 in.) long.

5P9697 Timing Pin.

To find the travel (movement) of piston (7), from


point of closing inlet port (6) to top center. use the

2. Bolts. 3. Automatic timing advance unit. 4. Retainer. procedure that follows:

47
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

I. Put No I pl~ton
at top center (TC) on the com NOTE: If No. I pi~ton is at top centcr of compression
pres~lon ~trokc.
Make reference to FINDING stroke, and 5P9697 Timing Pin (A) does not fit In the
TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION notch in the fuel pump cam~haft, make reference to
FOR NO. I PISTON. CAMSHAFT TIMING FOR THE FUEL INJEC
TIoN PUMP.
1 Remo\'C the plug at the front end of the fuel
II1jection pump housing. 4. Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel and the
timing pin from the fuel injection pump housing.
3. Install 5P9697 Timing Pin (A) [end with taper]
through the hole in the injection pump hous 5. Remove the fuel nozzle from the direct in
ing. The timing pin must fit into the notch in jectIOn ada pter for No. I cylinder.
the fuel pump camshaft. 6. Put a small amount of clean oil on 3S3264
Rod (5) and put the rod into adapter (3).
7. Put 5 P7268 Adapter (3) in direct injection
adapter (4) and tighten the adapter finger tight.

CAUTION
Do not use a wrench to tighten the adapter.
There will be damage to the nozzle seat if the
adapter is too 'tight.

~ B42394X1

TIMING PIN INSTALLED


A. 5P9697 Timing Pin.

\---------0
A61404X1
~w::

INSTALLING ADAPTER
(Typical Example)
3. 5P7268 Adapter. 5. 3S3264 Rod, 180.9 mm (7.12 in.)
long.

8. Put the correct contact point and 3P 1565 Collet


(!) on 95215 Dial Indicator (2).

9. Put the assembled indicator into adapter (3).


Position the dial indicator (up or down) so
small pointer is on +7.62 0101 (.300 in.) (black
numbers) and tighten collet ( I).

CAUTION
Do not tighten collet too much or damage to the
dial indicator can result.

10. Loosen the screw that locks the dial face. Move
the dial face until the larger pointer is on "0"
(zero) and tighten the lock screw.

MEASURING PISTON TRAVEL II. Tum the crankshaft a minimum of 30 in the


1. 3P1565 Collet. 2. 9S215 Dial Indicator and Contact
CLOCKWISE direction (when seen from the fly
Point. 3. 5P7268 Adapter. 4. Direct injection adapter. wheel end of the engine),
5. Rod. 6. Inlet port. 7. Piston.

48
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

14. Remove sender (18) from the side of fuel filter


base (19). Connect 5J4634 Hose Assembly (15)
to filter base ( 19). with an adapter. Disconnect
fuel return line (17) from the cover of the fuel
filter base. Install a plug in the cover.

DIAL INDICATOR INSTALLED


1. 3P1565 Collet. 2. 9S215 Dial Indicator.

12. Tum the crankshaft in the COUNTERCLOCK


WISE direction (when seen from the flywheel end
of the engine) until the dial indicator gives an
indication of maximum piston travel. Make an
adjustment to the dial indicator again. if necesary,
to put both pointers of the dial indicator at the
positions shown in Steps 9 and 10. 1P540 FLOW CHECKING TOOL GROUP
15. 5J4634 Hose Assembly. 16. Tank assembly.
13. Install 6V2023 Adapter Group on :\0. 110
jection pump.
a. Turn fitting (8) so that less than 5 mm

,
(.2 in.) of pin (14) is extended .
~
b. Remove tube (13). Put the adapter group
in position on No. I injection pump. Tighten
nut (I I) to 40 Nem (30 lb. ft.) maximum.
c. Turn fitting (8) down until pin (14) makes
contact with the reverse flow check valve.
d. Turn the fitting an additional I! 4 turn.
e. Push washer (10) against adapter (12).
Tighten nut (9) finger tight. Install tube
(13) on the adapter group.

FUEL FILTER BASE


17. Fuel return line. 18. Sender. 19. Fuel filter base. 20.
Priming pump. 21. Fuel filter.

15. Turn the crankshaft approximately 45 in a


clockwise direction (when seen from the fly
wheel end of the engine).
16. Put 4 liters (1 U.S. gal.) of clean fuel in the


tank assembly (16). Move the governor lever
to full "fuel-on" position. Put 105 k Pa (15 psi)
of air pressure in the tank by using the hand
6V2023 ADAPTER GROUP pump or shop air.
8. Fitting. 9. Nut. 10. Washer. 11. Nut. 12. Adapter. 13.
Tube. 14. Pin.

49
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

CAUTION
If shop air is used, be sure to make an adjust I. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the com
ment to the regulator so there is only 105 kPa pression stroke. Make reference to FINDING
(15 psi) air pressure in the tank. TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION
FOR NO. I PISTON.
17. Hold a pan under the free end of tube (13) for
the fuel that comes out. 2. Remove the plug at the front end of the fuel
I g. Turn the crankshaft slowly in direction of injection pump housing.
normal rotation (counterclockwise when seen J. Install 5P9697 Timing Pin (A) [end with taper]
from the flywheel end of the engine). Do this through the hole in the injection pump hous
until the flow of fuel coming from the end of ing. The timing pin must fit into the notch in
tube (13) is 6 to 12 drops per minute [point the fuel pump camshaft.
of closing inlet port (6)].
19. Stop rotation of the crankshaft w hen the flow of
fuel is 6 to 12 drops per minute. Take a reading of
the measurement on the dial indicator.

20. To check for correct timing of the fuel system.


make a comparison of the measurement on the dial
indicator with the measurements in the FLOW
TIMING CONVERSION CHART that
follows.

NOTE: The fuel system has a tolerance of 1.

FLOW TIMING CONVERSION CHART

TIMING ANGLE INDICATOR READING TIMING PIN INSTALLED


A. 5P9697 Timing Pin.
25 912 mm 359 in
26 9.86 mm 388 In NOTE: If No. 1 piston is at top center of compression
27 10.59 mm .417 in
'28 11.38 mm .448 in
stroke. and the 5P9697 Timing Pin does not fit in the
29 1217rnm 479 in notch in the pump camshaft, make reference to CAM
30 13.00 mm .512 in SHAFT TIMING FOR THE FUEL INJECTION
'Correct timing angle PUMP.

21. If the injection pump tImmg is wrong. several 4. Before any fuel injection pump can be removed,
cylinders can be checked. If they show different the fuel racks must be put in the center position.
readings. remove the injection pump housing to Make reference to REMOVAL OF INJEC
check all lifter settings and plunger lengths. and to TION PUMP.
adjust as needed. See SETTING THE INJEC S. Remove No. 1 fuel injection pump with 8S4613
TION PUMP TIMING DIMENSION: OFF Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor. Put 5P4158
ENGINE. and CHECKING THE PLUNGER Gauge (4) into the bore in the fuel pump housing.
AND LIFTER WASHER OF AN INJECTION
PUMP. 6. Put 3PI565 Collet (2) and 5P4156 Base (3) on
8S3158 Indicator (I). Put 5P4163 Contact Point
NOTE: On all cylinders other than No.1. top center (5) on the indicator.
(TC) of each piston will have to be found by use of the
dial indicator. Only No. I cylinder can be found by 7. To adjust (calibrate) the dial indicator for the lifter
installation of bolt in flywheel. measurements. use the procedure that follows:

a. Put the 5P4157 Gauge [101.6 mm (4.00 in.)]


MEASURING FUEL INJECTION
on the 5P4159 Gauge Stand.
PUMP TIMING DIMENSION
Tools Needed: b. With contact point in gauge hole. put the dial
5P4165 Indicator Group. indicator and base on top of 5P4157 Gauge.
853158 Indicator.
3P1565 Collet. c. Loosen the screw that locks the dial face.
5P4156 Base. Move the dial face until large pointer is on
5P4163 Contact Point, 120.7 mm (4.75 in.) long. zero and tighten the screw.
5P4158 Gauge, 50.8 mm (2.00 in.) long.
d. Make a record of the position of the small
5P9697 Timing Pin.
854613 Wrench. pointer. The dial indicator is now adjusted
852244 Extractor. (calibrated).

50
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

'-OTE: When measurement of the pump timing 10. If the timing dimension is correct, install the No. I

dimension is made, find the difference between the fuel injection pump into the bore in the pump
adjustment reading and the present reading on the housing. Make reference to INSTALLATION
dial face. A dimension of 101. 6 mm (4.00 in.) must OF INJECTION PUMP.
be added to the difference in indicator readings for
the correct measurement. Fuel Rack Setting
Tools Needed:
95240 Rack Position Tool Group.

854627 Circuit Tester.

95215 Dial Indicator.

958883 Contact Point, 12.7 mm (.50 in.) long.

3P1565 Collet.

5P9697 Timing pin.

5P7335 Rack Adjusting Tool.

CHECKING TIMING DIMENSION


(Typical Illustration)
1. Dial indicator. 3. Base. 4. Gauge.

8. Install the indicator assembly through 5P4158


Gauge (4).

9. The correct timing dimension using dial Indicator

(l) is:
GOVERNOR AND INJECTION PUMP HOUSING
TIMING DIMENSION (ON ENGINE) 104.37 j- 0.05 mm
(4109 -r .002 in) 1. Governor control shaft. 2. Control linkage.

I. Disconnect governor control linkage (2) so


NOTE: If the timing of the fuel system is different than
governor control shaft (I) can move freely
the correct timing dimension given in the chart, and the
through its full travel.
camshaft timing for the fuel injection pump is correct,
remove the injection pump housing to check all lifter 2. Move governor control shaft ( I) to the S H UT
settings and plunger lengths, and to adjust as needed. OFF position.
Make reference to FUEL SYSTEM ADJUST 3. Remove plug from hole (3). Put 5P9697 Timing
MENTS: OFF ENGINE, and CHECKING THE Pin (4) in hole (3) with the Oat end down.
PLUNGER AND LIFTER WASHER OF AN IN
JECTION PUMP.
1 ~ 2

4---------t

5~
~IM
~

CHECKING TIMING DIMENSION


1. 8S3158 Dial Indicator. 2. 3P1565 collet. 3. 5P4156
Base. 4. 5P4158 Gauge - 50.8 mm (2.00 in.) long. 5.
5P4163 Contact Point. 120.7 mm (4.75 mm) long.
PUT RACK AT ZERO POSITION
1. Governor control shaft.
Pin.
3. Hole. 4. 5P9697 Timing

51
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

4. Turn governor control shaft (I) toward H IG H II. Read the measurement on the dial indicator.
IDLE and push down on timing pin (4) until See the FUEL SETTING INFORMATION
it engages in the slot (groove) in the rack. The to find the correct measurement for rack set
rack is now centered (at zero position). ting.
5. Remove the plug at the rear of the housing. 12. To adj ust the rack setting, remove air-fuel
ratio control (6) from top of governor. Use
6. Put 3PI565 Collet and 9S215 Dial Indicator
tool (9) to loosen locknut (II) and turn adjust
(7) with the 9S8883 Contact Point in the hole
ment screw ( 10) as needed.
at the rear of the housing.
NOTE: To decrease the rack setting, turn the ad
7. Adjust the indicator to "0" (zero). Tighten
justment screw clockwise.
the nut of the collet to hold the indicator at
the zero position. 13. Tighten lac knut (I I). Check the rack setting
according to Steps II and 12.
8. Remo\e timing pin (4).
9. Connect the clip end of 8S4627 Circuit Tester 14. When the rack setting is correct. use tool (9)
(8) to brass terminal (5) on governor housing. to hold screw (10) and tighten locknut (II) to
Put the other end of the tester to a good ground. 12 4 N-m (9 3 lb. ft.).

10. Turn governor control shaft (I) in the fuel-on 15. Install the air-fuel ratio control on the gover
direction until the light in the tester shows a nor. Connect the governor control linkage.
maximum output. Turn the shaft in the fuel Make reference to ADJUSTMENT OF HY
off direction until the test light goes out. Turn DRAULIC AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL.
the shaft slowly in the fuel-on direction until
the test light has a minimum light output. In
this position, rack stop collar (12) just starts
to make contact with the torque spring.

ADJUSTMENT TO THE RACK SETTING


(Typical Example)
9. 5P7335 Rack Adjusting Tool. 10. Adjustment screw.
11. Locknut. 12. Stop collar.

CHECK RACK SETTING


5. Brass terminal. 6. Air-fuel ratio control. 7. 9S215
Dial Indicator. 8. 8S4627 Circuit Tester.

52

I
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

FUEL SYSTEM ADJUSTMENTS: 4. Install 5P9697 Timing Pin (4) (end with taper)

OFF ENGINE through the timing hole in the pump housing


and into the notch in the camshaft.
Setting Fuel Injection Pump Dimension
5. Put IP7410 Timing Plate (I) on 5P3601
Tools Needed:
Adapter (3) and install 2S6160 Washer (5) and
5P6600 Off Engine Lifter Setting Tool Group.
5P9697 Timing Pin. S 1617 Bolt (6). Do not tighten bolt.
5P1768 Pointer.
5P3601 Lifter Setting Adapter.
1P7410 Plate.
256160 Washer.
51617 Bolt, 5/16-18 NC, 19.1 mm (.75 in.) long.
2A762 Bolt, 1/4-20 NC, 15.7 mm (.62 in.) long.
5P4165 Indicator Group.
853158 Indicator.
3P1565 Collet.
5P4156 Base.
5P4163 Contact Point, 120.7 mm (4.75 in.) long.
5P4158 Gauge, 50.8 mm (2.00 in.) long.
854613 Wrench.
852244 Extractor.

The off engine setting makes an adjustment for wear


of components in the injection pump housing. Adjust
ment of the fuel camshaft timing gives compensation
for wear in the timing gears and on the camshaft of the INSTALLATION OF THE 5P1768 POINTER
injection pumps. 2. 5P1768 Pointer. 3. 5P3601 Adapter. 7. 2A762 Bolt.

1. Use the 8S4613 Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor to


remove the injection pumps. 6. Turn t P741 0 Timing Plate (I) until the start
ing point degree mark on the 1P741 0 Timing


rn CATER"'LLA".
Plate (1) is in alignment with the pointer:
Starting point degree mark
7. Tighten bolt (6) to a maximum of 25 Nem (20
lb. ft.).
14

NOTE: Be sure 1P741 0 Timing Plate does not

, move from the starting point degree mark while


the bolt is tightened.
8. Remove timing pin (4) .
9. Make reference to the lifter setting chart for the
timing plate degrees for the lifter being checked.

, To use the timing plate. tum it counterclockwise


until the degree setting for the lifter being checked
is in alignment WIth the pointer.

10. To adjust (calibrate) the dial indicator for the lifter


measurements. use the procedure that follows:
A39416-1X2
a. Put the 5P4157 Gauge [101.6 mm (4.00 in.)]
on the 5P4159 Gauge Stand.
5P6600 OFF ENGINE LIFTER SETTING TOOL GROUP
1. 1P7410 Timing Plate. 2. 5P1768 Pointer Assembly. 3. b. With contact point in gauge hole. put the dial
5P3601 Adapter. 4. 5P9697 Timing Pin. 5. 2S6160 Wash indicator and base on top of 5P4157 Gauge.
er. 6. S1617 Bolt.
c. Loosen the screw that locks the dial face. Move
the dial face until the large pointer is on zero


2. Fasten 5P1768 Pointer Assembly (2) to the pump
and tighten the screw .
housing with 2A762 Bolt (7).
d. Make a record of the position of the small
3. Install 5P360 1 Adapter (3 ) on the drive end of the
pointer. The dial indicator is now adjusted
injection pump camshaft.
(cal ibrated).

53
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

9 SPACER CHART

SPACER PART NO. SPACER THICKNESS

5M2697 4.32 mm ( 170 in.)


2M4208 4.42 mm ( 174 in.)
2M4209 4.52 mm ( 178 in.)
2M4210 4.62 mm ( 182 in.)
2M4211 4.72 mm ( 186 in.)
2M4212 4.83 mm ( 190 in.)
5M2691 4.93 mm ( 194 in.)
13
587189 5.03 mm ( 198 in.)

GOVERNOR ADJUSTMENTS
MEASURING TIMING DIMENSION
Tools Needed:
8. 8S3158 Indicator. 9. 3P1565 Collet. 10. 5P4156 Base. 6V3121 Multitach Group.
11. 5P4158 Gauge - 50.8 mm (2.00 in.). 12. Spacer. 13.
Timing dimension. 14. 5P4163 Contact Point -120.7 mm
(4.75 in.) long. CAUTION
A mechanic with training in governor adjust
l\OTE: When measurement of the pump timing ments is the only one to make the adjustment
dimension is made, find the difference between the to the low idle and high idle rpm. The correct
adjustment reading and the present reading on the low idle and high idle rpm, and the measure
dial face. A dimension of 101.6 mm (4.00 in.) must ment for adjustment of the fuel rack are in the
be added to the difference in indicator readings for FUEL SETTING INFORMATION.
the correct measurement.
Engine rpm must be checked with an accurate
II. The off engine timing dimension for adjustment of tachometer. The 6 V21 00 M ultitach from the
the lifter, is shown in LIFTER SETTING 6 V3121 M ultitach Group is the most accurate
CHART. and the easiest to use. See article MEASURING
ENGINE SPEED for more information on this
LIFTER SETTING CHART (OFF ENGINE)
tachometer and others that are available.
Timing Plate Starting Point 01 ............ 14
(Initial setting with timing pin in slot)
&. WARNING
Turn Timing Plate Lifter Number
Counterclockwise (Shown above Timing Dimension
to (degrees) each pump hole) for all Lifters
To help prevent an accident caused by parts
in rotation, work carefully around an engine
0 1 that has been started.
45 8
90 4
135 3
180 6 108.64 0.03 mm Start the engine and check the low idle and high
225 5 (4.277 .001 in)
idle rpm. See the FUEL SETTING INFORMA
270 7
315 2 TIO\: for the correct low idle and high idle rpm.

12. The spacer (12) of each injection pump must be If an adjustment is necessary, remove the sealed
changed to change the timing dimension of that cover over the adjustment screws and use the pro
injection pump. Make reference to the spacer cedure that follows:
chart for spacer thickness.
1. Move the governor linkage to HIGH IDLE posi
13. Make another check of all timing dimensions after
tion and turn screw (I) to adjust HIGH IDLE
all adjustments have been made.
rpm. When the specific rpm setting is made, move
14. Make reference to INSTALLATION OF IN the governor control to reduce engine speed, then
JECTION PUMP to install pumps in housing and move the linkage to HIGH IDLE and check the
to check for full travel of fuel racks. setting again. Repeat this procedure until rpm
setting is correct.
15. After the fuel injection pump housing is again
installed on the engine, make reference to CAM
SHAFT TIMING FOR THE FUEL INJEC
TION PUMP.

54
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

To adjust the LOW IDLE rpm. move the gover


nor linkage to LOW IDLE position and tum
screw (2). Increase the engine speed and then
return linkage back to LOW [OLE positIon to
check the setting again .

..

6V3121 MULTITACH GROUP


1. Carrying case. 2. Power cable. 3. Tachometer gen
erator. 4. Tachometer drive group. 5. Multitach.

The 6V3121 M ultitach Group can measure en


IDLE ADJUSTMENT gine speed from a tachometer drive on the engine.
1. Adjustment screw for high idle. 2. Adjustment screw It also has the ability to measure engine speed
for low idle. 3. Tachometer drive.
from visual engine parts in rotation.
Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7807 is with
3. When governor adjustment is correct. install the 6V3121 Multitach Group and gives instruc
the cover over the adjustment screws. tions for the test procedure.
When the cover is installed on the governor. the idle
adjustment screws fit into holes in the cover. The shape


of the holes will not let the idle adjustment screws tum
after the idle adjustment is done and the cover is
installed.
4. Now install a new wire and seal to the cover bolt.
Measuring Engine Speed
Tools Needed:
5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter or
6V3121 Multitach Group or
1P5500 Portable Phototach Group.

1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP

The IP5500 Portable Phototach Group can measure


engine speed from the tachometer drive on the engIne.
It also has the ability to measure engine speed from
visual engIne parts In rotatIon. Special Instruction
Form No. SMHS70 15 has instructIons for its use.
Checking Balance Point
Tools Needed:
8S4627 Circuit Tester.

A09404X2
6V3121 Multitach Group.

5P2150 ENGINE HORSEPOWER METER The balance point check of the engine is a method to
make a diagnosis of engine peri'ormance.
The 5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter can measure

engine speed from the tachometer dn\'e on the engine . If the balance point and the high idle speed are
Special Instruction Form No. S~1HS7050 has instruc correct. the fuel system operation of the engine is
tions for its use. correct. The balance point for the engine is:

55
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

A. At 20 rpm greater than full load speed. 5. Make a record of the speed of the engine at high
idle.
S. The rpm where the rack stop collar just makes
contact with the torque spring or stop bar. 6. Add load on the engine slowly until the circuit
tester light just comes on (minimum light output).
e. The
rpm where the engine gets the maximum This is the balance point.
amount of fuel per stroke.
7. Make a record of the speed (rpm) at the balance
D. The rpm where the engine has maximum point.
horsepower output.
8. Repeat Step 6 several times to make sure that the
E. The rpm where an increase in load on the reading is correct.
engine puts the engine in a lug condition (a
condition in which a small increase in load 9. Stop engine. Make a comparison of the records
causes the engine speed to decrease). from Steps 5 and 7 with the information from
the FUEL SETTING INFORMATION.
Use the procedure that follows to check the balance
point. Make reference to TECHNIQUES FOR 10. If the balance point is correct. the governor setting
LOADING ENGINES in Special Instruction Fom1 is adjusted correctly. If the balance point is not
No. SEHS7050. correct, adjust the high idle rpm until you get the
correct balance point.

CAUTION
Do not adjust rpm above the range for HIGH
IDLE given in FUEL SETTING INFORMATION.
Damage to engine can result if seUing is too
high.

ADJUSTMENT OF AIR-FUEL
RATIO CONTROL
I. The fuel rack setting must be correct before the
CIRCUIT TESTER INSTALLED adjustment for the hydraulic air-fuel ratio control
1. Brass terminal screw. 2. 8S4627 Circuit Tester. can be checked. Make reference to FUEL RACK
SETTING.
I. Connect a tachometer which has good accuracy to
the tachometer drive. NOTE: The 9S215 Dial Indicator for fuel rack setting
is used for the adjustment of air-fuel ratio control.
2. Connect the clip end of 8S4627 Circuit Tester (2)
to the brass terminal screw (1 ) on the governor 2. Remove cover (3) from the hydraulic air-fuel ratio
housing. Connect the other end of the tester to a control.
place on the fuel system which is a good ground
J. Start the engine.
connection.

3. Start the engine. ~WARNING

~ WARNING To help prevent an accident caused by parts in


rotation, work carefully around an engine that
has been started.
To help prevent an accident caused by parts in
rotation, work carefully around an engine that
has been started. 4. Push the end of valve (1) in and hold it in for two
or three seconds. This action will manually move
the valve into its operating position.
4. With the engine at normal conditions for oper
ation, run the engine at high idle.

56

FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

HYDRAULIC AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL


1. Valve. 2. Pin. 3. Cover.

5. Move the governor control lever In the FUEL ON


directIon, then return it to LOW IDLE. Do this


several times to remove the air from the oil in the
control. This wIll make the result of the test more
accurate.
6. Rapidly move the govcrnor control lever in
thc FU E L 01\ direction. Read the measure
ment on the dial indicator at the pOInt where
the control starts to luna rack tnl\cl. See the
FUEL SETTIl'\G I;\FORMATIO,\ to find
the correct mea~urement.
7. To make an adjustment to the aIr-fuel ratio con
troL turn valvc (I) In a clockv,'l . . e dIrection to
increase the amount of fuel pos"Jhle (more rack
travel) at the limIted rack po.. . ltlon. Turn the valve
counterclockwise to decrea~e the amount of fuel
pOSSIble (less rack travell.
8. After an adjustment IS made . do Step 6 again.
When the adjustment IS correct.. put co\'er n) on
the control. Tu m the cover as necessary to pu t It In
alignment with the neare~t bolt hole ..... In~tall the
bolts.
9. Stop the engine. After the oil pressure has gone
out of the aIr-fuel ratio control, check the fuel rack
setting again to make sure full rack travel is
available .


57
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

GOVERNOR CONTROL ADJUSTMENTS

SHUTOFF
(VERTICAL POSITION)
12

13---""::d

HORIZONTAL

I.
i
SHUTOFF
(VERTICAL POSITION

l_
SECTION BB

2
x
c ---
-- .J
C
VIEW A-A

VIEW CC

5
i ;'
~----+----:----+-----y ---------~
~--~ 10 11
B15933-1 Xl

ADJUSTING GOVERNOR CONTROL


1. Decelerator pedal. 2. Rod. 3. Locknut. 4. Lever. 5. Locknut. 6. Rod. 7. Plate. 8. Locknut. 9. Rod end. 10. Governor
shaft. 11. Control group. 12. Setscrew. 13. Setscrew. 14. Setscrew. 15. Lever. 16. Lever. 17. Throttle lever. 18. Set
screw. V. 27.5 1.0 mm (1.08 .05 in.) W. 20 1 mm (.79 .05 in.) X. 720 2 mm (28.3 .1 in.) Y. 956 mm (37.6 in.) dimen
sion. Z. 241 17 mm (9.5 .7 in.) dimension.

I. Remove rods (2) and (6). Adj ust rod (2) to 4. Install rod (2) between levers (4) and (16). With
dimension (X) at 720 2 mm (28.3 .1 in.). throttle lever (17) in shutoff (vertical position)
Tighten locknut (3) to 12 4 Nem (9 3 lb. ft.). adjust rod (2) to obtain dimension (W) for
Adjust rod (6) to approximate dimension (Y) lever (4). Tighten locknut (3) to 12 4 Nem
of 956 mm (37.6 in.). Tighten locknut (5) to (9 3 lb. ft.).
12 4 Nem (9 3 lb. ft.).
5. With governor control shaft (10) at shutoff
2. Loosen setscrew locknuts and turn out set position. install control group (II) so that the
setscrews (12). (13) and (14). Turn setscrew mounting hole in plate (7) is at 30 5 to the
(16) all the way in. left of vertical as shown.
3. Move throttle lever (17) to the shutoff (vertical 6. Install rod (6). Any necessary adjustments to
position). Turn setscrew (12) in to adjust lever install the rod should be made at rod end (9)
(16) to dimension (V) of 27.5 1.0 mm (1.08 attached to plate (7). Tighten locknut (8) to

.05 in.) and tighten locknut to 25 7 Nem 12 4 Nem (9 3 lb. ft.).

(20 5 lb. ft.).

58

I
FUEL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

7. Move throttle lever (17) toward HIGH IDLE 10. Adjust. if necessary, decelerator pedal (I) on

until forward movement of rod (6) stops . the splined shaft to obtain dimension (Z) of
241 17 mm (9.5 .7 in.).
8. Turn setscrew (18) out until it makes contact
with the stop on throttle lever (17). Now II. Start engine and move throttle lever (17) to
turn setscrew ( 18) in one turn and tighten lock HIGH IDLE. Turn setscrew (13) in far enough
nut to a torque of 25 7 Nem (20 3 lb. ft.). so that, when decelerator pedal (I) is depressed,
contact is made with setscrew (13) at an engine
NOTE: This adjustment allows full travel of gov
speed of 1000 50 rpm. When this adjustment
ernor shaft, but gives a positive stop after full
is correct, tighten locknut to a torque of 25 7
linkage travel.
Nem (20 5 lb. ft.).
9. With throttle lever (17) in HIGH IDLE posi
12. Release decelerator pedal (I) and check HIGH
tion, turn setscrew (14) in until there is 2 I
IDLE settingaccordingtothe FUEL SETTING
mm (.08 .04 in.) clearance between roller in
INFORMATION.
lever (15) and lever (16). Tighten locknut on
setscrew (14) to a torque of 25 7 Nem (20
5 lb. ft.).
NOTE: This adjustment makes sure that HIGH
IDLE can be reached using throttle lever (17) with
out interference with the decelerator linkage .

59
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM

RESTRICTION OF AIR INLET IJ\LEl AND EXHAUST DO NOT HAVE A RE


AND EXHAUST STRICTIOl\' WHEN MAKIJ\G A CHECK OF
PRESSURE IN THE INLET MANIFOLD.
There \\ III he a reuuctlOn of horsepower and efficien
l'~l)t' the englnc If there IS a re~tnction in the air inlet or U"Ie the .+56553 Instrument Group to check engme
c\hau"t '-1\ '-Item. rpm and the pressure m the mid manIfold .
.\.1[ flo\\ through the air cleaner must not have
a restriction (negative pressure difference measure
ment between atmospheric air and air that has
gone through air cleaner) of more than 762 mm
(30 in.) of water.
Back pressure from the exhaust (pressure dif
ference measurement between exhaust at outlet
elbo\\ and atmospheric air) must not be more than
685 mm (27 in.) of water.

MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE
IN INLET MANIFOLD
J
B42398Xl

The efficiency of an engine can be checked by "


PLUG FOR PRESSURE TEST
making a comparison of the pressure in the inlet
manifold with the information given in the FU EL A. Plug. B. Exhaust elbow. C. Pipe to inlet manifold.

SETTI:\G INFORMATION. This test is used Use the 6V3150 Engine Pressure Group to check
\\ hen there is a decrease of horsepower from the the pressure in the inlet manifold.
engine. yet there is no real sign of a problem with
the engine.
fhe correct pressure for the inlet manifold is
gl\en In the FUEL SETTING Il\FORMArION.
De\elopment of this information is done with these
condi tions:
a. 747 mm (29.4 in.) of mercury barometric
pressure.
b. 29 C (85 F) outside air temperature.
c. 35 API rated fuel
Any change from these conditions can change the
pressure in the inlet manifold. Outside air that has
higher temperature and lower barometric pressure
than given above will cause a lower horsepower and 6V3150 ENGINE PRESSURE GROUP
a lower inlet manifold pressure measurement than 1. Differential pressure gauges. 2. Zero adjustment screw.
3. Pressure gauge 0 to 1100 kPa (0 to 160 psi). 4. Pres
gi\'en in the FUEL SETTING INFORMATIO:\. sure tap. 5. Pressure gauge 0 to 415 kPa (0 to 60 psi).
Outside air that has a lower temperature and a
higher barometric pressure will cause higher horse This tool group has a gauge to read pressure in
power and a higher inlet manifold pressure meas the inlet manifold. Special Instruction Form No.
urement. SEHS7851 is with the tool group and gives in
A difference in fuel rating will also change horse structions for the test procedure.
power and the pressure in the inlet manifold. If the
TURBOCHARGER
fuel is rated above 35 API. pressure in the inlet
manifold can be less than gi\'en in the FU E L SET Every 7200 hours or if any unusual sound or
TI1\G L'\; FOR M A1'101\. If the fuel is rated below vibration in the turbocharger is noticed. a quick
35 API. the pressure in the inlet manifold can be check of bearing condition can be made without
more than given in the FUEL SETTI:\G 1:\ disassembling the turbocharger. This can be done
FORMATION. BE SURE THAT THE AIR by removing the piping from the turbocharger and

60

,i. '
AIR IN LET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

inspecting the compressor impeller, turbine wheel turbocharger. Attach a dial indicator with an ex
and compressor cover. Rotate the compressor and tension indicator point long enough to contact the
turbine wheel assembly by hand and observe by shaft through the oil return hole. Make sure the
feeling excess end play and radial clearance. The contact point is centered on the shaft (highest in
rotating assembly should rotate freely with no rub dicator reading). Raise both ends of the shaft all
bing or binding. If there is any indication of the the way then push down in the opposite direction.
impeller rubbing the compressor cover or the tur Total movement of the indicator should be between
bine wheel rubbing the turbine housing, recondi 0.10 mm (.004 in.) and 0.23 mm (.009 in.). If radial
tion the turbocharger or replace with a new or clearance exceeds 0.23 mm (.009 in.) or minimum
rebuilt one. clearance is under 0.10 mm (.004 in.), the turbo
charger should be disassembled and the bearings
End clearance is best checked with a dial indica
checked.
tor. Attach a dial in'dicator with the indicator point
on the end of the shaft. Move the shaft from end NOTE: Care must be taken not to cock the shaft
to end making note of the total indicator reading. or a false reading will be obtained.
End play for TL81 Turbochargers should be 0.08
MEASUREMENT OF EXHAUST
to 0.25 mm (.003 to .0 lOin.). If end play is more
than the maximum end play rebuild or replace the
TEMPERATURE
turbocharger. End play less than the minimum end
play could indicate carbon build up on the turbine
wheel and should be disassembled for cleaning
and inspection.

1P3060 PYROMETER GROUP


CHECKING TURBOCHARGER
ROTATING ASSEMBLY END PLAY
Use the 1P3060 Pyrometer Group to check exhaust
(TYPICAL EXAMPLE)
temperature. SpecIal In~tructlon Form No.
SMHS7179 IS with the tool group and gl\'eS Instruc
A more reliable check of bearing conditions can
tIons for the test procedure.
be made only when the turbocharger is disassem
bled and the bearings, shaft journal and housing
bore diameters can actually be measured.
CRANKCASE (CRANKSHAFT
COMPARTMENT) PRESSURE
Pistons or piston rIngs that ha\e damage can be the
cause of too much pres~ure In the crankcase. Thl s
condItion will cause the eng1l1e to run rough. There wIll
abo he more than the normal amount of fumes comIng
from the crankca~e hreather. Thi ~ crankcase pressur~
can also cau~e the e1cment for the crankcase breather to
ha\c a restrIctIon In a very short tll11e. It can also be the
cau~e of 011 leakage at gaskets and seals that would not
normally ha\e leakage.

CHECKING TURBOCHARGER RADIAL


COMPRESSION

CLEARANCE

(TYPICAL EXAMPLE)

An engine that runs rough can have a leak at the


valves, o~ have valves that ~need adjustment. Use the
Radial clearance can also be checked with a dial
test that follows for a fast and easy method to find a
indicator. Remove the oil return line from the

61
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

l': 11I1dcr that ha~ 10\\ compI'C\\lon. or doe\ not have


~l)od tUl,j comhu"tIon, Find the \peed that the engine
run" the rou~he"t. and keep the engine at thIS rpm until
the te"t h finl~hed, Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel
I!l.1ectll)!l pump to \top the flow of fuel to that cyl inder.
Dl) thl" for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is

found that makt~\ no dIfference in engine performance.


Be "ure to tI~hten each fuel line nut after the test before
the nc\t fuel line nut IS loosened, This test can also be
etn II1Jlcatlon that the fuel IIljection is wrong, so the
l'yllI1Jer \\J!I ha\e to he checked thoroughly. Removal
()f the head and I!lSpectlon of the valves and valve seats

I" necc"\ar) to find those small defech that do not


nonnall) cause a prohlem. Repair of these problems is
!lormall; done when reconditionmg: the engine.

CYLINDER HEAD
The cyl Inder head has valve scat Inserts, valve
~L1ldes.and bndge dowels that can be removed when
the) dre \\om or ha\l~ damage. Replacement of these
L'omponents can he made WIth the tooh that follow.
5P3536 VALVE GUIDE GAUGE GROUP
Valves
Bridge Dowel
\ ~lh e remo\'al and IIbtallatlon II., casler WIth LIse of
thl' :'is I .r~o Vahe SprIng Compressor ASl.,emhly and Use a SP9.+.+ Dowel Puller Group WIth a 5P942
:'is I ~22 Vah e Keeper Inserter, Extractor to remo\'e the hrIdge dowels. Install a new
hrIdge dowel WIth a SP2.+06 Dowel DrIver. ThiS dowel
Valve Seat Inserts dnver I!l'>talls the hndgc dowel to the correct height.

Tools needed to remo\ e dnd lIl\tall \ ab c se;lt Inserts BRIDGE ADJUSTMENT


are 111 the 9SJOSO Vah c Ilben Puller Group. SpeCIal
I n\tnlL'tlon Form No. G\1G021 1.+ ~ 1\,>, dn l' \pLtna \\'hen the head IS dIsassembled, keep the bridges
tlon tor thIS procedure. f-'or ea,-Ier lI1"tallatllH1. lo\\er WIth theIr respectIve cylinders. Adjustment of the
the temperature of the lI1"ert hctorc It h lIl\talkd In the hrIdge \\I11 he necessary only after the valves arc
head. ground or other reconditioning: of the cyllllder head is
done. L ~e the procedure that follows to make an adjust
Valve Guides ment to the bridge. .

Tooh needed to JIl\tall \al\e gUIde" arc the 5P2J96


DrI\er BlIsh1l1g and 7SXX59 Dri\er. The countcrhore
In the drIver hushlllg: 1I1stalb the gUide to the COITCl't
height. Use al P7.+S I Valve Guide Honlllg Group to
make a finIshed hore III the valve gUide after Ilbtallatlon
of the gUIde 111 the head. SpeCIal Instruction Form )Jo.
SMHS7S26 gIves an explanation for this procedure.
GrInd the valve\ after the new valve gUIdes are
lIlstalled.

Checking Valve Guide Bore

Use the 5P~536 Vahc GUide Gauge Group to check


the hore of the val\'l~ gUIdes, Spcclallnstructlon Form
No. GMG02562 gIves complete and detaIled lIlstruc
tions for usc of the 5PJS36 Valve Guide Gauge Group.
BRIDGE ADJUSTMENT

62
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

NOTE: Valves must be fully closed. NOTE: When the valve lash (clearance) IS checked,
adjustment IS NOT NECESSARY If the measurement
1. Put engine oil on the bndge dowel in the cylinder IS in the range given III the chart for VAL VE CLEAR
head and in the bore in the bndge. ANCE CHECK: ENGINE STOPPED. If the mea
2. Install the bridge wIth the adjustment screw to surement IS outsIde thIS range, adjustment IS necessary.
ward the exhaust manIfold. See the chart for VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING:
ENGINE STOPPED, and make the setting to the
J. Loosen the locknut for the adjustment screw and nomlIlal (desired) speCIficatIons 111 this chart.
loosen the adjustment screw several turns.
VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING: ENGINE STOPPED
4. Put a force on the bridge with a finger to keep the
Exhaust 0.76 mm (.030 in.)
bridge III contact wIth the valve stem opposite the Intake 0.38 mm (.015 in.)
adjustment screw.
To make an adjustment to the valve clearance, turn
5. Turn the adjustment screw clockwise until it just the adjustment screw III the rocker arm. It IS not neces
makes contact with the valve stem. Then turn the sary t(~ change the bridge adjustment for normal valve
adjustment screw 30 more in a clockwIse direc clearance adjustments. Valve clearance adjustments
tion to make the bridge straight on the dowel, and can be made by using the procedure that follows:
to make compensation for the clearance in the
threads of the adjustment screw.

6. H old the adj ustment screw in this position and


tighten the locknut to 28 4 Nem (22 3 lb. ft.).

7. Put engine oil at the point where the rocker ann


makes contact with the bridge.

VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING


NOTE: Valve clearance IS measured between the
rocker arm and the bndge for the \alves.
VALVE CLEARANCE CHECK: ENGINE STOPPED

Exhaust 0.69 to 0.84 mm (.027 to .033 in.)


Intake 0.30 to 0.46 mm (.012 to .018 in.)

VALVE ADJUSTMENT
(TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION)

I. Put No. 1 pIston at top center (TC) on the com


pressIon stroke. Make reference to FINDING
TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION
FOR NO.1 PISTON.
2. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on
the intake valves for cylinders I, 2, 5 and 7.
Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on
the exhaust valves for cylinders I, 3, 4, and 8.

, 3. After each adjustment, tighten the nut for


valve adjustment screw to 28 4 Nem (22 3
VALVE CLEARANCE CHECK lb. ft.), and check the adjustment again.

63
AIR INLET AND EXHAUST SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

-f. Remo\'c the timing bolt and turn the tlywheel360


In the direction of engine rotation. This will put
\'0. 6 ri"ton at top center (TC) on the compres
"Jon "troke. In"tall the timing bolt in the flywheel.
5. \1ake an adjustment to the valve clearance on o
... @@<D
INTAKE
the intake valves for cylinders 3. 4. 6 and 8. VALVES FUEL
\!lake an adjustment to the valve clearance on
the exhaust valves for cylinders 2. 5. 6 and 7.
EXHAUST

VALVES

INJECTION
PUMPS
@(l)@@
6. After each adjustment. tighten the nut for valve
adjustment screw 28 4 N-m (22 3 lb. ft.).
and check the adjustment again.
A23799X2

7. Rcrno\'l~ the tirning bolt from the tlywheel when


all \aI\'c clearances are correct.
CYLINDER AND VALVE LOCATION

64

I
111

LUBRICATION SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

LUBRICATION SYSTEM
One of the prohlems In the II~t that follows will A30658Xl

generall) he an IndIcation of a prohlem In the lubrica


tion ~ystem for the engine.

TOO MUCH OIL CONSUMPTION


OIL PRESSURE IS LOW
OIL PRESSURE IS HIGH
TOO MUCH BEARING WEAR
INCREASED OIL TEMPERATURE

TOO MUCH OIL CONSUMPTION


Oil Leakage on Outside of Engine
Check for leakage at the seals at each end of the
crankshaft. Look for leakage at the oi I pan gasket and
5P6225 HYDRAULIC TEST BOX
all luhrication system connections. Check to see If oil
comes out of the crankcase breather. This can be ThIS procedure must be followed exactly for the
caused by combustion ga~ leakage around the pistons. pressure readings to have any value for comparison
A dirty crankcase breather will cause high pressure in with Engine Oil Pressure Chart.
the crankcase. and this wIll cause ga~kd and seal
leakage. I. Be sure that the engine IS filled to the correct level
WIth SAE 30 011. If any other VIscosity of 011 is
Oil Leakage Into Combustion used. the Information in the EngIne Oil Pressure
Area of Cylinders Chart does not apply.

Oillcakage into the combustion area of the cylinders 2. Connect an 8 M2744 Gauge from the 5P6225
can be the cause of blue smoke. There arc four possible Hydraulic Test Box to the oil pressure test
ways for 011 leakage Into the combustion area of the location (I). I nstall a probe from the 959 102
cylinders: Thermistor Thermometer Group into the oil
manifold to check oil temperature.
I. OJ! leakage between worn valve guides and valve
stems.

2. Worn or damaged piston rings. or dirty 011 return


holes.

3. Compression ring and/or intermediate nng not


installed correctly.

4. Oillcakage past the seal rings in the Impeller end


of the turbocharger shaft.

Too much oil consumption can also be the result if


oil with the wrong viscosity is used. Oil With a thin
viSCOSity can be caused by fuel leakage Into the crank
case. or by increased engIne temperature.

MEASURING ENGIN~ OIL PRESSURE OIL MANIFOLD


1. Pressure test location.
Tools Needed:
5P6225 Hydraulic Test Box.
959102 Thermistor Thermometer Group. 3. Run the engine to get the oil temperature at
93 6 C (200 10 F).
An 8M2744 Oil Pressure Gauge. which is part of the
5P6225 Hydraulic Test Box. can be used to check oil 4. Keep the oil temperature constant with the engine
pressure in the system. at the rated rpm from the chart. and read the test
pressure gauge.

65
LUBRICATION SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

ENGINE OIL PRESSURE Too Much Clearance at Engine Bearings or


Open Lubrication System (Broken or
SAE 30 OIL
Disconnected
Engine
Temperature Pressure Oil Line or Passage)
rpm Rating of
C kPa psi
Components that are worn and have too much bear
1900 88 to 99 190 to 200 360 to 500 52 to 72 ing clearance can cause oil pressure to be low. Low oil
800 88 to 99 190 to 200 110 min 16 min pressure can also be caused by an oil line or oil passage
that is open. broken or disconnected.
I f the re"ults of the test gauge do not fall within the
pre,-"ure range given in the chart. find the cause and Piston Cooling Tubes (Jets)
correct It. Engine failure or a reduction in engine life
l'an he the re"ult if engine operation is continucd with When engine is operated. cooling jets direct oil to
oil man! fold pressure outside this range. ward the bottom of the piston to lower piston and ring
temperatures. If there is a failure of one of the jets. or it
is bent in the wrong direction. seizure of the piston will
be caused in a very short time.
Use the SP8709 Piston Tool Group to check and
adjust thc alignment of piston cooling jets.
OIL PRESSURE IS LOW
OIL PRESSURE IS HIGH
Crankcase Oil Level
Oil pressure will be high if the bypass valve for the
Check the level of the oil in the crankcase. Add oil if oil pump can not mo\e from the closed position.
needed. It is possible for the oil level to bc too far below
the oil pump supply tube. This will cause the oil pump TOO MUCH BEARING WEAR
to not have the ability to supply enough lubrication to
the engine components. When some components of the engine show bearing
wear in a short time. the cause can be a restriction in an
Oil Pump Does Not Work Correctly oil passage. A hroken oil passage can also be the cause.

The inlct screen of the supply tuhe for the oil pump If the gauge for oil pressure shows enough oil pres
can have a restriction. This will cause cl\'itation (low sure. but a component is worn because it can not get
pressure bubbles suddenly made In liqUid" hy mechani enough lubrication. look at the passage for oil supply to
cal forces) and a loss of oil pressure, Air leakage in the the component. A restriction in a supply passage will
supply side of the oil pump will also cause ca\itation not let enough lubrication get to a component. and this
and lo"s of oil pressure. If the bypass \'a!\'e for the oil will cause early wear.
pump is held in the open (unseated) position. the lubri
cation system can not get to maximum pres"ure. Oil
pump gears that have too much wear will cau"e a INCREASED OIL TEMPERATURE
reduction in oil pressure.
Look for a rcstriction in the oil and coolant passages
Oil Filter Bypass Valves of thc oil coolcr. If the oil cooler has a restriction, the
oil temperature will be higher than normal when the
If the bypass valve for the oil filter is held in the open englnc is operated. The oil pressure of the engine will
position (unseated) because the oil filter has a restric not get low just because the oil cooler has a restriction.
tion. a reduction in oil pressure can result. To correct
this problem, remove and clean the bypass valve and Also check the oil cooler bypass valve to see if it is
bypass valve bore. Install a new Caterpillar oil filter to held In the open position (unseated). This condition
be sure that no more debris makes the bypass valve stay will let the oil through the valve instead of the oil
open. cooler. and oil temperature will increase.

66
COOLING SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

COOLING SYSTEM

Thi~ engine has a pressure type cooling system. A Test Tools for Cooling System
pressure type cooling system gives two advantages.
Tools Needed:
The first advantage is that the cooling system can have 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.
safe operation at a temperature that is higher than the 9S7373 Air Meter Group.
normal boiling (stcam) point of water. Thc second 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group.
advantage is that this type system prevents cavitation 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.
(low pressure bubbles suddenly made In liquids by
The 959102 Thermistor Thermometer Group IS used
mechanical forces) In the water pump. With this type
In the dIagnOSIs of overheating (engine hotter than
system. It is more difficult for an air or steam pocket to
normal) or overcool Ing (engine cooler than normal)
be made in the cool ing system.
problems. ThIS group can he used to check tempera
The cause for Increased engine temperature IS gener tures In several different parts of the cooling system.
ally because regular Inspections of the cooling system The testing procedure IS in 5peclal Instruction Form
were not made. Make a visual Inspection of the cooling No. 5MH571-l-0.
system before a test IS made with test equipment.

VISUAL INSPECTION OF THE


COOLING SYSTEM
I. Check coolant level In the cooling system.

2. Look for leaks in the system.


3, Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that ellr flow
through the radiator does not have a restnctlOn.

4. Inspect the drive belts for the fan.


S. Check for damage to the fan blades.

6. Look for aIr or combustion gas In the cooling


system.

7. Inspect the filler cap and the surface that seals 959102 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP
the cap. This surface must be clean.

The 957373 Air MeterGroup IS used to check the air


TESTING THE COOLING SYSTEM flow through the radiator core. The test procedure IS In
Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7063.
Remember that temperature and pressure work to
gether. When a diagnosis is made of a cooling system
problem, temperature and pressure must both be
13671XI
checked. Cooling system pressure will have an effect
on cooling system temperatures. For an example, look
at the chart to see the effect of pressure and height
above sea level on the boiling (steam) point of water.
A28417-2Xl COOLI NG SYSTEM PRESSURE

AlT nUDE
0 25 40 55 70 85 95 k Pa
METERS FEET
0
4 6 8 10 12 14 PSI
4300 14.000

3700 12,000

3000 10,000

2400 8,000

1800 6,000

1200 4,000

600 2,000
SEA LEVEL 0
82
88 93 99 104 121 "C
180
190 200 210 220 250' F 957373 AIR METER GROUP
BOILING POINT OF WATER

67
----------------------~-----

COOLING SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

The 1P5500 Portahle Phototach Group is used to The 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump
check the tan spccd. The testIng procedure IS In Special Group is used to test pressure relief valves and to
InstructlOn FOnll No. SMHS70IS. pressure check the cooling system for leaks.

1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP

9S8140 COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURIZING


PUMP GROUP
Filler Cap and Pressure Relief Valve
A. Release valve. B. Adapter. C. Hose.

Use the procedure that follows to pressure check the


cooling system.

1. Make sure the coolant level is above the top of the


radiator core.

2. Install and tIghten the filler cap .

.3. Remove hose (C) from adapter (8).

4. Remove the pressure test plug from the radiator


top tank.

S. Install the end of hose (C) In the hole for the


pressure test plug as shown.

TYPICAL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE SYSTEM


1. Pressure relief valve. 2. Stud for filler cap.

One cause for a pressure loss In the cool ing system


can be a bad seal on the radiator filler cap.

. A WARNING

A77381X1
If the engine has been opera~ed and the coolant
is hot, loosen the filler cap slowly and let the
9S8140 PUMP GROUP INSTALLED
pressure out of the cooling system, then re (Typical Example)
move the filler cap.
6. Operate the pump until the pointer on the
pressure gauge no longer increases. The highest
Inspect the filler cap carefully. Look for damage to
pressure indication on the gauge is the point
the seal or to the surface that seals. Any foreign materi
that the relief valve opens. The correct pres
al or deposits on the cap, seal or surface that seals, must
sure that makes the relief valve open is 105 to
be removed.
125 kPa (IS to 18 psi).

68

I
-- -~=-e-.:::-=:==

COOLING SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

7. If the reI ief valve does not open within pressure 11. Remove hose (C) from radiator test pressure
specification, replacement of the relief valve is location.
necessary.
12. Install pi ug in pressure test location.
8. If the relief valve is within specifications, check
the radiator for outside leakage. Water Temperature RegUlators
9. Check all connections and hoses of the cooling I. Remove the regulator from the engine .
system for oLltside leakage.
2. Heat water in a pan until the temperature is

.. 10. I I' you do not see any outside leakage and the
pressure reading on the.gauge is still the same after
5 minutes, the radiator and cooling system does
92 C (197 F). M ave the water around in the
pan to make it all the same temperature.

not have leakage. If the reading on the gauge goes 3. Hang the regulator in the pan of water. The reg
down and you do not see any outside leakage, ulator must be below the sUltace of the water and it
there is leakage on the inside of the cooling sys must be away from the sides and bottom of the
tem. Make repairs as necessary. pan.
.+. Keep the water at the correct temperature for 10
. & WARNING minutes.
5. After ten minutes, remove the regulator and
If a pressure indication is shown on the gauge, immediately measure the distance the regulator
be sure to push release valve (A) to release all has opened. The distance must be a minimum
pressure in the system before removal of hose of 9.53 mm (.375 in.).
(e) from radiator.
6. If the distance is less than 9.53 mm (.375 in.).
make a replacement of the regulator.

V-BELT TENSION CHART


BELT TENSION BELT TENSION
WIDTH TOP "INITIAL" "USED"
BELT SIZE WIDTH OF PULLEY BORROUGHS GAUGE NUMBERS
BELT TOP GROOVE GAUGE READING GAUGE READING
mm in. mm in. N lb. N lb. OLD GAUGE NO. NEW GAUGE NO.
3/8 10.72 .422 9.65 .380 445 22 100 5 400 22 90 5 BT-33-73F BT-33-95
1/2 13.89 .547 12.70 .500 534 22 120 5 400 44 90 10 BT-33-96-4-16 BT-33-95
5V 15.88 .625 15.24 .600 534 22 120 5 400 44 90 10 BT-33-72-4-15 BT-33-72C
11/16 17.48 .688 15.88 .625 534 22 120 5 400 44 90 10 BT-33-72-4-15 BT-33-72C
3/4 19.05 .750 17.53 .690 534 22 120 5 400 44 90 10 BT-33-72-4-15 BT-33-72C
15/16 23.83 .938 22.30 .878 534 22 120 5 400 44 90 10 BT-33-72-4-15 BT-33-72C
MEASURE TENSION OF BELT FARTHEST FROM THE ENGINE
"INITIAL" BELT TENSION is for a new belt.
"USED" BELT TENSION is for a belt which has more than 30 minutes of operation at rated speed of engine. A10232-1 X1

69

I
BASIC BLOCK TESTING AND ADJUSTING

BASIC BLOCK

PISTON RINGS Main bearings are available with a larger out


side diameter than the original size bearings. These
Thh en~Ine ha" pl"ton ~rooves and rin~" of the bearings are for cylinder blocks that have had the
K EYSTO~E (taper) desi~n. A special 5P4812 Piston bore for the main bearings "bored" (made larger
RlI1~ Grome Gau!!e IS availahle to check the top two than the original size). The size available is 0.64
rIn~~ ~rom es In the ~pi"ton. For in"truct ions on use of the mm (.025 in.) larger outside diameter than the
!!au~e. "ee the GUIDELINE FOR REUSABLE original size bearings.
PARTS: PISTO~S AND CYLINDER LINERS,
Form No. SEBF800 I. CYLINDER BLOCK
The bore in the block for main bearings can be
checked with the main bearing caps installed with
out bearings. Tighten the nuts that hold the caps
to the torque shown in the SPECIFICATIONS.
Alignment error in the bores must not be more than
0.08 mm (.003 in.). Special Instruction Form No.
S M H S7606 gives instructions for the use of I P4000
Line Boring Tool Group for alignment of the main
bearing bores. The I P3537 Dial Bore Gauge Group
can be used to check the size of the bores. Special
Instruction Form No. G M G00981 is with the group.
A22779-1Xl

5P4812 PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE

CONNECTING RODS AND PISTONS


Use the 7MJ978 Piston Ring Expander to remove or
in"tall piston rings.
U"e the 5P3526 Piston Ring Compre""or to install
pi"ton" into cylinder hlock.
TI~hten the connecting rod nuts in the step sequence
that follow,,:
1P3537 DIAL BORE GAUGE GROUP
1. Put en~ine
oil on bolt thread" and contact surfaces
of nut and cap.
2. Tighten all nuts to 80 5 Nm (60 4 lb. ft.).
J. Put a mark on each nut and end of bolt. PROJECTION OF CYLINDER LINER
4. Tighten each nut ]20 from the mark. Tools Needed:
8B7548 Push-Puller.
The connecting rod bearings fit tightly in the bore in Three 3H465 Plates.

the rod. If bearing joint'> or backs are worn (fretted), 1P2396 Puller Plate.

check bore size. This can be an indication of wear Two 3/4 in. 16 NF Bolts, 7 in. (177.8 mm) long.

Four 3/4 in. 16 NF Bolts, 3 in. (76.2 mm) long.

because of a loose fit. Eight 2F126 Seals (Copper Washers).

1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group.

8S3140 Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool

Arrangement.
CONNECTING ROD AND MAIN BEARINGS
Check liner projection ahove top plate as follows:
Connecting rod bearings are available with 0.64
mm (.025 in.) and 1.27 mm (.050 in.) smaller inside I. Make certain that top plate (4) and the cylinder
diameter than the original size bearings. These liner flange are clean. Install a new top plate
bearings are for crankshafts that have been gasket, but do not install liner seals when this
"ground" (made smaller than the original size). check is made.

70
BASIC BLOCK TESTING AND ADJUSTING

:). Use a IP55l 0 Liner Projection Tool Group to


2 measure liner projection. Special Instruction
Form No. GMG00623 is with the tool group.

L 6. To Lero dial indicator (5), use the back of IP5507


Gauge with dial indicator (5) mounted in IP2402
Gauge Body (7),
7. Liner projection must be 0.05 to 0.20 mm
(,002 to .008 in.) (make the measurement to the
top of the liner flange, not the inner ring). The
maximum differential between high and low
measurements made at four places around
4 each liner is 0.05 mm (.002 in.). The average
HOLDING TOP PLATE TO CYLINDER BLOCK projection of liners next to each other must
(Typical Example) not be more than 0.05 mm (.002 in.). The maxi
1. 3H465 Plate. 2. 1P2396 Puller Plate. 3. 2F126 Seals m urn difference in t he average projection of
(copper washers). 4. Top plate.
the cylinder liners under each cylinder head
2. Use 3/4-16 NF bolts. 76.2 mm (3 in.) long, must not be more than 0.08 mm (.003 in.).
with two 2F 126 Seals (3) on each bolt to hold
the top plate (4) to the cylinder block. Install NOTE: If liner projection changes from point to point
two bolts with seals (3) on each side of the cyl around the liner. turn the liner to a new position within
linder liner. Tighten the bolts evenly, in four the bore. If still not within specifications, move liner to
st e p s; I4 N -m (I 0 lb. f1. ), 35 ~ -m (25 lb. ft.), a different bore.
70 N-m (50 lb. 1'1.) and then to 95 1\'-01 (70
NOTE: When liner projection is correct. put a tempo
lb. ft.).
rary mark on the Iiner and top plate so when seals and
NOTE: To keep installation and removal of bolts and band are installed, the liner can be installed in the
washers to a minimum as each liner is checked, install correct position.
two bolts with washers on each side of each cylinder

L liner along the complete length of the top plate.


3. Use a I P2396 Puller Plate (2), three 3H465
The contact face of the cyl inder block can be ma
chined with usc orthe 853140 Cylinder Block Counter
boring Tool Arrangement to adjust liner projection.
Plates (I), 8B7548 Push-Puller (6), and two
3/4-16 NF bolts, 177.8 mm (7 in.) long to hold Special Instruction Form No. FM05522R is part of the
cylinder block counterboring tool arrangement and
the liner down.
gives tool arrangement and information to lise the too!'
4. Tighten the bolts evenly in four steps: 7 N-m
(5 lb. ft.), 20 N-m (15 lb. ft.), 35 N-m (25 lb. The counterbore depth has a range from a mini
ft.), and then to 70-01 (50 lb. ft.). Distance from mum of 0.76 mm (.030 in.) to a maximum of 1.14
bottom edge of XB7548 Push-Puller (6) to top mm (.045 in.). Put 7.\17260 Liquid Gasket on the
plate must be the same on both sides of cylin top and bottom face of a 0.76 mm (.030 in.) shim,
der liner. and install the shim directly below the liner flange.
If it is necessry to use more than one shim, the other
6 shims must be installed under the 0.760101 (.030 in.)
shim. Before installation. put 7~17260 Liquid
Gasket on only the bottom face of the bottom shim,
and the top face of the top lO.76 mm (.030 in.)] shim.

The shims that foll(HV are available for the adjust


ment of the liner projection:

SHIM THICKNESS, COLOR CODE AND PART NUMBER

0.18 mm 0.20 mm 0.23 mm 0.38 mm 0.76 mm


19737-1Xl II (.007 in.) (008 in.) (.009 in.) (.015 in.) (.030 in.)
MEASURING LINER HEIGHT PROJECTION
(Typical Example) BLACK RED GREEN BROWN BLUE
5. Dial indicator. 6. 8B7548 Push-Puller. 7.1 P2402 Gauge 5S8138 5S8139 5S8140 5S8141 5S8142
Body.

71
,....
BASIC BLOCK TESTING AND ADJUSTING

FLYWHEEL AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 4. The difference between lower and higher meas
urements taken at all four points must not be
Tools Needed:
8S2328 Dial Indicator Group.
more than 0.30 mm (.012 in.), which is the
maximum permissible face runout (axial eccen
Face Run Out (axial eccentricity) of tricity) of the flywheel housing.
the Flywheel Housing
[r any method other than given here IS used, always Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of
rCl1ll'mher beanng clearance must be removed to get the Flywheel Housing
correct measurements.
I. Fa"ten the dIal Indicator as shown so the anvil of
the InG Icator will touch the bore of the flywheel
hou"Ing.

8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

I. Fasten a dial Indicator to the crankshaft flange so


the anvil of the indicator will touch the face of the
flywheel housing. 8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

, \Vith the Glal indicator in position at (C), adjust


the dIal indicator to "0" (zero). Push the crank
"haft up agaInst the top of the bearing. Write the
mea~urement for bearing clearance on line 1 in
column (Cl.
C (TOP)

o B

CHECKING FACE RLiNOUT OF THE

FLYWHEEL HOUSING

A. Bottom. B. Right side. C. Top. D. Left side.

2. Put a force on the crankshaft toward the rear


before the indicator is read at each point.
AI 02.33X 1 A (BOTTOM)
3. With dial indicator set at 0.00 mm (.000 in.)
CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF
at location (A), turn the crankshaft and read THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING
the indicator at locations (B), (C) and (0).

72
BASIC BLOCK TESTING AND ADJUSTING

NOTE: Write the dial indicator measurements 10. On the graph for total eccentricity find the point of
with their positive (+) and negative (-) nota intersection of the I ines for \'ertlcal eccentricity
tion (signs). This notation is necessary for and horizontal eccentricity.
making the calculations in the chart correctly.
I I. I I' the point of intersection IS in the range marked
, 01\ Ide the measurement from Step 2 by 2. Write "Acceptable", the bore is in al ignment. II' the
this number on Iine I in columns (B) & (0). point of intersection is in the range marked" Not
Acceptable", the llywheel housll1g must be
-+. Tum the crankshaft to put the dial indicator at (A).
changed.
Adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero).

::;. Tum the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the


Face Runout (axial eccentricity)
dial indicator at (B l. Write the measurement in the
of the Flywheel
chart.
I. Install the dial indicator as shown. Always put a
6. Tum the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the
force on the crankshaft in the same direction he
dial indicator at (C). Write the measurement in the
fore the indicator is read so the crank~haft end
chart.
clearance (movement) is always removed.
7. Tum the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the
2. Set the dial indicator to read 0.00 mm (.000 in.).
dial indicator at (0). Write the measurement in the
chart. J. Tum the flywheel and read the indicator every
90.
CHART FOR DIAL INDICATOR MEASUREMENTS

Position of 4. The difference between the lower and higher


dial indicator measurements taken at all four points must
line not be more than 0.43 mm (.0 17 in.), which is
No. A B C 0
the maximum permissible face runout (axial
Correction for bearing clearance I 0 eccentricity) of the flywheel.
Dial I ndicator Reading II 0
Total of Line 1 & 2 III 0 "" " ""

"Total Vertical eccentricity (out of round)


"Subtract the smaller No. from the larger No. The difference is
J'/~ ~
/ lot 1/ /~
the total horizontal eccentricity
At0234X t ,

8. Add lines I & II by columns. !


II
Iii
////
/I~/l
./
9. Subtract the smaller number from the larger num
ber in line III in columns (B) & (0). The result is
the horizontal eccentricity (out of round). Line Ill,
column (C) is the vertical eccentricity. \, \i\ \\i. i,\ " \

iI
in
0.30

(:-.012)

0.25

Al0235-1Xl

7491ZXI
\~\\\\~\~~~ \~~ .
I (.0101

CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL


\ 0.20

(.008)

J 0.15
(.0061

i, 0.10
(.004)

0.05
(.002)

0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 mm


(i.002) (i.0041 (i.006) (i.008) (2:,010) (i.0121 in

GRAPH FOR TOTAL ECCENTRICITY

73
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

The engine electrical system on this machine is Hookup


designed to be tested from a single location with
1. Connect the Analyzer to the Diagnostic Con
no need to remove sheet metal or covers. An elec
nector located under the dash.
trical connection called the Diagnostic Connector
is located under the dash in the cab. The Diagnos
CAUTION

tic Connector is connected to 12 major components


Remove the ether canister.

or circuits of the engine starting and charging


system since this machine has only one starter.
2. Put the Key Start Switch in the ON position.
3. All accessories must be OFF (lights. heater
fan. etc.).
4. The engine must be shut off to start the test.

Operation
Test Step A-Hookup - Make a comparison
between the lamps and the lamp normal opera
tion chart next to them. If all lamp indications
are the same as shown on the chart. put the Key
Start Switch in the OFF position. This should
cause the MAIN RELAY AND BREAKER
DIAGNOSTIC CONNECTOR lamp to come ON. Failure to do so is an indica
tion of a defect in the R ELA Y and / or BREA K
ER. Correct the defect(s). test again and go on
TESTING THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM to next step. Put the Key Start Switch back in
Tools Needed: the ON position. If lamp indications are different
6V2150 Starting/Charging Analyzer Group than shown on the chart. refer to Speciallnstruc
NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form tion Form "lo. SE HS7768. Correct defects. test
again and then go to next step.
No. SEHS7768. and to the instructions inside the
cover of the Analyzer Group when using the 6V2150 Test Step B-Crank - Crank the engine with
Starting/ Charging Analyzer Group. the fuel in the "shut off' position. Do not start
the engine. Do not use start aid. If all lamp in
dications are the same as shown on the chart,
go to Test Step C. If lamp indications are dif
ferent than shown, refer to Special Instruction
Form 1\0. SEHS7768. Correct defects. test again
and go to next step.
Test Step C-Start Aid - Do not start the
engine. Push and hold the Start Aid Switch.
If all lamp indications are the same as shown
on the chart. go to Test Step D. If lamp indica
tions are different than shown. refer to Special
Instruction Form No. SEHS7768. Correct de
fects. test again and go to next step.
6V2150 STARTING/CHARGING ANALYZER GROUP
Test Step D-Hi Idle - Install ether canister.
1. 6V3072 Case. 2. 6V3112 Base. 3. 6V4174 Packing Set. Start the engine and run at high idle for a mini
4. 4V3178 Cable Assembly.
mum of two minutes. If all lamp indications are
The following instructions should be used to the same as shown on the chart. turn on all pos
hookup and operate the ANALYZER on this sible electrical accessories: if lamp indications
machine. are still the same as shown in the chart, the start
ing and charging system is within specifications.
NOTE: Before you hookup the Analyzer. be sure If the lamp indications are different than shown,
the batteries are not discharged. see the topic. refer to Special Instruction Form No. SEH S
BATTERY. 7768. Correct defects and test again.

74
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM COMPONENTS dition will show 4.5V; an 8V battery will show 6V;
a 12V battery will show 9V. Each cell of a battery
Battery
in good condition must show 1.6 V on either a 6,
Tools Needed: 8 or 12V battery.
9S1990 or 1P7400 Battery Charger-Tester
Special Instruction Form No. SE HS6891 is with
Before any testing is done on the electrical sys the 9S 1990 Charger Tester and gives the battery
tem, the batteries should be checked for good con testing proced ure.
nections and at least 75% charge in the batteries.
Alternator
The battery circuit is an electrical load on the
charging unit. The load is variable because of the No adjustment can be made to change the rate
condition of the charge in the battery. Damage to of charge on this alternator regulator. If rate of
the charging unit will result if the connections (either charge is not correct, a replacement of regulator
IS necessary.
positive or negative) between the battery and charg
ing unit are broken while the charging unit is in
operation. This is because the battery load is lost
and there is an increase in charging voltage. High
voltage will damage, not only the charging unit,
but also the regulator and other electrical com
ponents.

& WARNING
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or
battery circuit cable from battery when the
charging unit is operated. A spark can cause
an explosion from the flammable vapor mix
'lure of hydrogen and oxygen that is released

- from the electrolyte through the battery out


lets. Injury to personnel can be the result.

6N9294 ALTERNATOR

Alternator Pulley Nut Tightening


Tighten nut that holds the pulley to a torque of
100 7 N em (75 5 lb. ft.) with the tools shown.

951990 BATTERY CHARGER-TESTER

Load test a battery that does not hold a charge


when in use. To do this, put a resistance across
the main connections (terminals) of the battery.
for a 6, 8 or 12V battery, use a test load of three
times the ampere/ hour rating (the maximum test 32425X1

load on any battery is 500 amperes). Let the test ALTERNATOR PULLEY INSTALLATION
load remove the charge (discharge) of the battery
1. 8S1588 Adapter (112" female to 3/8" male). 2.8S1590
for 15 seconds and, with the test load still applied, Socket (5/16" with 3/8" drive). 3. 1P2977 Tool Group.
test the battery voltage. A 6V battery in good con- 8H8555 Socket (15/16" with 1/2" drive) not shown.

75
,

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM TESTING AND ADJUSTING

Starter I. Install the solenoid without connector ( I) from


the MOTOR connection (terminal) on solenoid
A starter motor that operates too slow can have
to the motor.
an overload because of too much friction in the
engine being started. Slow operation of the starter 2. Connect a battery, of the same voltage a~ the
motor can also be caused by a short circuit. loose solenoid, to the tcrminal (2) marked S\V.
connections and / or dirt in the starter motor.
3. Connect the other side of battery to ground
To test for correct output of starter motors and terminal (3).
starter solenoids, make reference to SPECI Fl
4. Connect for a moment, a wire from the sole
CATIONS.
noid connection (terminal) marked M OTO R
to the ground connection (tcrminal). The
Pinion Clearance Adjustment
pinion will shift to crank position and \\ ill
When the solenoid is installed, make an adjust stay there until the battery is disconnected.
ment of the pinion clcarance. The adjustment can
be made with the starter motor removed. 4

2
5

PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT


4. Shaft nut. 5. Pinion. 6. Pinion clearance.

CONNECTION FOR CHECKING PINION CLEARANCE 5. Push the pinion toward commutator end to
1. Connector from MOTOR terminal on solenoid to motor.
remove free movement.
2. SW terminal. 3. Ground terminal.
6. Pinion clearance (6) must be 9.10101 (.36 in.).
7. To adjust pinion clearance, remoye plug and
turn nut (4).

Caterpillar, Cat and rn are Trademarks of Caterpillar Tractor Co.

CATERPILLAR FUNDAMENTAL ENGLISH MAY 1981

FORM NO SENR2333 PRINTED IN U.S.A.

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