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The History of Israel

This is a summary of the history of Israel and the descendants of Abraham. The dates that are used
up to 722 BCE are a result of our own chronology.

Abraham (2147 BC). About 430 years after the flood, God called Abraham out of Ur of the
Chaldees (modern day Iraq). He was a Hebrew (Haibru) who was to be the father of a nation
who would serve God. As the promise lingered and Abraham remained childless, he had a son,
Ishmael, by the maid of his wife Sarah.
Ishmael became the father of the Arab nations east of Israel.
Abraham's nephew, Lot, became the father of the nation of Moab and Ammonites (Jordan).
Isaac (2122 BC). Abraham and Sarah eventually had the promised child, Isaac, when he was
100 and she was 90.
Jacob and Esau. Isaac had twin sons Esau and Jacob. Jacob tricked Esau into giving up the
birthright and he became the heir of the promise.
Esau became the father of the Edomites (Idumeans) who lived in the south east of Israel.
The Twelve Tribes. Jacob had twelve sons by four women. He received the name, Israel before
the last son was born.
Joseph. The ten older boys sold their brother Joseph into slavery. He was carried away to Egypt
where He became governor 13 years later.
Slavery in Egypt (400-430 Years). Famine caused the sons to go to Egypt for food. When they
finally recognized their brother and went back to their father, Israel migrated to Egypt with about
70 members of the tribe as honored guests because Joseph was the governor of Egypt. The
Israelites lived in Egypt until a new Pharoah made them slaves. Page 1 of 104

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Exodus (1502-1462 BC). Moses led them from Egypt to Canaan on a journey that took 40 years
and the lives of all the original people except two.
Canaan: The Promised Land (1462 BC). Joshua led them across the Jordan into the Promised
Land and helped them to conquer many of the nations.
Jerusalem (1000 BC). David captured the city from the Jebusites and made it the capital of
Israel. The city has been captured, destroyed and rebuilt about 27 times.
The Temple.
Mishkan (1500 BC). 13 high priests served in this portable temple over 490 years. This
temple actually existed in two phases according to the Jews.
Desert (Wooden Structure). It served for 39-40 years in the desert and 14 years in the
Promised Land in Gilgal.
Shiloh (Stone Structure). A stone structure of the same dimensions replaced the wood,
but it used the same furniture and roof for 369 years. After Eli died it was set up in Nov for
13 years. After Samuel's death it was set up in Giv'on for 44 years.
Solomon's Temple (950 BC). Solomon built the first permanent temple. 18 high priests
served over 410 years. It was destroyed by Babylon in 586 BC (587 BCE) on Tisha b'Av
(9th of Av) by Nebuchadnezzar II (2 Kings 25). The Babylonians breached the walls of the
city on Tammuz 17.
Second Temple (515-492 BC) (Herod's Temple). 300 high priests served over 420 years,
most served less than a year. Tradition states that many died during the Yom Kippur
services. This temple was built by Zerubabbel and Joshua the high priest after they
returned from Babylon.
Herod the Great remodeled the temple from 20 BC - 63 AD. Herod also built the town of
Caesarea and the fortress of Masada, which included a palace. The second temple was
destroyed by the Romans on 10 August 70 AD (9th of Av) three weeks after the walls of
Jerusalem were breached by Titus on Tammuz 17.
Dome of The Rock (681-692) and the Al-Aqsa Mosque (715). The Arabs build a temple
compound on top of the ruined Jewish temple mount. It is supposed to be the spot where
Muhammad made a night ride on a white stallion to heaven with the angel Gabriel.
Future. In 1967, Jerusalem and the Temple Mount returned to Jewish sovereignty after the
six day war. The muslim buildings occupy the site.
Priests. The priesthood belonged to the tribe of Levi and the children of Aaron.
Judges (440 years). After the exodus, the judges ruled until the people demanded a king.
Kings. King Saul was from the tribe of Benjamin and then King David and the line of
Judah became the rulers forever.
Hasmoneans. After the Maccabean revolt against the Greeks, the priests took over the
office of kings.
Herodians. The Romans allowed the Idumeans to rule Israel.
The Division of the Kingdom (922 BC). The kingdom was divided between Rehoboam (Judah)
and Jeroboam (Israel) with the capital at Shechem.
Assyria Captivity of Israel and Samaria (Northern Tribes)
Exodus David Kingdom
Divided Babylon Persia Greece Rome Britain State of
(922 BC) Israel
(Mishkan) Captivity of Judah (Southern Tribes) (1948)
13 High Priests 18 High Priests (410 Years) 300 High Priests (420 Years) Sanhedrin, Nasi
(490 Years) (Solomon's Temple) (Second Temple) and Geon Yaacov
Assyrian Captivity of the Northern Kingdom (721 BC or 722 BCE).
The ten northern tribes were conquered by Assyria and assimilated. The sad truth may be
that the Palestinians, Lebanese, Syrians and people in the northern region and western Jordan
may be related to the Samaritans and the ten lost tribes.
Foreign Occupation of the Southern Kingdom (597). The southern tribes of Judah and
Benjamin were finally conquered.
Babylon (609-539). Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon conquered Judea. Page 2 of 104

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Medo-Persia (539-334). Cyrus of Persia conquered Judea.

Greece (334-197). Alexander the Great of Greece conquered Judea.
Rome (197 BC-636 AD). Rome controlled or occupied the region.
Roman Occupation (63 BC-636 AD). Rome occupied Judea.
Christian (27-311). The baptism of Jesus to the conversion of Emperor Constantine.
Jewish Revolts (70 AD-132 AD). There were two major revolts against Rome in
First Revolt (66-73 AD) Emperors Vespasian and Titus. The second temple was
completely destroyed after the first revolt (70 AD) by general Titus. The trees were
cut down and the land was salted in 71 AD.
In 66 AD the Romans robbed the temple treasury and the Jews revolted for 3.5
years. The first revolt ended 3.5 years later in 73 AD when the fortress of Masada
was destroyed by the Romans who took the 10,000 soldiers of the tenth legion to
build a huge siege ramp just to destroy 900 rebellious Jewish zealots.
They committed suicide rather than be captured. Each man killed his family, then
one killed the rest before killing himself.
Kitos War (115-117) Emperor Trajan. Hundreds of thousands were killed in the
Jewish communities of Cyprus, Cyrene (Libya), Aegipta (Egypt) and Mesopotamia
(Syria and Iraq) at war. Pagan temples and the tomb of Pompey were destroyed.
Bar Kochba Revolt (132-135 AD) Emperor Hadrian. The city of Jerusalem was
destroyed after the second major revolt (132-135 AD). Then the people were exiled
in 136 AD. Judea was renamed Palestine and the land was completely ploughed
Byzantine Rule (313-636). In 306, the capital was moved to Byzantium (Constantinople).
Christianity became the official religion with the Edict of Milan (313). After this the Jews
were under oppressive laws that restricted their growth.
Islamic Rule (610-1920). The Roman and Parthian empires are exhausted from war and the
Muslim Arabs take over. Islamic forces conquer Jerusalem under caliph Omar Ibn Al-Khattab.
200 Jewish families return.
Crusades (1096-1291). Christian Europe attempts to take the Holy Land from Muslims and
attacks Jews in the process.
Mamluk Rule (1291-1516). Turan Shah, an Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt, is murdered and
replaced by his Mamluk slave general Aibek, who founded the Mamluk dynasty.
Ottoman Rule (1500-1920). Selim the Cruel captured Jerusalem after the Ottoman army
defeated the Mamluks at Marj-Dabik in northern Syria.
European Jews.
Sephardim. Jews in Spain.
Ashkenaz (People from a Distant Land). In the ninth century Jews moved to France
Germany, Britain by invitation.
Eastern Europe. After the eleventh century, following Anti-semitism that intensified with
the crusades and expulsions in 1290, Ashkenazi Jews emigrated east to Poland, Lithuania
and Russia between the fourteenth to sixteenth century at the invitation of the Polish
British (1918-1948). The British conquered Egypt in 1882 and became a power in the region
when they captured Jerusalem from the Turks under the command of General Allenby in 1917.
Uganda Scheme (1903). The British offer the Jews a homeland in Uganda.
McMahon-Hussein Correspondence (1915-16). The exchange of letters between the
British high commissioner in Egypt and the Sharif of Mecca about the future political status
of the lands under the Ottoman Empire. Since the Ottoman empire was aligned with
Germany, it encouraged the Arabs to revolt in June 1916 and promised them
independence and sovereign unity as a nation without an independent Jewish state.
Sykes-Picot Agreement (May 1916). While promising the Arabs independence, France
and Britain were planning to place the region under their own jurisdiction. There was a Page 3 of 104

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secret agreement between Britain, France and Russia to divide the areas of the Ottoman
Empire after the eventual defeat of the Turks. France controlled Syria and Lebanon. Great
Britain controlled Iraq, Palestine and Transjordan. Russia controlled the Turkish Straits
with guaranteed access for its Black Sea ports to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Balfour Declaration (1917). It favors a Jewish-Palestinian state.
Palestinian Mandate (1922). The League of Nations granted the British a mandate to
establish the land of Israel in Palestine.
Arab Revolt (1936-39 AD). British and Jewish targets are attacked.
Two State Solution (1937). The Peel Committee recommends the partition of the country
between Arabs and Jews with Jerusalem to be left under the permanent control of the
British Mandate.
One State Solution (1939). British issue a White Paper that rejects the findings of the
Peel Committee and recommends a one state solution. They severely restrict Jewish
immigration and the land purchase. Between 1940-1944, it limited Jewish immigrants to
10,000 each year and 25,000 for any emergency. Obviously this would not address the
genocidal crisis in Nazi Europe.
Holocaust and World War 2 (1938-1945). Adolph Hitler and the Nazi party of Germany tried to
exterminate the Jews during World War 2. One third of the global Jewish population was killed, 6
million people including 1.5 million children.
State of Israel (1948). On May 14, a permanent homeland was arranged for the Jews and the
modern state of Israel was born.
On May 15, they were attacked by the combined Arab armies of Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon
and Iraq. The Arab states convince the Palestinians to leave temporarily so that they can
annhilate the Jews. Their descendants still live in ghettos in these countries without any rights or
In the U.N. truce agreement in July, Jerusalem is divided between Israel in West Jerusalem, and
Jordan in the Eastern part of the city including the Temple Mount and the Western Wall.
Jerusalem United (The Six Day War of 1967). Nasser of Egypt uses 100,000 troops to
remove U.N. peacekeepers from the Sinai peninsula and then blockades the strait of Tiran. He
then signs a military agreement with king Hussein of Jordan. In a preemptive strike, Israel
captured Sinai, West Bank, Golan Heights and East Jerusalem after the six day war in 1967 and
controls Jerusalem and the Temple mount.
Khartoum Conference (The Three No Response). Arabs decide not to negotiate peace. No
negotiations, No reconciliation and No recognition of Israel.
Yom Kippur War (1973). Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack on October 6.
Camp David (1977). On December 20, President Sadat of Egypt goes to Jerusalem to offer
peace in exchange for withdrawal from the Sinai peninsula. He signs a peace treaty a year later
at Camp David and is assassinated in 1981.
Oslo Peace Accords (1993 AD). September 13. Israel and PLO sign the Oslo peace accords to
negotiate the Palestinian statehood, withdrawal from West Bank and Gaza, but the status of
Jerusalem will be determined later.
New Jerusalem (Future). The nation of Israel is the model of the people of God who will live
here forever. The city will be located on the Mount of Olives. The future temple will be the
people, not a building. We will inherit houses that we did not build because God builds the
homes for us.

A Jewish Homeland Control Jerusalem History

So the Jews have lived in the land since 1500 BC, Capital (1000 BCE). David captures Jerusalem.
occupying a region as far north as Lebanon and across Israel First Temple (950 BCE). Solomon builds it.
Kingdom Divided (924 BCE). Capital of Judah.
the Jordan river over 40 miles within the border of Babylon (586 BCE). Temple destroyed, exiled.
Jordan down to the borders of Egypt in the south. A Foreign
Persia (539 BCE). Jews and temple treasures.
series of foreign occupation, attempts at genocide, Second Temple (515-492 BCE). Zerubabbel.
Walls (445 BCE). Nehemiah rebuilds in 52 days.
exiles and expulsions have scattered them across the
Ptolemies and Seleucids fight over Jerusalem for
globe and their culture has survived assimilation despite Page 4 of 104
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the incredible odds against them. Throughout this they 125 years after the death of Alexander in 323 BCE.
Greeks (333 BCE). Alexander conquers.
have always retained a presence in the land, until the Ptolemy (323 BCE). Ptolemy takes Egypt.
were about one third of the population when the state of Greek Ptolemy (320 BCE). Ptolemy I takes Jerusalem.
Seleucid (198 BCE). Antiochus III takes over.
Israel was created. (167 BCE). Antiochus IV religious persecution.
On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram Hasmonean Period (164 BCE). Maccabeans.
saying, "To your descendants I will give this land, from Independence. After 500 years the Jews rule
Jerusalem and Judea for the next 80 years.
the river of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Roman (63 BCE). Pompey captures Jerusalem.
Euphrates." (Genesis 15: 18) (40 BCE). The Persians (Parthians) help the
The descendants of Abram were Isaac and Ishmael and Hasmonean king Antigonus to take Jerusalem back
from the Romans.
sons of another concubine, Keturah. Isaac fathered (37 BCE). Herod the Great is appointed by Rome.
Jacob (Israel) and Esau. Abraham gave all the children (26 AD). Herod rebuilds the temple.
Rome (70 AD). Titus destroys the temple.
except Isaac, the land to the east of Israel (Genesis 16: (135 AD). Hadrian exiles Jews from Jerusalem
12 and Genesis 25: 5-6). Ishmael and Esau live east of and renames it Aelia Capitolina.
Israel as far as the Euphrates (Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, (614 AD). Persians take Jerusalem from
northern Saudi Arabia and southern Iraq). (620 AD). Byzantine emperor Heraclius recaptures
Israel's inheritance was from the Mediterranean to east Jerusalem from Persians.
of the Jordan including the Arnon valley, the Arabah Islamic Conquest (638 AD). Islam spreads
across the region and occupies Palestine (Judea).
and mount Hermon, north in Lebanon as far as Sidon (692 AD). Dome of Rock is built by Caliph Abdel-
and south to the river of Egypt (Joshua 12-13). Malik on the top of the ruins of the Jewish Temple.
(1070 AD). Seljuk Turks conquer Fatimids.
Crusades (1099-1291 AD). The Holy Roman
Scattering (Diaspora). Many events caused the empire orders crusades to liberate Jerusalem.
scattering of the Jews throughout the world. Battle of Hattin (1187 AD). Saladin defeats the
Crusaders. Jews settle in Jerusalem.
Assyrian Invasion (722 BCE). Ten tribes (1229 AD). After the sixth crusade Muslims
were taken away and absorbed into the retained the Temple Mount and Christians have
Assyrian empire. Since they were generally access to their holy sites.
Islam (1244 AD). Jerusalem is sacked by Turks.
not obedient to the laws, their customs may Mamluk Dynasty (1250 AD). Founded by a slave
be sightly different. At the time of Christ, who murdered the sultan.
Damascus Rules (1310 AD). Jewish Quarter.
descendants of these Israelites were called Spanish Inquisition (1492 AD). Spain defeats the
Samaritans and they hated the Jews. By Muslims and 200,000 Jews are expelled.
today they may have lost their identity as Ottoman (1517-1917 AD). Mamluks defeated.
(1831 AD). Egyptians conquer Jerusalem.
Jews. (1840 AD). Ottoman Empire takes Jerusalem back
Roman Exile (136 AD). Rome exiled them and has to maintain Egyptian reforms.
(1856 AD). The Crimean War.
from Judea, but the Jews remained the (1873 AD). Jerusalem becomes an independent
majority in the land until the fourth century. province reporting to Jerusalem.
Jews were dispersed throughout the (1882 AD). British conquer Egypt and establish
themselves as a political power in the region.
Roman empire after their land and temple (1914 AD). World War 1. Turkey is with Germany.
were gone. They went to places like Balfour Declaration (1917 AD). British general
Babylon, Mespotamia, North Africa, Italy Allenby captures Jerusalem.
Arab Revolt (1936-39 AD).
and Egypt. Rabbinic Judaism held them Two State Solution (1937 AD). Partition.
together through the study of the Torah and One State Solution (1939 AD). Britain.
(1947 AD). November 29. United Nations adopts
their oral history and traditions. two state solution.
The Old World. Jews lived in the Pale of Modern Israel (1948 AD). May 14.
Settlement, an area between the Crimea Jerusalem Divided (1949). Israel and Jordan.
and Poland on the western border lands of Jerusalem United (1967). June 5. Six day war.
Yom Kippur War (1973 AD). October 6.
Russia. For centuries they were driven out Israel Jerusalem Capital. On 30 July 1980.
of one place after another with their civil Oslo Peace Accords (1993 AD). September 13.
Israel and PLO on Palestinian statehood and future
rights granted at the mercy of whoever status of Jerusalem.
Jerusalem (1267). Rabbi Moses ben Nachman (Nachmonidies) is exiled from Christian
Spain and comes to Jerusalem and finds only two Jewish families in the entire city under
Mamluk rule. By 1310, Jews are moved to the Jewish quarter under Mamluk rule. By 1873
Jews are 60% of the population of Jerusalem.
Spanish Inquisition. Many Jews were expelled from Spain and portugal.
The New World. Fleeing the Spanish Inquisition in the 1650's at a time when the Page 5 of 104
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Portuguese and Spanish were losing their territory to Britain and France the Jews fled to
the new world. They hid their identity by calling themselves "Portuguese".
Aside from the African slaves, they were the first to come to the new world for purposes
other than enslaving others. Almost 200 years later Indians, Chinese would come to the
new world as indentured servants and shop keepers. Later in the 1840's Lebanese and
Arab Christians came as the Ottoman Empire was falling. They became shopkeepers and
are part of the upper class in the West Indian countries.
Jews reached Recife, Brazil in 1642, New Amsterdam (New York) in 1654 and Jamaica in
1655. Between 1880-1920, 2 to 3 million Jews moved to Baltimore, Philadelphia and Ellis
Island, New York. After 1948 they migrated to France, Australia and Canada.
Zionism. The quest to find a permanent Jewish home land came as a result of centuries of
persecution and genocide. A few incidences escalated the urgency.
Dreyfus Affair. 15 October 1894. A Jew is falsely accused of treason in France, sent to
Devil's Island while French mobs shouted "Kill the Jews" and some legislators knew that
he was innocent. He was pardoned after five years and exonerated after eleven years. It
prompted Theodore Herzl and some other Jewish leaders to look for a place to resettle
because of fear of an impending catastrophe for the Jews of Europe.
Holocaust. During the Nazi holocaust, many countries refused to help the Jews and many
took advantage of their situation and robbed them of their possessions. The long history of
persecution demanded an answer to the question of providing a safe, permanent home for
the Jews. Six million Jews were killed. This is two thirds of the European Jews and one
third of the global Jews who were murdered by the Germans.
The Children of Israel Go Home. While Zionism prepared the Jewish heart for a homeland, it
was antisemitism and colonialism that repatriated the Jews in Israel. Unwilling to take the Jews
into their countries, the colonial overlords tried to dump the Jews into their least desirable
colonies and finally settled on Palestine as the solution because they ruled the Middle East. So,
ironically, hatred of the Jews returned them to their ancestral homeland of Israel after 2000 years
of foreign occupation.
The Gathering: Large Scale Immigration (Aliyah). By the time the state was created, Jews
were one third the population of Palestine.
Rabbis (1211). A group of 300 rabbis from France and England settle in Palestine.
Sephardic Jews (1400's). They emigrated from Spain and Portugal when 200,000 were
expelled during the Spanish Inquisition after the Alahambra decree in 1492. 37,000 were
expelled frm Sicily in 1493, then from Portugal and Italy. Some are forced to convert to
Christianity, some emigrate to Jerusalem and other countries and tens of thousands die.
Ashkenazic Jews (1800s). They emigrated from Germanic lands after the late 1800s.
Russia (1881-1903). The 1882 assassination of tsar Alexander II is followed by vicious
physical attacks (Pogroms) against the Russian Jews. 2 million Russian Jews emigrated
between 1881-1920. In 1891 Grand Duke Segai orders the expulsion of 14,000 Jewish
families living in Moscow. Those who refuse to convert or become prostitutes are sent to
the Pale of Settlement.
Yemen (1882 and 1908-1914). 35,000
Russia and Poland (1904-14). 40,000 emigrate to Israel. 500,000 Jews flee Russia in
1903-1907, 90% go to the United States.
Russia (1919-23). 250,000 emigrated after the first world war.
Poland and Hungary (1924-32). 82,000
Germany (1929-1945). 250,000 emigrated from Nazi Germany. Between 1933-48,
110,000 were smuggled in to Palestine when the British limited the immigration quota.
Arab Countries (1948-58). After the Arab-Israeli war in 1948 many of the 900,000 Jews
were expelled from Arab countries. Over 600,000 emigrated to Israel, some leaving
communities that were 2500 years old. Thousands immigrate from Yemen with Operation
Magic Carpet.
Iran (1979). 30,000 emigrated in the Iranian revolution. Page 6 of 104

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Russia (1960s-1989). Jews emigrated after the collapse of the Soviet Union. 1 million
emigrated to Israel, and 250,000 went to the United States and western Europe.
Others. Jews have emigrated from Ethiopia, Argentina and France.
The Revival of The Hebrew Language. By 1881, Ben Yehuda started bringing back Hebrew
as the official language of the nation.
The Palestinian Question. The creation of the state of Israel immediately provoked a war and a
Palestinian exodus. They became refugees in the surrounding nations and their status has been
unresolved since. Believing that the war against the Jews would be quick, the Arabs encouraged
the Palestinians to leave despite the assurances of the Jews. Now they remain in refugee camps
in the neighboring states without rights or opportunities or education for the past 60 years. In the
2003 war with Iraq the neighbouring states would not take Palestinian refugees who had been
living in Iraq. They are hated by their own people who are very happy to pay them to be suicide
bombers. Since Israel has no incentives to help them and cannot be expected to be anything but
suspicious of them, they are in dire straits. Within Israel, the Palestinians are concentrated in
east Jerusalem, the Gaza strip and the West Bank. Both nations claim Jerusalem as their
Several forces, born out of hatred, interacted to place Israel back in their land. European hatred
almost wiped them out and also dumped them in Israel because no country wanted them. One
wonders if the Europeans believed that the Palestinians and Arabs would provide the "final
solution". Palestinian hatred and overconfidence made them leave the land to wait for a victory
while the surrounding Arab nations wiped them out. That victory never came because God
wanted them back in the land.

Original Owners. Before the Hebrews possessed the land around 1500 BC, it was occupied
by seven nations who were driven out. They were Caananite, Amorite, Perizzite, Hivite,
Girgashites, Jebusites and Hittites. Some have been eliminated and the identity of the rest as a
people have been lost.
Standing on a mountain near the southern Dead Sea, God promised Abraham this land as his
possession. A promise that is based on the oath of God, not on the behavior of Israel.
The Land That You See. The Lord said to Abram, after Lot had separated from him, "Now lift up
your eyes and look from the place where you are, northward and southward and eastward and
westward; for all the land which you see I will give it to you and to you forever. And I will make
your descendants as the dust of the earth, so that if anyone can number the dust of the earth
then your descendants can also be numbered.
The Land Where You Walk. Arise, walk about the land through the length and breadth, for I will
give it to you." (Genesis 13: 14-17)
While There Are Heavens Above. So that your days and the days of your sons may be
multiplied on the land which the Lord swore to your fathers to give them as long as the heavens
remain above the earth. (Deuteronomy 11: 21)
So if there are still heavens above the earth, Israel owns the land no matter how many times
God evicts them for disobedience. He will call them back.
Abraham sent all his other children to live east of the land of Israel. So the Arab nations are
probably descended from these children mixed with the seven nations who were driven out.
Land Purchases. Abraham and David also purchased some of the land.
Hebron (400 Shekels). Abraham bought this land as a burial site (Genesis 23: 15-20).
The cave and the field of Machpelah were bought. The cave was used as a burying site
(Genesis 23: 1-4, 9; 25:8-10; 49:33; 50:4-13).
Altar (50 Shekels). David bought the threshing floor to build an altar (2 Samuel 24: 24).
Temple Mount (600 Shekels). David bought the site to build an altar (1 Chronicles 21: 22-
25; 22: 1-2).
Shechem (100 Pieces of Silver). Jacob bought land which was used to bury Joseph
(Genesis 33: 19 and Joshua 24: 32).
Land Ownership. Under Ottoman rule and previous Arab empires, the land belonged to the Page 7 of 104

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state. Only a very small percentage of land was privately owned, while the rest was registered
for private use if taxes (tithe) were paid and if it did not lay fallow for three years. When the
question of distribution occurred, the land was designated as either Jewish or non-Jewish.
However the non-Jewish portion was both Arab and a majority of government owned land.
Miri Land (Leased Government Land). This land was not acquired by purchase, but by
squatting and registering a claim for use. When the land was no longer productive, it was simply
abandoned and another land was registered for use. It could be passed to heirs and sublet as
long as it did not lay fallow for three years.
It is more likely that most of the non-Jewish land available for public use was leased in this
fashion. At the time Israel was created, an attempt was being made to convert these registered
or leased land to private ownership as long as users could prove that they paid taxes.
Jewish Land Ownership. Although the Jews produced double the tax revenues, by 1948, the
assumption is that they had purchased less than 8% (6-10%) of the land of Palestine, while the
Arabs "owned" about 45% and the rest was government land. At the same time, the British
government was trying to stop the sale of land to the Jews it was giving away miri land to the
Palestinians or sell it to them at very cheap prices.
Jerusalem. This city has been the capital of Israel since David captured it from the Jebusites in
1000 BC and it will be a source of contention at the end of time.

Prophecy of Israel's Future

The People. Israel will be separated from the Christian church then reunited at the end of time
when they recognize the Messiah. After they are gathered back to their land, the nations of the
world will try to destroy them. During this conflict, they recognize the Messiah whom they
pierced, and after repenting they will become a great light to the whole world.
Jerusalem. The land will be divided and the issue of its fate will ruin many nations (Zechariah
12: 1-9).

The Assyrian empire extended from the mountains of Armenia to Prophetic Footprints
northern Mesopotamia with Nineveh as the capital. The empire Assyria is not mentioned in the prophecies of
developed in three phases. Daniel and Revelation because they were
not a power who threatened or will threaten
Old Kingdom ("2376-1770 BC"). The kingdom was a Israel when the prophecies were given.
collection of merchant city-states until they were Map of the Assyrian Empire
conquered by the Amorites. Then Hammurabi of Babylon
conquered Ashur until they were conquered by the Kassites. Shamshi Adad I united all Assyrian
Middle Kingdom ("1771 or 1379-910 BC"). Then the Hurrians of the Mitanni kingdom
controlled Ashur until they were conquered by Adad Nirari I (1310-1281). Shalmaneser I
expanded the kingdom into Hittite territory
Neo-Assyrian Kingdom ("911-612 BC"). Ashur Uballit I gains Assyrian independence from
Mittani and the kingdom grows to be a great power at the rule of Tiglath-Pileser III until it ended
with the fall of Nineveh to the Babylonians in 612 BC.
Assyrian Invasions of Israel
Year King Tribes Deported Bible Text
I Chronicles 5:26,
740 BC Tilgathpilneser III Reuben, Gad, Manasseh (east), Naphtali
II Kings 15:29
725 BC Shalmaneser V Siege II Kings 17: 3-6; 18: 11
722 BC Sargon II Samaria captured Isaiah 20: 1
700 BC Sennacherib Invaded southern Israel and tried to conquer Judah II Kings 18: 3-5; 19
These kings captured the northern tribes of Israel.
Samaritans. The tribes exiled by Assyria are known as the ten lost tribes. The Assyrians Page 8 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

repopulated the land with other people and intermarriage with the people produced the
Samaritans whose religion was corrupted by this foreign influence.

Prophecy: Nineveh
Nineveh was the capital of Assyria which was founded by Nimrod (Genesis 10: 8-12). It was located
near the city of Mosul, Iraq on the east bank of the Tigris at the junction of the Khosr river which runs
through the city. By 668 BC it surpassed Thebes as the largest city in the world. According to Jonah, it
took three days to walk across the city (Jonah 3: 3). The walled city was 3 by 8 miles, but it had
suburbs which extended 14 miles north and 20 miles south.

Siege. The Babylonians, Medes and Scythians laid siege for 2 years.
Behold, thy people in the midst of thee are women: the gates of thy land shall be set wide open
unto thine enemies: the fire shall devour thy bars. Draw thee waters for the siege, fortify thy
strong holds: go into clay, and tread the morter, make strong the brickkiln (Nahum 3: 13-14)
Flood. In the third year of the siege the Khosr river flooded the city breaking down the flood
gates and part of the walls allowing the enemies to enter in 612 BC.
But with an overrunning flood he will make an utter end of the place thereof, and darkness shall
pursue his enemies. (Nahum 1: 8)
The gates of the rivers shall be opened, and the palace shall be dissolved. (Nahum 2: 6)
Never Rebuilt. The flood so completely buried the city that 300 years later when Alexander the
Great fought the battle of Arbela nearby in 331 BC he did not know that there was a city there.
For centuries the Bible was the sole record of not only the city but the Assyrian empire. So Bible
critics claimed that this was another imaginary city among the many myths of the Bible.
Then Nineveh was rediscovered between 1842 and 1849. In 1842 the French Consul General,
Paul-Emile Botta discovered the palace of Assyrian King Sargon II. In 1849, British Sir Austen
Henry Layard found the lost palace of Sennacherib and the library of Ashurbanipal with 22,000
cunieform clay tablets.

Prophecy: Tyre
And they shall make a spoil of thy riches, and make a prey of thy merchandise: and they shall break
down thy walls, and destroy thy pleasant houses: and they shall lay thy stones and thy timber and thy
dust in the midst of the water. (Ezekiel 26: 12)
Tyre was a rich Phoenician port city which angered God by the way they treated Israel (Joel 3: 4-6). So
God prophesied their destruction in Ezekiel 26: 1-14.

Nations. Although some of the armies were made up of a coalition of many nations,
nevertheless it took two nations to complete the destruction prophesied.
Nebuchadnezzar II (586-573 BC). He besieged the city for 13 years, when it fell some
inhabitants escaped to a rock island half mile in the sea and rebuilt another city.
Alexander The Great (332). Confident in the fortified city, the people of Tyre killed
Alexander's ambassadors who came with an offer of peace. Alexander took the ruins of
the old mainland city and threw them in the sea to build a road to the island and destroyed
them after a seven month siege from January to July.
Never Be Rebuilt. The island city sank into the sea, taking with it the new city and the rubble
from the old. What remains are rocks jutting out of the ocean for the spreading of nets. Page 9 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Babylon, the current location of modern day Iraq, was located Prophetic Footprints
on the river Euphrates close to the site of the modern city of Visions 604-553 BC.
Baghdad in Iraq. It is located in a flat valley between the Tigris 1. Swift conquest
and Euphrates rivers, known as "the land between the rivers". 2. Superior to the other kingdoms
At its height, the empire ranged from the Mediterranean to the 3. No divisions
Persian Gulf and from Asia Minor to Egypt. 4. Conquered by Medo-Persia
5. 70 year captivity of Jews in Babylon
6. Will be subdued for 2520 years
Nebuchadnezzar was the chief ruler of the empire, he
succeeded his father Nabopolassar who died while Map of the Babylonian Empire
Nebuchadnezzar was on a military campaign against Egypt in
Palestine. Kings of Assyria and Babylon
King Year Dynasty
The Rise of Ancient Babylon. Babylon came to power by Tudiya
defeating the two superpowers of the day, Egypt and Assyria. Dynasty 1
After this the other nations in the region submitted to Babylon. Hammurabi
Shamshi Adad I
The Battle of Carchemish (605 BC). On three separate 1771
occasions the Assyrian army was defeated and had to move Ashur Uballit I
their capital. In 612 BC Nineveh was defeated and the capital 1310-
moved to Harran which was captured by Babylon in 610 BC Adad Nirari I Middle
and the Assyrians moved the capital city to Carchemish. When Assyrian
Ashur-Rabi II
the Babylonians attacked in 606BC, Egypt marched to help 997
their Assyrian allies. However, Pharaoh Necho (Neco) and the Ashur-Resh-Ishi II 996-965
Egyptian army was delayed by King Josiah in the battle of Tiglath-Pilasar II 964-933
Megiddo. It was not until 605 BC that the Egyptian army met Ashur-Dan II 932-910
the Babylonian army. Egypt was defeated and never became a Ashur Nirari II 909-889
dominant power again. Assyria ceased to exist. Tukulti Ninurta II 888-884
Ashur Nasirpal II 883-859
Shalmaneser III 858-824
The Battle of Meggido (608 BC). While on his way to battle
Shamshi Adad V 823-810
the king of Babylon at Carchemish, Egyptian pharoah Neco
was delayed by Josiah, King of Judah in 608 BC. Josiah was (Shamiram)
killed and his army was defeated and he was succeeded by his Adad Nirari III 791-782
son Jehoahaz who ruled for three months until he was deposed Shalmaneser IV 781-772
by Neco and died in exile. Neco placed his brother Eliakim on Ashur Dan III 771-764
the throne and renamed him Jehoiakim. He reigned for eleven HadadNirari 763-754
years, paying tribute to Pharoah Neco until Babylon defeated AshurNirari V 753-746
Egypt in 605 BC and Israel came under Babylonian control. Tiglath Pilesar III 745-727
Dynasty X
The Defeat of Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzar made three Shalmaneser V 726-722 (Assyria and
attacks against Jerusalem. Marduk-apal-iddina II Babylon)
(Merodach- 722-710
1. Daniel Exiled (605 BC). The first attack against Jerusalem
was in 605 BC during the reign of King Jehoiakim, he seized a Sargon II the 722-705
Great (Sarrukin)
selected group of captives which included Daniel and his three
friends. He also confiscated some of the sacred vessels of Sennacherib 705-681
God's temple. He trained these captives for government
service. In ancient times, is was customary for a conquering (Assur-ahha-iddina)
nation to capture princes from the conquered lands. The prince
Ashurbanipal 668-627
would be trained and educated and when the throne of the (Osnappar)
conquered nation became available, the captured prince who Ashur Etil Llani 626-621
was now friendly towards his conquerors would be installed as Sin-Sharishkun 620-612
king. This practice ensured peace between the nations, first Page 10 of 104
History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

because the king would not want to see his captured heir Ashur Uballit II 611-605
harmed and second, because they made the next generation 612 BC. Nineveh falls to Babylon
their friend. Chaldou 640-627
Nabopolassar 626-605
2. More Exiles (597 BC). The second attack was in 597 BC Nebuchadnezzar II 605-562
when King Jehoiakim rebelled and was killed. In this invasion, Amel-Marduk 562-560
Nebuchadnezzar took even more captives than before from the (Evil-Merodach)
Dynasty XI
upper class of Judah including the new king Jehoiachin. He Nergal-Sharezer
560-556 (Neo-Babylonian
(Neriglissar) or Chaldean)
was exiled to Babylon and his uncle Mattaniah, another son of
Labashi-Marduk 556
Josiah, was made king and his name was changed to
Nabonidus and son
Zedekiah. Ezekiel the prophet went into captivity during this Belshazzar (co-
invasion. He also seized a much larger portion of the Temple's 535-539
treasures. Cambyses 538-522
539 - Cyrus the Great of Persia captured Babylon
3. The Destruction of Solomon's Temple (586 BC). Mentioned in the Bible
Nebuchadnezzar came for the last time again because after
ruling for nine years King Zedekiah was rebellious and leaning towards an alliance with Egypt.
Determined that rebellion would never rise again, this time Nebuchadnezzar decided to destroy Judah.
At the end of an extended siege, he leveled the city of Jerusalem and completely destroyed the
temple. He led most of the survivors to Babylon to serve City of Babylon
as slaves. Zedekiah was blinded and taken to Babylon
where he died. Jehoiachin was released from prison by
Evil-Merodach, the next king of Babylon.

The Fall of Ancient Babylon. In 539 BCE (540 BC),

the kingdom of Babylon was invaded in one night when
Cyrus dammed up the river Euphrates, this dried up the
Euphrates river and the soldiers entered the city under
the walls and conquered the empire. He placed Darius
the Mede as the ruler.

The Euphrates River. This river flowed north to south

through the walled city of Babylon.

The Impenetrable City. From the accounts of the

historian Herodotus, we learned that the
Babylonians built the city over the Euphrates by
diverting the river from its natural channel which
went around the city to a new path through the Timeline of the Fall of Babylon
center of the city. Then they built walls (300 feet
540 BC Event
high (91 m), 50 feet wide) each side was 14 miles
long (22.5 km). They carried the wall over the Nabonidus orders all cult statues of outlying
cities to be brought to the capital
river on pillars protected with gates constructed
with iron bars. There were also walls on each side Winter Cyrus captures Elam and Susa
of the river as it ran through the city. In these September Battle of Opis. Babylonians defeated
walls were 100 brass gates leading to the city. October City of Sippar siezed without battle.
The Babylonians were confident in their 10 Nabonidus fled to the capital, Babylon
preparations, their impenetrable city and their October Euphrates diverted
gods which had been safely brought in from the October
Gubaru's troops enter Babylon and
outlying cities to be stored in the city. 12
detained Nabonidus
Tishri 16
Prepared for Siege. They had water running
through the city. They calculated that their stored October Cyrus entered Babylon and arrested
29 Nabonidus
supplies would last them 20 years in addition to
the crops that could be grown on arable land within the city walls. So they scoffed at Cyrus from Page 11 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

the walls of their city.

An Old Riverbed. When Cyrus came he found the city impenetrable. He discovered the old river
bed and divided the troops in three groups. He sent thousands of men to dig out the old river
bed and build a dam across the new river. And two other groups went to either, end at the
entrance and exit of the river, of the city where the river passed through the walls.
Siege. Then, on the night of an annual Babylonian festival, he suddenly withdrew, allowing the
Babylonians to believe that they had given up. Belshazzar thought that they had abandoned the
siege and held a party using the sacred vessels taken from the temple in Jerusalem.
Attack. It was on 16 Tishri, October 12th, 539 BCE. About midnight Cyrus closed the dam and
changed the course of the Euphrates through the old riverbed around the city. The channel
through the city dried up and the water levels dropped to "the height of a man's thigh". Then he
marched to Babylon and found the gates in the river wide open and captured the city. Gobryas
(Ugbaru) the governor of Gutium defected to Cyrus and came with the troops.
Victory. Cyrus proclaimed himself "king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four
corners of the world". He repatriated displaced peoples and restored temples and cult
sanctuaries. His accomplishments were recorded on the Cyrus Cylinder which was deposited in
the foundations of the Esagila temple.

Prophecy of Babylon's Future

Babylon will be destroyed and never rebuilt. This prophecy of Isaiah written about 100 years before
Babylon became a super power is remarkable.
. . . The day of the Lord is at hand; it shall come as a destruction from the Almighty . . . Look, I will stir
up the Medes against them . . . And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldeans`
pride, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. It shall never be inhabited . . . neither
shall the Arabian pitch tent there, neither shall shepherds make their flocks to lie down there. But wild
beasts of the deserts shall lie there. (Isaiah 13: 6, 17,19-20)

100 years after Isaiah's prophecy, Jeremiah writes the following when Babylon was about to attack
Look, I will raise up against Babylon a destroying wind . . . Babylon is suddenly fallen and destroyed . .
. Prepare against (Babylon) the nations, with the kings of the Medes . . . Babylon shall become heaps
(ruins), a dwelling place for jackals, an astonishment and an hissing, without inhabitant . . . The broad
walls of Babylon shall be utterly overthrown, and her high gates shall be burned with fire . . . O Lord,
You have spoken against this place to cut it off, that none shall dwell therein, neither man nor beast,
but it shall be desolate for ever . . . (Jeremiah 51)
Great cities are rebuilt when they are destroyed. But not Babylon.

Current State. The site of the ancient city of Babylon (196 The Fall of Babylon
square miles) is still uninhabited. The ground is infertile through
So Babylon's fate is to be uninhabited by
impregnation with salt. The ancient city of Babylon lay in ruins for neither man nor beast (except for wild
centuries, it is inhabited by wild creatures and is avoided by beasts). The fall of Babylon came in several
nomadic Arabs tribes after dark for fear of evil spirits. Scholars stages over many centuries.
doubted that it existed until archaeological excavations in the
1. Attacked by the Medes and Persians
nineteenth century found the city. 2. Attacked by the Greeks
Its decline was sealed with the collapse of its infrastructure. 3. Attacked by the Romans
Babylon depended on a complex irrigation system of dams and 4. 140 BC - the irrigation system was
canals between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Its famous destroyed in the Parthian conquest.
hanging gardens depended on this intricate system. But, in 140 It slowly declined after this and was
abandoned by the third century.
BC, the irrigation system collapsed during the Parthian conquest. 5. Attacked by warlike tribes (Arabs,
The results, according to the The Encyclopedia Americana was Turks)
that 6. 2003 - Antiquities and site ruined by
war and soldiers occupying site
The soil became saturated with mineral salts, and a crust
of alkali formed over the surface, making agricultural use impossible. Page 12 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

200 years later, Babylon was still a populous city, but by the third century AD, the historian Dio Cassius
described a visitor to Babylon as finding

... nothing but mounds and stones and ruins. (LXVIII, 30).

Its people survive today in another location as part of Iraq.

Saddam Hussein. Saddam Hussein was busy with a grandiose and extravagant project to rebuild
ancient Babylon, with his name engraved repeatedly in the bricks of its walls. He planned to remove
the capital from Baghdad. His plans came to a halt when he ran out of money and became involved in
the Iraqi War in 1990 with the United States helping Kuwait. The place was further destroyed when
Polish soldiers made a base there in the 2003 war with the United States. During the war, depleted
uranium has contaminated the site making it radioactive.
He was doomed to failure, like Napoleon, Hitler, Charlemagne and others who attempted to defy the
prophecies of God by reviving kingdoms which were to remain destroyed.

See Map of the empire of Babylon. Map of the city of Babylon. Map of Iraq and the Holy Land. Page 13 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

The Medo-Persian empire was a combination of two
empires, the older Median empire and the newer Persian. At Prophetic Footprints
its height it extended from India to Ethiopia. 1. Swift conquest
2. Inferior to Babylon
3. Two Divisions. The stronger would be
Astyages. Under his rule, the Medes conquered Anshan, the second
Persia and all Assyrian kingdoms except Babylonia. He was 4. Conquers three powers
the grandfather of Cyrus, who tried to kill the child at birth 5. Conquered by a power from the East
because of a dream.
Birth of Cyrus. About 120 years before his birth the Map of the Medo-Persian Empire
prophet Isaiah predicted that Cyrus would liberate the Jews Kings of Persia (Achaemenid Dynasty)
from captivity (Isaiah 44: 28). King Year Decree
Legend states that after the birth of Cyrus, Astyages had a 1 Cyrus II the Great 559-530 Ezra 1: 1-4
dream that his grandson would overthrow him. So he 2 Darius the Mede 539-536 None
ordered his steward Harpagus to kill the infant. Instead Persian Rulers Only
Harpagus gave the child to a herdsman to dispose of and 1 Cambyses II 538-522 None
the man raised the boy. At the age of ten, his behavior was 2 Gaumata (false Smerdis) 522 None
so noble that he was brought to the king. Astyages noticed
3 Darius 1 (the great) 522-486 Ezra 6: 7-12
that they resembled each other and questioned Harpagus.
4 Xerxes 1 (Ahasuerus) 486-465 Esther
After confessing, the king forced him to eat his own son.
Then he returned Cyrus to his biological parents, Cambyses He warred against the Greeks
and Mandane. Harpagus would seek revenge as advisor to Ezra 7: 11-
Artaxerxes 1 12
Cyrus and convinced Cyrus to rally the Persian people to 5
revolt and conquer the Median Empire. 2:1
6 Xerxes 2 424 None
Cyrus II, The Great. In 553 BC or 550 BC, Cyrus, who 7 Sogdianus 424 None
had been king of Anshan as a vassal of the Median empire, 8 Darius 2 423-405 None
defeated his grandfather Astyages of Media after 9 Artaxerxes 2 404-359 None
encouraging the Persians to revolt against the Medes from 10 Artaxerxes 3 358-338 None
554 BCE and 553 BCE. Between 550 BCE to 549 BCE, 11 Arses 337-336 None
Cyrus led his armies to capture Ecbatana, and effectively 12 Darius 3 335-330 None
conquered the Median Empire. Alexander the Great 330-323
So, the former subordinate Persians became the dominant
Cyrus left Darius the Mede in charge as governor
power in the former Median empire.
Achaemenes, Teispes, Cyrus 1 and Cambyses ruled
By 546 he had assumed the title of king of Persia, before the conquest of Babylon
dethroning Arsames, who had been the ruler of Persia under
the Medes.

Three Powers Defeated. Cyrus overthrew the Medes in 550 BC. Astyages had been allied with
Croesus of Lydia, Nabonidus of Babylon and Amasis II of Egypt. So in the rise to power, Medo-Persia
conquered three great powers - Lydia, Egypt and Babylon.

1. Lydia. Moving west in 547 BC, Croesus of Lydia, brother-in-law of Astyages, was defeated in the
battle of Thymbra when the Lydian horses were spooked by the smell of the Persian camels.
Croesus was a wealthy king who had allied himself with Egypt and Babylon against Medo-Persia
- but they were all defeated.
2. Babylon. It was defeated in 539 BCE.
3. Egypt. To the south Egypt and Nubia were conquered by 538 BC. The conquest continued north
against the Scythians in 513 BC.

Death. Cyrus died around December 530 BC and was succeeded by his son Cambyses II, who
immediately killed his brother Smerdis (Bardiya). He then went to the eastern front and captured Egypt
just before he died in 522 BC. He was succeeded by an imposter, Gaumata, calling himself Smerdis. Page 14 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

After only seven months he was killed by Darius the Great, the grandson of Arsames.

The Persian and Greek Wars.

Darius I (the Great). Darius the Great, Shahanshah of Persia, became ruler of Persia after the
deaths of both of Cyrus' sons, Cambyses II and Smerdis. As leader of Persia, Babylon and
Egypt, he extended the kingdom into India and Europe (Thrace) and used the great Egyptian
wealth to finance building projects in Persepolis, Susa, and Ecbatana. He fought two disastrous
wars with the Greeks. The Greco-Persian wars lasted from 499-479 BC.
Naval Fleet Lost (492 BC). After the Greek cities of Ionia in Asia Minor revolted in 499 BC
and burned the capital city of Sardis in Lydia, Darius sent 600 ships to crush the revolt but
half of them were lost in a sudden wind storm near Mount Athos.
Battle of Marathon (490 BC). In 490 he sent another 600 ships across the Aegean and
landed on the plains of Marathon near Athens. 6400 Persians and 192 Greeks were killed
in the battle.
A messenger ran 26 miles and brought the good news to Athens. Then he collapsed and
died. A foot race of 26 miles and 385 yards is called a marathon.
For the next ten years the Greeks built their naval supremacy.
Xerxes I. He was the son of Darius and a daughter of Cyrus the great and the husband of the
Hebrew queen Esther. He stopped an Egyptian revolt in his first year. Around 484 BC, he also
destroyed the Babylonian temples and took the statue of Marduk (Bel) and killed the priest that
tried to stop him. Then he melted the solid gold statue of Marduk, ending the traditions at the
Baylonian new year's festival in which the king had to hold the statue. He banned the name of
Babylon and called them Chaldeans. His actions caused a rebellion in 484 and 479 BC.
He gathered a huge army of 2,000,000 from 46 nations which included some of the smaller
Greek states (Carthage, Thessaly, Thebes and Argos), 1200 ships from the Egyptians and
Phoenicians and 180,000 Persian soldiers (half the Persian army).
Bridges Lost (480). To avoid the dangerous waters near Mount Athos, the Persians dug a
canal and built a bridge of ships across the Hellespont, but it was destroyed by a storm.
Battle of Salamis (480 BC, September 28). He began his conquest in the spring of 480
BC with victories everywhere. They defeated a small group of soldiers led by king
Leonidas of Sparta guarding the narrow pass of Thermopylae. They burnt Plataea,
Thespiae and set fire to Athens, burning the Acropolis. They met the smaller Greek navy
off the coast of Attica and the island of Salamis. Outnumbered three to one, the Greeks
destroyed 200 Persian ships, but only lost 40. Xerxes executed the Phoenician captains,
so the Egyptians and Phoenicians went home. Then the Greeks defeated the Persians at
Plataea (479 BC) and at Mycale. A peace treaty was signed thirty years later in 449 BC
and Xerxes tried bribery and diplomacy to influence the Greeks.
Battle of Eurymedon (466 BC). The Greeks from Athens formed the Delian league and
liberated Thrace and most of Europe from Persian influence. In 466 BC, 200 Greek ships
invaded Caria. Xerxes sent eighty ships which were captured after the battle of
Eurymedon. Now the Greeks had influence over Asia Minor as the Persians lost power.
Darius III. The empire ended when Darius III (Codomannus) was defeated by Alexander the
Great in several battles (the battle of Granicus (334 BC), the battle of Issus (333 BC) and the
battle of Arbela in 331 BC).

Decrees to Rebuild Jerusalem. When the Jews left Babylon, it took three decrees before the city
was finally rebuilt. The first two had little effect, but the final decree provided financial aid in the

1. First Decree. 536 BC. Issued by Cyrus and recorded in Ezra 1: 1-7
2. Second Decree. 518 BC. Issued by Darius and recorded in Ezra 6: 1-12
3. Third Decree. 457 BC. Issued by Artaxerxes and recorded in Ezra 7: 12-26 Page 15 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Prophecy of the Future of Medo-Persia

Persia was to remain until the end of time. But it would never receive its former glory. The old nation of
Persia now survives as Iran.
See Map

The Largest Army. Before the Greeks conquered Persia, Darius III assembled the largest army ever
created to try and stop the progress of the Greeks (over 1,000,000 men from 40 different nations). He
was still defeated by Alexander, who had no money and only 35,000 men, in the Battle of Arbela (also
known as the battle of Gaugamela). Alexander was only 25 years old. The independent, warring Greek
states allied themselves to fight for their freedom.

The Greek states were in constant civil wars.
They had been fighting the Persians and even Prophetic Footprints
fought among themselves. The Athenians and 1. Swift conquest
Spartans were constantly at war. In 431, under 2. One strong ruler, who is 'broken' early
3. Kingdom divided in four
the leadership of Pericles, they started the 4. Kingdom became a dominant Northern
Peloponnesian War when the Spartans invaded and Southern kingdom
the Athenians. They had different military
strengths. The Spartans were good at land wars
and Athens had a strong navy. After many years Map of the Greek Empire
of fighting, the peace of Nicias was signed. Rulers of Greece
King Year Conqueror Territory Dynasty
In 415 BC, Alicibiades convinced the Athenians Philip II 359-334 BC - Macedonia
to attack Sicily. Their navy was defeated. Then Alexander III the
334-323 BC Liquor Greece
the Spartans attacked them in their weakened Great
Perdiccas 323-321 BC Greece
state and the Persians joined in. In 405 the rest Perdiccas
Antipater 321-319 BC Diadochi Greece was
of their navy was destroyed and they Arridaeus (The Regent,
surrendered to the Spartans in 404 BC. - 323-317 BC Successors) Greece then
(Philip III)
It took the threat of Persian domination and the - Alexander IV 323-310 BC Greece Antipater

strong leadership of Alexander to unite the 1 Ptolemy 323-30 BC Octavian Egypt, Palestine
warring states and form a great empire. Syria, Persia,
2 Seleucus 312-63 BC Pompey
Babylon Diadochi
Thrace, Asia Wars
Alexander the Great 3 Lysimachus 323-281 BC Seleucus
Minor 323-301
Alexander the Great 356-323 BC is respected 4 Antipater, 321-168 BC
Aemilius Greece,
Cassander Paullus Macedonia
as the most powerful and brilliant of all military
leaders. He had defeated much of the known world in 13 years by the age of 33.
Succeeded to the throne in 336 BC as king of Macedon on the death of his father Philip II. He was
tutored by Aristotle. Alexander first conquered the Greek states and then, as head of the Greek army,
continued east in 334 BC to conquer the rest of the world in 8 short years. The battles of Alexander

He started at home by putting down uprisings in Thrace and Illyria, and sacking Thebes - gaining
power over all of Greece.
He defeated the Persians at the battles of Granicus (334) and Issus (333 BC).
Tyre and Gaza fell in a year
He defeated Egypt (332 BC), and founded the city of Alexandria.
In Mesopotamia, he overthrew the Persian Empire of Darius III at the battle of Arbela (or
Gaugamela) (331 BC).
He defeated the rest of eastern Persia (330-327 BC).
He invaded northern India (326 BC) but there his forces would go no further and the great
conquest ended. Page 16 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

No Heirs. Alexander the Great conquered Babylon in Heir Relationship Death

October 331 BC and died on 11 June 323 BC of a fever at Perdiccas Regent by will 321 BC
age 33 without a legitimate heir. Philip III Arrideus Retarded half brother 317 BC
He had a four year old illegitimate son with Barsine, a Persian Olympias Mother 316 BC
princess but his wife Roxana was still nine months pregnant. Alexander IV Son (Now 13) Poisoned
His mother, Olympias, murdered his half brother, Philip, so Roxana Wife (311 BC)
that her grandson could be king. Heracles Illegitimate son Executed
Cassander, the general who wanted to rule Greece, executed Barsine Heracles' mother (309 BC)
her and then proceeded to murder all relatives and lovers who
might have a claim to the throne. He poisoned Alexander IV and his mother, Roxana.
Peridiccas, the regent named in his will to take care of the empire until the heirs were old enough, was
killed by his own men in a failed invasion of Egypt.

Alexander the Great Meets the High Priest

The Talmud relates that when Alexander the Great and his conquering legions advanced upon
Jerusalem, they were met by a delegation of elders, led by the High Priest Shimon Ha Tzaddik (Simon
the Righteous). When Alexander saw Shimon approaching, he dismounted and prostrated himself
before the Jewish Sage. To his astonished men, Alexander explained that each time he went into
battle, he would see a vision in the likeness of this High Priest leading the Greek troops to victory. In
gratitude, and out of profound respect for the spiritual power of the Jews, Alexander was a kind and
generous ruler. He canceled the Jewish taxes during Sabbatical years, and even offered animals to be
sacrificed on his behalf in the Temple. Unfortunately, history would prove that Alexander's heirs failed
to sustain his benevolence.

A Kingdom Divided Rulers of Greece (Diadochi)

Greece, Macedonia Thrace, Asia Minor
After his death in 323 BC, the empire was divided among
Dynasty King Year King Year
his generals - the Diadochi (successors). They included Antipater I 321-319
Antipater, Antigonus, Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus, Polyperchon 319-316
Perdiccas, Eumenes and Craterus. Cassander
(son of 316-297
Antipatrid Antipater)
Battle of Ipsus (301 BC). These successors struggled 323-
Philip IV 297-297 Lysimachus
for the empire until the battle of Ipsus in 301 BC when 281
Antipater II 297-294
Antigonus was defeated by a coalition of four leaders. Alexander V 297-294
Antigonus I Monophthalmus was the ruler of Asia Minor Demetrius I
with his son Demetrius I Poliorcetes. In 306, Antigonus Poliorcetes
declared himself king of the Greek empire so the coalition Antigonid Lysimachus 288-281
moved against him. Antigonus and his forces of 70,000 Seleucus 1 Seleucus 1
281-281 281
Nicantor Nicantor
foot soldiers and 10,000 horses were defeated by Ptolemy Battle of Curopedium /
Lysimachus, Ptolemy and Seleucus and their elephants. Ceraunus 281-279 Curupedium. 281 BC.
Lysimachus took Asia Minor and the former Greek (Keraunos) Lysimachus is killed by
Meleager 279-279 Seleucus 1 Nicantor
empire was divided among them:
1. Lysimachus (North). Asia Minor (Turkey). Sosthenes 279-277
2. Ptolemy 1 Soter (South). Egypt. It started the Antigonid
Antigonus II
dynasty of Greeks as Egyptian kings (305 BC) Gonatas
Demetrius II
known as the Ptolemies. Aetolicus
3. Seleucus 1 Nicantor (East). Syria to India Antigonus III
4. Cassander (West). Macedonia and Thrace Doson
(Greece) was the son of Antipater. Philip V 221-179
Battle of Corupedion (281 BC). Finally, 20 years later,
Lysimachus was defeated by Seleucus in the battle of Corupedion (281 BC) and gained the largest
section of the old Persian empire in the north and east. Therefore the Greek kingdom was finally
divided into two: Page 17 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

1. Northern kingdom. Seleucid empire (Syria).

2. Southern kingdom. Egypt

Although they were divided, the former Greek empire of diverse people were united by the Greek
language and Greek civilization. Page 18 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

The Kingdoms of the North and South

The strongest kingdoms were Egypt in the
Prophetic Footprints
South, ruled by Ptolemy I Soter and Syria, in
the North, ruled by Seleucus I Nicator. In 1. The Greek empire was divided in four.
2. Dominant Northern and Southern kingdom.
316, Seleucus I Nicator was driven from 3. An agreement by marriage between a woman
Babylonia by Antigonus. He then placed from the south and the northern king. This
himself under the leadership of Ptolemy and would fail.
together they defeated Demetrius (son of
Antigonus) in 312 BC. The Seleucid empire
grew to be bigger and stronger than the Map of the Divided Greek Empire
Egyptian. By 280 it extended from Greece to Rulers of the Greek Empire (Diadochi)
India. Here is some history related to Egypt, Palestine Syria, Babylon, Persia
prophecy. King of the South Year King of the North Year
Laomedon 319-314
Laodice: A woman scorned. 35 years Antipater, 319
Ptolemy 1 Soter 323-285
Antigonus 301
after the death of Seleucus I, a crisis Seleucus 1 Nicator 312
developed. To make peace between Antiochus 1 Soter 280
the two kingdoms, Antiochus II Theos Ptolemy II Philadelphus 282-246
Antiochus II Theos 261
(261-246 BC) grandson of Seleucus I Ptolemy III Euergetes 246-222 Seleucus II Callinicus 246
married Berenice daughter of Ptolemy Ptolemy IV Philopator 222 Seleucus III Soter 226
II Philadelphus. He disposed of his Ptolemy V Epiphanes 205 Antiochus III, the Great 223
Cleopatra 1 Syra 180-178 Seleucus V Philopator 187
former wife (and sister) Laodice and
barred her children from succession to Ptolemy VI Philometor 180-146 Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175
Antiochus V Eupator 164
the throne.
Cleopatra II 170 Demetrius 1 Soter 162
Laodice takes action. Antiochus II Alexander Balas 150
died suddenly. He was poisoned by Antiochus VI 145
Laodice. She also killed Berenice and Ptolemy
VII Neos
145-144 146-139
Demetrius II Nicator
her son by Antiochus. Many of 129-125
Berenice's ladies in waiting also died. Ptolemy VIII Physcon 145-116 Trypho 142
Cleopatra III 116-101 Antiochus VII Sidetes 138
Then Seleucus II Callinicus (246-226
Ptolemy IX Soter II 116-107 Antiochus VIII Grypus 125
BC), son of Antiochus II and Laodice (Lathyrus) 88-80 Antiochus IX Cyzicenus 116
became the king. Ptolemy X Alexander 107-88 Antiochus X Eusebes 94
Egypt: A Brother's Revenge. Ptolemy Ptolemy XI Alexander II 80 Demetrius III Eucerus 92-87
III Euergetes, son of Ptolemy II and Ptolemy XII Neos 80-58, Philip 1 Philadelphus 92-83
brother of Berenice, succeed his father Dionysos Auletes 55-51 Cleopatra Selene 88-69
in 246 BC. He invaded Syria in Berenice IV 58-55 Tigranes II of Armenia 83-69
Ptolemy XIII Antiochus XIII Asiaticus 88-64
revenge for this sister's murder. He Theos 51-47
was victorious against Seleucus II. He Philopator
reached as far as Mesopotamia and Ptolemy XIV
Theos 47-44
maybe as far as Bactria. He also Philopator II Philip II Philoromaeus 66-53
retrieved sacred images taken from Cleopatra
VII Thea Ptolemy XV 44-30
Egypt by the Persians and restored (51- Caesarion
them to the Egyptian temples. He 30BC) Cleopatra VII 51-30BC
brought back great wealth from Syria. Augustus Caesar 30-14AD Pompey 63-48
Battle of Actium (31 BC). Augustus
He also took Southern Syria and Caesar defeats Cleopatra and Mark
Pompey (63 BC). Conquered
Judaea and Syria
Palestine. Anthony
Titles. Soter = Savior. Theos = God. Epiphanes = Manifest or illustrious.
Nicator = Conquerer. Callinicus = Victorious. Ceraunus = Thunderbolt.
After Ptolemy III returned to Egypt,
Seleucus went against the country to retrieve his riches and his prestige, but he returned to
Syria defeated and empty handed in 240 BC.
A Failed Counter Attack. The two sons of Seleucus II, Seleucus III and then Antiochus III the
great (219) rallied a campaign to take back Palestine and Southern Syria from Ptolemy IV
Philopator (222-204 BC). Ptolemy IV met Antiochus III near the Palestine and Egyptian border. Page 19 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

In the Battle of Raphia (217 BC). Antiochus was defeated. So he turned his energies into
recovering the eastern territories as far as India.
A Second Counter Attack. 16 years passed (217-201 BC) before Antiochus launched a more
successful second attack in the south. The fenced cities of Gaza and Sidon fell in 201 BC.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes. He ruled from 175-164 BC. He caused a crisis among the Jews in his
policy to Hellenize them by forcing them to abandon their religion and culture for the Greek
language, culture and religion.

The Hellenization Of Palestine (250 BC). Alexander began to unify his empire. The Greeks
began a campaign of pushing their culture on to the conquered lands. The strategy was to affect
the common culture, education and then to force religious changes on those who had not been
compromized by the cultural changes.
Library of Alexandria (300 BC). Ptolemy 1 built the Great Library of Alexandria to house
the knowledge of all the world.
Koine Greek. This version of Greek became the common language.
Septuagint (LXX) (270 BC). 70 or 72 Jewish scholars went to Alexandria to translate the
39 old testament books of the Hebrew bible to Greek.
Education and Culture. A high priority was placed on competitive sports, stadium and the
olympics. The Greeks were often naked for these events. Soon it was an embarassment to
be a circumcised Jewish male and cosmetic surgery was done to reverse the procedure.
Priest. The high priest was no longer a descendant of Aaron. The office was sold and
distributed by the Pagan rulers and corrupt Jews by murder and bribery.
King. The monarchy would fall into the hands of another tribe and another nation.
Death. Capital punishment for circumcision and Sabbath keeping.
Idolatry. Pagan festival to Dionysius was forced on Jews. This might have been an
attempt to replace Passover with a spring Pagan festival.

The Maccabean Revolt. The Greeks (the Seleucid dynasty) tried to impose Greek culture and
universal religion on the conquered lands. The Hellenistic Jews requested the help of the
Seleucid empire. They wanted to force their new Greek beliefs and practices on the pious Jews.
Antiochus marched on Jerusalem in 169 BC.

Abomination In The Temple. The temple in Jerusalem was dedicated to Zeus. Antiochus
stripped the sanctuary of all its treasures, killed thousands, plundered Jerusalem, exiled many
as slaves. He outlaws the Sabbath and circumcision and desecrates the Temple. The Jews were
forced to erect pagan altars, to offer swine's flesh on the altars, sprinkled swine's blood in the
sanctuary, and ordered Jews to surrender every copy of their scriptures to be burned. Antiochus
offered swines's flesh on the temple altar and suspended all Jewish sacrifices. Eventually the
Macabbeans joined forces with the Hasidim and revolted and drove him out of Judea and
returned to their religion.

Signs In The Sky. In 169 BC signs or visions appeared.

And it happened that over all the city, for almost forty days, there appeared golden-clad
horsemen charging through the air, in companies fully armed with lances and drawn swords --
troops of horsemen drawn up, attacks and counterattacks made on this side and on that,
brandishing of shields, massing of spears, hurling of missiles, the flash of golden trappings, and
armor of all sorts. Therefore all men prayed that the apparition might prove to have been a good
omen. (2 Maccabees 5: 2-4)

In 167 BC, a priest named Matthias and his sons (John, Simon, Judas, Eleazer, and Jonathan)
revolted against this attack on their religion. and became known as the Maccabeans which
means hammer in the Jewish language.
The priest Matthias killed the officers of the king and the Jews who compromised with the Page 20 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

requests of the Seleucids to defile the temple and the altar. He fled to the hills shouting "Let
everyone who is zealous for the Law and who stands by the covenant follow me!" (I Maccabees
2:27). They organized into a military group and raided towns, killing all who participated in this
false worship. At his death in 166 BC his son Judas led the rebel forces. He finally liberated
Jerusalem on December 25, 165 BC (the first hannukah). Judas died in 160 BC.
The Hasmonean Dynasty
The Hasmoneans. The Maccabeans later formed the
Jerusalem Occupied (164 BC)
Hasmonean dynasty and became kings and priests despite
Judas Maccabee Founder 164-161
the fact that they were not of the proper line to hold these
offices. The group who participated in the revolt became the Jonathan Brother 161-143
Pharisees afterwards. As a result of the success of this Jerusalem Liberated from Seleucids
revolt, the Jews were able to live under their own civil laws. Simon Brother 143-134
Judas Maccabee (164-161 BC). He liberated John Hyrcanus 1 Son 134-104
Jerusalem, purified and rededicated the temple and Aristobulus 1 Son 104-103
established the festival of Hanukkah to celebrate the Alexander Jannaeus Brother 103-76
miracle of the one day supply of sacred oil lasting for Salome Alexandra Wife 76-69
eight days when the temple was dedicated. He was
Aristobulus 2 Son 69-63
killed in battle against the son of Antiochus
Epiphanes. Pompey Captures Jerusalem 63 BC
Jonathan (161-143). He usurped the priesthood in Hyrcanus 2 Brother 63-40
152 BC, making himself a king and high priest. Antigonus Nephew 40-37
John Hyrcanus (135-105 BC). After the death of House of Herod (67 BC-100 AD)
Antiochus in 130 BC, Johanan Hyrcanus, son of Herod Antipater Idumean 55-43BC
Simon and nephew of Judah Maccabee, went to the
Herod 1 The Great Son 37-4BC
Judean cities under Syrian rule. He made himself both
king and high priest. He annexed Idumea Birth of Christ 4 BC
(descendants of the Edomites), Samaria and Perea Herod Archelaus Son 4BC-6AD
and demolished the Samaritan temple on Mount 4BC-
Gerizim. He circumcised the people and made them Herod 2 Antipas Brother
obey Jewish laws. The Saducees, Pharisees and
Crucifixion 31 AD
Essenes were formed in this period.
Judas Aristobulus. After his death in 105 BC, he was Herod Agrippa 1 Nephew 39-44
succeeded by his son Aristobulus who immediately Herod Agrippa 2 Son 50-100
killed or imprisoned his family. He made himself the
Temple Destroyed 70 AD
first king since the Jews were freed from Babylonian
captivity and returned to their homeland after 481 136 AD
People Exiled
years and 3 months. He fought the Ituraeans and
annexed the territory of Galilee, placing the people under Jewish rule.
Jonathan (Alexander Janneus) (104-78). A brother of Judas who took control of Judea
and expanded the borders and caused civil war to break out between the Pharisees and
Saducees. The office of priest and king were combined in this family.
Salome (Alexandra). After his death his wife became ruler and their sons Hyrcanus
became high priest and Aristobulus was supposed to be the next ruler. Civil war erupted.
Antigonus and Alexander, sons of Aristobolus, opposed Pompey and Alexander and
Aristobolus were put to death. This left Antigonus and his uncle Hyrcanus as rivals for
Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II. By the time Pompey invaded, these two rivals were
fighting over Israel. Pompey made Hyrcanus a high priest in 63 BC. and Aristobulus bit off
his ears so that his body would be imperfect, making him ineligible as priest. Antipater, a
supporter of Julius Caesar and the Idumean advisor to Hyrcanus, became the puppet of
Rome. He eventually captured Jerusalem in 37 BC and defeated Antigonus who was
beheaded in Rome.
An Agreement with Rome. In 161 BC (160 BCE) the Jews made an agreement with Rome to Page 21 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

break the control of the Greek empire. After the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, Juda
Maccabee sent Eupolemius, son of Johanan ben Hazzoz and Jason ben Eleazar to establish
friendship and a treaty with Rome. This alliance lasted until 66 AD. when the Romans invaded
Palestine and expelled the Greeks from that area. Israel enjoyed independence until 63 BC
when Pompey invaded Judea and the Romans took over. Pompey destroyed the walls of
Jerusalem and made Hyrcanus the high priest.
For the Roman and the Jewish people: May things be well on sea and land forever! May sword and
enmity keep far from them!
But if war is made on Rome first, or on any of its allies and their domains, the Jewish nation will be their
wholehearted allies as the occasion requires ...
In the same way, if war is made on the Jewish people first, the Romans shall be their active allies as the
occasion requires ..."
Septuagint, 1 Maccabees 8:1-27

Prophecy of the Future of Greece Rulers of Egypt

King Year Dynasty
Greece would exist until the end of time, but it would not be a
Early Dynastic 3050-2686 1-2
significant empire anymore. The next empire would also accept Old Kingdom 2650-2184 3-6
the culture of Greece. First Intermediate 2150-2060 7-10
Middle Kingdom 2055-1759 11-12
Language. The Roman empire adopted the Greek Amenemhet 1 1991-1962
language. Senusret 1 (Senwosret
Gods. The Romans accepted the entire Greek pantheon. 1)
Homosexuality and Bisexuality. In the Greek culture Amenemhet II 1911-1877 12th
Senusret II 1877-1870 (Hebrew
women were inferior citizens whose only useful purpose
Senusret III 1836-1817 Slaves)
was to give birth. Prostitution was frowned upon as a risky Amenemhet III 1817-1772
behavior. Consequently, the Greek male preferred sex with Amenemhet IV 1772-1763
young boys. They were virgins, disease free and could not Sobekneferu (Female) 1763-1759
become pregnant. All boys were expected to take on the Possibly the Exodus
submissive role in a relationship with an older male until he Amalekites (Hyksos) Invaded Helpless Egypt
got married. Boys were expected to train in the military and Second Intermediate 1783-1539
men were discouraged from visiting their wives, but were New Kingdom 1539-1069 18-20
instead expected to choose homosexual partners. After he Ahmose 1539-1514
became a young man it was considered disgraceful to be Amenhotep I 1514-1493
submissive so, in addition to a wife he could have young Thutmose I 1493-1481
boys. While the males accepted all sorts of sexual Thutmose II 1491-1479
Hatshepsut 1473-1458
deviation, lesbians were not allowed. This type of sexual
Thutmose III 1504-1450
behavior can be described as cultural phenomenon driven
Amenhotep II 1427-1392 18th
by a dominant male perspective rather than driven by Thutmose IV 1419-1386 (Exodus)
genetic programming. Amenhotep III 1382-1344
As early as 200 BC Rome was being influenced by this Amenhotep IV 1350-1334
Greek custom. Smenkhkare 1336-1334
Famous bisexual rulers included Macedonian kings Tutankhamun 1334-1325
Alexander the Great, Demetrius Poliorcetes, Antiochus I, Ay 1325-1321
Antigonus II Gonatas. Egyptian kings Ptolemy VII, Ptolemy Horemheb 1323-1295
Ramesses I 1295-1294
IV. King Nicomedes IV of Bithynia. 19th
Seti I 1394-1279
Roman emperors Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Ramesses II 1279-1213
Caligula, Claudius I, Nero, Otho, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, Merenptah 1213-1203
Hadrian, Commodus, Heliogabalus and Valetian III. Third Intermediate 1070-715 21-24
Byzantine emperors Michael II, Basil II, Constantine VIII, Shoshenq I (Shishak) 945-924
Constantine IX. Osorkon I 924-909
Incest. The nobility also married their relatives. Takelot 909--?
Shoshenq II ?--883
See Map of the Greek Empire. Osorkon II 883-855
See Map of four divisions of Greece after the death of Alexander Takelot II 860-835
Shoshenq III 835-783 Page 22 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Egypt. Pami
Shoshenq IV
Osorkon IV 735-712
The Treasures of Egypt. The treasures, mummies and Pedubaste I 828-803
buildings of Egypt have been looted by Greece, Rome and Osorkon IV 777-749 23rd
France. These foreign invaders preyed on the pyramids and the Peftjauwybast 740-725
structures at Heliopolis, the City of the Sun. Heliopolis is near the Shepsesre Tefnakht I 725-720
Cairo airport. Wahkare Bakenranef 720-715
Late Kingdom 715-343 25-30
The Obelisks of Egypt and Rome
Piye 747-716
Constructed Egypt Collector Current Location Shebaka 712-698 25th
Karnak ? Istanbul Shebitku 698-690 Late
Taharqa (Tirhakah) 690-664 Kingdom
Constantius II
Karnak Lateran, Rome Tantamani 664-657
1500 BC Sixtus V
Thutmose III Heliopolis ? Embankment, London Psammetichus I
needle ? Central Park, New York Nekau (Necho) II 610-595
Psammetichus II 595-589 26th
Luxor ? Paris
Apries 589-570
Flaminian, Rome. Amasis 570-526
Heliopolis Augustus
Piazza del Popolo Psammetichus III 526-525
Pantheon, Rome. Piazza Cambyses II 538-522
Heliopolis Clement XI
1300 BC della Rotonda Darius I 521-486
Ramses II Heliopolis ? Villa Celimontana Xerxes I 486-466
Artaxerxes I 465-424
Piazza de Termini
Heliopolis ? Memorial to soliders Darius II 424-404
killed at Dogali Amyrtaios 404-399 28th
Nepherites I 399-393
Heliopolis ? Florence
Psammuthis 393
600 BC Augustus. 29th
Heliopolis Palazzo di Montecitorio Hakoris 393-380
Psametico II Pius VI Nepherites II 380
Piazza di S. Maria Sopra Nectanebo I 380-362
Apries Sais Alexander VII
Minerva Teos 365-360 30th
150 BC Nectanebo II 360-343
Aswan ? Britain The 30th Dynasty was the last of the Egyptian
Ptolemy VII
born Pharaohs.
Alexandria Caligula St. Peter, Vatican These kings affected Israel.
10 AD
Mausoleum of Sextus V Esquiline, Rome Second Persian 343-332 31
Augustus Pius VI Quirinal, Rome Macedonian 332-323 Greco
Ptolemaic Dynasty 323-30 Roman
90 AD Campus
Innocent X Piazza Navona, Rome 30 BC - Period
Domitian Martius Roman Emperors (332 BC-
324 AD
- ? Sallust, Rome Byzantine Christian 306-634 395 AD)
120 AD - ? Aurelian, Rome Abbasid ... Fatimid ... Islamic
Hadrian Ayubbide Mamlukes Period
Piazzale del Pinico (750-
Porta Maggiore Hadrian Ottoman Rulers 1517-1796
Memorial to Antinous 1517)
Napoleon Invaded
Greeks. The Greeks used Heliopolis as a quarry taking its Map of the Egyptian Empire
stones for the construction of the Pharos lighthouse.
Romans. They used the obelisks to adorn Alexandria and Rome. Augustus carried off the
obelisks in Heliopolis and dedicated them to the gods of Rome. Later, the pope rescued them
and updated them with Christian symbols.
French. Napoleon's soldiers vandalized the Sphinx and broke off its nose. They also carried
away many treasures of Egypt to start an era of interest in the Egyptian arts and culture. The
British confiscated the treasures captured during the 1798-1801 expedition as spoils of war. This
included the Rosetta Stone. Later, the French took thousands of artifacts (obelisks, statues,
mummies, bowls, jewels, papyrus, stone inscriptions). 9000 works were collected for a museum
between 1824-27. The French archaeologist Mariette sent 5964 works to Paris between 1852-
53. Other private collectors around the world hold hundreds of objects. Page 23 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

After Augustus defeated Cleopatra in 30 BC, he took the obelisks of Ramses II and Psammetichus II.
Over the next 300 years Roman emperors moved about 13 obelisks from Egypt to Rome and merged
the gods of Egypt with the gods of Rome, just as they had taken the gods of Greece. In adopting the
Egyptian culture they also took their titles and started the dynasty of the Ptolemies.
Isaeum-Serapeum Campense. The Obelisk of Domitian was built to honor the Egyptian gods Isis
and Serapis and placed in a large complex of temples dedicated to these Egyptian gods. This complex
was located in an area between the Pantheon and the Via Flaminia and was filled with small obelisks
from Egypt.
Most obelisks were broken into pieces in the sixteenth century until they were rescued by Pope Sixtus
V, repaired, embelished with Christian symbols and moved to the center of a piazza or in front of a
Monuments to the gods of Egypt, Greece and Rome now became Christian monuments.

Prophecy of Egypt's Future

The former empire of Egypt was now the southern Greek empire. Egypt was the first great super
power mentioned by the Bible. They enslaved Israel for 430 years after which God made an example
of them by staging the most spectacular rescue of a people under the leadership of Moses during the
Thus says the Lord God: at the end of forty years will I gather the Egyptians from the peoples whither
they were scattered . . . and will cause them to return to the land of Pathros [in upper Egypt, the
original seat of Egyptian power], into the land of their birth; and they shall be there a base kingdom
(RSV, a lowly kingdom). It shall be the basest of the kingdoms; neither shall it exalt itself any more
above the nations: and I will diminish them, that they shall no more rule over the nations . . . Thus says
the Lord God: I will also destroy the idols and will cause the images to cease out of Noph (Memphis);
and there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt ... (Ezekiel 29:13-15; 30:13).

Egypt as a kingdom was not to be destroyed. It was to survive, but with greatly reduced power - "a
lowly kingdom", never presuming to exert power over the surrounding nations any more. It would also
cease to have a monarchy. This probably was fulfilled when the Egyptians were removed from the
throne and replaced by the Greeks with the Ptolemaic dynasty. Their dynasty would fall in the battle of
Actium in 31 BC. It has remained a lowly kingdom for over 2500 years. It will never regain its former

1. Attacked by the Babylonians

2. Attacked by the Medes and Persians
3. Attacked by the Greeks and its Egyptian kings were replaced with Greek kings (the Dynasty of
Ptolemy). Now, there is no Egyptian monarchy from any dynasty.
4. Attacked by the Romans in the battle of Actium in 31 BC and has essentially lost its former glory
ever since. Rome took the treasures of the Egyptian temples.
5. Napoleon invaded Egypt and took the treasures of Egypt to France.
6. British rule in the 19th century
7. Currently independent but is an impoverished nation.
8. Will turn to God with Assyria (Isaiah 19). The Kurds, Turkey and Syria are part of this region.

Rome - Pagan
In 197 BC when Carthage was no longer a rival, Rome defeated Macedonia and set up the Greek
states under her own protection. Rome was dominant in the West and she was now pointing towards
the nations of the east and the old Greek empire.

South. Rome conquered Egypt, Carthage and north Africa in the Punic Wars (242-146 BC). By
30 BC, the Egyptian queen was removed with the defeat of Cleopatra. The Egytian dynasty were
actually Greeks who had conquered Egypt.
East. In the Macedonian Wars (214-148 BC), Rome went to Asia Minor and conquered the
Babylonian and Greek empires. Page 24 of 104
History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Macedonia (Greece). In 168 BC, Macedonia was defeated and their kings removed in the
battle of Pydna. He forbid the invasion of Egypt by Antiochhus IV, exhibiting its strong
Seleucid Empire (Persia). In 190 BC, Antiochus III was defeated and the Seleucid
territory as far east as the Taurus Mountains was theirs. By 63 BC, the kings of the
Seleucid empire in Syria were removed and Judea was conquered.
Israel. Under Pompey, Rome conquered Judea and Syria.

Conquering the three remaining divisions of the old Greek empire was a process. By 168 BC, only one
was conquered but the other two could not make a move. By 30 BC, all three were formally

Rome was cruel. Sometimes whole cities were destroyed. Corinth was destroyed in 146 BC. People
who were not destroyed or subjugated were used as slaves or sold into slavery.
Some of the Roman territory was obtained peacefully by inheritance. In 74 BC Nicomedes III gave his
entire kingdom of Bithynia to Rome on his deathbed. King Attalus III left his kingdom of Pergamum to
the Roman Empire in his will (133 BC) and it became the province of Asia in 129 BC.

The Caesars.
Pompey (63 BC- 48BC). In 63 BC, Pompey invaded Judea to settle a dispute between
Hyrcanus and Aristobulus were were rival heirs to the throne of Judea. 12,000 Jews were killed
in the process, the Holy of Holies was desecrated when Pompey entered the sanctuary,
destroyed the walls and the Jews had to pay taxes to the Romans. He also appointed Hyrcanus
II as high priest.

In 49 BC Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus by Julius Caesar in a struggle for the
throne and he fled to Alexandria, the capital of Egypt. There he was assassinated by Ptolemy
XIII in 48BC to gain the favor of Caesar. However, Caesar chose to align with his rival, Cleopatra
who was his sister and wife. Rome defeated Ptolemy in 47 BC and Cleopatra ascended the
The city of Pompeii which was named after him was destroyed when Mount Vesuvius erupted in
79 AD.
Gaius Julius Caesar (100BC to 15 March 44 BC). Dictator of the Roman republic.
Assassinated in Rome on the Ides of March by his closest friend Marcus Brutus on the orders of
the senate. When Ptolemy XI Auletes died in 51 BC, he placed his two children Cleopatra and
Ptolemy XII under the guardianship of Rome. Three years later, Cleopatra became the mistress
of Julius Caesar who had invaded Egypt.
After the death of Pompey Caesar went to war with Egypt but the war was doing badly until he
received assistance from Herod Antipater. Antipater, chief of the Idumean tribe, was an Arab
Sheikh who came to Caesar's assistance with several thousand horsemen. Caesar appointed
him as governor of Judaea, Samaria and Galilee in gratitude.
The Triumvirate (Marc Anthony, Lepidus, Octavian). They ruled (44-31 BC). Civil war
between Marc Anthony and Octavian occurred in this time.
Cleopatra and Mark Anthony. The daughter of Ptolemy XI who was married to her younger
brother Ptolemy XII. She revolted against him with the aid of Julius Caesar and obtained the
kingdom. After Ptolemy XII died she married another brother Ptolemy XIII but remained the
mistress of Caesar. She later had a son by Julius Caesar named Caesarion (who would become
Ptolemy XIV). After Caesar was assassinated, she went back to Egypt and turned to Mark
Anthony to support her in her attempt to make her son the next caesar. He was the brother-in-
law and rival of Caesar's heir Octavian (Augustus Caesar). Cleopatra wanted her son to be
Caesar instead of Octavian who was only an adopted son of Julius Caesar. Mark Anthony was
married to Octavia (the sister of Augustus) when he abandoned her for Cleopatra. Page 25 of 104

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The Battle of Actium (2 September 31 BC). Anthony and Cleopatra were married in 36 BC.
Together they combined forces against Augustus on the Ionian sea next to the Roman colony of
Actium. Several unfortunate events caused the defeat.
Staffing. The Egyptian fleet was the largest but they were understaffed and then malaria
broke out and killed a lot of the oarsmen. With supply lines also cut the crew was
demoralized. When Octavian arrived he had a smaller fleet with lighter ships which
required less crew and could outmanouver the big ships of Mark Anthony.
Treason. Mark Anthonny's general, Delius, defected and took the battle plans, giving
Octavian a huge advantage.
Mutiny. When Cleopatra saw that the war was being lost, she did not come with her fleet
but turned back before she could reinforce Mark Anthony's navy and withdrew with her 60
ships. So Mark Anthony also escaped and abandoned his men.
Suicide. He committed suicide when he mistakenly believed that Cleopatra had been
killed. Cleopatra also killed herself so that she would not be paraded around in shame as a
victory trophy.
With the death of Cleopatra VII, the dynasty of the Ptolemys ended and Egypt became a
province of the new Roman empire, the global superpower.
Augustus Caesar - A Raiser of Taxes. (Imperator Caesar Prophetic Footprints
Divi Filius Augustus). The first emperor, He reigned from 23 1. Brutal kingdom
2. Messiah born
September 63 BC to 19 August 14 AD. Grandnephew of during its reign
Julius Caesar and the brother-in-law of Marc Anthony, born 3. Divided into ten
Caius Octavius (Octavian), he was made heir without his 4. Gives power to a
knowledge. Augustus was a title of honor granted in 27 BC religious power
by the senate.
Pax Romana ("Peace of Rome"). After the naval victory Map of the Roman Empire
at Actium in 31 BC he controlled all of the Roman territories. Roman Conquest of Greece
His rule began a long period of 200 years of Roman peace
Year Territory Conqueror
called the "Pax Romana" when roads, a postal service, and
police force were established. He enacted many reforms in 212BC Syracuse Claudius Marcellus
Rome and in the provinces, he built Roman Roads and 168
Macedonia Aemilius Paulus
beautified Rome. He raised taxes throughout all the
provinces to pay for these civil works projects. He was 168
Epirus Anicius Gallus
succeeded by his stepson Tiberius when he died peacefully
133 Attalus III wills the
in 14 AD. BC
kingdom to Rome
Co-Emperors. He became ill with uncontrollable
86 BC Athens Sulla
diaharrea and died in his bed. In the year before his death
he made Tiberius co-emperor with him. 63 BC Syria Pompey
An Heir. He had only one daughter, Julia, by his first wife. 30 BC Egypt Octavian
She had three sons. Gaius and Lucius, the two oldest died Rulers of Rome (Caesars)
and a third (Agrippa Postumus) was exiled because of his King Year Dynasty
violence and was executed by Tiberius. In 4AD, he Julius Caesar,
reluctantly adopted his 44 year old stepson Tiberius and Pompey, Crassus Triumvir
made him the heir. Tiberius was the son of his third wife, Julius Caesar 47-44 Dictator
Livia. Because His death might trigger civil war again, He Octavian (Augustus),
Marc Anthony, 43-27
made Tiberius his coemperor in 13 AD to signify his choice Lepidus Triumvir
for a successor since he had no blood heirs and this action Augustus 27 BC-
set a precedent. (Octavian) 14
Tiberius Caesar (13/14 AD - 37 AD) He ruled from 13/14 4 BC
Birth of Christ
AD to 16 March 37 AD including a one year co-reign with
Augustus. He was smothered to death with a pillow while Tiberius 14 AD
dying from a terminal illness. In 14 AD, he succeeded Crucifixion 31 AD Caludian
Augustus peacefully as emperor and continued his policies. Caligula (Gaius) 37
It is believed that his mother poisoned Augustus Caesar so
Claudius 41 Page 26 of 104

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that he would get the throne. It was also thought that he had Nero 54
an affair with his mother and later had her murdered. Galba 69
He led many successful campaigns in Germany and the Otho 69 Year of 4
East near Armenia and Parthia. He was not loved, possibly Vitellius 69 Emperors
because he was a pedophile. He broke the legs of the Vespasian (69-79) 69
young children who resisted him. At his death, it is said that
Temple Burnt 70 AD
his head was cut off and thrown into the Tiber river.
Titus 79 Flavian

During his reign and under the order of his procurator of Domitian 81-96
Judea (Pontius Pilate) Jesus Christ was crucified. Nerva 96-98
Caligula (Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus). Reigned Trajan 98-117 ?
37 to 24 January 41 AD. He was assassinated. Hadrian 117-138
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Roman Persecutions (67-313 AD)
Germanicus). Reigned from 41 to 13 October 54 AD. He # Year Emperor
died by poisoned mushrooms given by his wife who was 1 67 Nero
Nero's mother. She had convinced him to name her son 2 81 Domitian
from a previous marriage as the heir, instead of his own son. 3 108 Trajan
Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. Reigned 4 162 Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
5 192 Severus
54 to 9 June 68 AD. He set Rome on fire in 64 AD. and
6 235 Maximus
blamed it on the Christians and confiscated one third of the 7 249 Decius
burned out city as his own property. He martyred many 8 257 Valerian
Christians including Peter and Paul. The senate declared 9 274 Aurelian
him an enemy of the state and pursued him to kill him. But 10 303-313 Diocletian
he cut his own throat and committed suicide. His last words
were, "What an artist dies in me". A power struggle erupted among the generals because there
was no heir.
Civil War. There were four emperors in 69 AD. (Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian) .
Vespasian (69-79 AD).He was responsible for the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple in 70
AD. Completed in 80 AD, in eight years, he built the Flavian ampitheatre (Coliseum) after
draining the private, man-made lake built by Nero and financed with the treasures taken from the
burned out Jewish temple and with the labor of Jewish slaves.
Titus. When his father abandoned the seige of Jerusalem to fight for the throne in the civil wars,
Titus was left in charge. He burned down the temple and took its treasures to Rome. He was
ruling when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 AD and the second fire destroyed Rome for 3 days
and 3 nights in 80 AD and a plague broke out during the fire. The fire destroyed Agrippa's
Pantheon, the Temple of Jupiter, the Diribitorium, parts of the Theatre of Pompey, and the
Saepta Julia.

Roman Governors and Other Rulers.

Gabinius (58 BC). Roman governor of Syria. He divided the Jewish people into five parts,
establishing five councils (Sanhedrin) in Jerusalem, Gadara, Hammath, Jericho and Sepphoris.
Governor Quintilius Varus (7 - 4 BC). He was an incompetent governor of Syria from about 7
to 4 BC.
Governor Quirinius He was probably governor of Syria on two separate occasions. Once
during the military action against the Homonadensians between 12 and 2 BC, and about 6-7 AD.
The Romans conducted a census every 14 years and they took several years to complete.
Pontius Pilate (26 - 36 AD). Procurator of Judea. Pilate butchered a group of Samaritans in a
village named Tirathana, near Mount Gerizim. He was relieved of his position by the Syrian
legate Vitellius for excessive cruelty and he committed suicide in Italy (Gaul) a year later.
Vitellius also removed Caiaphas from office at the same time.
Sanhedrin. The Great Sanhedrin was an assembly of 71 elders who served as the supreme
court of Israel. Lesser Sanhedrins of 23 members convened in other places. This council may
have begun when Moses assembled seventy elders who met with him (Numbers 11: 16). It may Page 27 of 104

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also have been established by Ezra to preserve the house of David under foreign occupation.
Nasi (191 BC). The high priest was head of this council until 191 BC when the council lost
confidence in the high priest. The office of Nasi was created and was mostly headed by
descendants of Hillel the Elder who was in office around 4 BC when Christ was born. The
creation of the office was probably an attempt to preserve the true lineage of the high priest. It
was during this period that the office of high priest was determined by political considerations
and Greek interferance, not according to the Torah. The Jews maintained some autonomy in this
period. They were ruled in their religious life by the high priests, appointed by the Roman
governors, and in their civil life by the Sanhedrin under the Nasi.
The Sanhedrin was abolished in 415 AD by the Byzantine rulers. They operated in secret after
this. The remnants of the house of David continued to survive under the leadership of a group
called the Geon Yaacov until about 1165.
The Hall of Hewn Stones. According to the Talmud the Sanhedrin met in this building in the
north wall of the temple mount, located half inside the sanctuary and half outside with doors
giving access.

One third of the Roman citizens were slaves.

The Kings and Priests of Israel During the Time of Jesus Christ
Born in Bethlehem, Judea about 4 BC while the Jews were under Roman occupation. He was born
around the time Augustus Ceasar issued taxes and baptized in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar 29
AD. These are the rulers of Palestine at the time of Christ.
27 Augustus 14 Tiberius 37 41
Julius Caesar 13 AD Augustus and Tiberius Caligula Claudius
BC Caesar AD Caesar AD AD
Herod 37 Herod Herod 44 Herod
The 1 BC 39 AD
Antipater BC Antipas Agrippa 1 AD Agrippa 2
4 BC 30 Years 27 AD 3.5 Years 31 AD
The Disciples Ministered
Birth 33 Years (Jesus Christ) Death

6 AD Annas --- 18 AD Caiaphas 36 AD The High Priests

Herod. The Herods were the non-Jewish ruling Roman The House of Herod
dynasty that descended from the Esau. After the Emperors Judea Idumea Galilee
Roman occupation of Palestine in 63BC, they ruled at Julius Herod Antipater II (67-43 BC)
the pleasure of Rome. (47-44) Phasael (47-40)
Herod 1 the Great (39-4 BC)
Antipater. Ruled (55BC - 43BC). Edomite ruler
Augustus Herod Archelaus Herod Herod 2
of Palestine under Julius Caesar. His empire (4 BC-6AD) Philip Antipas
went to his four sons at his death. (27BC - Coponius (6-9) (4 BC- (4 BC-39
37 AD) AD)
Herod the Great. Ruled (37BC to 1BC). He 14AD) Ambivulus (9-12)
died during the spring between 4BC and 1BC at Annius Rufus (12-15)
the time of a lunar eclipse. There are three Tiberius Valerius Gratus (15-26)
possible lunar eclipses during that period. March (13/14-
Pontius Pilate (26-36)
23, 5BC. March 13, 4BC and January 10, 1BC.
Marcellus (Marulus) (37)
He was an Idumean or Edomite (descendant of Caligula
Herennius Capito (37-41)
Esau) who inherited Galilee from his father. (37-41)
Herod Agrippa 1 (37-44)
Appointed tetrarch of Judea by Marc Anthony
Cuspius Fadus (44-46)
and king of Judea by the senate. He remodeled Claudius
Tiberius Alexander (46-48)
the temple between 37 and 4 BC and (41-54)
Ventidius Cumanus (48-52)
persecuted the child Christ. He was a Jewish
Antonius Felix (52-60)
convert, not Jewish by blood so he was not a
Nero Porcius Festus (60-62)
descendant of David or a legitimate king. He Herod
(54-68) Clodius Albinus (62-64)
married a Hasmonian princess. He was married Agrippa II Page 28 of 104

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ten times and had three sons Archelaus, Herod Gessius Florus (64-66) (50?-100)
Antipas, and Philip. Titus besieged Jerusalem.
Temple Falls (70 AD)
Archelaus (4 BC-6AD). Ruled Judea, (69-79)
First Jewish Revolt (66-73)
Samaria and Idumaea for 10 years until Mount Vesuvius Eruption (24 August 79)
the Romans removed him. (79-81)
Fire burns Rome for 3 days and nights (80 AD)
Plague erupted during the fire in 80 AD
Antipas. Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea
Hadrian Bar Kochba Jewish Revolt (132-135)
from 4 BC to 39 AD. He was the one who (117-138) Jews Exiled From Jerusalem (136 AD)
tried Jesus and had John the Baptist Roman Procurators: Procurators of Judaea (6-41).
beheaded. He was deposed and Procurators of Palestine (44-66)
Herodias. She was a cousin who married and divorced an uncle living in Rome, then
married Philip, and then divorced Philip to marry Antipas.
Philip. Tetrarch of Iturea, Trachonitis, Gaulanitis, Batanea and Auranitis from 4 BC to 34
The historian Josephus states that Herod the Great ruled just over 34 years after he captured
Jerusalem in September and for 37 years after the Romans made him king. He died in the winter
after a lunar eclipse, after Yom Kippur and before Passover. According to Josephus:
Reign of Herod. At this time it was that the fight happened at Actium, between Octavius Caesar and
Anthony in the seventh year of the reign of Herod; and then it was also that there was an earthquake in
Judea, such a one as had not happened at any other time ... Page 320, Book XV, Chapter V, Section 2.

The battle of Actium was September 2, 31 BC, so Herod's first year must have been 37 BC.
Kings of Judah and Israel
Death of Herod. ... When he had done those things,
Year Judah Year Israel
he died, the fifth day after he had caused Antipater
to be slain; having reigned, since he procured 1098 Saul (32)
Antigonus to be slain, thirty-four years; but since he 1066 David (40)
had been declared king by the Romans, thirty-seven. 1026 Solomon (40)
Book XVII, Chapter VIII, Section 1. 985 Rehoboam (17) 985
Jeroboam (22)
967 Abijam (Abijah) (3) 967
Herod Agrippa 1 . Called Herod. King of Iturea
964 962 Nadab (2)
(37-44AD). King of Judea, Galilee and Perea
961 961 Baasha (24)
(41-44). Grandson of Herod the Great, son of
939 939 Elah (2)
Archelaus. Persecuted the church. Acts 12: 23 Asa (41)
938 938 Zimri (7 days)
said he was eaten by worms after he claimed to
938 938 Omri (6) (Tibni/Omri)
be divine. Josephus says the following:
926 926 Ahab (22)
"did neither rebuke them, nor reject their impious 922 Jehoshaphat (25) 905 Ahaziah (2)
flattery. A severe pain arose in his belly, and began 896 Jehoram (Joram) (8) 902 Jehoram (12)
in a most violent manner. And when he was quite
888 Ahaziah (1) 890 Jehu (28)
worn out by the pain in his belly for five days, he
departed this life in the fifty-fourth year of his age, 887 Athaliah (6) 862 Jehoahaz (17)
and seventh of his reign." 881 Joash (Jehoash) (40) 845 Jehoash (16)
840 Amaziah (29) 829
On an appointed day Herod, having put on his 811 Uzziah (Azariah) (52) -
Jeroboam (41)
royal apparel, took his seat on the rostrum and 773 Zachariah (6 month)
began delivering an address to them. The 758 Jotham (16)
773 Shallum (1 month)
people kept crying out "the voice of a god and 772 Menahem (10)
762 Pekahiah (2)
not of a man!" And immediately an angel of the 742 Ahaz (16) 759 Pekah (20)
Lord struck him because he did not give God 727 Hezekiah (29) 739 Hoshea (9)
the glory, and he was eaten by worms and died. 697 Manasseh (55) 722 Shalmaneser V
(Acts 12: 21-23) (Assyrian Captivity)
642 Amon (2) -
Herod Agrippa 2. Ruled (50-100AD). Called Exiled Israel
Agrippa. Tetrarch of Philippi and Lysanias 640 Josiah (31)
Egyptian (Pharaoh Neco)
(Abilene). He is the Herod of Acts 25-26. 609
Jehoahaz (Shallum) (3 Ruled Judah
608 Jehoiakin (Eliakim) (11) Nebuchadnezzar Page 29 of 104

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The High Priests 597 Jehoiachin (3 months) (Babylonian Captivity)

Exiled Judah
597 Zedekiah (Mattaniah) (11)
High priests were appointed for life by law as the
scriptures suggest (Numbers 35: 25, 28). However, in this corrupt era the office of high priest was
bought and sold and the priest could easily be deposed by the Roman leaders. Therefore, several men
who had served as high priests could coexist as Luke reported (Luke 3: 2). Therefore, at the time of
the crucifixion the gospel described two men as high priests, Annas and his son-in-law Caiaphas (John
18: 13). Annas was a Saducee who had five sons, a son-in-law and a grandson as high priest.
Josephus comments in the (Jewish Antiquities XX, 9.1): Sanhedrin The High Priests Year
Ananelus Appointed by Herod the
37-36 BC
It is said that the elder Ananus was extremely fortunate. For Great
he'd five sons, all of whom, after he himself had previously ?
Aristobulus III 36 BC
enjoyed the office for a very long period, became high priests of Joshua ben Fabus 30-23 BC
God - a thing that had never happened to any other of our high
priests. Simon ben Boethus 22-5 BC
Mattathias ben Theophilus 5-4 BC
Joazar ben Boethus 4 BC
Roman Persecution Hillel the
Eleazar ben Boethus
4-1 BC
Appointed by Herod Archelaus
The Romans conducted ten formal persecutions against Elder
(20 BC- Joshua ben Sie 3 BC-6AD
the Christians and Jews, starting with Nero. When half of 16AD) Annas (Ananus ben Seth)
Rome was burned in a fire in 64 AD, Nero accused the Appointed by Quirinius, the 6-15
Christians of starting it and began the first Roman imperial governor of Syria
persecution. Ishmael ben Fabus Appointed
by Valerius Gratus
The Destruction Of The Temple Eleazar ben Ananus 16-17
After the death of Nero, the seventeen year old son of haNasi
Simon ben Camithus 17-18
Herod Agrippa was considered too young to ascend the Joseph Caiaphas 18-36
throne, so Jerusalem fell under direct Roman rulers. This
Jonathan ben Ananus 36-37
caused animosity and civil war and eventually a riot Appointed by Vitellius
which killed 20,000 Jews. Theophilus ben Ananus 37-41, 44
Simon Kantheras ben Boethus
Trouble broke out in Caesarea between the Jews and the 41-43
Appointed by Herod Agrippa 1
Greeks (who tried to insult the Jews). This led to a siege Matthias ben Ananus 43-44
of the Roman garrison Antonia and the assault on Elionaius (Aljoneus) son of
Masada. 43-44
Josephus ben Camydus (Kami)
Gamliel 1 Appointed by Herod of Chalcis 44-46
The trouble intensified when two massacres occurred on
the same day. The Jews in Jerusalem killed some Ananias ben Nebedeus 46-52
Roman soldiers and the Greeks massacred 20,000 Jews Ishmael ben Fabus (Phiabi)
Appointed by Herod Agrippa II
in Caesarea. This caused all Jews to resort to retaliation
Joseph Cabi ben Simon 62-63
and armed conflict. Many Roman soldiers were killed as
Ananus ben Ananus 63
they tried to maintain order. Judea was now in rebellion
against Rome. Joshua ben Damneus 63
Joshua ben Gamaliel 63-64
Meanwhile, in Jerusalem and other cities, the country Mattathias ben Theophilus 65-66
was plagued by civil wars against violent zealots who Phinnias, son of Samuel
murdered and openly robbed homes and tried to maintain ben Appointed by The People
hostilities. The Romans offered no help because they Gamliel Temple Destroyed 70 AD
hated the Jews. A leader of the Zealots, Phanias Relatives of Annas (Annanius). ("ben" means "son of")
(Phinnias), managed to remove the high priest and set Son Grandson Son-in-Law
himself up in that office, increasing the civil war and Josephus Flavius (Joseph ben Matthias), the Jewish
causing the death of 85,000 people. historian, was born around 37-39 AD. He was the son of
Matthias ben Theophilus, the grandson of Annas.
Nero died around this time and was succeeded by Vespasian who waited a year hoping that the Jews
in Jerusalem would weary themselves with their internal struggles while he subdued rebellion in Page 30 of 104

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smaller cities. He then sent Titus to subdue Jerusalem.

Cestius. In 66 AD, before the final siege, Cestius came against the city and withdrew for some
unknown reason. Some sources say that he was defeated by the Jews on August 8. Many Christians
took that as a sign to flee the city.

Titus. Then the army returned with Titus in 70 AD to besiege the city for 143 days. He would become
the next emperor from 79-81. His reign was filled with tragedy and national disasters which caused
people to speculate that his reign was cursed because he destroyed the temple in Jerusalem.

The Siege and Fall of Jerusalem. The story Map of Jerusalem

continues with a direct account by Josephus in "The
War of the Jews".

Signs of Doom. "Thus there was a star

resembling a sword, which stood over the city,
and a comet, that continued a whole year. Thus
also before the Jews' rebellion, and before
those commotions which preceded the war,
when the people were come in great crowds to
the feast of unleavened bread, on the eighth
day of the month Xanthicus [Nisan], and at the
ninth hour of the night, so great a light shone
round the altar and the holy house, that it
appeared to be bright day time; which lasted for
half an hour. This light seemed to be a good
sign to the unskillful, but was so interpreted by
the sacred scribes, as to portend those events
that followed immediately upon it.
Flavius Josephus, War of the Jews, Book VI,
Chapter V, Sn 3

The Fall of Jerusalem. Now, as Titus was on

his march he chose out 600 select horsemen,
and went to take a view of the city, when
suddenly an immense multitude burst forth from
the gate over against the monuments of Queen
Helena and intercepted him and a few others. Map of Ancient Israel Map of Modern Israel
He had on neither helmet nor breastplate, yet though many darts were hurled at him, all
missed him, as if by some purpose of Providence and, charging through the midst of his
foes, he escaped unhurt. Part of the army now advanced to Scopos, within a mile of the
city, while another occupied a station at the foot of the Mount of Olives.

Warring Factions Unite. Seeing this gathering of the Roman forces, the factions within
Jerusalem for the first time felt the necessity for concord, as Eleazar from the summit of
the Temple, John from the porticoes of the outer court, and Simon from the heights of Sion
watched the Roman camps forming thus so near the walls. Making terms with each other,
they agreed to make an attack at the same moment. Their followers, rushing suddenly
forth along the valley of Jehoshaphat, fell on the 10th legion, encamped at the foot of the
Mount of Olives, and working there unarmed at the entrenchments. The soldiers fell back,
many being killed. Witnessing their peril, Titus, with picked troops, fell on the flank of the
Jews and drove them into the city with great loss.

The Roman commander now carefully pushed forward his approaches, and the army took Page 31 of 104

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up a position all along the northern and the western walls, the footmen being drawn up in
seven lines, with the horsemen in three lines behind, and the archers between.

Jerusalem was fortified by three walls. These were not one within the other, for each
defended one of the quarters into which the city was divided. The first, or outermost,
encompassed Bezetha, the next protected the citadel of the Antonia and the northern front
of the Temple, and the third, or old, and innermost wall was that of Sion. Many towers, 35
feet high and 35 feet broad, each surmounted with lofty chambers and with great tanks for
rain water, guarded the whole circuit of the walls, 90 being in the first wall, 14 in the
second, and 60 in the third. The whole circuit of the city was about 33 stadia (four miles).
From their penthouses of wicker the Romans, with great toil day and night, discharged
arrows and stones, which slew many of the citizens.

At three different places the battering rams began their thundering work, and at length a
corner tower came down, yet the walls stood firm, for there was no breach. Suddenly the
besieged sallied forth and set fire to the engines. Titus came up with his horsemen and
slew twelve Jews with his own hands.

First Wall Falls. The Jews now retreated to the second wall, abandoning the defense of
Bezetha, which the Romans entered. Titus instantly ordered the second wall to be
attacked, and for five days the conflict raged more fiercely than ever. The Jews were
entirely reckless of their own lives, sacrificing themselves readily if they could kill their
foes. On the fifth day they retreated from the second wall, and Titus entered that part of
the lower city which was within it with 1,000 picked men.

But, being desirous of winning the people, he ordered that no houses should be set on fire
and no massacres should be committed. The seditious, however, slew everyone who
spoke of peace, and furiously assailed the Romans. Some fought from the walls, others
from the houses, and such confusion prevailed that the Romans retired; then the Jews,
elated, manned the breach, making a wall of their own bodies.

Thus the fight continued for three days, till Titus a second time entered the wall. He threw
down all the northern part and strongly garrisoned the towers of the south. The strong
heights of Sion, the citadel of the Antonia, and the fortified temple still held out. Titus,
eager to save so magnificent a place, resolved to refrain for a few days from the attack, in
order that the minds of the besieged might be affected by their woes, and that the slow
results of famine might operate. He reviewed his army in full armor, and they received their
pay in view of the city, the battlements being thronged by spectators during this splendid
defiling, who looked on in terror and dismay.

Famine and Mass Crucifixions. The famine increased, and the misery of the weaker was
aggravated by seeing the stronger obtaining food. All natural affection was extinguished,
husbands and wives, parents and children snatching the last morsel from each other.
Many wretched men were caught by the Romans prowling in the ravines by night to pick
up food and these were scourged, tortured and crucified. This was done to terrify the rest,
and it went on till there was not wood enough for crosses.

Sanhedrin Massacred. Terrible crimes were committed in the city. Matthias, the aged high
priest who was deposed in 66 AD, was accused of holding communication with the enemy.
Three of his sons were killed in his presence, and he was executed in sight of the
Romans, together with sixteen other members of the sanhedrin.

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child. At length, after fierce fighting, the Antonia was scaled, and Titus ordered its

Destruction of the Temple, August 10. Titus now promised that the temple should be
spared if the defenders would come forth and fight in any other place, but John and the
Zealots refused to surrender it. For several days the outer cloisters and outer court were
attacked with rams, but the immense and compact stones resisted the blows. As many
soldiers were slain in seeking to storm the cloisters, Titus ordered the gates to be set on
fire. Through that night and the next day the flames raged through the cloisters. Then, in
order to save the temple itself, he ordered the fire to be quenched.
Fire In The Temple. On the tenth of August, the same day of the year on which
Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the temple built by Solomon, the cry was heard that the
temple was on fire. The Jews, with cries of grief and rage, grasped their swords and
rushed to take revenge on their enemies or perish in the ruins.

The slaughter was continued while the fire raged. Soon no part was left but a small portion
of the outer cloisters, where 6,000 people had taken refuge, led by a false prophet who
had there promised that God would deliver His people in His Temple. The soldiers set the
building on fire and all perished. Titus next spent eighteen days in preparations for the
attack on the upper city, which was then speedily captured. By this time the Romans did
not want to show any mercy. It was night that put an end to the carnage. During the whole
of this siege of Jerusalem, 1,100,000 were slain, and 97,000 taken as prisoners.

In 71 AD, the Romans cut down every tree and salted the land in Israel to punish the Jews. In 73 AD,
900 Jews were killed at the fortress Masada.

The Bar Kochba Revolt (132-135)

A second Jewish revolt occurred during the years 132 to 135 AD and was led by Bar Kochba (Kokaba,
Cocheba). He was originally named Shimon bar Kosiba and it was changed to Kochba "son of the
star" in fulfillment of the prophecy by Balaam (Numbers 24: 17) about a star out of Jacob. He
proclaimed himself to be the Messiah and it was quickly affirmed by Rabbi Akiva. Christianity was still
largely seen as a sect of Judaism at this time. These events would cause a rift between Christianity
and its roots.

Jewish Christians had to choose between Christ or Bar Kochba as the Messiah. If they chose Bar
Kochba they would have to support the revolt. They chose not to support the revolt and were seen as
traitors. It caused permanent hostilities between the Jewish and Christian communities.

Emperor Hadrian. The culture of the Roman empire was full of incest, homosexuals and
pedophiles. This was the practice adopted from the Greeks where young boys were expected to take
an older male lover until they got married. When the Greeks took over the Egyptian dynasty, this
practice of incest, homosexuality, adultery and pedophelia continued among the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Herod adopted these customs and came under the condemnation of John the Baptist.
Emperor Hadrian's favorite was a twelve year old Greek youth named Antinous. He toured the eastern
empire between 129-130 with a homosexual entourage and began the process unifying religons.

Touring Judea (130 AD). In March 130, around Passover, Hadrian and a group of his favorite
male companions came to Jerusalem. The Greek boy had been his lover since the child was
about 12 or 13 years old. On 28 October 130, near the fall feasts, Antinous drowned
mysteriously in the Nile and Hadrian had him deified by March 131. By October 134 coins struck
with his image as god and statues are distributed to spread the worship of Antinous. An obelisk
erected outside Porta Maggiore by Hadrian in his memory still exists. In 1633 the obelisk was
relocated to the palace of Urban VIII, then pope Pius VII moved it to the Piazzale del Pincio in Page 33 of 104

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The Cult of Antinous. Hadrian made the young man a god and began a cult worship. The city
of Antinopolis was built on the Nile in his honor. Statues, temples, coins, poems and games were
made in his honor and an obelisk was built to mark the spot of his burial.
Religious Reform. Between April and July 130 AD, Hadrian outlawed circumcision as a part of
a strategy to reform the Jewish religion so that it complied with Rome.
Aelia Capitolina. Quintus Tineius Rufus (Turnus Rufus) was appointed governor or procurator
of Judea by Hadrian. In 131, the governor performed a ceremony at the foundation of the city to
begin it building. A coin was struck to commemorate the event.
War. Between 132 and 135 AD, the people revolted under the leadership of Shimon Bar
Kochba. On Tisha B'Av in 135 the Romans captured the last stronghold of the leaders of the Bar
Kochba revolt at the fortress city of Beitar. Bar Kochba and tens of thousands of Jews were
Damnatio Memoriae. In response to the Jewish revolt, Hadrian speeded up the process of
religious reform. He began the process of "damnation of memory" where all images, statues and
name was removed from all public places. He intended to wipe out the Jews and their God and
any memory of them in history.
Temple Mount. Temple to Jupiter and possibly to Minerva and Juno was built on the
temple mount.
Signs. Jewish signs were eliminated. In 135 AD, Hadrian outlawed Sabbath keeping and
circumcision under pain of death. Banners with pigs were placed in the city.
The Holy City of Jerusalem. Exactly a year later on Tisha B'Av 136 AD, the Roman
Emperor Hadrian ordered the wicked Turnus Rufus to plow up the city of Jerusalem, so
that there should be no memory of the holy city. He rebuilt it and renamed it "Aelia
Capitolina" after himself (Publius Aelius Hadrianus) and the chief Roman god (Jupiter
Land of Judea. The land was renamed Syria Palaestina (Palestine) after the Philistines.
People Exiled. The Jews were barred from Jerusalem until the fourth century and the land
was settled with Greeks. 2000 years later, the world is still suffering from the damages
caused by that exile as the Palestinians and Arabs battle with Jews over Jewish claims on
the land,
Building Projects. In 126 AD, he rebuilt the Pantheon, a building commissioned by Marcus
Agrippa and dedicated to all the gods of Ancient Rome. It became a Roman Catholic church
dedicated to St. Mary and the martyrs since the seventh century.
He built Hadrian's wall in northern Britain to keep the Barbarians out of the empire.
The Death of Hadrian (24 January 76AD - 10 July 138 AD). Hadrian sought death but could
not find it. By 137 He was delirious with pain from a protracted illness and he seemed to go mad
after the death of Antinous. He suffered a long painful illness in 135 from which he sought relief
by stabbing himself and by ordering a physician to poison him. He survived the stabbing and the
doctor committed suicide instead. He also became mentally insane and paranoid and ordered
several executions so that the people began to hate him at the end of his reign of terror. He
finally died after deliberately overdosing on medication in 138 AD. He was deified in 139 AD and
given a temple on the Campus Martius.
Restoration Begins. But by the middle of the third century (222-235) Emperor Alexander
Severus gave permission to go to the Mount of Olives to mourn the Temple from afar. The Arabs
allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem in 636 and in 1187 Saladin invited the Jews to return
after he had conquered the crusaders.
Jewish calendar reform occurred during this period and the Jewish year was established.

Rebuilding the Temple

The Bar Kokaba revolt happened because emperor Hadrian supported a plan to rebuild the temple
and dedicate it to the Pagan God Jupiter. The Jews revolted.
. Emperor Constantine also tried to rebuild between 313-324 it but was unsuccessful. He built Page 34 of 104

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Christian churches instead.

Not One Stone Remains. Finally, in 363 emperor Julian (the apostate) tried to rebuild it. For this
project, the Jews had to remove the remaining foundation stones, fulfilling Jesus' Prophecy. Now, there
were no stones left of the original temple. Only parts of a wall that surrounded the complex remained.
This still exists as the wailing wall.
Earthquake And Fires. After the demolition, and before, the rebuilding could begin a series of
natural disasters and unusual events prevented the efforts. An earthquake, followed by many
explosions and balls of fire from the ground stopped the project.
Finally, the Muslims built the Dome of the Rock mosque in 691 and the Al-Aksa mosque in 715 on the
temple mount. The political tensions prevent the destruction of the mosqe and the rebuilding of the

Europe: The Division and Decline of Pagan Rome

Rome broke up into ten dominant groups after constant Tribe Leader Location and History
invasion from the Barbarian hordes from the north and 1 Alaric Spain
east. As a result, Rome had to divide the empire into
two halves in an attempt to survive. Both halves would Franks Clovis France
fall because of invaders from the east. The Barbarians Gained control of the empire for the Papacy
conquered western Rome, while the Persians 3 Allemani Leuthari Germany
conquered Byzantine Rome. 4 Anglo-Saxon Many England
5 Lombards Cassiodorus Italy
Barbarian Invasion of Western Rome
6 Suevi Hermeric Portugal
By the end of its dominance, Western Rome was
7 Burgundians Gundobad Switzerland
constantly invaded by the Mongol and Germanic tribes
(Barbarians) from the north and east. Eventually, the Germanic tribe from
8 Heruli Odoacer
Sweden. Assimilated
divisions were roughly according to ten nations:
Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Franks, Vandals, Suevi, Vandals Gaiseric German tribe
Allemanni, Anglo-Saxons, Heruli, Lombards and 9 Moved to North Africa, controlled western
Burgundians. Mediterranean then disappeared in 534 after they
were overthrown by the Romans
Vandal Invasion from the Sea. The Vandals Ostrogoths Theodoric German tribe
were a Germanic tribe of Jutland (now in Conquered by the Romans
Denmark) who migrated to the valley of the Oder Map of the Divided Roman Empire
river in the fifth century. Their most famous
Tribe Origin Location and History
leader, Gaiseric, was the crippled son of a slave.
They invaded Spain (411), North Africa (429) and Disappeared by the
Bastarnae German
second century
Rome. After conquering North Africa, he went on
Disappeared after the
to a career of piracy on the Mediterranean sea for Marcomanni German
fourth century
35 years.
The Burning of Rome (455 AD). He built a Slavs Slav North Carpathian
great fleet which eventually invaded and burned From the North Carpathian. Settled in the peninsula
Rome to the ground in two weeks during the year Costoboci Slav Disappeared by 3 AD
455 AD. Gaiseric was met by Pope Leo on June Carpi Slav Disappeared by 273
2, 455. In this meeting he was asked not to Emerged in seventh
murder or destroy by fire, but to be satisfied with Bulgars Turks, Huns
pillaging. (Catholic Encyclopedia) Atilla Disappeared by the fifth
A Huns
Visigoth Invasion (396-410). Emperor Valens (Asiatic) century
allowed the Visigoths to settle within the empire in Roxolani Iranian Disappeared by 68 AD
376 AD and treated them like slaves. By 378 they Defeated by the Goths
defeated the Roman army at Hadrianopolis. Sarmatians Iranian and Huns in the third
In 410 AD, Rome was sacked by Alaric, the and fourth centuries
leader of the Visigoths and again in 546 by Scythians Central
800BC-600BC-300 AD
Visigoth rebels led by Totila. Saka Asia, Iranian Page 35 of 104

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Alaric made two notable invasions. The first was Umman-Manda (Scythians) drove the Cimmerians
the invasion of the eastern empire - Thrace, out of Europe to the region above the Black Sea
Macedonia, Attica and Peloponesus. In the Cimmerians Iranian 800-600 BC
second, he attacked the western empire and The region above the Black Sea
Rome fell in 410. Goths German Moved to Italy by 488
B Adopted Christianity in the fourth century. Split into
The Burning of Rome (468 AD) the Visigoths and Ostrogoths and moved to Italy
Alaric was also known for conquering the African C Basques Unknown From northern Spain
portion of the Roman empire in 428-468.
Disappeared with the
After the death of Constantine, the empire was D Quadi German
divided among his three sons:
Gepidae German Disappeared by 567
1. Constantinus - Constantinople and the
Defeated by the Huns and Avars
eastern empire
2. Constantine II - Britain, Gaul and Spain Appeared around the
twelfth century and later
3. Constans - Illyricum, Africa and Italy Cumans Turkish
assimilated into the
It was the division controlled by Constans that population
was attacked by Alaric. In 468 a fleet of 1113 Tartars Turkish Bulgaria and Romania
ships with 100,000 men was attacked and burned E Appeared around the thirteenth and fourteenth
in one night. While the Romans slept, Alaric centuries in the region of Bulgaria and Romania
rammed the ships with burning logs. The fire Pechenegs Turkish Volga and Ural rivers
spread quickly between the ships that were
Emerged 8-9th century.
anchored close together. Assimilated by the twelfth century
The Visigoths eventually settled in Aquitaine Avars Turkish Ukraine
(Atlantic coast of France) in 418 and between
Settled in the Ukraine by the sixth century. Defeated
614-620 they reconquered spain from the empire. by the Franks in 827
Invasion of the Huns (451-453). In the Alani Iranian Western Rome
middle of the 5th century, the Huns terrorized the Disappeared by the fifth century and settled in the
West. Their leader, Attila, is still remembered as a northern Persian region. They had migrated to
fearsome warrior and conqueror. He called western Rome by 451
himself "the scourge of God". The rivers of Gaul From North Africa. Not
Berber Unknown
and northern Italy were bloodied by the part of the empire.
destruction that he caused and by the wars made F Conquered by 52 BC,
against him. He ultimately made peace with Pope Celts (Gauls)
assimilated by the
Leo I, and Rome was spared. The Huns were native populations
ultimately defeated and their Empire was Celts Indo-Aryan Future British empire
dissolved after Attila's sudden death. (Celts, Irish, Scots, Picts, Britons, Jutes) Part of the
Heruli Invasion of Western Rome. Until the future British empire. Not part of the Roman empire
year 4 September 476, Rome had managed to resist subjugation. But in that year Odoacer,
leader of the Heruli, subdued the former capital of the world. He deposed Romulus Augustulus,
the last Roman emperor of the western Roman empire and became the first Barbarian king of
the empire. The eastern Roman empire fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Ostrogoth Invasion of Western Rome. Later, the Ostrogoths, led by Theodoric, occupied
the Italian peninsula and it became the most prominent among the new kingdoms. He would rule
from 403-526. The Emperor Justinian would free the Italian peninsula and establish the Bishop
of Rome as the ruler in the west.
The Slavic Migration (493). A mass migration of the Slavs began as the Germanic (Vandals,
Visigoths and Ostrogoths) deserted their land to attack the Romans and nomadic Asian tribes
(Huns) pushed them out in 370 AD. The first Slavic mass migration was in the year 493 AD and
continued until the seventh century. As the Hun empire fell in 453 AD, there was a rush of Slavic
migration to the south towards the Black Sea and the mouth of the river Danube in the outer
regions of the Byzantine Empire reaching to the Balkans.
Lombard Invasion (568). Lombards under Alboin invade northern Italy and remained. Page 36 of 104

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Other Barbarians. There were other tribes who appeared before or after this period. Some were
absorbed into the ten dominant tribes while others were destroyed. These are the reasons why these
are not considered part of the final ten powers of the western Roman empire.

A. Before Rome. Some tribes disappeared before the division of Rome in 476 AD or were
defeated by the Romans or others. (Celts (Gauls), Costoboci, Roxolani, Bastarnae, Carpi,
Sarmatians, Marcomanni, Huns, Alani, Slavs, Cimmerians, Scythians)
B. Split. They became part of the empire but split up into multiple tribes. (Goths)
C. Weak Nations. They were located within the borders of the Roman empire but never became
powerful enough to be a kingdom. (Basques)
D. Assimilated. They were absorbed by a more dominant tribe and so they lost their identity and
any claim to be called a power. (Quadi)
E. After Rome. They appeared or organized themselves long after the papacy was in power, and
were not within the borders of the empire. (Avars, Gepidae, Cumans, Tartars, Pechenegs)
F. Outside Rome. Their physical location was not within the borders of the Roman empire and
they never conquered any of the empire. (Alani, Berber, Bulgars, Celts)

Byzantine (Eastern Rome). During this time, Rome decided to abandon Italy and to abolish
imperial succession in Rome.

Rome Removed Political Structure. They also dismantled the rest of the roman political structure:

Capital. The capital moved from Rome to Constantinople in 329. The transfer of the capital
drained all the resources and opened up the land for invasion. By 554 AD Rome was reduced to
a camp of about 30,000 people, while Constantinople had about one million people. But in 602
AD the Persians (Sassanids) attacked the eastern Roman empire in Asia Minor and captured
Jerusalem in 614 AD.
Emperor. Roman emperor was replaced by Barbarian Ostrogoth ruler Theodoric in 493.
Senate. The senate was dissolved after the Ostrogoths were removed from Rome by General
Belisarius in 536. He also conquered the Vandals in North Africa and Southern Spain in 534.
Consul. Justinian removed the Consuls in 541.

The Turkic Migration. The Turks migrated from Central Asia into Europe and the Middle East
between the sixth and twelfth centuries. Turks also founded states between Mongolia and Transoxiana
and were converted to Islam. A great migration of Oghuz Turks (Turkomen) in the eleventh and twelfth
centuries came into Asia Minor (Anatolia).
While eastern Rome eventually fell under the invading Turks and the religion of Islam, the papacy
controlled western Rome.

The Rise of Papal Rome Prophetic Footprints

Under the old Roman empire, the popes had no powers, but 1. Ten Divisions
when the empire had disintegrated, the church became 2. Will be ruled by a small power
independent of the states and dominated religious and secular 3. Attempts to unite by marriage will fail
affairs. 4. Other attempts to unite will fail
5. Will remain divided
6. Will help to setup the last religious
In its rise to power in Rome, several important events happened. power

Constantine (Christian Emperor). The fortunes of the

church changed with the conversion of emperor Constantine. Christianity was no longer a
persecuted church but was the favored religion of the empire.
New Capital (330 AD). Constantinople became the capital of the eastern section of the Roman
Empire when Constantine moved the capital of the empire from the city of Rome to
Constantinople (Istanbul) to take advantage of the trade routes. He essentially divided the
empire into an eastern and western section. The emperor remained in the eastern portion with Page 37 of 104

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its new capital was eventually called the Byzantine empire.

The western empire was left to the bishop of Rome. The Pope was given many gifts including
the old capital in Rome and became the head of the western empire. He was given great
authority and power and the seat of the old Roman empire. But he could not use his power
because of the Barbarian tribes occupying or threatening Rome. This threat would be removed
in 538 when the siege of Rome ended and the Ostrogoths fled.
King Clovis: French Champions (496/497). He converted to Christianity in 508. Then the
Franks were the first of the invaders to convert to Orthodox/Catholic ("no heretical") Christianity
under their leader Clovis in 497.

Arianism Defeated by King Clovis (508)

Two forms of Christianity had struggled for supremacy in Europe before 508 AD. The people of
Gaul (France) and Germany were united under a Catholic Monarch who recognized the religious
authority of Rome in 508 AD. In this fusion of Roman and German civilizations, Catholicism was
put in and Arianiam pushed out. A monopoly of religion was imposed on Europe as a result.

The Visigoth army was routed in 507 AD by Clovis.

By 508, the Franks championed the cause of Catholicism and Clovis defeated the Ostrogoths
and vowed to use his power to advance the papacy. In that year he received the title the eldest
son of the church.
Emperor Justinian: Established as Head of Churches by the State (533). Justinian
recognized the pope as the head of all holy churches and head the priests of God and later as
the corrector of heretics in the East and West.
Head by Law (529). Justinian's Imperial Code of Laws officially incorporated his beliefs about
the supremacy of the Roman pontiff. Code of Justinian, book 1, title i, stating that the See of
Rome is the supreme authority regarding spiritual issues.
Rivals Eliminated. The state actively promoted the church by law, and by force and eliminated
all its rivals.
Religious Rivals Suppressed. The government then suppressed all rival beliefs. It closed or
took over Pagan schools and banned all non-Christian teachings and symbols and actively
stopped all other religions.
Religious Political Rivals Eliminated. Three barbarian kingdoms occupying or threatening
Rome were a threat to the Pope because of their Aryan beliefs. But it was Justinian and his
general Belisarius who finally made the empire safe. They defeated three barbarian tribes
threatening Rome.
Heruli. The Heruli first occupied Rome by defeating the last emperor of the west Romulus
Augustus in 476. Under the leadership of Odovacar (Odoacer) was killed when Theodoric
(leader of the Ostrogoths invaded in 489. By 493 Odovacar surrendered and was killed.
Vandals (534). Belisarius was sent by Justinian to defeat the Vandals who were under the
leadership of Gaiseric (Genseric). They were hostile to Catholicism and posed a threat to
the leadership of the pope.
Ostrogoths (536). Belisarius turned his attention to the Ostrogoths in Rome and came
with 5000 troops. He takes Naples by violence after a month long siege ended when they
entered under the city walls through an aqueduct. Other cities gave up peacefully. 2000
stayed to protect these cities and 3,000 went on to Rome.
On December 9, 536 Belisarius and 3,000 troops entered Rome and the Ostrogoths left.
Theodatus was killed when he tried to escape to Ravenna with 4000 Goths. They were
driven from Rome but returned with 50,000 troops on March 2, 537 to lay siege to the city
for a year with a 50,000 man force that outnumbered Belisarius 17 to 1. They set up six
camps east of the Tiber river and later, they set up a seventh camp in the Vatican field.
Vittigis, return to besiege Rome and attacked on March 21. 30,000 were killed. During the
war pope Silverius tried to betray the city to the Goths, but his offer was intercepted and he
was exiled. Page 38 of 104

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In 538, Justinian sent another army and the Ostrogoths abandoned the siege in March of
that year due to problems with malaria. The Goths cut aqueducts to prevent the taking of
Rome like they did Naples. So Belisarius blocked them in March when he captured the
city. When they cut off the water supply to the city, they created a breeding ground for
mosquitos and inadvertently engineered their own defeat.
The siege ended on 12 March 538 in one year and 9 days because the Goths were
weakened by hunger and plague. Their power ended that year. Belisarius continued his
campaign against them until 554 because he never has enough troops to take and keep
the city and the region.
The Romans relied on mercenaries, and a commander usually had his own private army.
Justinian was jealous of Belisarious and never quite supported him with enough men
because he was afraid that he would be overthrown.
Power Achieved (538). By now, Rome was free from all Arian domination and the pope was
now the undisputed head of the church. The French kingdom was the first orthodox Catholic
kingdom, the others eventually followed.
King Makers (755). The powerful French kings helped to install the papacy in the sixth century.
In 755, Pepin III, the Short, defeated the Lombards and gave civil power to Pope Stephen III by
giving him their property, the Exarchate of Ravenna, Pentopolis and twenty one cities and
castles. Prior to this, the church had absolute religious power and it had civil power through its
control of the king. Pepin III was appointed king of the Franks by pope Stephen in a meeting in
which Stephen asked for help. Ironically, it was the French who brought down the church during
the Napoleonic wars in 1798.

The Holy Roman Empire. With the empire divided into two and the Bishop of Rome the head of
the western empire, the church quickly established itself as the power behind all powers. They
approved, coronated, threatened and punished kings. They had the power to ask governments to use
their armies to execute the desires of the church.

The Visigoths converted to Orthodoxy/Catholicism in 589, but were later destroyed by the Muslims.
After some fluctuations in their power, and periods of division, the Franks eventually, but briefly,
created a vast empire, which was considered to be the continuation of the Western Roman Empire,
comprising most of the then civilized lands of Central and Western Europe (with the exception of a
large part of the Iberian peninsula, now belonging to the Muslims).

In the year 800, the Frankish King Charlemagne was crowned Emperor by the Pope, thus becoming a
successor to the Roman Emperors of the past, only now it was felt that such a title could only be
granted by the Church. Historians traditionally regard this event as the birth of the Holy Roman Empire
Under the auspices of the Catholic Franks, the Papal States were created in central Italy, comprising
Rome and the areas around her. The Frankish Empire was divided into a French and a German half a
few decades after its formation. The Papal States would survive until 1871. In November 1793, all
Christian churches in Paris, the center of the Revolution, closed down, and the Christian religion was
officially banned.

During its reign, the states were separate powers often times at war with each other. But the church
was a unifying force in that it installed and dethroned kings and could call the states at anytime to use
its military power to enforce church laws and policy.

The Church under the Papacy

Prophetic Footprints
The reign of the papacy was marked by these events:
1. Religious power
1. Power. Helped to power by the French king Clovis and later 2. Removes three of the ten divisions
3. Lasts 1260 years
Justinian. 4. Persecutes the church
2. Defeat of three Nations. Three rulers and nations were 5. Captured Page 39 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

exterminated (Vandals, Heruli, Ostrogoths) before the 6. Rises to power again

7. Allies with the United States
church could take over control of Rome.
8. Controls world religion
3. Persecutes. The church persecuted and killed between 50- 9. Defeated by God (future)
100 million martyrs as heretics in a series of organized
The Crusades against Muslims and Protestant heretics.
The Inquisition against Protestant heretics.
4. Captured. Removed from power in 1798 during the Napoleonic wars, when General Berthier
imprisoned Pope Pius II and created the Papal States.
5. 1260 Year Reign. The reign would last from 538 with the defeat of the Ostrogoths to 1798 with
the imprisonment of Pope Pius.
6. Restoration. Sovereign power was restored after World War II when Italy and the Pope signed
the Lateran Treaty and created the Vatican City.

The Decline of Papal Rome

The political and religious decline of the church came in several stages, the most influential was the

1. The Invention of Printing. Before this time, only a few copies of the Bible existed, mostly in
Latin and in monasteries. Printing made is available in more languages and more widely
circulated. Education was followed by unrest.
2. The Protestant Reformation. It caused many to question the doctrines of the church and broke
the religious dominance of the church. With new information from the Bible and in reaction to
centuries of persecution many broke away from the church.
3. The French Revolution. It changed the political dominance of the church. With new ideas of
government, the resulting Napoleonic wars spread the new political ideas. With their hatred of
the church, they succeeded in taking away the land and government of the church in Rome.

The church used many tactics to combat the rising tide of independence. They began with force.

Spain and the Inquisition

The nation of Spain is discussed because of the Spanish Inquisition. In 1478 Pope Sixtus IV issued a
papal bull for the creation of the Spanish Inquisition, at the request of the Spanish rulers Ferdinand
and Isabella. They used this system to unify the nation of Spain which was divided into various groups
after Spain was retaken by the Christians in the Crusades.

The king and queen chose Catholicism to unite the nation. They drove out Jews, Muslims and other
nonbelievers. In 1483, Tomas de Torquemada became the inquisitor general for most of Spain. He was
responsible for establishing the rules of inquisitorial procedure and creating branches of the Inquisition
in various cities.

The Spanish Inquisition was officially abolished in 1834.

One of the tasks assigned to the Jesuits at the Council of Trent was to fight the reformation by
inquisition, torture and theology.

The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) was founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola in 1534 and was officially
approved by Pope Paul III in 1540. Loyola was a devotee of the virgin Mary whom he credited with
giving him the spiritual exercises that is practiced among the group. They are bound by a vow of
obedience to the pope and are governed by a general in Rome who is elected for life. This general is
sometimes referred to as the "Black Pope". In this case "black" means hidden or evil activities. He is
thought to be the most powerful in the Roman Catholic Church. Page 40 of 104

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Their work mainly centered on foreign missions, education and working with outsiders. As such they
became spiritual advisors to kings and taught the sons of leading families. These activities (education
and political influence) are two of their primary means of promoting Catholicism.

Counter-Reformation. The Jesuits were instrumental in combating the reformation. They acted
as the theologians at the council of Trent (1545 - 1564) which was convened to deal with the
emerging problem of Protestantism. The council rejected the Protestant ideas of righteousness
by faith and "sola scriptura" (the Bible only).
Persecution. The Jesuits have been linked to major involvement in the fight to regain Catholic
dominance over the world.
The Jesuits became judges in the inquisition in which the vast majority of the 100 - 200
million Protestant martyrs in the dark ages were murdered..
On August 24, 1572, Roman Catholics in France, by pre-arranged plan, murdered 70,000
Protestants within two months
Political assassinations
Stirring up the Thirty years war.
Jesuit Futurism Theology. Martin Luther and other reformers became convinced that the pope
was the Antichrist. And he used this message in addition to the doctrine of faith alone to fuel the

In 1590, the Jesuit scholar Francisco Ribera developed the futurist interpretation of prophecy. He
stated that Antichrist was a future evil person who would rebuild Jerusalem. He also introduced
the "Gap Theory" which stated that when Rome fell, prophecy stopped and no prophecies were
being fulfilled in the dark ages. The theories were popularized by Cardinal Robert Bellarmine,
another Jesuit.

The theories remained within Catholicism for about 300 years until the Jesuit writings were
discovered in England by Dr. Samuel Roffey Maitland, a librarian to the Archbishop of
Canterbury. From his writings it would spread by several others.
1. James H. Todd, a professor of Hebrew at the University of Dublin.
2. John Henry Newman - a member of the Church of England and a leader of the famous
Oxford Movement whose goal was to "absorb the various English denominations and
parties back into the Church of Rome.". He eventually became a Roman Catholic cardinal.
3. Scottish Presbyterian minister, Edward Irving
4. John Nelson Darby, The Father of Modern Dispensationalism. He visited the United States
and spread futurism here.
5. Cyrus Ingerson Scofield - incorporated the theory into his reference Bible.
Expulsion. Because of their political activities, the society was expelled from Asia, America and
Europe in 1767 and was suppressed in 1773 by Clement XIV. They continued to survive in
Prussia and Russia. They were restored by Pius VII in 1814. In that year the church was still
suffering from the loss of power received in the French Revolution. So it probably called on the
order of the Jesuits to use their successful tactics in building up the church again.

The Thirty Years War (1618 - 1648)

The Protestant Reformation (1517) and the printing of the Bible in the common language brought
religious chaos to Europe. It eventually helped to start the Thirty Years war which was basically a war
of religion involving several nations. It eventually became a political war as other Catholic countries
(France) became fearful of the growing Spanish power.
The Spanish Hapsburgs joined the Austrians to form the Catholic League. They would be at war with
several nations for the next thirty years.

Bohemian Revolt (1618-1620). By 1618, Bohemia (a province of Austria) became Protestant

(Calvinists) and they rejected the Catholic king imposed on them by the Austrian Hapsburg
rulers. The Bohemians chose the German Frederick of the Palatine instead of Ferdinand of Page 41 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Styria as their king. The Hapsburgs attempted to eradicate Protestantism and war broke out.
After the Spanish joined the war, Bohemia was defeated in the Battle of White Mountain and
convinced other Protestant states (in the Treaty of Ulm) to abandon them by giving a promise of
Germany (1619-1623). The Catholic League combated not only religious threats but other
political ideologies in this region and Germany suffered the most in this war.
Denmark (1624-1629). Christian IV of the Lutheran state of Denmark felt threatened by the
victory of the Catholic league and entered the war. He formed an alliance with England and
France in the Treaty of Hague. But Denmark was devastated by the war and withdrew in the
Peace of Lubeck (1629) and had to give up all claims to the northern German territories (Baltic
Ferdinand II imposed the Edict of Restitution in 1629 - reestablishing Catholic authority on all
church lands. This stirred up more resentment.
Sweden (1630-1635). With the conquest of the Hapsburgs in the Baltic regions, Sweden
entered the war. The Swedish campaign was mostly successful as they slowly won back the
German lands. But the death of their leader caused a reversal and France joined the war at this
time in the Treaty of Barwalde. Although France was a Catholic state, they were concerned
about the growth of their enemy - Spain.
France and Sweden (1635-1648). With French involvement, the Spanish forces were ultimately
The Peace of Westphalia (1648). It did not resolve any religious issues but caused the
decentralization of power and the rise of Prussia.

The French Revolution Prophetic Footprints

The final demise of the church came during the French Revolution. 1. Against God
By 1789, the French treasury was bankrupt. The problem 2. Lasts 3 years
precipitated a political upheaval that eventually affected the whole
France was politically and socially divided between three groups.
The clergy (First Estate), the nobles (Second Estate), and the
common people (Third Estate). The Estates-General met from 5
May-June 1789 for the first time since 1614, to discuss their financial problems caused by debts
incurred for Americans who were fighting their old enemies - the British.

The discontent with the French government was due to the financial crisis, disaffection with the
privileged clergy and nobility fuelled the rebellion of the underprivileged classes against feudal
oppression. Louis XVI convened the States-general at Versailles on May 5, 1789, for the first time
since 1614 to deal with the financial problems. This forum was used by some deputies to press for
sweeping political and social reforms that far exceeded the assembly's powers.
French Revolution Timeline
They proclaimed themselves the National February 22 Assembly of Notables installed by the king
Assembly (June 17) and took an oath not to - The Assembly revives the estates-general
separate until a constitution had been drawn up. July 14 Storming of the Bastille. Revolution began
Acting on rumors, on October 5 a mob marched 1789 August 14 Nationalization of Church property
to Versailles and forcibly moved the royal family August 26
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the
and the Assembly to Paris. There the Assembly Citizen
drafted a constitution (1791) that created a Academy of scientists asked to rationalize
1791 -
limited monarchy. the preamble was the famous weights and measurements
Declaration Of The Rights Of Man And Citizen. August 10 Monarchy overthrown
Influenced by the United States Declaration Of September Massacres. 1500 prisoners
September 2-7
Independence and the Enlightenment, it
asserted the equality of all men, the sovereignty Republic: (21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795)
of the people, and the inalienable rights of the September 21 The "Convention" abolishes monarchy, sets
1792 up republic Page 42 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

individual to liberty, property and security. September 28

Danton declares that the revolution is a
revolution against all kings
On September 21 the Convention (revolutionary The Convention declares its willingness to
government) abolished the monarchy, set up the November 19 help all subjected peoples to achieve their
first Republic, tried and executed the king for
December 26 King Louis XVI was brought to trial
treason in January 1793. This led to a royalist
January 15 Louis XVI condemned by 351 out of 700
uprising and the September massacres
January 21 Louis XVI executed on the guillotine
(September 2-7, 1792) in which hundreds of
War declared on Britain and Holland
royal prisoners were killed. This was followed by February
(February 1). Spain (March 7)
the Reign Of Terror in 1792-1794 led by Revolutionary Tribunal to judge "enemies of
Maximilien Robespierre. March 10
the republic"
On 22 November 1793, Robespierre reports on Committee of Public Safety, the official
April 6
the principles of political morality, declaring that terror organization of the state
the revolutionary government is based on both July 13 Charlotte Corday stabbed Jean-Paul Marat
virtue and terror 1793 September 5 Reign of Terror begins
New Republican calendar with new time
"... virtue without which terror is evil, terror without October 5 (year, month, week, hours) retroactive to 22
which virtue is powerless" September 1792
- Press censored
October 16 Queen Marie Antoinette guillotined
Robespierre was executed after a coup d'etat of
November 10 The Festival of Reason in Notre Dame
9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794), and the Directory
came into existence under the new constitution Religion Banned for about 3.5 Years
of 1795. Their reign was plagued with corruption Roman Catholicism banned and churches
November 22
closed. Bibles burned
and was finally ended by Napoleon Bonaparte's
The Great Terror. Mass executions.
coup d'etat of 18 Brumaire and the February 5 250,000 killed. Some sources say 500,000
establishment of the Consulate. Thus ended the to a million
French Revolutionary Wars, the beginning of the
Napoleonic empire (1804) and the Napoleonic The Festival of the Supreme Being
worshipping Bacchus and nature.
wars in which the French tried to spread their Robespierre starts the cult of the supreme
revolutionary ideas and liberalism and June 8 being and is called "the prophet of the new
communism across Europe. Napoleon was 1794
dawn" and the "Messiah who would renew
defeated at Waterloo and exiled. the earth". This festival resembles Mardi
June 10 Law of 22 Prairial. Great Terror
The Death Of God In France. During the
Robespierre is accused, condemned and
revolution, the people revolted against the June 27-28
executed after a failed suicide attempt
Catholic church and the monarchy. The people July 28 Reign of Terror ends
had been tortured and repressed for so long, State no longer pays expenses and salaries
that when they revolted they rejected all of September 18
of the church
Christianity and the word of God. April 1 Food shortages and riots
Freedom of worship and separation of
February 21
For 3 and years beginning November 24, church and state is official
1793 to April 1797 religion was banned and a 1795 May 20-23 Bread riots and white terror in Paris
substitute put in place. They even changed the Directory: (27 October 1795 to 10 November 1799)
calendar to show their new found love for November 3 The Directory begins, 1795-1799
natural law and hatred of Sunday. 1796 April 11 Italy invaded
April 18 Electors turn against the Directory
Beginning with that period (November 24, 1793 1797 Religion Returns after 3.5 Years
or 3rd Frimaire in Year II), the churches of Paris August 24 Repeal of laws against the clergy
were closed and the public reading of the Bible The Fall of the Papacy and The Fall of Egypt
forbidden. Immediately, almost all parts of the France captures Rome and declared a
town renounced religion, closed parish churches February 10
and reopened them as temples of reason. In February 15 Pope flees
these temples, a prostitute, Dsire Candille, Pope imprisoned and taken to Siena then to
February 20 Page 43 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

was installed as the Goddess of Reason after 1798 Florence

she paraded naked through the streets of Paris. April 3 Mandatory 10 day week
July 1 French land in Egypt
The goddess, after being embraced by the July 21
French victory of the Pyramids against the
president, was mounted on a magnificent Mamelukes
car, and conducted, amid an immense Battle of the Nile. Admiral Nelson defeats
August 1
the French fleet at Aboukir Bay
crowd, to the cathedral Notre Dame, to
Napoleon, with 600 men reinforcing 1500
take the place of Deity. There she was soldiers of general Kleber, defeats 25,000
elevated on a high altar, and received the April 16
Turks at the Battle of Mt. Tabor on the
adoration of all present. plains of Megiddo
August 22 Napoleon deserts his army
At the end of the period, the churches of Paris 1799 August 29 Pope Pius VI dies in Valence, France
were reopened and the public reading of the October 9 Napoleon returns secretly to France
Bible was encouraged among the Protestants.
Consulate: (November 1799 to ?)
All non-Catholic groups (Protestants and Jews)
November 9-10 Coup d'etat. Napoleon overthrows directory
were granted freedom of religion. The French
December 12 Napoleon becomes first consul
Protestants had been subjected to millions of
1800 July 26 Free to worship on any day
deaths in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre,
1801 July 15 Concordat signed with the Papacy
the slaughter of Protestant Huguenots at the
April 30 - Louisiana Purchase. France sells 530
revocation of the Edict of Nantes by King Louis 1803
December 20 million acres to the USA for $15 million
XIV, Albigensian Inquisition and Crusade, and Napoleon crowned himself emperor, taking
the persecution of the Huguenots. 1804 -
title from the pope
1805 September 9 Sunday was the official rest day
In their animosity towards the Catholic church, 1806 January 1 France returns to Gregorian calendar
the members of the government appealed to Invaded Russia with 600,000 men.
Napoleon to destroy the papacy. Christianity June-
1812 Retreated in winter with less then 100,000
and the French Revolution page 151 quotes a survivors
letter written to Napoleon from the Directory of 1814 January 11
British hire Rothschilds to finance the war
France who appealed to him with these words: with war bonds
1814 April 11 Forced to abdicate, exiled to Elba. Escaped
The Roman religion would always be the 1815 June 12-18 Napoleon defeated at Waterloo
irreconcilable enemy of the Republic. It 1815 June 22
Surrenders. Exiled to St. Helena. Died at
must be struck in France. It must be age 51
struck in Rome ... that is to destroy, if possible, the center of the unity of the Roman
church; and it is for you, who unite in your person the most distinguished qualities of the
general ... to realize this aim.

The Demise of the Papacy. By 1798, General Berthier entered Rome and seized Pope Pius VI
and placed him in prison on February 15, 1798. He made his entrance into Rome, abolished the Papal
government and established a secular one. This temporarily ended 1260 years of Papal rule and their
loss of prestige around the world. They were brought to power by the French General Belisarius and
removed from power by the French - Napoleon and General Berthier.

The Loss of Power in Italy. In 1870, the new government of Italy seized the Papal states, including
Rome. On 13 May 1871, it passed the "Law of Papal Guarantees" granting the pope a salary, religious
freedom and the right to receive ambassadors.

Civic Isolationism. Pius IX refused to acknowledge this law and in May 1873, the state seized all
Catholic schools, hospitals and religious orders. During this period, Leo XIII developed an official
position on religious liberties and church-state relations, which demanded that states must not only
care for religion but must "recognize the true religion professed by the Catholic church." These policies
would be implemented by Vatican II.

The Papacy Rises Again. Page 44 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

The Lateran Treaty (11 February 1929). It was not until the Lateran Treaty, when Mussolini gave
the Vatican City to the Church that the secular power began to be restored. The Lateran treaty had
three sections.

Treaty of Conciliation. It established Vatican City as an independent church-state and restored

the civil sovereignty of the Pope as a monarch.
Financial Convention. It compensated the Holy See for loss of the papal states.
Concordat. It addressed the Roman Catholic Church's ecclesiastical relations with the Italian
State. Catholicism was the state religion.

Concordat (3 June 1985). This treaty with Italy replaced the Lateran treaty. It gave the papacy more
international power, but the church was no longer the official state religion.
The church has signed concordats with many governments. These agreements guarantee certain
rights of the Catholics within the country.

International Power. The international power of the church grew. By 1989, the world would learn
that the church was instrumental in cooperating with the United States to bring an end to communism
since 1981.

The Holy See (1957). The church and the Secretary-General of the United Nations agreed to
refer to the Papal delegation at the United Nations as the 'Holy See'.
The Holy See has been registered as a "Non-member State Permanent Observer" of the United
Nations (U.N.) giving it the right to speak and vote at all U.N. conferences. All other religions are
registered as NGO (non-governmental organizations) and do not have this privilege.
United Nations Permanent Observer Status (21 March 1964). Paul VI established the first
Holy See permanent observer mission at the United Nations. As a permanent observer, it cannot
cast a vote in the General Assembly of the United Nations. It can participate in General
Assembly discussions and decisions and can address the General Assembly.
Protestant Political Action Groups (1973). The church began to openly form political
organizations to influence legislation supported by the church. By 1979, they began to recruit
fundamental ministers in this struggle to "save Christianity". Many Protestant political groups
sprung up after this with the financial backing of Catholics. In some cases, organizations with a
Protestant foundation are fully staffed by Catholics.
United States (1981). After the failed assassination attempts on Ronald Reagan and John Paul
II, both leaders agreed to cooperate. By December 1983, the United States appointed an
ambassador and openly established full diplomatic relations with the Holy See after repealing a
1868 law denying funds for any embassy to the Vatican or formal relations. Since Franklin
Roosevelt, the government had an unofficial relationship with the church by having a non-
salaried position as the president's personal representative to the Holy See. Then the country
began to implement Vatican policy on birth control around the world by cutting off funds to the
United Nations agencies that distribute this aid. The policy does not target abortion only, it
targets the concept of artificial birth control.
Christian Churches Together in the USA (2004). For the first time, the Catholic church
officially joined one of these groups with Protestants. Previously, they were merely supporters.

Attempts to unite Europe

Several peaceful and violent methods have been used in an attempt to unite the divided kingdom of
Europe into one political entity under one ruler. These include Prophetic Footprints
marriages between members of the royal family, by war and now
1. The old Roman empire will be
we see an attempt to partially join Europe by an economic union. divided into ten powers
Under the economic union, there may be an attempt to get full 2. They will attempt to unite by marriage
political union. By itself this too will fail. Even though prophecy 3. They will be ruled by a 'little' power
says that there may not be another long political union, there is a 4. They will not unite as one political
coming spiritual union under one leader, the Roman Catholic body like the old Roman empire Page 45 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM


1. European Unity by Marriage

The European monarchies attempted to bring peace and unity by marriage. This type of activity picked
up around the eleventh century and was the norm by the 1800's. All these intermarriages eventually
failed to bring about one political union similar to the days of the Roman Empire under the caesars.
During the middle ages, the church brought about a religious union, and the pope was able to
influence the monarchs on the basis of religious action as if he were the head of all those states. But
still this was not a complete political union. The kingdom remained divided.

Many attempts were made to unite by war or marriage. The most significant was the reign of Queen
Victoria, the 'grandmother of Europe', she married a German prince and they had 9 children whose
marriages were made to strengthen their ties with the other royal houses. Many times this caused
brother and sister to be at odds with the British position and with each other. Despite all the
relationships, there was always enmity or war between Britain and France, Prussia and Denmark and
between Hungary and Prussia. Following are just a few examples of some primary unions.
Relationships of the spouses to other royal houses were not considered.

1. British Royal. House under Queen Victoria (1819-1901). Queen Victoria

Grandmother Of Europe
She married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg Gotha
(German) and their 9 children and some grand children *Queen Victoria married Prince Albert of
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German). They had 9
married into the royal families of Denmark, Austria, Russia, children.
Scotland, Prussia, Darmstatt. The grandchildren married in
the royal families of Spain, Romania, Germany 1. Victoria empress of Germany -
(Battenberg), Netherlands and Denmark. Prince Frederick of Prussia
2. King Edward VII of Great Britain -
2. Spanish Royal House. Starting with King Carols I whose Princess Alexandria of Denmark
parents were from Austria and Aragon he married a 3. *Alice Grand Duchess of Hesse -
princess from Portugal. Their son Filipe II had three Louis of Austria
marriages to princesses from Portugal, France and 4. Alfred Duke of Edinburgh - Marie of
Austria. Each successive heir married in the royal families Their son became King Carol II of
from Portugal, France, Austria, Bavaria, Orleans, Savoy, Romania
Saxony, Parma, Sicily, Greece and Denmark. 5. Helena Princess of Schleswig-
The two generations of Carlos I and his son Fillipe II Holstein - Prince Christian of
represented the union of five different nations by marriage. Schleswig-Holstein
6. Louise Duchess of Agryll - Sir John
3. Kings Of The Hellenes (Greece). This royal line married Alexander McDonald of Scotland. He
into families from Bavaria, Saxe-Hildburghausen, Hesse- became prime minister of Canada.
Cassel, Russia, Prussia, Romania, Hohenzollern, 7. Arthur Duke of Connaught - Princess
Hannover and Denmark. Louise Margarte of Prussia
4. Kings Of Yugoslavia. Married into the royal families of 8. *Leopold Duke of Albany - Helene of
Montenegro, Serbia, Romania, Greece and Denmark. 9. *Beatrice Princess of Battenburg -
5. Kings Of Romania. Married into the royal families of Prince Henry of Battenburg (Prussia)
Hohenzollern, Great Britain and Ireland, Greece and Daughter *Victoria Eugenia married
Denmark. King Alfonso XIII of Spain.
6. Kings Of Bulgaria. Married into the royal families of * These carried the genetic disease of
Hesse-Darmstadt, Orlans, Saxe-Coburt and Gotha, Hemophelia
Bourbon-Parma and Savoy.
7. Grand Dukes Of Luxenburg. Married into the royal families of Netherlands, Prussia, Russia,
Belgium, Saxe-Altenburg, Portugal and Bourbon-Parma.
8. Kings Of Norway. Married into the royal families of Denmark, Poland, Normandy, England,
Sweden, Pomerania, Bavaria, Germany, Hesse-Cassel and Prussia.
9. Kings Of Denmark. Married into the royal families of Norway, Sweden, Netherlands, Flanders,
Pommerania, Portugal, Bavaria, Brandenburg, Saxony, Hohenzollern, Brunswick, Hesse-Cassel,
Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Iceland.
10. Kings Of Belgium. Married into the royal families of Wales, Habsburg-Lothringen, Page 46 of 104
History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Flanders, Bavaria and Sweden.

11. Kings Of The Netherlands (Dutch). Married into the royal families of Prussia, Russia,
Wrtemberg, Waldeck and Pyrmont, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Lippe-Biesterfeld.
12. Kings Of France. Married into the royal families of England, Spain, Austria, Portugal, Hungary,
Italy, Denmark, Greece, Belgium and Bavaria. In 1770 King Louis XVI of France married Marie
Antoinette of Austria to strengthen ties between the two countries. They were killed in the French
13. Tsars Of Russia. Romanov dynasty (1613 - 1917). Married into the royal houses of Germany,
Denmark, Prussia, Greece, Sweden, Britain and Spain.

Father-In-Law Of Europe: Denmark

King Christian IX (1818-1906) and Queen Louise (1817-1898) of Denmark
The six children and 4 grandchildren married into 5 nations.

1. King Frederick VIII of Denmark (1843--912).

2. Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom (1844-1925). Queen consort of King Edward VII
King George V of the United Kingdom. He was the second son of Albert Edward, Prince of
Wales (later King Edward VII), and the grandson of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria.
Queen Maud of Norway. The youngest daughter of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom
and Queen Alexandra;
3. King George I of Greece. Formerly Prince Wilhelm of Denmark (1845-1913)
King Constantine I of Greece. Constantine was the eldest son of King George I and Queen
Olga of Greece.
4. Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia (1847-1928). Formerly Princess Dagmar of Denmark;
empress consort of Tsar Alexander III
Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. The eldest son of Emperor Alexander III and Empress Maria
Feodorovna. The last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland.
5. Thyra of Denmark (1853-1933). Married Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
6. King Haakon VII of Norway. He was the first king of Norway, formerly Prince Carl of Denmark
and Iceland married Queen Maud.

Father-In-Law Of Europe: Nicholas I of Montenegro (1841-1921).

The five children married into 4 nations.

1. Elena of Montenegro. Married King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

2. Zorka of Montenegro. Married King Peter I of Serbia
3. Anna of Montenegro. Married Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg
4. Anastasia of Montenegro. Married Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia after divorcing
George, Duke of Leuchtenberg
5. Milica of Montenegro. Married Grand Duke Peter Nikolaevich of Russia, brother of Duke

The Ruling Classes. Four major families dominated the old Roman empires and their reigns ended
in 1917 at the end of World War I.

1. Habsburgs. Princes of Austria, Bohemia and Hungary. The Republic of Austria declined after
World War I when its territory was split into Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary,
Yugoslavia, Romania and Bulgaria
2. Hohenzollerns. German and Prussian princes
3. Romanovs. Russia. They were conquered in the Bolshevik revolution.
4. Ottomans. Turkey and the Middle East (Approximately 1444-1917)

See Map of Old Europe. Page 47 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

The Decline of Monarchies

At the end of World War I (1918) most monarchies were abolished or Country
Type of Year
replaced with republics or other forms of government, leaving the old Monarchy Ended
families with only ceremonial duties. There are only ten surviving Egypt Empire 31 BC
monarchies and these have no real power. Belgium Kingdom Ceremonial
Denmark Kingdom Ceremonial
2. European Unity by War United Kingdom
of Great Britain
All these attempts to unite Europe eventually failed to annex an area Kingdom Ceremonial
and Northern
equal to the area of the old Roman empire under any conditions (war Ireland
or peace). Liechtenstein Principality Ceremonial
Luxembourg Ceremonial
1. Charlemagne or Charles the Great . (768-814) A French king
Monaco Principality Ceremonial
of German descent - Unified the areas of Northern and central
Netherlands Kingdom Ceremonial
Italy, France and Germany He assumed the role of protector of
Norway Kingdom Ceremonial
the church. He started 53 campaigns to enlarge his territory and
Spain Kingdom Ceremonial
Christianize the region. When he conquered the Saxons, he
Sweden Kingdom Ceremonial
gave them a choice between baptism and death. At the height of
Albania Principality 1918/ 1939
his rule his territory included most of Italy and the Balkans, the
region between the Pyrenees and the Baltic and the region Austria-Hungary
between the Atlantic and the Vistula. Grand
2. Otto I the Great. (936-973) He subdued the duchies of Bavaria, Baden 1918
Swabia, Franconia and Lorraine. He later tried to extend his Bavaria Kingdom 1918
territory to France, Burgundy and Italy. At one point he was Brunswick Duchy 1918
declared the defacto head of the west. By 955 he allied with the Bulgaria Kingdom 1946
church to achieve some of his political goals and eventually Germany Empire 1918
ended up controlling who was elected to the papacy. The Greece Kingdom 1973
Ottonian system and the union of church and state caused the Hesse and by Grand
spread of Christianity into Slav territory. Rhine Duchy
3. Henry III. (1039-1056) a German emperor. He wanted to be ruler Italy Kingdom 1946
of the Universal state through the church. He fought for the idea Lippe Principality 1918
of the supremacy of the church. Under his rulership, the Holy Mecklenburg- Grand
Schwerin Duchy
Roman Empire achieved its greatest power.
Mecklenburg- Grand
4. Charles IV. (1294-1328), King of France (1322-1328). He Strelitz Duchy
invaded British territory in 1324 and tried to become emperor of Montenegro Kingdom 1918
France with the help of Pope John XXII who has deposed Louis Grand
Oldenburg 1918
IV Duchy
5. Louis XIV. The Sun King (1643-1715). He was the champion of Portugal Kingdom 1910
absolute monarchy and fought the other European countries in 4 Prussia Kingdom 1918
wars. Reuss Principality 1918
He started the War of Devolution (1667-1668) against Spain Romania Kingdom 1947
claiming the Spanish Netherlands. In 1672-1678 he fought Russia Empire 1917
against the Dutch in the third English - Dutch war. He captured Saxe-Altenburg Duchy 1918
territory from Italy, Spain, Germany and Flanders. Saxe-Coburg
Duchy 1918
and Gotha
6. Napoleon Bonaparte. The French emperor whose military
Saxe-Meiningen Duchy 1918
successes are memorialized by the Arc de Triomphe. Most of the
Saxe-Weimar Grand
Holy Roman Empire and Britain escaped. The Russian army and and Eisenach Duchy
an unusual winter storm in the summer ended his dreams. In Saxony Kingdom 1918
June 18, 1815 he was defeated at Waterloo by the allied forces Schaumburg-
Principality 1918
of England, Russia, Prussia and Austria when an unusually Lippe
heavy rain trapped his artillery in the mud. It is claimed that Schwarzburg-
Principality 1918
Napoleon said: Rudolstadt
Principality 1918
God Almighty has been too much for me.
Serbia Kingdom 1918 Page 48 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

7. Kaiser Wilhelm. Leader of Germany in World War I (1914) Waldeck and Principality 1918
8. Adolph Hitler. Leader of Germany in World War II (1942) -
Wrttemberg Kingdom 1918
Forcibly captured France, Poland, Norway, Denmark, Austria
Yugoslavia Kingdom 1945
and made allies in Italy, Greece and part of North Africa. But
Spain, Sweden, North West Africa and Switzerland was officially neutral and Great Britain was
against her.

See Map of unification areas.

3. European Unity by Religion

After the year 538, the Western European nations were successfully united by the Church of Rome.
The nations still remained sovereign nations and many times were fighting against each other. They
never achieved the political unity of the old Roman empire - but they did achieve a false religious unity.
This unity of the people under religion was maintained by the church and state under the threat of
death, persecution and torture. Although there was still national and political strife, Europe was united
in maintaining their Catholic Christian identity until the reformation.

To maintain this purity of religion, the popes were able to influence the governments to declare internal
wars against Protestants, or to go on crusades against Muslims and Jews. The ability to influence the
states decreased after the capture of the Pope by General Berthier in 1798. Consequently, there are
no more overt declaration of wars against heretics that are legally enforced by the state.

At least not yet.

4. The European Union - an Economic Union

The European Union formed as a more integrated trade group. Each nation remains sovereign, but
attempts to standardize, trade, standards and eliminate export tariffs are just a part of the economic
goals. By the year 2001, the official currency of the participating nations changed to the Euro dollar.

Others see an attempt to integrate more deeply into the political lives by standardizing criminal law and
elevating the leadership of the union to a more political one. They are now attempting to go beyond the
original goal of economic unity to form a military alliance.

The leaders of 15 European countries decided Thursday to make the European Union a
military power for the first time in it's 42 year history. Sacramento Bee, June 4, 1999

European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)(18 April 1951). Europe of the Six formed by
Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The concept of a united
Europe, at first based on economic interests, was started by Catholic leaders, supposedly with
the support of the church. Jean Monnet, Robert Schumann, Konrad Adenauer, Alcide de
Gasperi, Joseph Retinger were instrumental in founding this organization.
European Economic Community (25 March 1957). The "Treaties of Rome" creates the
European Economic Community (EEC) with the goal of forming a common market by 1968. The
name was changed to the European Union (EU) in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty.
European Communities (1 July 1967).
Customs Union (1 July 1968). Items are duty free between members of the community.
European Currency Snake (21 March 1972). Ideas of a monetary union.
Europe of the Nine (1 January 1973). Denmark, United Kingdom and Ireland join the union.
Europe of the Ten (1 January 1981). Greece joins the union.
Europe of the Twelve (1 January 1986). Spain and Portugal join the union. Amendments to the
treaty in the Single European Act. It aims for a single market by 1 January 1993.
Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) (1 November 1993). Reforms to assist the
cooperation in many areas of policy.
Europe of the Fifteen (1 January 1995). Finland, Sweden and Austria join the union. Page 49 of 104

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Central Bank (1 January 1994). The European Monetary Institute (EMI) makes preparations for
the European Central Bank.
Amsterdam Treaty (2 October 1997). Further reforms in the areas of justice, home affairs,
foreign policy and security policy.
Luxembourg Group (31 March 1998). Negotiations begin to include Hungary, Poland, Estonia,
the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Cyprus in the union. They joined the union on 1 January
Monetary Union (1 January 1999). Eleven member countries have the same currency.
Helsinki Group (15 February 2000). Negotiations begin to include Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania,
Malta, Romania and Slovakia in the union. Bulgaria and Romania joined the union on 1 January
2007. The rest joined the union on 1 January 2004.
European Constitution (29 October 2004). The constitution was signed and must be ratified by
all the member countries.
Constitution Rejected (May 2005). French and Dutch voters rejected the constitution by a
popular vote, creating a constitutional crisis.
Lisbon Treaty (19 October 2007). It bypasses the national referendum to accept the
constitution and relies on parliamentary votes. It also appoints a single head of the European
Union especially in areas of foreign affairs instead of the six month rotating presidency. Before
January 2007, the presidency rotated between each member country every six months. After
this, the presidency rotated among three members on an 18 month schedule as long as three
smaller countries in a row do not control the office.

The European Union - A Prophecy

The prophecies of Daniel 2 state that after the Roman empire is divided it will never unite as one
political entity until the Second Coming of the Messiah. A certain level of unity has been achieved
under religion and this may also happen under the current economic plans. But prophecy states that
no political union under one ruler will be achieved in the Old Roman empire.

What will happen in the future, is that we will see a revival of the religious union like the one that
influenced Europe during the years 538-1798. The Bible states that they would attempt to unite by
marriage but they will not stay together. There will never be one Europe (from the old Roman Empire)
under one real leader - but there will again be a Europe dominated by the church. The current
economic union is said to have been a brain child of the church. It was a long term strategy to once
again regain religious control - at the right moment.

Already, influential people in the United Nations are calling for this type of church control of Europe and
the West, to avoid Muslim take over of the world.

Muslims will not take over the world. The Catholic church will. But as you see the Muslim threat you
will fall under the control of the church and the United States by accepting their plans. That is the
message of the prophecies of Daniel and Revelation.

See Map of the Roman Empire. Map of the ten divisions of Rome. Map of the breakup of the empire
by religion.

The Byzantine Church In The East

While Rome had their problems in the west, the Byzantine church (Orthodox and Coptic) were being
overrun by Islam. The church of Rome and the kings of the Holy Roman Empire made frequent
assaults through formal crusades on Palestine to save Jerusalem from infidels, but eventually Islam

Islamic Conquest.
By the seventh century, eastern Rome came under the attack by the followers of Mohammed. They Page 50 of 104

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conquered Syria and Egypt and all the Persian territories but not Byzantium. In 670 and 717, they
tried, unsuccessfully, to conquer Byzantium with a large fleet. By the ninth century, the Byzantine
empire began to reconquer their territory and were once again powerful in the region of Greece to

The worst assault on the Greek division of the empire lasted from July 27, 1299 to 1449 when the
Turks were at war with the Greek empire.

Crusades. However, in 1071, the Turks conquered the Byzantine army and quickly took all of the
empire. The Byzantine empire turned to the western empire for help, and this brought the crusades.
The crusaders even attacked the city of Constantinople in 1204, but the empire continued to function
in Greece until 1261 when they retook the city.

The Byzantine empire finally fell in 1453, when the Ottoman Turks conquered the city and renamed it
Istanbul. Constantinople was captured after a siege lasting from April 6, 1453 and May 16. Crusades
were launched against the empire in 1366, 1396 and 1444 - without success.

The Expansion Of Islam The Religion of Islam

In 100 years after the death of Muhammad, Islam had conquered the
Prophets. Islam recognizes the
region by force of arms. They conquered the Pagan Arabs and prophets of Judaism.
attacked the two superpowers, Byzantine Rome and the Sassanids Promised Son. Ishmael is the
(Persians). They were stopped short of counquering western Rome by son, not Isaac.
Charles Martel, "the hammerer". Holy Book (Qu'ran). It is not a
combination of the Old Testament
and the new writings of
Arab Paganism Before Islam. Muhammad. The stories have
Mecca. This city was a major stop along the trade routes. been changed and merged with
Zoroastrianism, Arab paganism
Along these routes, merchants were exposed to the and the prophets from Muhammad
products, ideas and teachings of other cultures, including and his successors.
the major religions of Judaism, Christianity and Buddhism. Jesus Christ (Isa). He is a
This was the birthplace of Islam. prophet, not God.
God (Allah). He is one of the
Kaaba. Mecca was the shrine to the moon god, the chief of gods from the pagan religions, a
all gods. In Mecca, there was a sacred temple known as moon god. He is not YHWH.
the Kaaba which contained a black stone. The Kaaba is a
black cuboid building where the Pagan Arabs deposited their idols. In pre-islamic times it
was a pagan temple, full of 360 idols, where worshippers made pilgrimage to honor the
gods there. They worshipped the Moon-god and his daughters al-Uzza, al-Lat and Manat.
After they accepted Islam, the revised legends stated that Abraham and Ishamael built this
structure. The legends also state that the Kaaba existed from the time of Adam.
Allah. Muslim's claim that Allah is the newly revealed name of the God of the Bible and
that Islam arose from the religion of the prophets and apostles. Islam and its god Allah did
not come from the Bible but from the paganism of the Sabeans.
Modern historians are now claiming that Allah simply means "god" and was not the name
of any deity. However, an analysis of the customs and pagan religions of the region show
that Islam is a revival of the ancient moon god cult. Allah was worshipped there as the
creator god. He was the moon god Sin, chief of all the gods and his symbol was the
crescent moon. This is still the symbol of Islam. Sin's title was al-ilah (Allah), meaning "the
deity". The Assyrians, Babylonians, and the Akkadians took the word Suen and
transformed it into the word Sin as their favorite name for the moon god who was the
greatest of all gods. Other names and titles of the moon god were Nanna, Asimbabbar,
Suen (Sin), Hubul, Ilumquh and Al-ilah.

The name Allah was already in use by the pagan Arabs before Islam and such usage can
be seen in the names of people before Islam. Page 51 of 104
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Muhammad (26 April 570 - 8 June 632). He was an Arabian merchant from the city of
Mecca who managed caravans. He was from the prestigious Quraysh tribe in Mecca who
were the guardians of the Kaaba. On this busy trade route he learned about Judaism and
Christianity. At the age of 40 he claimed that the angel Gabriel visited him. He
subsequently denounced the traditional religion and set about converting the people.
Hijra (The Flight). He migrated to Yatrib in 622 to escape persecution. The city was later
renamed Medina (Medinat al-Nabi), the city of the prophet. Once he was established in
Medina, he set out to capture Mecca between 624-630.
The Conquest Of Arabia. After eight years of fighting, he had united the Arab tribes
and converted parts of the Arabian peninsula to Islam by force.
Battle Of Badra (13 March 624 AD). This was an important turning point in the struggle
for Arabia. Quraishi tribesmen of Mecca were defeated. Mecca was totally subdued by 11
January 630. Then Muhammad removed the idols from the Kaaba.
Rashidun Caliphate (632-661). They are also known as the Patriarchal Caliphate and the
"rightly guided caliphate". Under the leadership of Abu Bakr, the Muslims stop the rebellion after
death of Muhammad. After his death, many arabs rejected Islam. So his father-in-law, Abu-Bakr,
launched a series of wars to force the apostate Arabs back to Islam.
Wars Of Apostasy (Ridda Wars) (633-634 AD). All of the Arabian peninsula was now under
the control of Islam by the Caliph at Medina, Abu Bakr.
Wars (637-654 AD). Syria (637), Armenia (39), Egypt (639), North Africa (652) and Cyprus
Umayyad Caliphate (661-750). They conquered North Africa (665), besieged Constantinople
(674-678 and 717-718), Hispania (711-718), Georgia (736), Crete (820), Southern Italy (827).
Byzantine And Sassanid Empires (Persia) (640 AD).
Battle Of Ajnadayn (634 AD, July 30). 20,000 Muslims march from Bosra to Ajnadayn
to defeat Byzantine army of 60,000 men. They conquered Palestine and most of Syria.
Battle Of Yarmouk (636 AD). Rome retaliated, sending an imperial army but were
defeated and Palestine and Syria were totally conquered.
Battle Of Qadisiyyah (636 AD). Sassanids defeated. Iraq and Persia annexed.
Battle Of Navahand (642 AD). Muslim conquest of Persia.
Central Asia. The rest of the eastern Persian empire was taken.
Khorashan (647 AD). Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikstan.
Conquest Of Transoxiana (662-709 AD). Afghanistan and Turkestan.
Conquest Of Sindh (664-712 AD). India (Pakistan).
Conquest Of China (751 AD). Defeated the Tang dynasty in the battle of Talas. Islam
spread to the TUrkish people.
Conquest Of Egypt (661 AD). Egypt and parts of North Africa near Tripoli.
Maghreb (North West Africa) (670 AD). Fierce Berber resistance kept them out of
the land of the Moors in North West Africa. So they advanced only from Tripoli to just short
of Carthage. In the east, they also advanced as far as Kabul in Afghanistan.
Battle Of Karbala (680 AD). Umayyads defeat Husayn Ibn Ali, the founder of the Shia
North Africa (710 AD).
Battle Of Carthage (698 AD). Carthage is destroyed after a long siege.
Battle Of Tabarka (702 AD). The Arabs defeat the Berber queen Kahina, who had led a
successful North African resistance.
Invasion Of Europe (733 AD).
Conquest Of The Iberian Peninsula (Spain) (711-720 AD).
Battle Of Covadonga (722 AD). Christians defeat the Arabs in Spain. Page 52 of 104

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Battle Of Tours (October 732/733 AD). Charles Martel of France defeats the Arabs and
stops Islam from advancing into Europe.
Battle of Akroinon (740 AD). Byzantines defeated the 3 divisions of Umayyad forces in
Antolia. 13,200 were killed
Abbasid Revolt. The Abbasids temporarily converted to Shia and won their support in their
claim as true successors of Muhammad. Like the Shia, they claimed more direct lineage to
Muhammad and gained the support of Yemen and Persia in their war against the Umayyads.
Battle Of The Zab (25 January 750). It took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in
what is now Iraq. It caused the end of the Umayyad Caliphate and the rise of the Abbasids.
Caliphate of Cordoba. The remnants of the defeated Umayyads fled to Spain and
established the Caliphate of Cordoba and Al-Andalus.
Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258/1261-1517). They moved the capital from Damascus to
Baghdad and began the Golden Age by stressing knowledge over war. They established the
"House of Wisdom" in Baghdad where scholars gathered all the knowledge of the world and
translated it into several languages.
Once in power, they returned to the Sunni traditions and rejected the Shia beliefs. They
executed the Shia leaders and the direct descendants of Muhammad.
This and other internal struggles led to the deteoriation of Abbasid authority and the fracturing of
the empire as different groups formed their own caliphates.
Fatimid Dynasty (909-1171). Shia empire located in Egypt and Tunisia
Ayyubid Dynasty (1171-1341). Centered in Egypt, they controlled Yemen, Syria,
northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz (West Saudi Arabia) and the North African coast up to
Battle of Hattin (4 July 1187). Saladin defeated the crusaders and recaptured
Mongol Invasion (1258). Baghdad was sacked and the Abbasid caliphate was
Mongol Invasion (1 March 1260). Damascus was taken
Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1570). They were the private army of the Ayyubid
sultans who conquered their masters and ruled Egypt, Israel Syria and the Hejaz.

Cursader Invasions. After failed attempts to capture Jerusalem from the Muslims,
the Franks joined forces with the Mongols but were still unsuccessful. Christian rule in the
Holy Land ended after they were killed or enslaved after the fall of Antioch (1268), Tripoli
(1289), and Acre (1291).
First Crusade (27 November 1096-1099). Knights and peasants joined forces to
recapture the Holy Land, free the eastern Christians from Islamic rule and to
respond to the call from the Byzantine emperor who was being attacked by the
Seljuq Turks. They travelled by land to Constantinople and then to the Holy Land,
captured Jerusalem in July 1099 and massacred Muslims and Jews and established
the crusader states in Jerusalem, Antioch, Tripoli and Edessa.
Sixth Crusade (1228-1229). Frederick II made peace and the treaty allowed
Christians to rule over most of Jerusalem and a strip of territory from Acre to
Jerusalem, while the Muslims were given control of the Dome of the Rock and the
Al-Aqsa Mosque. In 1244 the Muslims besieged and regained control of Jerusalem.
Seventh Crusade (1248-1254).
Battle of Al Mansurah (11 February 1250). The seventh crusade forces were
Battle of Fariskur (6 April 1250). Louis IX captured and ransomed for 400,000
dinars. He was killed by disease in the next crusade. Page 53 of 104

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Mongol Invasions. After capturing the Abbasid centers of government in Baghdad and
Damascus, the Mongold headed south towards Palestine and Egypt with the help of the
Armenians, Franks and Georgians. The Mongols repeatedly tried to take Syria in four
major invasions but civil wars between competing western Mongol empires (Golden Horde
and Il-Khanate) caused alliances with the Mamluks against the Il-Khans.
1. Battle of Ayn Jalut (September 1260). Mamluks united with the crusaders in Acre.
First Battle of Horns (December 1260). Mongols defeated.
2. Mongol Invasion (October 1271). Distracted by war with the Golden horde, they
could not defeat the Mamluks.
3. Second Battle of Horns (October 1281). They were beaten back to the Euphrates.
4. Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar (December 1299 - April 1303). After initial success,
they were defeated.
Treaty Of Aleppo (1322/1323). The Il-Khanate Mongols ceased hostilities because they
were being converted to Islam.
Almoravid Dynasty (1040-1147). A Berber dynasty in Morocco ruling over the western
Maghreb in NW Africa and southern Spain. The capital was in Marrakesh (1062).
Almohad Dynasty (1121-1269). A Berber dynasty in the Almoravid territory from
Grenada in southern Spain up to Tripoli.
Seljuk Empire (1037-1194). The Seljuk tribe became dominant in the tenth century and
instituted orthodox Islam in their region. A massive army of Seljuk Turks conquered Khwarazm,
Iran and entered Baghdad in 1055. They later conquered Georgia, Armenia, much of Asia Minor
and Syria. In 1071 Byzantine Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes tried to retake Armenia and was
defeated in the field of Manzikert. With the Byzantine army devastated they invaded Anatolia
and occupied large parts of the Byzantine Empire, except Constantinople. They formed the
Seljuk Sultanate of Rum and played a major role in defending the Islamic world against the
In 1192 the borders of the quarreling and fractured Seljuk governments were under constant
pressure from the Crusaders in the west, the Arabs in the south and the Mongols in the east.
The empire fragmented into rival states which were defeated by the invading Mongols on 26
June 1243. When the Mongols withdrew suddenly, one man, Osman, rose from the weakened
chieftans to form the powerful Ottoman empire.
Ottoman Empire (1299-1923). The Ottoman Turks converted to Islam in the eighth and ninth
century. They controlled territory in southeast Europe, western Asia, and North Africa.

By the fourteenth century, the Ottomans were expanding into the Byzantine empire which was
surrounded on all sides by Muslims.
Gallipoli was conquered in 1354.
In 1394, the Ottomans defeated the crusaders at the Battle of Nicopolis and captured many
European leaders.
In 1444, they defeated an Hungarian - Polish army.
In 1453, Constantinople fell to Mehmet II who used a new weapon, a large 19 ton cannon
called the bombard. It could hurl stones over a mile. Constantinople fell in 8 weeks. By 1492,
Jews fleeing persecution in Spain moved to Constantinople.
In 1480, they were in Italy for a short time.
Fall of the Ottoman Empire. By August 11, 1840 the empire had lost its power. In 1918 the
empire came to an end after they sided with Germany in World War I and lost the rest of their
empire. Their empire was largely taken over by Britain. The former empire is now confined to the
country of Turkey.
Timurid Dynasty (1370-1526). The central Asian Turks and Mongols had adopted Islam and
the Persian culture. He conquered the Golden Horde. The empire founded by Timur included
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the Caucasus.
Safavid (1501-1736). A Persian dynasty which established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam
and made Shis. Their territory covered Iran, Azerbaijan, Armenia, most of Iraq, Georgia,
Afghanistan, Caucasus, parts of Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Turkey.
In 1722 Afghan invaders captured Esfahan and in 1723 the Ottomans took advantage and
invaded from the west. Then the Russians seized territories around the Caspian Sea. In June
1724 the Russia and the Ottomans agreed to partition Iran's northwestern provinces
Mughal (1526-1858). The Timurid prince Babur invaded invaded northern India and founded
the Mughul empire until the British Raj conquered.

History of Major Wars and Disasters

World War 1 (The Great War).
This war settled the fate of both the eastern and western empires. After this war, all monarchies lost
their power as new forms of government took over. The Western monarchies were now figureheads. In
the east, the Ottomans kings had lost their political power.

Although much of the European rulers were united by marriage, they were still constantly at war.
France, Britain and Germany would remain dominant powers because of their colonization of distant
lands. The ruin of Europe in the two World Wars was a direct cause of the emergence of the new
super power - The United States of America.

Year War End of War Issues

431-404 BC Peloponnesian Peace of Nicias Greeks. Sparta against Athens. 90,000 died in a plague
Greeks under Alexander the Great defeated the Persians
Battle of Arabela
331 BC 331 BC (Darius III) on October 1. With only 35,000 men Alexander
defeated an army of one million.
Romans defeated the Greeks (Macedonia) ending a four year
168 BC Battle of Pydna 168 BC
war that started in 171 BC
Augustus Caesar defeated Mark Anthony and the Egyptian
31 BC Battle of Actium 31 BC
fleet of Cleopatra
Christians against the Turks, Wars authorized by the pope to
1095-1272 Crusades 1272 fight against non-Christians (Muslims and Jews), heretics and
1311-1340 Genocide - 35 million Chinese killed by the Mongols
1337-1453 Hundred Years' War 1453 England and France
Ottomans defeated the crusaders and captured many
1394 Battle of Nicopolis -
European leaders
1455-1485 War of the Roses 1485 British civil war
French Wars of
1562-1598 1598 Huguenots and Catholics to suppress Calvinism
An attempt to convert Protestant Europe to Catholicism by
Treaty of
1618-1648 30 Years War force. War between the French and the Hapsburg rulers of the
Holy Roman Empire and Spain.
War of the League of Louis XIV against the alliance of England, Netherlands and
1688-1697 Treaty of Rijswijk
Augsburg Austria
Russia, Denmark and Poland reduced Sweden's power. It led
1700-1721 Great Northern War Treaty of Nystad
to Russia's rise as a major power.
Louis XIV of France against the alliance of England, Dutch and
War of Spanish
1701-1714 Treaty of Utrecht the Austrians. The death of the childless Charles II of Spain
started a war about who would inherit the throne.
1739-1743 War of Jenkin's Ear 1743 Britain and Spain
War of Austrian Treaty of Aiz-la-
1740-1748 Prussia and Austria over the German states
Succession Chapelle Page 55 of 104

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1756-1763 Seven Years' War Treaty of Paris, Between Austria and Prussia and Britain, France
Treaty of
United States War of 1783 Treaty of France, Spain and the Netherlands helped the 13 colonies to
Independence Paris defeat Britain
French Revolutionary
1792-1802 1802 France and neighboring states
Napoleon's war to dominate Europe ended in the Battle of
1800-1815 Napoleonic Wars 1815
Waterloo June 18, 1815
1812-1814 War of 1812 Treaty of Ghent United States and Britain over fair trade
Greek War of
1821-1828 1828 Greek and Turkey. Britain, Russia and France later helped
The Crimean War breaks out as a result of a quarrel between
the Russian Orthodox monks and the French Catholics over
who had precedence over the Holy Places in Jerusalem and
1853-1856 Crimean War 1856 Nazareth. England and France defeat Russians at the battle of
Sevastopol and win more concessions from the Ottomans.
They prevent Russian expansion after the Russians defeat the
Turks in the Black Sea.
23 northern and 11 Confederate South states about slavery
1861-1865 American Civil War 1865
and the Federal Union. 970,000 dead (620,000 soldiers)
1866 Austro - Prussian War Unknown Unknown
Boer Wars 1881 Britain's mastery of South Africa
World War I (the Great Treaty of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy against Britain, France,
War) Versailles Russia and the rest of the world. 37,000,000 dead
Ismail Enver (Ottoman Turks) massacre 1,500,000 Armenian
1915 Genocide 1918 Christians (1915-20), 350,000 Greek Pontians, 480,000
Anatolian Greeks (1916-22), 500,000 Assyrians (1915-20)
Nationalist Republicans (with the aid of Russia) against the Nationalists
1936-1939 Spanish civil War
victory (with fascist Italy and Nazi Germany).
1937 Genocide 1954 Japanese massacre 200-300,000 Chinese in Nanking
Germany, Italy and Japan against the allies (Britain, France,
China, Russia, United States). 79,530,00 dead. War ended
World War II 1945
1939-1945 with the use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki
August 6 and August 9 1945.
Genocide 1939-1945 Nazi Holocaust kill 12 million people. 6 million were Jews
1 million Yugoslavians killed by Nazis, Chetniks, Ustashi after
1941-1944 Genocide 1944
the Tito regime
Ante Pavelic (Croatia facist and Ustase movement) 359,000
1941-1945 Genocide 1945
(30,000 Jews, 29,000 Gypsies, 300,000 Serbs)
1946-1954 Indochinese War 1954 Vietnam and France
1950-1953 Korean War 1953 Communists and those who are not communists
Britain, France, Israel against Egypt to regain control of the
1956 Suez War 1956
Suez canal
Communist North Vietnam against and South Vietnam. The
1956-1973 Vietnam War 1973
United States became involved in 1961. 1-2 million dead
1966-1976 Indochinese War 1976 1 million Tibetans killed in Mao's cultural revolution
Israel against Egypt, Jordan and Syria with the support of
1967 Six Day War 1967
Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Sudan and Algeria
Cambodia, South Vietnam and United states against North
1970-1975 Cambodian War 1975 Vietnam. 4 million killed (1970-80), 1.7 million between 1975-
79 by Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge
October 6- Israel against Egypt and Syria with the support of Saudi Arabia,
Yom Kippur War 1973
22, 1973 Iraq and Jordan
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1980-1988 Iran - Iraq War 1988 independence in some provinces

1982 Falklands Island War 1982 Britain against Argentina when it invaded the Falkland Islands
Saddam Hussein used gas to kill 50-100,000 Kurds in the Anfal
1988 Genocide 1988
Iraq against the United States and 29 allies after Iraq invaded
1991 Gulf War 1992 Kuwait. 100,000 Iraqis and 143 USA killed. 1 million more may
have died in the sanctions afterwards
200-300,000 Bosnian Muslims and Croats killed by Serbs led
1991-1995 Genocide by Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic
1995 8,000 men and boys (12-60 years) killed in Srebrenica
1994 Genocide 1994 1,000,000 most Tutsis killed by Hutus in 100 days
United States against terrorist organization supported by the
September clerics of Afghanistan. It was precipitated by the September 11,
Afghanistan War Present
2001 2001 suicide attacks by hijacked commercial planes against
key United States buildings.
The United States against Iraq searching for nonexistent
March 2003 Iraq War Present
weapons of mass destruction

Disasters. Natural disasters include many sudden or slow processes that destroy lives and property.
They include earthquake, hurricane, flood, tsunami, tornado, volcano, drought, famine, disease and

In addition, some disasters are caused by human activity. Industrial accidents, wars and environmental
changes. Global warming and deforestation are the major human activity that contributes to the
The Plague killed about one third of the population of Europe.

Disasters are caused by plague, famine and flood. Some of these are caused by human behavior such
as war, environmental changes, immorality and greed. The fourteenth century experienced the worst
period of wars, plagues and disasters.

Disasters - Diseases.
Disease Carrier Year Location Effect
Air, water Before 1929 Worldwide Killed 25% of children
Killed many children in the eighteenth and nineteenth
Diphtheria Air .: Africa
The unknown plague of Athens might have been typhus.
Typhus Air 430 BC Athens 90,000 died in Athens. 20% mortality, in 7 days, gangrene of
the fingers tips and toes, fever, vomiting, thirst
Measles Air 1850-2000 Worldwide 200,000,000
1800's Europe Millions killed
1991 Indonesia New type of cholera
Cholera Water
1991 Latin America 600,000 infected and 5,000 killed
1994 Rwanda 10,000 killed. The civil war killed 1,000,000
Kills 30% of its victims. Officially eradicated in 1979. Some
Smallpox Air Middle ages Europe
estimate the total number of victims to be 500,000,000
Smallpox Air 1900-2000 Worldwide 300,000,000
Third Century Rome Killed 5,000 each day
165-180 Roman Empire 5,000,000 (Antonine Plague)
At its peak, 10,000 people died each week. 70,000 in the
542-662 Constantinople
city were killed. Also called Justinian's plague
Asia, Europe, Page 57 of 104

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540-590 Africa 40,000,000 (Justinian's Plague)

Bubonic Rats and
Plague fleas Europe and 25 million were killed in 1347 - 1351. During the crusades,
Asia killing 30 - 40% of the population
Asia, Europe,
1300-1720 100,000,000
1665 London Killed 17,440
1850-1950 Worldwide 12,000,000
1890 Asia 12.5 million killed 6 million were in India
1924 Los Angeles San Francisco in 1900
Epidemic in Europe in the Middle Ages. India, Brazil and
Leprosy Contact Middle ages Europe
Myanmar continue to have major problems
Tuberculosis Air 1900-2000 Worldwide 40-100,000,000
Typhus Air 1918 World War 1 150,000 soldiers died
Killed more people than the war. 50-100 million worldwide
Air 1917-1918 Worldwide including 500,000 Americans. 40% of the United states
(Spanish flu)
population were infected
Asian Flu Air 1957 Worldwide 4,000,000 pandemic
Hong Kong Flu Air 1968 Worldwide 750,000 pandemic
Hemorrhagic fever. Also found in a research laboratory in
Ebola Contact 1977 Africa Virginia in 1989. Causes death within 5 days. Currently
Malaria Mosquito 1900-2000 Worldwide 80-250,000,000
Yellow Fever Mosquito .: Hemorrhagic fever
Hemorrhagic fever, not fatal, occurs in southern United
Dengue Fever Mosquito .: States, the Caribbean, and subtropical regions of Asia, the
Pacific, and Africa
Lassa Fever Rodents .: Hemorrhagic fever
Hantavirus Air .: Hemorrhagic fever
Anthrax Contact .: Disease of animals transmitted to humans
Mad cow
Contact 2000 Europe Many farm animals had to be destroyed
Sexually 12 million died and 40 million infected by year 2001.
AIDS 1981-2010 Worldwide
transmitted 25,250,000 by 2010
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Drug resistant.
MRSA Contact 1990 Worldwide
It kills more people than AIDS in the USA
MRSA Contact 2000 United States Flesh eating disease. Drug resistant
USA, Australia,
Panton-Valentine Leukocidin. Drug resistant. 75% Fatal.
PVL Contact 2000 England,
Associated with MRSA
C-Diff Contact 2008 United States Clostridium Difficile. Drug resistant hospital bacteria
Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Hospital
CRE Contact 2001 United States
bacteria. 50% fatal
Tubercolosis Air 2009 World Drug resistant strain

Escherichia Food 80% of antibiotics in the USA are given to animals not
200 World humans, creating drug resistant strain in foods. Europe
banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feed in
Salmonella Food 200 World 2005
Gonorrhea STD/STI 200 World Drug resistant strain

Chlamydia STD/STI 200 World Drug resistant strain

ESKAPE Contact Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter.

They are a group of six bacteria that are becoming drug resistant Page 58 of 104

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AIDS Sexually
1981-2003 World 20 million dead. 60 million infected (6 million children)
Pandemic transmitted
Tubercolosis Air 2003 World 1.7 million died. 33% of the world is infected
Bird Flu Air 2003 World Pandemic warnings issued in 2004. Waiting for the event
Influenza Air Annual USA Normally kills 30,000

Problem: Superbugs. A growing number of deadly pathogens are becoming resistant to all
antibiotics because of insufficient course of treatment or the proliferation of antibacterial products.
Benzochlonium chloride sanitizers create superbugs. Studies show that alchohol-based hand
sanitizers do not cause bug resistance but the chemical in antibacterial soaps are making antibiotics

In 2010 a deadly new class of superbugs was reported in patients who had surgery in India. These
superbugs are able to make any bugs deadly by giving them the genes that will change them into

Disease: Acquired Immune Deficiency Disease. There are many deadly diseases that still exist today.
Of these, the HIV virus, that produces AIDs is the most troublesome. As of 2001, forty million people
were infected, none are cured.

In the sub Saharan section of Africa alone 3.8 million new infections were reported in the year 2000
and 2.4 million deaths occurred. A total of 25.3 million people in that region are living with AIDS in that
year 1.1 million of these are children. 55% of the women are HIV positive and 25% of women between
age 20-29 are infected!
So far, AIDs has orphaned 12.1 million children under the age of 14 in Africa.
What started out as a disease in gay men in western countries in the early 1980's is quickly becoming
a disease of the minority and underprivileged populations.

While there is still no cure for AIDS and it is largely a sexually transmitted disease, people can live with
the disease for years. But there are other diseases that strike suddenly and kill within days. Ebola is
the most feared of all. It is transmitted through contact with an infected person. No one is safe. There
is no cure.

Disasters - Famine. Famine caused 20 to 25 million deaths in the last quarter of the nineteenth
century, and about two million in the last quarter of the twentieth century.
Famine Year Location Effect
Famine 536 - 551 Europe Unknown global disaster that cooled the planet
The Great Famine 1315-17 Europe Millions died during the little ice age
Russian Famine 1601-03 Russia 2,000,000
Bengali Famine 1769-71 India 15,000,000
Irish Potato Famine 1846-49 Ireland 1-1.5 million died of hunger or disease
Great Persian Famine 1870-1871 Persia 2,000,000
Northern Chinese Famine 1876-79 China 13,000,000
Southern and Central Indian
1876-79 India 10,000,000
Finnish Famine 1866-68 Finland 150,000
Ethiopia, Sudan,
Horn of Africa Famine 1888 1,000,000
Indian Famine 1896-1902 India 19,000,000
Chinese Famine of 1907 1907 China 24,000,000
Ukrainian Famine 1921-23 Russia, Ukraine 7 to 10 million killed by a man made famine
Chinese Famine of 1928-30 1928-30 China 3,000,000 Page 59 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

5,000,000 as Stalin stopped the Ukraine independence

Soviet Famine of 1932-33 1932-34 Soviet Union
1936 Chinese Famine 1936 China 5,000,000
Chinese Drought of 1941 1941 China 3,000,000
Bengali Famine of 1943 1943 India 4,000,000
Vietnamese war famine 1943-45 Vietnam 2,000,000
Dutch Famine of 1944 1944 The Netherlands 18,000
Great Chinese Famine 1958-61 China 4.9 - 43 million died
Civil war Famine 1967-69 China 1 million died. 3.5 million starved
Bangladesh Famine 1974 Bangladesh 26,000 to 1,000,000
Famine in Ethiopia 1984 Ethiopia 1,000,000
North Korean Famine 1996-98 North Korea 1,200,000
Famine Current Africa Caused by weather and war

Natural and Accidental Disasters List.

Disaster Year Location Deaths Disaster Year Location Deaths
Typhus 430 BC Athens 90,000 1944 Junyo Maru 5620
47 BC Egypt Books Ship Wreck September 16. Japanese prisoner of war
Fire Great Library of Alexandria, all knowledge ship torpedoed near Sumatra by a British
destroyed submarine
20000, 1945 Wilhelm Gustloff 7000-8000
Pompeii and
Volcano 79 AD August 24, Ship Wreck January 30. Civilians and wounded
Mt. Vesuvius German soldiers torpedoed by a Russian
526, May submarine in the Baltic sea
Earthquake Antioch 250,000
20 1945 Japan 220,000
Volcano 535 AD Global 25-50% Nuclear bomb Hiroshima (140,000) and Nagasaki
Global darkness and cooling effect for about 15 years (80,000) ended World War 2
causing famine. Possibly caused by a comet or a volcano 110,000
Earthquake 7.3 1948 Turkmenistan
in Indonesia October 5
Justinian's USA (42,173
542 Constantinople 70,000 Polio 1949 2,720 dead
plague cases)
Earthquake 856 Damghan, Iran 200,000 USA (57,628
Polio 1952 3,300 dead
Earthquake 893 Ardabil, Iran 150,000 cases)
230,000 Hurricane 1957 Louisiana 400
Earthquake 8 1138 Syria, Aleppo
August 9 1959 -
Famine China 30 million died
St. Lucia Flood 1212 Netherlands 60,000 61
Asia Minor, Cholera Indonesia,
Earthquake 1268 60,000 1961-
Silicia Pandemic (El Bangladesh, Unknown
Tor) India, USSR
North sea
1287 Netherlands 50-80,000 Earthquake 9.5 1960 Chile 2,000 died
Tsunami 2 million homeless. Largest earthquake
Famine 1315 - 17 Europe millions died
1346-52 Europe, Asia 25 million 1964 Alaska 100
Earthquake 9.2
Bubonic plague Started in Asia and then Italy. Jews and Tsunami $350 million damage, March 27. Felt in
blamed Houston TX. Anchorage dropped 20 feet
St Felix's Flood 1530 Netherlands 100,000+ 1970 Peru 20,000
Avalanche May 30, 100 miles per hour flow started
Earthquake 8.2 1556 China, Shaanxi by earthquake in the sea
January 23
Tsunami 1605 Japan 5,000 66,000 May
Earthquake 7.9 1970 Peru
Yellow fever 1648 Havana
Bhola, 500,000 killed,
Plague 1649 Spain 80,000 Typhoon 1970
Bangladesh November 13
Plague 1666 London 70,000 North Vietnam, Page 60 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Stopped by the great fire Flood 1971 Hanoi and Red 100,000
1666 London 80% of city river delta
Fire West Virginia
80% of city destroyed September 2 125 (February
Dam Break 1972 (Buffalo Creek
Caucasia, 80,000 26)
Earthquake 1667 Dam)
Shemakha November
Flood 1974 Bangladesh 28,000
Earthquake 1693 Italy, Sicily Banqiao Dam Shimantan Dam, 231,000
January 11 1975
Break (Typhoon China (August 7)
Tsunami 1703 Japan 5,233
Nina) Deaths. 86,000 flood, 145,000 disease
Tsunami 1707 Japan 30,000
Earthquake 7.5 1976 Guatemala 23,000
Earthquake 1727 Iran, Tabriz November 1976 255,000-
Earthquake 7.5 China, Tangshan
18 July 28 655,000
300,000 Tsunami 1976 Philippines 8,000
Cyclone 1737 India, Calcutta
November 11 Cyclone 1977 India 10,000
Earthquake Earthquake 7.8 1978 Iran 15,000
1755 Lisbon, Portugal 70-100,000+
8.7-9, tsunami First in United
Nuclear 1979 Three Mile Island
Smallpox 1775-82 North America 130,000 States
Tsunami 1771 Ryukyu Trench 13,486 Nuclear Dam New Mexico Nuclear waste
1776 China, 255,000 - Break (Church Rock) water
July 27 Tangshan 655,000 Heatwave 1980 USA 1,250-10,000
Earthquake 7.4 1780 Iran 200,000 Volcano 1982 Mexico 1,800
South China Chemical 8,000 injured
Tsunami 1782 40,000 1984 India, Bohpal
Sea Accident 50,000
50,000 Earthquake 1985 Mexico 8,000
Earthquake 1783 Italy, Calabria
February 4 1986 Chernobyl 30
Tsunami 1792 Japan 15,030 Nuclear April 25-26. 135,000 people evacuated,
Yellow fever 1793 Philadelphia 5,000 contaminated an area 20 miles wide
1811-12 Missouri (New Madrid Fault) Heatwave 1987 Mediterranean 1000-1500
Earthquake 8.8 (September 16 - February 7). Five major Earthquake 6.8 1988 Armenia 25,000
earthquakes out of 2000. 12 new lakes. Geomagnetic
Mississippi flowed backwards. February 7 1989 Quebec No electricity
92,000- Manikganj,
Indonesia, Tornado 1989 13,000
Volcano 1815 177,000 Bangladesh
April 10-15
50,000 June
Cholera 1816- Bengal, India, Earthquake 7.7 1990 Iran
Unknown 20
Pandemic 1826 China
1990 Ethiopia -
Cholera 1829- Europe, United
Unknown 90% of forest has been cut down since
Pandemic 1851 States Deforestation
1990. 20,000 square kilometers no
Cholera 1831 Cairo - London Unknown longer support crops
New York 3000, June 15, most
Cholera 1832 7,340 Philippines (Mt.
New Orleans Volcano 1991 violent
300,000 eruption
Cyclone 1839 India November Cyclone,
25 1991 Bangladesh 138,866
Famine 1846 - 50 Ireland 1 million 1992 Florida -
Cholera 1848 New York 5,000 Andrew 250,000 homeless, $26 billion damage
Cholera 1852- Earthquake 6.2 1993 India 9,748
Russia 1,000,000+
Pandemic 1860
Famine 1994 Korea 100,000
Yellow Fever 1853 New Orleans 7,790
Burned 1.75
Cyclone 1864 Calcutta, India 60,000 Forest Fires 1994 Mongolia million
1865 Sultana 1547 hectares
Ship Wreck Riverboat boiler explosion carried soldiers Earthquake 7.1 1995 Japan, Kobe 5,502
from the war Burned 1.75 Page 61 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Cholera 1863- Europe and Unknown Forest Fires 1995 Brazil million
Pandemic 1875 Africa hectares
Yellow Fever 1867 New Orleans 3,093 Affected 70
Tsunami 1868 Chile 25,674 Forest Fires 1995 Indonesia million people
in 6 countries
Smallpox 1870-71 France 500,000
Heatwave 1995 Chicago 739
Cyclone 1876 200,000 3000 killed, 4
Bangladesh China, Yellow
Flood 1996 million
Mississippi river
Yellow Fever 1878 13,000 homeless
Meningitis 1996 West Africa 25,000
Typhoon 1881 300,000 Tsunami 1998 New Guinea 3,000
100,000 Floods 1998 China 3,600
Cyclone 1882 Bombay, India
(June 6) Heatwave 1998 India 2,541
Volcano, Indonesia, 36,500 Central America 19,325 killed
Tsunami Krakatoa August 27 Hurricane Mitch 1998 Honduras(14,600 in 9 countries
China, Yellow dead) on October 24
river 17,118 August
Flood 1887 2,000,000 Earthquake 7.6 1999 Turkey
September- 17
October Earthquake 7.7 1999 Taiwan 2,297
Flood Rain, mudslide 1999 Venezuela 15,100
1889 Pennsylvania 2,209
Cyclone 1999 India 7,600
Tsunami 1896 Japan 27,000
Flood 1999 Venezuela 15,000
Cholera 1899-
Europe, Russia Unknown Western United 1.75 million
Pandemic 1923 Forest Fires 2000
States hectares burnt
Galveston, 8,000
Hurricane 1900 20,023
Texas September 8 Earthquake 7.7 2001 India
January 26
1904 General Slocum 1021
Ship Wreck Bombing 2001 New York 3,200
Long Island steam ship. June 15
300 million
Earthquake 8.6 1905 India 19,000 Wind 2002 France
Earthquake 8.2 1906 Chile 20,000 Earthquake 6.1 2002 Afghanistan 1,000
1906 San Francisco 3000 Earthquake 6.6 2003 Algeria 2,266 May 21
fire 225,000 homeless (April 18). Magnitude Heatwave 2003 Europe 37,451
Heatwave 2003 India 1,900
1908 Siberia, Tunguska (June 30)
Meteor 2003 Iran, Bam 41,000
Flattened an area 2000 square Km Earthquake 6.7
December 26. 90% of city destroyed
Earthquake 7.2 1908 Italy, Messina December 2004 South East Asia 443,929
28. Tsunami Earthquake 9.3, December 26. South East Asia, Indian
Earthquake 1911 Mexico City and Tsunamis Ocean, Sumatra. Millions displaced in 11
countries. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India,
China, Yangtze Thailand, Maldives
Flood 1911 100,000
2005 Sumatra 500
1912 Titanic 2224
Ship Wreck Earthquake 8.7 March 28. South East Asia, Indian
Collides with an iceberg April 15 Ocean, Sumatra. 500+ died on Nias
Empress of island. 80% of buildings destroyed
1914 1012
Ireland 2005 New Orleans 1,836+ /3000
Ship Wreck Hurricane
On the St. Lawrence river after a collision August 29. 1 million homeless. Cost
May 19 Katrina (5-3)
$81.2 billion Worst USA disaster
1915 Lusitania 1198 South Asia,
Ship Wreck 2005 80,240+
Passenger ship hit by a German torpedo Earthquake 7.6 Pakistan, India
May 17 October 8. 79,000 dead in Pakistan
1915 Eastland 800 Earthquake 6.3 2006 Java May 27. 5800
Ship Wreck
July 24, sunk while docked in Chicago Heatwave 2006 Europe 3,418
Earthquake 7.5 1915 Italy 29,980 Cyclone Nargis 2008 Myanmar 146,000+ Page 62 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Polio 1916 USA (27,363 7,000 dead (3) May 3. 1 million homeless
2008 Sichuan, China 87,652+
1917 Mont Blanc 1963 Earthquake 7.9
May 12. 5 million homeless
Ship Wreck December 6 Halifax harbor explosion.
2008 Pakistan 300+ dead
Three ships involved Earthquake 6.4
October 29. 15,000 homeless
Influenza 1918 Worldwide 25 million
240,000 2010 Haiti
Earthquake 8.2 1920 China, Gansu December
26 Earthquake 7.0 January 12. 2 million homeless. 250,000
injured. 200,000+ amputees. 80%
Typhoon 1922 China, Swatow 60,000
buildings destroyed in Port-au-Prince.
1923 Japan, Kwanto 143,000 Damage estimate is $8 to 14 billion
Earthquake 8.3
September 1. Great Tokyo fire Earthquake 8.8 Chile, February 27
1925 United States 689 Tsunami Concepcion 521 dead
Tornado 3 states of Missouri, Illinois and Indiana, 2 million homeless 500,000 homes destroyed.
$16 million damage Tsunami. 6-10 feet (1.8-3.0 m), 1.2 miles (1.8 km).
Earth's axis shifted 3 inches (7.62 cm)
200,000 May
Earthquake 7.9 1927 China, Xining April 14
22 Earthquake 6.9 2010 Quinghai, China
2698 dead
1928 Florida 1,800 February 21
Earthquake 6.3 2011 Christchurch, NZ 145 dead.
Los Angeles (St. 450 (March 200+ missing
Dam Break 1928
Francis Dam) 12)
March 11
China, Yellow 3,700,000 2011 Sendai, Japan
1931 18,000+ dead.
Flood river July-Nov
China's sorrow. 80 million homeless Earthquake 9.0 23ft-77ft (7m-23m) tsunami. Partial
nuclear meltdown at 4 reactors. Core
Earthquake 7.6 1932 China 70,000 breached in #3 March 25. $235+ billion
1935 30,000- damages
Earthquake 7.5 Pakistan, Quetta
May 30 60,000 Current United States 420,000
China, Yangtze Cigarette Plus 70,000 from second hand contact
Flood 1935 145,000
river (Annual Deaths) Current World 5,016,000
1937 Hindenburg 35 Plus 600,000 from second hand contact
Air Ship
Lakehurst New Jersey. May 6 Every 8 seconds someone dies from tobacco.
China, Yellow In 2005, 10% of Adults die, it will be 17% by 2030.
Flood 1938 500-700,000
river 100,000 children start smoking every day
Rain 1938 New York 600
Earthquake 8.3 1939 Chile 28,000
Earthquake 7.8 1939 Turkey 30,000
This does not include many disasters that destroyed property but not many lives.

Increasing Deadly Disasters

Disaster Period (AD) Events by Magnitude Deaths Disaster Years Period (AD) Events Deaths
Years Dates 6-6.9 7-7.9 8-9.9 - 100 1200-1300 1 100,000
526-999 4 2 745,000 400 1301-1700 1 300,000
Years 200 1701-1900 4 943,000
1000-1499 4 6 4 1,707,024
30 1901-1930 6 104,000
1500-1599 1 1 1 870,000
Flood 10 1931-1940 3 3,900,250
100 1600-1699 1 7 3 163,350 20 1941-1960 10 22,500
Years 1700-1799 18 3 6 515,161 10 1961-1970 14 8,600
1800-1899 20 22 15 146,111 5 1971-1975 17 6,500
50 1900-1949 61 84 26 979,574 - -1900 AD 1 400
1950-1959 - - - - 50 1901-1950 14 64,000
10 10 1951-1960 2 10,000
1960-1969 - - - -
Years 10 1961-1970 18 389,000
1970-1979 1029 150 6 815,956 Storms Page 63 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

1980-1989 980 101 4 58,880 10 1971-1980 13 4,200

10 1990-1999 1339 147 6 114,646 10 1981-1990 10 14,100
Years 2000-2009 1443 131 13 465,364 10 1991-2000 37 177,000
2010-2012 442 54 4 341,524 - -100 AD 1 16,000
100 1401-1500 1 10,000
Deaths ( 526-1949): USGS and Wiki combined data
Deaths (1950-1989): Still Validating data 200 1501-1700 1 4,000
Deaths (1990-2009): USGS earthquake statistics by decade 100 1701-1800 3 26,850
Volcano 100 1801-1900 2 128,000
The first earthquake might have occurred during the exodus between
1500-1460 BC. 50 1901-1950 5 38,400
Moses called it a "new thing" (Numbers 16: 28-35) 40 1951-1991 6 30,500
Scientists claim that there is no increase in earthquakes. Since the western hemisphere has just been
recently occupied and since global records have not been kept we cannot prove how frequent or
deadly past earthquakes have been. However, we can demonstrate that the number of deadly
earthquakes have increased within the past forty years and the number of other natural disasters have
increased rapidly since 1991. As population increases the number of deaths increase from natural
disasters. However, new technology, early warning systems and building codes have limited the

Flood. These are deadlier because of increasing population in poor delta and coastal regions.
Hurricanes and Cyclones. These have increased since 1991, mostly affecting poor Asian
countries along the coast.
Tornadoes. They occur mostly in the United States where there are about 750 tornadoes each
year with 100 deaths. The number of tornadoes have increased since 2004.
Volcanoes. The number reported has increased since 1700, probably because of colonial
empires expanding into new territories and documenting the events.
Earthquakes. Building technology has reduced the disaster and more seismic instruments have
recorded more earthquakes, but there is an increase since 1900. However, it seems as if the
south Pacific region near Vanuatu is prone to frequent great earthquakes. Japan and Indonesia
are also plagued with large earthquakes.

Atheist Genocide
Although atheists love to disparage religion as being the cause of wars and bloodshed, in their brief
history atheists in power have been the cause of unspeakable carnage in a rate that exceeds that of
religion for the purpose of wiping out non-believers.
Atheism on a societal scale began with the French Revolution.
Genocide Event Total Death Estimates
Atheist Campaign Year Low High Estimate Daily
French Revolution Reign of Terror 1792-94 250,000 1,000,000 500,000 400
Lenin Russian Civil War, famine 1917-22 - - 9,000,000 5,000
Josef Stalin All deaths 1930-53 9,800,000 49,000,000 20,000,000 2,500
(Communist Russia) Forced famine in Ukraine 1932-33 - - 7,000,000 19,500
Leonid Brezhnev Afghanistan 1979-1982 - - 900,000 833
Mussolini World War II 1933-45 - - 300,000 70
World War II - All deaths 1939-45 50,000,000 - 79,000,000 37,000
Adolph Hitler 6 million Jews, 6 million others 1940-45 - - 12,000,000 6,500
3 million Russian POWs 1941-43 - - 3,000,000 2,000
Pol Pot Khmer Rouge purge of religion 1975-79 1,500,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 14,000
All deaths (excluding abortions) 1958-79 49,000,000 78,000,000 70,000,000 6,500
China's Great Leap Forward 1958-61 20,000,000 46,000,000 36,000,000 33,300
Mao Zedong
(Mas Tse-Tung) Cultural Revolution 1966-69 750,000 30,000,000 1,500,000 1,500
Labor camps (Laogai) 1950-60 15,000,000 27,000,000 27,000,000 7,500
Communist China Tibetan Genocide 1949-79 600,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 111 Page 64 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

13,000,000 forced abortions /year 1971-2009 - - 336,000,000 24,560

Ho Chi Min Vietnam 1953-56 - - 200,000 185
North Korea Invasion of South Korea 1950-53 - - 3,000,000 35,000
Kim Il Sung Purges and concentration camps 1948-94 - - 1,600,000 100
Josip Tito Yugoslavia 1941-45 - - 570,000 400 Page 65 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Inventions and Discoveries: An Increase of knowledge

5800 Years 1790 1798 1800 Time of the End (200 Years) End
Walk Lamp, wood Bow, arrow, sword Pigeon Today Time

But you, O Daniel, shut up the words and seal the book even to the time of the end. Many shall run to
and fro and knowledge shall be increased. (Daniel 12: 4)
Prophecy describes a period known as "the time of the end". It can be positively identified by several
converging trends including an increase in knowledge, escalating natural disasters, the fall of the
church and people "running to and fro". Here we summarize the revolution of knowledge.

The number of inventions increased drastically after the printing of the Prophetic Footprints
Bible. The late nineteenth century introduced many inventions that helped
1. Knowledge increases
the technological age. It is impossible to list all the inventions made since 2. Disasters increase
1800, but compared to previous centuries there are hundreds of times
Prior to 1000 BC there were about three significant events in 3000 years.
Then there were approximately eight during the next 2000 years and ten during the next 800 years.
After 1800 there were about 45 significant inventions and discoveries in 200 years and thousands of
others in the medical, information and electronic fields.

5800 Years of Inventions (4000 BC - 1790 AD) 100 Years of Inventions (1900 - 2008)
Invention Inventor/Discovery Year Invention Inventor/Discovery Year
Needle, thread - 13000BC Ground Pollution! 120,000 horses produce 2.4
million pounds (1,088,633 kg) of manure every 1900
Fire - 8000 BC day in New York. Automobiles stop pollution!
Bricks - 8000 BC There is more to invent!
Domesticated 16,000 patents were filed in 1901
- 8000 BC
plants, animals Peanuts, pecans, 1900-
George Washington Carver
Pottery West Asia 6500 BC sweet potatoes, soy 10
Weaving, loom - 6000 BC 325 uses for peanuts and hundreds of uses for other
crops: Paint, dye, stains, linoleum, glue, rubber, glycerine,
No Events Should be Older than 4000 BC insecticide, hand lotion, gasoline, diesel, nitroglycerine
Earth, Universe God (YHWH) 4004 BC Food. Refrigerator (11), frozen foods (30), tupperware
Wheel Mesopotamia 4000 BC (42), saran wrap (54), milk carton (54), TV dinners (54),
Chariot (2 wheel) Sumeria 3500 BC McDonald's (55), food processor (71), HFC (70?), freeze
drying (76), push through tab (80), veggie patty (81),
Abacus Chinese 3000 BC olestra (96)
Homing pigeon Egyptians, Persians 3000 BC Agriculture. Haber process (1908), hybrid corn (33),
Flood Noah 2600 BC automatic hay baler (36), tractor replaces horse (45),
hydroponics (19??), genetic engineering (1994), cloning
Papyrus Egypt 2400 BC
Processes. Assembly line, Haber (08), robotics (56)
Rubber, ball Mayans 1600 BC Chemistry (1900-1949). Tc, Hf, Re, At, Rn, Fr, Pm, Lu,
DNA DNA from Jacob's sheep 2020 BC Pa, Np, Pu, Am, Cm discovered
Particle Physics story. 1500 BC Consumer Products and Business Systems
Periodic Table 1500 BC Zeppelin Ferdinand Zeppelin 1900
Moses' model of the Blood Groups Karl Landsteiner 1900
Theory of sanctuary in the Torah is a
1500 BC Forensic. Blood groups and type stain (1900), bullet
Everything model of modern science
identification (1910), polygraph (21), luminol (37), Rh
Steel, iron smelting Hittites 1400 BC blood group (40), voiceprint identification (41), superglue
Transportation. Feet, horse, wheel, chariot, cart, fuming latent print (77), RFLP DNA finger printing (84),
elephant, camel, boat, sail PCR (86), IBIS (91), STR DNA (92), AFIS (96), NIDIS (98),
Babylonian Inventions. Metal working (copper), glass laser lights, SKP latent printing (2000)
making, lamp making, textile weaving Fingerprint card and magnifying glass method examines
Agriculture. Flood control, water storage, irrigation, 10 fingerprints in 8 hours. While AFIS can examine millions
three field rotation of prints in 15 minutes by long distance
Flush toilet Crete. King Minos 800 BC Radio signals Marconi (December 12) 1901
Air conditioner Willis Carrier 1902
Ancient Olympics Greeks 776BC
Airplane Wilbur and Orville Wright 1903 Page 66 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Sundial - 700 BC Electric plug, socket Harvey Hubbell 1903

Coins Greeks 650 BC Tractor Benjamin Holt 1904
Cast iron Chinese 512 BC John Ambrose Fleming, 1904-
Vacuum tube
Lee de Forest 06
Catapult Greeks 400 BC
Professional Tennis Australian Open 1905
Appian Way First Roman road 312 BC
Physics Theories Albert Einstein 1905
Aqua Appia First Roman aqueduct 312 BC
Physics. Gravity (1666), Newtonian laws of motion
Archimedes screw (1687), leyden jar (1745), thermodynamics,
Archimedes 210 BC
and lever electromagnetism, electromagnetic induction (1831),
Latitude and Einstein's theories miracle year (E=MC2, special relativity,
Eratosthenes 200 BC
Longitude grid photon, Brownian motion, quantum mechanics, mass-
Communication. Clay tablets, stele, papyrus (2600 BC), energy) (1905), Absolute zero (1911), super conductors
ink (2000 BC), scrolls, palm leaf manuscript, leather, (11), protons and electrons (12), atom (13), de Broglie
velum, drums, smoke signals, bells, ram's horn, carrier waves (23), neutron (35), super conductors, quark (62),
pigeon (3000 BC), book binding (21 BC), books, wood block Color photography Auguste and Louis Lumiere 1907
printing (400), printing (1450), electronic media Plastic (bakelite) Leo Baekeland 1907
Weapons. Stone, club, axe, sling, blowgun, dart, knife, Textiles and Materials. Safety glass (1903), rayon
spear, flail, catapult, battering ram, Greek fire (04), bakelite (07), superconductors (11), Pyrex (15),
Lead glazing Chinese 206 BC stainless steel (16), zipper (17), cellophane (26), neoprene
Astrolabe Hipparchus 150s BC (1930), nylon (35), lucite (37), plexiglass (37), teflon (38),
synthetic rubber, PVC and polyethylene (20-45), saran
Monsoon Winds Hippalus 150 BC (42), dacron (48), velcro (48), fiberglass (50), styrofoam
Glass blowing Syria, Babylon 100 BC (51), super glue (51), non-stick pan (54), optic fiber (55),
Lime plaster Etruscans 8 BC synthetic diamonds (55), lycra (58), acrylic paint (64),
permanent press fabric (64), nitinol (65), astroturf (65),
Electrotherapy pain fiber optics (66), corlan (69), sialon (72), kevlar (73),
Romans 100 AD
relief (Torpedo eel) nanotechnology (74), integrated photoreceiver [fiberoptics]
Ancient Chemistry. Only seven metals are known by the (80), fullerenes (85), ceramic super conductors (86), shape
ancients: Gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, lead, mercury. memory polymer (95), metallic hydrogen (96), sound
Paper Tsai Lun (China) 105 AD proofing
Horseshoes Germany 200s Haber process Fritz Haber 1908
Life Insurance Romans 230 Greenhouse Effect Svante Arrhenius 1908
Talking motion picture Thomas Edison 1910
Stirrups Avars, China 300 AD
Refrigerator, modern French monk 1911
Saddle Avars, Sarmatians 365 AD Atomic Nucleus,
Carbonized iron Vikings 500's AD Ernest Rutherford 1911
Zero India 500's AD Periodic Table by
Henry Moseley 1913
Positional Notation India (Hindu Numerals) 500's AD Atomic Number
Porcelain Chinese 600's AD Solar System
Niels Bohr 1913
Model of Atom
Windmill Persia. Europe (1180) 644 AD Bra Mary Phelps Jacob 1913
Greek fire Greece 674 AD Mass production Henry Ford 1913
Muhammad ibn Musa al-
Quadrant 800-850 Transportation. Chariot (2600 BC), zeppelin (1900),
escalator (1900), windshield wipers (03), New York subway
Anaesthesia Abu al-Qasim 1000 (04), tractor (04), Ford Model-T (08), robot (21), traffic
Gunpowder China (weak formula) 1000 signal (23), liquid-fueled rocket (26), jet engine (30),
Damascus steel India (wootz steel) 1100's parking meter (32), radar (35), helicopter (39),
Transatlantic air service (39), jeep (40), Pasadena freeway
Arabic numerals (40), power steering (51), radial tires (53), snowmobile
Fibonacci 1200
in western finance (59), spacecraft (61), telstar (62), bullet train (64),
Gunpowder Roger Bacon (European) 1249 electronic fuel injection (66), concorde (69), space shuttle
Spinning Wheel Europe 1300 (81), doppler radar (88), Chunnel (94), maglev train (99),
Segway (2001)
Mechanical clock Italy 1335
National Birth Control
Credit Venice, Italy. Medici Bank 1390 Margaret Sanger 1916
Middle Age Inventions. Silk, spectacles, clock, hourglass, United States Population (1920). 60,000 homes had
paper, sun dial, compass, astrolabe, oar, rudder, mill, wind radios. 80% had no indoor plumbing. Most had no
mill, wheelbarrow, horse shoes, stirrups, bit and bridle. electricity and were below a 6th grade education by 1933
Agriculture. Manure, oxen and horses, hand sowing,
hoe, sickle, flail, wooden plow Hockey NHL Season 1917
Sanitation. Out house, chamber pots, open sewers, rotting Lie Detector John Larson 1921 Page 67 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

garbage, flies, vermin Cellophane Dupont 1926

Weapons. Phalanx, gladius (197 BC), trebuchet, perrier, Television Philo Farnsworth 1927
mangon, mangonel, ballista, hedgehog, gunpowder Penicillin Alexander Fleming 1928
(800), lance, longbow (1450), crossbow, flail, chain mail,
armor. In 1900, 30.4% of all deaths occurred among children
under 5 years old. Pneumonia, tuberculosis, diarrhea,
Weapons: Hand grenade (1044), cannon (1128), land enteritis and diphtheria caused one third of all deaths.
mine (1277), matchlock musket (1500), revolver (1835), Mass immunization programs began in the 1920s
minuet bullet (1840s), flintlock musket (1850), repeating rifle Medical. Band-aid (1920), insulin (22), iron lung (27),
(1860), riflrd musket (1862), trenches, Gatling gun (1862), antibiotics penicillin (28), EEG (29), synthetic cortisone
Maxim machine gun (1885) (44), blood bank (44), kidney dialysis (44), vaccination
Important Discoveries programs (48), oral contraceptives (54), tetracycline (55),
Printing press Johannes Gutenberg 1450 pacemaker (57), valium (61), polio vaccine (57), birth
control pill (60), gene splicing (73), CT scanner (73),
Solar System Nicholas Copernicus 1450
liposuction (74), MRI (77), cochlear implant (78),
200 copies of the Bible ultrasound (79), hepatitis-B vaccine (80), RU-486 (80),
Bible printed 1456
printed by August 15, 1456 human growth hormone (82), artificial heart (82), synthetic
Bonds Florence, Italy 1464 skin (86), disposable contact lenses (87), RU-486 (88),
Trade Winds Christopher Columbus? 1480's prozac (88), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) (89), viagra
(97), stem cell tissue generation (2004), BCI (2005),
America Christopher Columbus 1492 artificial pancreas (2008), MEG (2010), OCT (optical
Stock Market Amsterdam 1602 coherence tomography)
Refracting Frank Whittle, Dr Hans von
Hans Lippershey 1608 Jet Engine 1930
Telescope Ohain
Trading Shares Amsterdam 1610 Scotch tape 3M 1930
Circulatory System William Harvey 1616 Frozen food Clarence Birdseye 1930
Radios are in two of five U.S. homes (40%) 1931
Steam turbine Giovanni Branca 1629
Radio telescope Karl Jansky 1932
Adding machine Blaise Pascal 1642 Hybrid corn United States 1933
Barometer Evangelista Torricelli 1644 Abortion (Instillation) Eugen Aburel 1934
Calculus Isaac Newton 1666 Magnetic tape BASF, AEG 1935
Reflecting Radar Robert Watson-Watt 1935
Isaac Newton 1668
Telescope Chocolate Chip
Ruth Wakefield 1939
Light Composition Isaac Newton 1670-72 Cookie
Microscope Netherlands 1674 Soy Bean Henry Ford 1930s
Commercial uses 1936
Mechanics, Gravity, Isaac Newton Percy Lavon Julian
Light, Calculus "Principia Mathematica" 1687 Steroid Chemistry 1940s
Piano Bartolomeo Cristofori 1700 Consumer Products. Vacuum cleaner (01), air
conditioner (02), color photography (07), flashlight (10),
Iron Smelting Abraham Darby 1709 radio (16), short wave radio (19), pop-up toaster (19), hair
Chemistry (Before 1800). H, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Mg, Al, P, dryer (20), polygraph machine (21), bubble gum, sliced
S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, bread (28), polystyrene (30), fm radio (33), nylon (35),
Ag, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, W, Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Bi, U disposable diapers, microwave oven (46), velcro (48),
Thermometer Gabriel Fahrenheit 1714 video tape recorder (51), remote control (55), smoke alarm
(74), satellite radio (2001)
Public Bank John Law, France.
1716 Germany (35), Britain (36), 1935-
Notes, trading Mississippi Company Television broadcast
United States (39) 39
Marine John Harrison 1735 Ball point pen Ladislo Biro 1938
Chronometer (H1) Longitude measurement Helicopter Igor Sikorsky 1939
Golf Edinburgh, Scotland 1744 Computers and Electronic Systems
Sewing machine Charles T. Wiesenthal 1755 Turing Machine Alan Mathison Turing 1940
Steam engine James Watt 1769 Nuclear reaction Enrico Fermi 1942
Photosynthesis Priestley and Ingenhousz 1772 Howard H. Aiken 1944
Computer (Mark 1)
Tobacco snuff linked to cancer of the nasal Electronic Computer John Mauchley and J.
1781 1945
passage (ENIAC) Presper Eckert
Cricket England 1788 Atomic Bomb United States 1945
*** The French Revolution (1789) *** Weapons: Parachute (1913), tank (14), cruise missile
(17), sonar (06, 17), barbed wire, RADAR (35),
bazooka rocket gun (42), radio proximity fuse, nuclear
Knowledge Increases weapon (45), fusion bomb (52), Atomic bomb, hydrogen
100 Years of Inventions (1790 - 1899) bomb, neutron bomb, salted bomb, fighter jets, B-52, Page 68 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Invention Inventor/Discovery Year helicopter, GPS, C4, rockets (50's), AK-47 (1947), assault
Agriculture. Cradle and scythe, cotton gin (1793), cast rifles (M4, M16), satellites, X-Band radar, razor wire, kevlar
iron plow (1797), mechanical harvester (1831), reaper body armor (1965), boron carbide ceramic plate armor,
(1834), steel plow (1837), grain elevator (1842), mower ICBM, aircraft carriers, jeep, hummer, nuclear submarines,
(1844), irrigation (1847), chemical fertilizer (1849), horse star wars missile defense, armor-piercing bullets, land
power (1862-75), barbed wire (1874), milking machine mines, grenade, tank, chemical weapons, night vision
(1879), plant hybridization, selective breeding, four field (1991), biological weapons, radiological weapons, JDAM,
crop rotation, chemical fertilizer and pesticides Tomahawk cruise missile (91), daisy cutter bomb, bunker
Food. Salt, smoking, drying, ferment, canning (1810), buster bomb, unmanned drone, cyber warfare,
pasteurization (1862), baby formula (1867), saccharine exoskeleton, armed remote control robot
(1879), coca cola (1886), corn flakes (1894) Microwave oven Percy Spencer 1945
Religious Knowledge (1800's). Interest and knowledge in Genetic
Lederberg and Tatum 1946
the prophecies increased causing the great advent recombination
awakening. Manuel de Lacunza in South America, Dr. Disposable diaper Marion Donovan 1946
Joseph Wolfe in Europe and Asia, Edward Irving of Strange Quark (Lambda Particle) 1947
England, Johann Bengel of Germany and William Miller in Bardeen, Brattain and
the United States. Children in Sweden, Denmark and Transistor 1947
William Shockley
Norway. 300 ministers in the Church of England and 600 Cell phones AT&T 1947,79
nonconformist ministers preached the Second Coming in
Hologram Dennis Gabor 1947
2001. Information about Christ in the Old Testament Copy machines Chester Carlson 1948
2008. Evidence of modern science in the Old Testament RFID Harry Stockman 1948
Transportation, Construction, Energy and Fertilizes human egg
John Rock 1948
Communication Discoveries in a test tube
(DTP). Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis vaccine 1949
Vaccination Edward Jenner 1796
NASCAR Bill France Sr 1949
Smallpox Vaccine Edward Jenner 1798
Chemistry (1950-1999). Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt, Ds, Rg,
Vaccines. Smallpox (1798), Rabies (1885), Plague Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr discovered
(1897), Cholera, Typhoid (1917), Diphtheria (1923),
Pertussis (1926), Tuberculosis, Tetanus (1927), Yellow Credit card - 1920's
Fever (1935), influenza (1945), DTP (1949), polio (1955), (Diner's club) Ralph Schneider 1950
measles (1963), Mumps (1967), Rubella (1969), Anthrax Finance. Barter, shells (1200 BC), salt, precious metals,
(1970), MMR (1971), Swine Flu (1976), Fluzone (1978) coins (650 BC), bread, paper money (806), piggy banks,
Arabic numerals (1200), currency trading, banks and credit
Chemistry (1800-1849). Li, Na, Si, K, V, Se, Br, Nb, Ru, (1390), bonds (1460+), rum, checks (1500), Stocks and
Rh, Pd, Cd, I, Ta, Os, Ir, La, Ce, Nd, Tb, Er, Th Stock Market (1602-05), trading shares (1610), bank notes
Battery Alessandro Volta 1800 (1716), printed check (1762), traveller's check (1891),
Locomotive Train Richard Trevithick 1804 credit union (1909), consumer credit (1921), world bank
and IMF (45), credit card (1950), bar code (52), computer
Refrigerator Oliver Evans 1805
(60's), ATM (69), consumer debt financing (84), overdraft
Base ball. In 1806, the Nez Perce taught the Lewis and fees (89), debit card, Internet, paypal (98)
Clark group a stick and ball game called "base" Influence and create
Steam Boat Robert Fulton 1807 Television 1950's
Locomotive Steam Color television Peter Carl Goldmark 1950
George Stephenson 1814
Engine Sperm bank University of Iowa 1950
Stethoscope Theophile Laennec 1816 Hydrogen Bomb Edward Teller and team 1952
Stock exchange Wall Street, New York 1817 Computer Compiler Grace Hopper 1952
Portland cement Joseph Aspdin 1820 Sex change George Jorgenson 1952
DNA structure Watson and Crick 1953
Waterproofing Charles Mackintosh 1821
Playboy magazine Hugh Hefner 1953
Thermodynamics Sadi Carnot 1824
Sperm bank baby Scientists 1953
Matches John Walker 1827 UNIVAC 1103 by
Steam Locomotive RAM (memory) 1953
George Stephenson 1829 Remington Rand
Train Nuclear Power Plant Obninsk, Russia 1954
Transportation. Astrolabe (150BC), quadrant (800), Polio vaccine Jonas Salk (April 12) 1955
Trade winds discovered (1400's), longitude (1737), Music. Piano (1700), saxophone (1841), phonautograph
submarine (1775), hot air balloon (1783), train (1804), (1860), phonograph (1875), Microphone (1877),
steam boat (1809), Stockton-Darlington railway (25), steam Gramophone (1887), Hi-Fi Sound Recording (1924),
locomotive (29), bus (57), pedal bicycle (61), London Magnetic Tape (1927), Tape Recorder (1935), Video Tape
subway (63), motorcycle (69), transcontinental railroad (69), Recorder (1956), Long Playing Record (1948), dolby
Suez canal (69), air brake (69), lubrication system (72), (1965), CD (1976), Sony Walkman (1979), VOIP (1998),
internal combustion engine (76), pneumatic tire (87), car MP3 (1998), iPod (2001), Auto-Tune Page 69 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

(89), Panama Canal (89), diesel engine (1892) Telecommunications

Typewriter William Austin Burt 1829 Semi conductor transistors replace vacuum tubes
Electromagnetic Silicon Transistor
Michael Faraday 1831 J. H. Felker (Bell Lab) 1955
induction (TRADIC)
Steel plow John Deere 1837 Transatlantic cable USA to Europe 1956
DNA Replication Meselson and Stahl 1957
Telegraph Samuel Morse 1837
Hydrogen bomb USA at Bikini Atoll 1956
Communication. Telegraph (1837), shorthand (37), fax Satellite (Sputnik 1) Soviet Union 1957
(43), Atlantic cable (58), pony express (60),
transcontinental telegraph line (61), telephone (1876), FORTRAN Jim Backus (IBM) 1958
switchboard (1877), quill pen and ink Abortion (Vacuum Dr Yuantai Wu, Dr
Aspiration) Xianzhen Wu in China
Vulcanization Goodyear 1839
Abortion: D&C (late 19c), Instillation (1934), Vacuum
Type-revolving Aspiration (1958), D&E (1970s), Menstrual Extraction
Robert Hoe 1840
press (1971), Intact D&E (1983), RU-486 (1988), Misoprostol
Paper (wood pulp) F. G. Keller 1840 Laser Gordon Gould 1958
Morse code Samuel Morse 1840 Integrated circuit Jack Kilby, Robert Noyce 1959
Fax Machine Alexander Bain 1843 Laser Theodore Maiman 1960
Baseball Alexander Cartwright Communications
1845 United States 1960
satellite (Echo 1)
Department store Marble Palace, New York 1846 Birth control pill Gregory Pincus 1960
Ether, surgical Massachusetts General Robot (UNIMATE) General Motors 1961
anesthetic Hospital 1961-
Quark Model Gell-Mann, Ne'eman, Seber
Blue Jeans Levi Strauss 1848 63
Chewing gum John Curtis 1848 Book: Sex and the
Helen Gurley Brown 1962
Chemistry (1850-1899). He, Ne, Ar, Sc, Ga, Ge, Kr, Rb, single girl
In, Xe, Cs, Tl, Po, Ra, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, Telecommunications
United States 1962
Ac discovered satellite (Telstar)
Nursing Florence Nightingale 1852 Operating System
IBM 1964
Elevator Elisha Graves Otis 1852 Nutrasweet James Schlatter 1965
Bessemer furnace Henry Bessemer 1852 Summer of Love San Francisco hippies 1966
Bus George Pullman 1857 Up, Down Quark SLAC 1967
Can opener Ezra Warner 1858 RAM memory Robert Dennard 1968
Fossil Fuel Titusville Pennsylvania well 1859 Oil Prudhoe Bay, Alaska 1968
Evolution Theory Charles Darwin 1859 Energy (Oil Discoveries): Pennsylvania (1859), oil
tanker (1886), Texas (1901), Gas Station (1905), Iran (08),
First International Congress Iraq (25), Saudi Arabia (38), Gulf of Mexico (47), Alaska
Atomic Weights 1860
of Chemistry (68).
Pedal bicycle Ernest Michaux 1861 Equipment. Oil rigs, Pumpherston retort (1894), horizontal
Pasteurization Louis Pasteur (April 20) 1862 drill (72), hydraulic fracturing, Blow Out Preventer, drilling
Morril Land Jonathan Baldwin Turner 1862 Light (Electricity): Hydroelectric power plant (1882), plug
Grant Act Justin Smith Morril July 7 and socket (1904), nuclear power (51), solar cell (54),
76 colleges and universities are funded by this law solar power plant (2005), Bloom Box Generator (2010)
Rugby Britain 1863 200 million TVs in the world. 78 million in USA 1968
Genetics Operating System
Gregor Mendel 1863 United States 1969
Antiseptic Joseph Lister 1865 Arpanet (Internet) United States (DARPA) 1969
Bacteria (cholera, ATM USA 1969
Robert Koch 1865
tubercolosis) Gay liberation
Sylvia Rivera (New York) 1969
Sanitation. Tooth paste (300), toilet paper (589), movement
toothbrush (610), under arm deodorant (857), cotton clothes Woodstock festival 300,000 youth 1969
(washable), flushing toilet (1596), sewer systems (1800's), Moon Landing America 1969
indoor plumbing (1829-40), packaged toilet paper (1857), Relational database Dr. Edgar Frank Codd 1970
hand washing (1865), modern toilet (1910)
(MMR). Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine 1971
Medical. Four humors, blood letting (<460 BC-1875), Abortion (Menstrual
barbers, doctors, leeches (1025), ambulance (1792), Downer and Rothman 1971
vaccination (1796), anesthetic (1842, 46), nursing (1852),
pasteurization and germ theory (1862), antiseptic (1865), GPS United States military 1972
hand washing (1865), EKG (1887), X-Ray (1895), Aspirin Biotechnology
Paul Berg, Herbert Page 70 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

(1897) Gene splicing Boyer, Stanley Cohen 1972

Textiles and Materials. Clay, metal, wax, leather, Operating System
Dr. Gary Kindall 1973
skins, wool, cotton, waterproofing (1821), vulcanization (CP/M)
(1839), thermoplastic (1869), Viscose (1892) Internet Vinton Cerf (USA) 1973
Baby formula Henry Nestl 1867 Abortion (USA) Abortion is legalized 1973
Dynamite Alfred Nobel 1867 Charm Quark
Stanford, Brookhaven 1974
QWERTY keyboard Christopher Sholes 1868 (Psi/J Particle)
Gene Splicing with Jozef Schell, Marc Van 1974
Football America 1869 agrobacterium Montagu (Ghent)
Celluloid plastic John Hyatt 1869 tumefaciens Mary-Dell Chilton 1976
Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev 1869 Granite Radio Halos Dr. Robert Gentry 1976
Chemistry. Alchemy (?-1778), Lavoisier's Table of Personal computer Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak 1976
Simple Substances (1789), Dalton's Elements (1808) (36 Bottom Quark Leon Lederman 1977
elements), Johann Dobereiner's Triads (1780-1849), Telluric Upsilion particle Fermilab 1977
Helix or Screw (1862), Newlands' Octaves 1864 (First Modem Dennis C. Hayes 1977
"Periodic table"), Mendeleev's Tables 1869, Meyer's Rapid DNA Allan Maxam, Walter
Periodic Table 1870, Moseley's Periodic Law, Modern 1977
sequencing Gilbert, Frederik Sanger
periodic table (1914)
Test tube baby Britain 1978
Transcontinental Joop Sinjou and Toshi tada
Union and Central Pacific 1869 Compact Disk (CD) 1979
railroad Doi
"Weekly" magazine Scanning Tunneling Ernst Ruska, Gerd Binnig,
Victoria Woodhull 1870 1981
promotes free love Microscope Heinrich Rohrer
Mitosis Anton Schneider 1873 Atomic Force Gerd Binnig, Christoph
DDT Othmar Zeider 1874 Microscope Gerber, Calvin Quate
Fertilization Oscar Hertwig 1875 Space shuttle United States 1981
Hardware: Rock, clay, skins, paper (105), quill pen and
Linotype Ottmar Mergenthaler 1875 ink (700), pencil (1565), slide rule (1622), chalk and
The director of the patent office resigned saying blackboard, typewriter (1829), census records, microfiche,
"there is nothing else to invent". Kodachrome (1935-2010), photocopier (1937), Computer
Telephone Alexander Graham Bell 1876 (1945), CD (65), microprocessor, mouse (68), RS-232
(69), bar code scanner (69), VCR (71), daisy wheel (70),
Professional Tennis Wimbledon 1877 dot-matrix (71), laser (75), ink jet (76), modem (77),
Sound recording Thomas Alva Edison 1877 camera, Cray super computer (79), cellular phone (79),
Light bulb Thomas Alva Edison 1879 IBM PC (81), Apple Macintosh, DVD (95), USB (96), blogs
(97), MP3, iPod (2001), iPhone (2007), G1 (2008), iPad
Electrical Power Edison (Menlo Park) 1879 (2010), diamond electronics
Light and Energy. Sun, moon, wood, dried dung, coal, Software: Fortran (58), FTP (71), UNIX (71), Word
wax, whale oil, camphene, coke, kerosene (1853), lantern. processor (72), e-mail (72), ethernet (73), TCP/IP (74),
Electromagnetic induction (1831), Demonstration at Menlo spreadsheet (78), Telnet (80), Bitnet (81), GIF (87), Apple
Park (1879), power station (82), AC electricity (88), Lisa (83), GUI interface, domain name server (84), HDTV
Electromagnetic theory of light (89), hydroelectric dam (90) (89), Windows (85), HTTP world wide web (91), JPEG
Forensic. Polarizing light microscope (1828), blood (91), MPEG, PDF (92), Mosaic Web browser (93),
test (1863), fingerprinting (1880), bullet comparison Netscape, Yahoo (94), Google (98), Bluetooth (99), WiFi,
(1898) iTunes (2001), Wikipedia (2001)
Operating System
United States. In 1879 the United States was a third Microsoft 1981
rate power. Then the inventions and new consumer
products and the collapse of European monarchies after GE vaccine ARS 1981
World War 1 in 1918, catapulted it to super power status GE Insulin Genentech 1982
Saccharine Constantin Fahlberg 1879 W and Z Bosons Weinberg,Salam,Glashow 1983
Abortion (Intact D&E) Dr. James McMahon 1983
Internal combustion Gottleb Daimler
1880 Consumer debt Shailesh Mertha
engine Karl Benz, cars (1885) 1984
traps (Providian Financials)
Professional Tennis US Open 1881 RFLP DNA Test Alec Jeffreys 1984
Hebrew Restored Ben Yehuda 1881 GE pig (SMGT),
- 1984
American Red chicken, goat, sheep
Clara Barton 1881 GE Tobacco EPA approved 1986
Hydroelectric power Nanotechnology Eric Drexler 1986
Appleton, Wisconsin 1882 Gene Gun John Sanford (Cornell) 1987
Machine gun Hiram Maxim 1883 Chromosome
ARS 1987
Histones Albrecht Kossel 1884 Page 71 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Cash register James Ritty 1884 Polymerase Chain Kary Mullis 1988
Film George Eastman 1884 Reaction
Coca Cola Dr. John S. Pemberton 1885 RU-486 Roussel Uclaf, France 1988
Overdraft loans Bill Strunk 1989
10 story building Chicago (Iron frame) 1885
HDTV - 1989
Dishwasher Josephine Cochrane 1886 2,500,000 cell phones in the USA 1990
Meiosis August Weismann 1887 HTTP and HTML Tim Berners-Lee 1990
Camera George Eastman 1888 Genome Project NIH and DOE 1990
Electric AC Motor Nikola Tesla 1888 STR DNA Test Thomas Caskey 1992
Automobile Karl Benz 1889 Flavr Savr tomato Calgene Inc 1994
Theory of Light, GE corn, cotton EPA approved 1995
Heinrich Hertz 1889 Top Quark Fermilab, Tevatron 1995
Hydroelectric dam Great Falls, Montana 1890 Cloned sheep Ian Wilmut 1997
Viagra Pfizer, Inc 1998
Antibodies Emil von Behring 1890
Terminator Seed Delta and Pine Land Co. 1998
Punched card Traitor Seed - 199?
Herman Hollerith 1890
Internet Porn Internet globalized 1998
Professional Tennis French Open 1891 PayPal Levchin and Thiel 1998
Basketball James Naismith 1891 700+ new Messianic 2001-
Laverna Patterson
Prophecies 10
Escalator Jesse Reno 1891
Brain Computer Wadsworth Center,
Fingerprints Sir Francis Galton 1892 2005
Interface (BCI) Jonathan R. Wolpaw
Ferris wheel George Ferris 1893 BCI Implant Andy Schwartz 200?
George Oliver and Eduard e-reader (Kindle) 2007
Hormone 1894
Albert Sharpey-Schaeffer iPhone Apple 2007
Rigid air ship David Schwarz 1895 Large Hadron Collider
International group 2008
X-rays Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen 1895 (17 miles)
Wireless Periodic Table 2008
Guglielmo Marconi 1895 Particle Physics 2008
telegraph Laverna Patterson
Modern Olympics World Tefillin Modern revelation of 2008-
7 Creation Days Moses' model of modern 2008
Revolutionary Discoveries, Networks and Infrastructure Theory /Everything science in the Torah 2008
Public Service Infrastructure Year DNA Replication 2008
Water and Sewer Health 1829 Flibanserin Boehringer Ingelheim 2009
Oil Energy 1859 Bionic Fingers Touch Bionics 2009
Science Basic Science 1860 3D-HD TV Panasonic 2010
Universities Education 1862 iPad Apple 2010
Agriculture Health, food production 1862 2,500,000,000 cell phones in the USA 2010
Products of the sexual revolution and the value of life
Medicine Health and hygiene 1865
Communication. Rotary dial (1876), radio (1902),
Telephone Communication 1876 stereo (33), comic books (33), radar (35), television
Electrical Grid Energy 1879 broadcast (35-39), ballpoint pen (38), color television (51),
Automobile Transportation 1889 Europe-USA telephone cable (56), telex (58), fountain pen
refill cartridge (60), touch tone or push-button (63), postal
Banking Finance (Public) 1891 zip codes (63), cable TV (64), packet switching (60s),
Wireless Communication 1895 satellite (65), magnetic stripe credit card (68), e-mail (72),
Radio Communication 1902 GPS (72), OCR (74), text-to-speech (76), fiberoptics (80),
Television Communication 1935 cell phone (83), fiberoptics long distance (88), digital
answering machine (91), Internet (98), microprocessor,
Roads, Highways Transportation 1940 Brain Computer Interface (99), social networking: Myspace
Computer Information 1944 (2003), Facebook (2003), YouTube (2005), Twitter (2006),
Satellite Communication, global 1965 ebook (2007), SETI's Allen Telescope Array (2007)
GPS Communication, global 1972
Internet Information, global 1998
Bible Science Proof of YHWH (God) 2008
Early Technology. Notice that all the critical inventions
are due to unrelated technologies which were "discovered"
within 30 - 35 years. Page 72 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

They must have been inspired by God.

Late Technology. Communications to spread Gospel
Progress depends on a wide distribution of:
Energy. A cheap, versatile, reliable source.
Infrastructure. Dispersion system.
Transportation. Mobility, infrastructure.
Communication. Long distance, wireless, instant.
Information Systems. Data storage and retrieval.
Medicine. A healthy work force
Education. Relevant knowledge. Public schools.
Financing. Money or supporters
Market. A need must exist or be made for the product.
Over 100,000 patents are required for the modern car Genetic Engineering (GE)
Simply by listing the major types of inventions, I have demonstrated that knowledge has suddenly
increased exponentially since the 1800's.
After the flood, God confounded speech and disrupted communications and scattered tribes for over
3700 years. Now, at the end of time, the ultimate goal for all technology seems to be to restore global
communications as He gathers all the tribes of the Earth for one final showdown.

Old World Technology: The Evolution of Travel Navigation

Although technology allowed travel and exploration to expand (Stars)
greatly, yet other knowledge had to be acquired first so that the fear Measuring Altitude. The astrolabe and
of the unknown would no longer prevent exploration. quadrant were used to measure the
altitude of Polaris or the sun in relation to
Navigation Technology. Sailing ships used the north star, the horizon. Measuring the altitude in
noon day sun, the quadrant, astrolable, star lists and an degrees was the same as the degrees of
latitude above the equator.
almanac to guide them by calculating latitude. When they
Polaris (North Star). It marks the
were at the correct latitude they would sail due east or west to north pole.
reach their destination. They would basically travel in 90 Other Stars. The altitude of a star
squares like Pac man because they could not measure of known declination was measured
longitude. when it was on the meridian at night.
Solar Navigation. Sun dial, bearing circle, sun shadow Noon Day Sun. It marks the
board, sun stone (works on cloudy days), semi wheel, sun meridian which identifies due north
and south. Near the equator,
compass are other navigational devices based on the position navigators rely on the sun to
of the sun which were used for sailing and agriculture. A determine latitude because Polaris is
bearing dial was based on knowing the position of the sun at below the horizon. They measured
sunrise and sunset and looking at the shadow made by a the angle of the sun at its zenith
vertical pin. Measuring Declination (Almanac). A
chart was used to find the declination for
Other Stellar Clocks. Megaliths or gnomons mapped the a particular date.
cycles and positions of the sun, moon and the solstices. Latitude = 90 - altitude + declination
Sometimes entire building complexes were used to capture
these changes.
The Flat Earth. Before 1450, nearly everyone thought that the earth was flat and the sun, stars
and the moon were on wheels. They believed that the earth was the center of all stars which
were stuck in a giant awning that covered the earth. Then astronomer Nicholas Copernicus
proved that the sun was the center of the solar system and that the sun, earth and the moon
were all shaped like round balls.
Myths and Misconceptions. Many of these beliefs can be traced to Bible symbols.
Earth is the Center of the Universe. The Sun is the center of our galaxy and earth is one
of the planets that orbit the Sun. Actually, because of sin, earth has become the central
focus of the universe. When sin is eradicated God will move His physical headquarters to
the earth. There will no longer be any darkness or night and the light of the sun will be
unable to outshine His brightness, so the earth itself will be like a sun. Earth lost its central
place but that will be restored. So there is more correct with their beliefs than there is error.
Perhaps, within all galaxies earth is the physical center as well as the administrative and Page 73 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

emotional center of everything.

Stars Hung on a Canopy. God does describe the heavens as a tent curtain. Astronomers
are now finding magnetic forces that look like braided rope and they believe that space is
supported by something they call plasma. Navigation
Dragons in the Sea. Bible symbols describe the (Quadrant)
wicked as a "raging sea" and that Satan is like a A metal plate in the shape of a quarter
serpent who lives in the sea and was confined there circle with a string and a weight that was
after he was cast down to the earth. It suggests that if used to measure Polaris' altitude or
Satan must have a physical place to live like any other angle above the horizon.
created being, that God has confined him to the bottom A quadrant, octant or sextant measures
of the sea. However, since he can visit and influence
humans, he has an invisible physical form to which he is temporarily confined. This
explains why we know more about space than we do about our oceans. Evil may lurk
there, unseen.
Other Realities. They explained other unknowns according to these symbols.
So these symbols are neither inaccurate or unscientific. They are God's way of explaining the
structure of the universe by analogy to minds that are the equivalent of children about concepts
bigger than our image of the universe. Navigation
Infrastructure and Trade Routes. Venice was the global (Astrolabe)
center of commerce and the gateway to Asia around 1298 Astrolabes were used up to 1650. They
due to the efforts of Marco Polo, but exploration opened up are circular devices with three concentric
other land and sea trade routes. The Portuguese discovery of rings divided into twelve pie shaped
the trade route around Africa's Cape of Good Hope in 1486 sections.
It allowed certain stars to be associated
opened up another route to India from Europe. The Suez with each month and could be used for a
Canal connected the Red Sea to the Mediterranean in 1869 guide to latitude.
and opened a more direct route from Europe to south east North. Cancer, Leo and Ursa major.
Asia. The Panama canal officially opened on 12 July 1920, Center. Pisces, Aries, Taurus and the
joining the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Pleiades.
South. Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn
Maps. Cartographers needed an accurate map of the world. and Aquarius.
In the early sixteenth century the view of the world was a The measurement of longitude was not
combination of stories and myths. The Arabians thought that discovered until 1737.
the Indian Ocean extended back to the western coast of the
continent. Spanish and Portuguese thought that the Atlantic extended all the way to China.
Wind Systems and Ocean Currents. Sailors began to understand the cycles of the wind
systems and no longer hugged coast lines, allowing the winds to blow them across the sea from
one shore to the other. When propulsion graduated from foot power and wind power, then
progress was made. Speed increased exponentially and there was no longer the fear of being
stranded far from a source of food supply. Page 74 of 104

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The Evolution of Speed: Running "To and Fro".

5800 Years 1790 1798 1800 Time of the End (200 Years) End of
Walking Rafts, Dugouts, Canoes Sailing Ships Today Time

For 5800 years we were limited to a maximum speed of 10 miles per hour (16 kph) on land and sea. In
the 200+ year period known as "the time of the end" the prophecy of Daniel 12, written 2600 years
ago, describes an increase in knowledge, and people "running to and fro". Here we summarize the
evidence of the revolution of speed.

In 500 BC it took over four months to travel about 700 miles Comparison of Speed by Method of Travel
(1125 km) from Babylon to Israel. By 1800 people and Vehicle Mph Kph
information were still travelling at about the same speed as Foot Power (4000 BC-Present)
they were since Noah, 4 to 10 miles per hour (6 to 16 kph). Walking 4 6
Camel (with 400 lbs) 3 5
Transportation (Horse Power). Walking, the Dog sled 4-9 6-14
donkey and the camel were the most common form of Bicycle 10 16
transportation for thousands of years. 6 10
Indian armies used elephants but most ancient armies
Pony Express 10 16
and kings used horses which were the fastest means to
Stagecoach 15 24
travel over land. The stagecoach was their commercial
Iron horse (early car) 4.3-2.1 6.4-3.2
passenger transport and a regular stagecoach route
Wind and Steam Power (1769-Present)
was established in 1785 between Albany, New York City
and Philadelphia. Sailing Ship 5-9 8-15
Merchant Ship 6 10
Transcontinental (Wagon Train). The major Paddlewheel boat (1783) 7-3.5 11-5.5
foot paths to the west were old Indian trails such as the Clipper Ship (1833) 10-23 16-37
Oregon Trail. After the Louisiana Purchase in 1804, Steam Ship (1898) 14-26 23-42
congress sent Lewis and Clark to explore the west. Nuclear powered (1958) 35 53
They traveled 4162 miles from Missouri to the west Submarine 23 35
coast in 16 months by foot, horse and canoe. It took 7
months for the return trip because they were mostly Steam Locomotive 5 8
going down stream. By 1841, pioneers traveled to the Passenger Train (1825) 16 25
west in four to six months. The first emigrant wagon train Electro-Chemical Power (1900-Present)
with 47 people left Independence, Missouri on 1 May Diesel Train (1925) 147 273
1841 and reached California November 4 to settle in the Maglev Trains (1999) 311-345 500-552
west. Car 60-120 97-193

Transcontinental Trade. The Romans began the Air ship (1895) 78 135
first true global trade around 70AD, swapping gold for Early passenger plane 100 161
silk, rice and spices (pepper, ginger, cinnamon, Jet Plane (1952) 570 917
cardamon), gems, cotton and peacocks. The Indians Speed of Sound 761 1225
would take raw silk from China and weave it into Concorde SST (1969) 1674 2693
beautiful textile which the Romans craved. They also Space Shuttle (launch) 4,973 8,002
craved spices to improve the taste of their rotting food. Space Shuttle (orbit) 17,580 28,287
The Spice Route (Sea Route). During the Greek era Rocket 10,000 16,090
Arab and Indian sailors used the Monsoons to cross the Solar Power (Future)
Indian Ocean. In 150 BC Hippalus (Hypalus) discovered Speed of Light 11 x 106 18 x 106
the value of the Monsoons. Large western ships were
able to cross the Indian ocean from ports like Berenice in the Roman province of Aegyptus on
the Red Sea to the string of 40-50 ports on the western shores of India. He assumed that the
Indian continent ran north to south instead of east to west, as geographers thought. So crossing
the ocean should be faster than following the coastline because the wind would blow him into
the land. That assumption made him attempt the crossing.
He discovered that the south west Monsoons could blow them from the Persian Gulf and the
north east African coasts to India in June. Then in November the north east monsoons would Page 75 of 104

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blow them back to the Arabian coast.

The Silk Road (Land Route). It connected trade routes over 5000 miles (8047 km) through
the Khyber pass with horses and two-humped camels caravans carrying up to 400 lbs (181 kg)
of merchandise at a rate of 3 mph (5 kph) from the Mediterranean coast, east Africa, Iran,
Central Asia, Russia, India and China. Beginning in Xi'an China, The route linked cities such as
Bam, Tehran, Mashhad, New Delhi, Lahore, Antioch, Baghdad, Ankara, Venice, and Alexandria
to sea ports in Sidon, Tyre and Acre. Chinese silk from Xi'an and porcelain, Indian spices,
perfumes, medicine, African and Arabian slaves, gems from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Kasmir
and Persian silver were exported to the Roman empire. Buddhism was transported from India to
China by the Buddhist merchants.
Train. In 1825 Britain opened the first public railway in the world (Stockton-Darlington). By
1844 the USA had over 5,000 km of railway, Britain (3,000 km), Germany (2,000 km) and France
(500 km).
On 10 May 1869, the Union and Central Pacific railroads met in Ogden, Utah, to create the first
transcontinental railroad. It cost $120 for a trip across the American continent but travel time was
reduced from over 4 months to 7 days.
By 1893 trains could travel at 100 mph and by 1900 a trip from Washington to Ohio was
completed in 8 hours. But people still reached the railroad by slow means - horse or foot.
Automobile. The first self propelled car was a steam powered 6 km/hour road vehicle built
in 1769. The first successful internal combustion engine was a two stroke engine built in 1860. It
travelled at 3 km/hour. The first four stroke engine was built in 1876.
Locomotives on Highways Act (Red Flag Act). In the beginning, cars could not travel faster
than horses or people by law. In 1865 the car could only travel 6.4 km/hour (4 mph) in the
country and 3.2 km (2 mph) in the city. The law required that a man must walk 50 metres (55
yards) ahead of the vehicle with a red flag, that signaled the driver when to stop because of an
approaching horse. In 1878 a new law eliminated the use of the flag.
It took three people to operate a car. One to drive, one to warn and one to stroke the engine.

The internal combustion engine, mass production of cars and the investment in paved roads
finally replaced the horse. In 312 BC, the paved road allowed the Roman empire to expand. In
1908 the first concrete road was made allowing the automobile industry to expand. By 1920
most major roads in Europe and the United States were paved. Then freeways appeared in the
1930's and the Federal Interstate Highway System (1940-1980) built freeways around the

Intercontinental Transportation. In the first century the Greeks and Romans discovered
the monsoon winds and were able to travel by sea directly to India without hugging the
continent. Later, Christopher Columbus "accidentally" discovered the trade winds in the 1480's
and ran into a new continent thinking that he had found a new route to India. In 1492 Columbus
took 45 days to travel 6100 miles to America with sailing ships. Sailing ships still took months to
cross the oceans, so their voyage was limited by the amount of supplies they could carry.
Fortunately, Columbus made a mistake in calculating the circumference of the earth and he
thought that the trip was shorter.

Steam Ship. On 22 May 1819 a steam ship traveled about 5000 miles (8047 km) from
Savannah Georgia to Liverpool England arriving thirty days later on June 20. By 1838
steamships were crossing the Atlantic in 13 days. In 1936 the "Queen Mary" traveled across the
Atlantic from Southampton to New York in four days. On 3 July 1952, the SS United States made
its maiden transatlantic crossing in 3.5 days, travelling at 39 knots (47.66 mph). It is still the
fastest ocean liner.
The Nautilus was the first atomic powered submarine. It was launched in Groton, Connecticut 21
January 1954 and made the first undersea crossing of the North Pole on 5 August 1958.
Intercontinental Air Service. The airplane was invented in 1903 and planes traveled at 100 Page 76 of 104

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miles per hour when they began passenger service. In May 8-27, 1919 the US Navy's NC-4 and
a crew of six made the first successful transatlantic flight 4,000 miles from Long Island to Lisbon.
Two weeks later on June 14-15, British pilots Alcock and Whitten-Brown completed the first non-
stop trans-Atlantic flight from Newfoundland to Ireland in 16 hours 27 minutes. In 1927, Charles
Lingbergh flew solo from New York to Paris across the Atlantic in 33.5 hours. The jet engine
allowed airplanes to replace the railroad with speeds of over 600 mph in 1952. Today, we can
cross the Atlantic in three hours or less in the Concorde (1674 mph).
Interplanetary and Intragalactic. On 4 October 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik,
the first artificial satellite in space. On 12 April 1961 the Russians launched the first manned
vehicle, Vostok 1, in space followed by the Americans on May 5 in Freedom 7. The Americans
landed on the moon in 1969 in Apollo 11. In 1981, NASA launched the first reusable space
shuttle, Columbia. In 1976, Viking 1 landed on Mars and the Mars Pathfinder landed in 1997. In
October 2009, testing was done on a space elevator that will be powered by a laser and run on
thin carbon filament tracks that will be installed between the space station and earth.
Space Tourism. In 2011, Virgin Galactic may begin 2.5 hour flights into outer space from a
base in Texas for a price of $200,000.
Information Transportation (Mail Delivery). In 1841, a wagon train traveled from Missouri to
California in 188 days. Compare that to the pony express which transported mail 200 miles per
day at a speed of 10 miles per hour in 1860. By switching horses and riders they traveled 1966
miles from Missouri to California in ten days.
On October 24, 1861, the transcontinental telegraph line was completed, allowing people to
send messages in minutes rather than days. By 1999, people could send large text and image
files by the Internet in seconds and by package delivery overnight across the globe. With instant
message, e-mail, twitter and all types of electronic mail services, electronic messaging has
reached its practical limits on the planet. The only hurdle is to make streaming video on personal
devices as ubiquitous as voice and text. That challenge is now a marketing rather than a
technology hurdle. Convince everyone that they need a videophone that transmits television.
The Star Trek Frontier (Beam Me Up!) The next frontier is to send objects such as people
and packages instantly by disassembling their molecules and reassembling them at a distant
place in seconds or folding space or other futuristic technology.

The Next Frontier

One Language (2474 BC) 1790 1945 No Language or Geographical Barriers
End of
Technology Tower of Babel Knowledge Bomb Phone Travel Space Genetics Time
Already, our new inventions are little more than repackaging, renaming and marketing old systems as
new products. Cheaper and global may be the route that telecommunications needs to take, but faster
now seems superfluous. Faster data will not add much more to our ability to take in what we see and
hear. Faster travel has reached its practical limits on rail and road. Faster air travel is the only really
practical innovation.
We need better advances in energy, medicine and agriculture, but the research seems to be centered
on cornering market share perpetually, not on finding cures and solutions. Language is no longer the
barrier to advances in technology as it was in the days after the flood. Now, corporate profit and
competition are. This same combination is also the impetus that drives research. The next frontiers
seem to be related to discoveries in sub-atomic physics and biology. But we may be approaching the
limits of what God will allow.

The History of Money

Barter and Trade Money Electronic Credit
Labor Property 476 1464 1610 1716 1744 1920s Now
1390 End of
Slave Land Feudal Currency Paper Consumer
Trade Bond Stock Notes Insurance Credit Predatory Page 77 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

Economies could never be globalized if we did not learn how to convert the value of goods and
services into a system whose value was standardized. Then this symbol of value had to become
portable, first by becoming small and light and then being virtually transferrable.
Then a market was set up for trading goods and the middle men rigged the system to guarantee flow
of wealth through their hands.
We present this global financial history so that you can understand the powerful financial forces behind
every major fulfillment of prophecy as the wrath of God executed justice. Most of the information from
1290 to 2008 is from the PBS documentary by Niall Ferguson.

Ancient Financing (Bartering). In ancient cultures confidence was placed in the value of
precious metals, physical labor and the right to use land to obtain the basic needs of life: food,
clothing and shelter. Certain basic pillars of financing still exist at this time.
Goods and Services (Asset Valuation). People traded food, art and craft and labor.
Bartering was the major method used to swap goods and services, but it had limitations.
Precious Metals (Transferrable Assets). They became the most convenient method of
trading. Eventually, precious metals were used as the standard of value to set prices. And
portable money became the most efficient way to exchange goods.
Definition: Money. The confidence that a thing will maintain its value creates money. At
first, money was made from precious metals and had intrinsic value. But when paper
money was issued the confidence was placed in the system that issued the money.
Property (Fixed Assets). Land ownership was not a concept held by nomadic people. But
as civilizations became rooted in one place, land became a valuable asset that was owned
by the king or by the rich. It gave men the right to vote. The poor never had land. They
could lease it and work on it as slaves.
Slavery (Labor). It was an integral part of all ancient economies. Slaves were captured in
war or kidnapped or voluntarily traded a fixed period of their labor for debt.
Saving Trust Banking. Many cultures have a system that provides immediate financing. A
limited group forms and contributes a certain amount every week for a specific period of
time. Using an agreed schedule based on need and history, every member of the group
takes their turn to take the entire contents of the bank. So, if twelve people contribute ten
dollars a week for twelve weeks, each week someone will get $120. In the end, no interest
accumulates and one trusts that each member will continue to make their payments after
they receive the weekly bank. These systems still exist today as the poor find it difficult to
obtain banking services because they do not have enough money or the fees deplete their
Hebrew Financing. God set up an ingenious system of financing in which every generation had
a chance to start over and no one person could manipulate the financial system to keep others
at a perpetual disadvantage. He also arranged for the care of the priests, poor, fatherless,
widows and strangers.
Property. When the nation came to their land, land was evenly distributed to all families
except the priests. By law, this property must remain within each family forever. But people
could use the property for economic purposes. It could be leased or used as collateral.
Exploitation. The laws said that one must not hold as collateral any object that a person
needs for survival. It must be returned when he needs it.
Hoarding Wealth. The Bible warns against hoarding wealth.
Desperate People. You are not supposed to loot the assets of unfortunate people in the
day of their distress.
Tithe, Sacrifices and Gifts to the Temple. These belonged to the priests.
Welfare. The law required that certain classes of people must be helped. In fact, when
God's wrath or judgment fell on a nation, one of the charges that God makes is their
treatment of the poor and helpless.
Food for The Poor. Every property owner must leave some of their food for the
poor and give the poor and the stranger the right to eat a meal from their trees. The Page 78 of 104

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law also requires that the people must redeem or rescue those who are so poor that
they must sell themselves into slavery.
Widows and Orphans. The family of a deceased husband must take care of his
wife and children.
Elderly Parents. Children were required to take care of their parents.
"Corban" or "Korban". It is any offering given to the Lord. Yet, a practice
emerged which allowed a child to give the amount he would use to take care of his
parents as a gift to the temple and they were exempted from the obligation because
the priests did not condemn the practice.
Strangers. Hospitality must be shown to strangers.
The care of the helpless depended on a large and committed family unit. Yet, our culture
has destroyed this system. Small families, high prices, industrial farms, heavy long-term
debt requiring two income families and distributed families undermine this support.
Slavery. People could also trade their labor to discharge a debt. People worked for a
maximum of six years to pay off their debts. Every seven years, all slaves must be freed.
Involuntary slavery and slavery by kidnapping were forbidden on the pain of death.
However, like the rest of the world, the Hebrews could use slavery as a way to swap goods
and services and to pay for debt. So limited debt bondage was the only type of slavery
allowed and it was a practice that survived until colonial times and still exists today.
Paycheck Slavery. Today we swap labor for money which is used to pay debt.
Share Cropping. It is a modern form of bartering and trading. People traded with their
neighbours for the crops each grew. So a chicken can be traded for corn.
I met a family whose father never saw money until they moved from Alabama to Florida in
the 1960's.
Jubilee (Discharging Debt). Every fifty years, all property must be returned to the original
owners, slaves must be freed and all debt must be forgiven no matter how large they were
or when they were made. This made all people debt free at the same time so that the
whole land had a new beginning.
Limited Debt. The system limited debt to the value that could be extracted from the
production of the land until the next jubilee. Every year the land lost one fiftieth of its value.
So borrowers could not overextend themselves and lenders could not offer loans that
could not be paid back. Mercantilism suggests that the ruling government should advance
the goal of acquiring capital through a positive balance of trade by playing a protectionist
role in the economy; by encouraging exports and discouraging imports, notably through
the use of tariffs and subsidies Near the bottom of the social pyramid were the agricultural
laborers, or villeins, and beneath them, the serfs.
Generational Debt Bondage. However, other cultures had a practice of perpetual
slavery based on the debt of ancestors hundreds of years before. This type of slavery still
exists. And those who own them guarantee that families will not get out of debt by rigging
the economic environment. The cost of housing and goods are too high to discharge any
Credit and Collateral. Credit was based on how much the land could produce until the
next jubilee. Those who could lend were required to do so for a legitimate need even if
they would lose money. God became the guarantor of loans to the poor and needy. He
would pay back.
Usury (Charging Interest). The Torah forbids the Jews from charging interest to each
other. However, one could charge interest to a stranger. In the fourteenth century, charging
interest was a mortal sin and a crime, so Christians tolerated the Jews in the Venice ghetto
who would lend for interest. This is why Jews became bankers and money lenders. It was
not because they were greedy exploiters. They were locked up in the ghettos at night and
only allowed to emerge by day to perform activities which would guarantee them a place in
hell. Who cared if a Jew was damned to hell for charging interest. But Venice still became
a center of financing because the Italian bankers charged exhorbitant interest by calling it Page 79 of 104

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something else.
Security is land-based because this guarantees that a person has the opportunity to plant food
and build a shelter. Debt was discouraged.
Feudalism (476-1918). A Middle ages agrarian economic system that was introduced to France
around 735 by Charles Martel and to England in 1066 by William the Conqueror. It allowed a
weak monarchy to control the lands of the realm through reciprocal agreements with regional
leaders. The system grants the use of land (fief) by the Lord to the vassal in exchange for
military service, a percentage of his farm's output to his lord and may be required to use the mills
and ovens which are owned and taxed by the lord to grind wheat and bake bread. Each vassal
can subdivide his fief and become the Lord with the agreements he makes to other vassals. At
the bottom of the system were the villeins who worked the land and below them were the
peasants or serfs. They had a small plot of land to grow food for their families and they had the
right to gather firewood from the forest.
Modern Banking (1200-1390). Modern banking emerged in Italy in the thirteenth century.
Banking flourished in the Arab cultures because of their numeric system. But the Roman based
cultures found it difficult to calculate interest with Roman numerals. In the year 1200, Fibonacci
convinced the Italians to switch to Arabic numerals for financing. These Italian bankers invented
the global credit market.

Bardi, Perruzi and Acciaiuoli International Banks of Florence (1290-1345). Eventually, the
Bardi and Peruzzi and the Medici families of Venice (1390) became the bankers of Europe.
Deregulation. One barrier to the issuance of credit was the laws against interest. Charging
interest was a sin and crime in Christian Europe. First, they obtained an exemption by
convincing the pope to change usury from a mortal sin to a venial sin and to allow trade with the
Saracen infidels from the east. Pope John XXII granted Venice alone the license to trade with
the infidel Mamluk sultans of Egypt in the 1330s.
Mongols. This was an unusual alliance. The Mongol conquests in the thirteenth century were
responsible for the death of 35 to 40 million people. Beginning with Genghis Khan in 1206, they
ruled almost all of Asia from the Pacific ocean to Asia Minor by 1280. They were expelled from
China in 1368. The Federal Reserve
Usury by Another Name. So the banks got around this by (Central Banks)
the compensation they were paid for managing money. In These agreements sounds like the
exchange for loans, they were paid fees, perpetual rents, gifts central banking system of many
and compensations and the right to manage all revenues from countries.
The "Federal" in the name makes it
a kingdom. By managing all revenues from taxes and appear that it is a government agency
industries they held a monopoly on these goods and but these are in fact private
commodities. In addition, they controlled all currency trading organizations managing public funds.
and minting.

Monopolies. They were able to create monopolies in the east and west through strategic
alliances. Venice was the banker, slave market and intelligence for the Mongol Khans. An
alliance with the Mongols gave them a monopoly on trade as the Mongols eliminated all their
competition. Venice provided the ship and the capital to finance the crusades and told them
which cities to capture. They gained control of the cities of commerce of the "Silk Road"
(Constantinople, Lajazzo, Tyre, Sidon and Acre). The Venetians captured Constantinople in
1204 in the fourth crusade. It was the most important port city between Europe and Asia.
Precious Metals. From the 1183 "Peace of Constance" to 1290 the Italians minted their
own coins and then established a monopoly in the trading of gold and silver. They looted
all the gold from the east and replaced it with silver currency from Venice. With Venetian
silver being the standard global currency, they were able to set unfair exchange rates for
currency. They made huge profits in global currency speculation. If a nation decided to
mint its own currency, they soon discovered that it was useless for trade.
Gold was looted from China and India and mined in Sudan and Mali. Silver mined in Page 80 of 104

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Germany, Hungary and Bohemia was sent to the Byzantine empire in exchange for gold.
Soon coin from Venice had replaced currency in the Byzantine empire, Mongol empire and
Europe between the twelfth and fourteenth century, and affecting trade and the circulation
of money.
By changing the prices of these two metals which they distributed, they enslaved the world
Trade Fairs. By 1310, the Venetian and Florentine bankers took over the trade fairs in the
six cities around Champagne, France which had been operating successfully since 1180
with an average of 34% profit. By offering credit and opening several bank branches they
raised 810% annual profits! This eventually killed the real market with debt.
They became so powerful that they forced the owners to come to Venice to sell their
wares, further increasing the cost of doing business for the producers and decreasing
theirs. Now the sellers had to pay for travel, hotel, transportation and wharehousing while
the bankers sat at home like kings while the markets were brought to them.
Other Commodities. They monopolized cloth, woodwork, food and grain.
Textiles. They monopolized wool from England and Spain.
Iron. They monopolized iron and iron tools from Germany.

The End. The currency market collapsed and England defaulted on their loans in 1342, and
Florence defaulted on their bonds in 1345 triggering a market crash. After 1400, Spain, Britain
and France expelled these Italian bankers and strong, centralized sovereign nations emerged
which controlled their own currency and economies.
Economic policies led to these major tragedies.
Famine. Banking policies led to the man made famines of 1314-17, 1328-9, and 1338-9.
In 1315 taxes were abolished in the city and increased in the country. In addition, the
farmers were given loans in the value of perpetual rent or the value of their land if rented
for their life. So with higher taxes and their lands being owned by the banks, farmers
moved to the city and food production dwindled and the banks could not make any
revenue from their commodities monopoly.
Plague. In 1346, the Mongol horses destroyed farm lands and spread the plague to the
Black Sea where it was picked up by Venetian trading ships. These plague-laden ships
arrived in Italy where the population was now concentrated in cities where the
infrastructure was crumbling and food production had declined.
In an unregulated market the rich monopolized everything, wringing out more and more profits
while finding ways to spend less for their responsibilities. They loaned money for the purpose of
acquiring the land of the owners, knowing that they eventually could not repay. They stopped
paying taxes, shifting the burden on the poor. Decreasing tax revenues allowed the infrastructure
of the city to collapse.

Medici Family (1390). In Venice, the Medici family dominated banking after 1390, financing
the infamous merchants of Venice.
Bond Market (1464). The city of Florence financed wars through bonds, or borrowing from the
public with a promise to pay principal and interest at a future date when the bonds matured.
Wars are impossible if there is nothing to finance them. So they raised money to hire
mercenaries to conduct wars to loot the treasures and assets of other countries. Eventually, the
people were shielded from the atrocities of war but they were drowning in debt by borrowing
from themselves. Bond markets are used to finance wars because the bond holders usually
have decades in which to pay back the value.
Battle of Waterloo (1814). They helped the British to defeat the French and created the
Rothschild empire. On 11 January 1814, the Rothschild brothers officially became British
war financiers who financed the war by issuing bonds backed by gold. But the war ended
more quickly than they expected on 20 July 1815. Because they received the news before
the general public and speculators were still driving up the price of bonds in anticipation of Page 81 of 104

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a long war, the Rothschilds waited until bond prices rose 40% in July 1817 and then sold,
generating a huge profits before the bond market fell.
The Rothschilds. They helped the British beat the French by financing the war with
American Civil War (1863). Cotton backed bonds helped to defeat the south in the
American civil war. During the war 80% of cotton came from the United States mainly
through the port in New Orleans.
The Rothschilds. The confederacy looked to Europe to help them beat the north. The
Rothschilds decided not to help. So they issued cotton backed bonds sold to Europe at 6
pennies per pound. In 1862 cotton was the collateral used to issue bonds which financed
the war, printing $1.7 billion in confederate paper money. The south drove up the price of
cotton and created a "cotton famine" by starting a cotton embargo against Britain. By 1862
a quarter of the workers were on welfare and half the cotton workers in Britain were laid
off. Then the Union army captured New Orleans on 28 April 1862 and formed a naval
embargo and cotton prices plummeted. At the end of the war, the confederate money was
worth 1 cent on the dollar and inflation was 90 times higher by January 1865.
Prophecy. The Rothschilds were Jewish financiers who helped to reshape the world at a
critical time in prophecy. By refusing to help the south, they broke the back of slavery in America
and by helping the British they caused the downfall of the French. This helped the rise of
America as a superpower by eliminating or weakening strong rivals and creating, in theory, a
nation that could be used by God.
Mercantilism (1500-1750). This is an economic activity which benefited greatly from the
enforced monopolies, bans on foreign competition, and the poverty of the workers. Governments
benefited from the high tariffs and payments from the merchants. It seemed to be the perfect
economic system which could take advantage of the new markets and the slave trade. Although
coins were in general use since 650 BC, mercantilism put money into circulation and virtually
ended the system of bartering.
The Colonial Era (1500-1900). Having learned from the Italian bankers and their Mongol
partners that guaranteeing monopolies can create wealth, these strong European economies
proceeded to conquer the world through colonialism and slavery. They extracted the wealth and
labor from subjugated peoples under the mercantilism theory. So the race to conquer new
nations and open new markets began with the Dutch financiers leading the pack. In the end, the
Europeans created colonies in the American continent, Africa and Asia.
American Continent Discovered (1492). Christopher Columbus discovered the new world
and opened up whole new markets and opportunities for the emerging strong sovereign nations
of Europe and their developing financial markets.
The New World. They invaded the new world like sixteenth century Borgs, taking everything of
value. At first they tried to make slaves out of the native peoples, but they were dying of
European diseases. Indentured servants and prisoners were used but they fell to tropical
diseases. Finally they discovered that the African slaves were immune to tropical diseases and
were hard working people who were accustomed to agricultural life. Voila! A match made in hell!
Dum Diversas: The Role Of The Church In The Slave Trade. Long forgotten from the
historical record is the role that the church played in giving these scoundrels the green light to
enslave others. Dum Diversas is the Papal bull authorizing slavery. It was issued on 18 June
1452 by Pope Nicholas V, and is credited by some with "ushering in the West African slave
"We grant you [Kings of Spain and Portugal] by these present documents, with our Apostolic Authority, full
and free permission to invade, search out, capture, and subjugate the Saracens and pagans and any
other unbelievers and enemies of Christ wherever they may be, as well as their kingdoms, duchies,
counties, principalities, and other property [...] and to reduce their persons into perpetual slavery.

It was followed on 8 January 1455 by "Romanus Pontifex", a papal bull reaffirming the right to
enslave and telling other nations that Spain and Portugal had the right of patronage "jus
patronatus" to trade and colonize the nations granted to them. Several other popes reaffirmed Page 82 of 104

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the right to enslave. Pope Calixtus III (1456), Sixtus IV (1481) and Pope Leo X (1514). So,
armed with god's blessing and moral authority they made perpetual slaves of unbelievers.
Finally, in 1537 pope Paul III condemned unjust enslavement of non-Christians although he
sanctioned slavery in subsequent actions.

Tordesillas Line (4 May 1493). In the papal bull "Inter caetera", Pope Alexander VI extended
this concept of "Ius patronatus" rights to property and spheres of influence and divided the world
between Spain in the western hemisphere and Portugal in the eastern hemisphere.

The Triangle Slave Trade. From 1440-1640, Portugal had a monopoly on the African slave
trade, transporting over 4.5 million Africans or about 40% of the estimated 10,240,200 to
11,328,000 slaves. England shipped 20% of the slaves. In 1510 Spain was shipping slaves from
Africa via Spain until direct shipments were made in 1532. Slave trade peaked in 1780 and
began to be outlawed between 1800-1873. But slave ownership took longer to outlaw. The slave
trips carried certain products on each leg of their journey.
1. African Imports. The export of trade goods from Europe to Africa forms the first side of
the triangular trade. African kings and merchants traded slaves for beads, cowrie shells
(used as money), textiles, brandy, horses, and guns.
Slavery Economics. In Cape Town a slave could be purchased for two ox and one cart
in 1766. In the records of one ship, a cargo of 356 slaves were valued at 22,000 pounds,
or 61 pounds each. Each was insured at 30 pounds.
Slaves were so cheap that it was more economical to work them to death from sunrise to
sunset and then buy new slaves. So the average life expectancy of a slave in the field was
seven years before he or she dropped dead. Poorer owners would buy more female
slaves and then breed new slaves.
2. Middle Passage (Slaves). They transported slaves from Africa to the American continent
and the Caribbean islands.
The average age of a slave was 16 because children survived better than adults. The
slaves were packed into the ships like cordwood for the month long voyage. A ship 30
meters long would officially carry 200 slaves in its cargo hold. However, the crew would
carry extra slaves and keep the profits. So by the end of the journey, the stench of urine,
feces and vomit in the overcrowded ship was so bad that the smell reached the land from
five miles away.
3. European Imports. They returned to Europe with the produce from the slave plantations:
cotton, sugar, tobacco, molasses and rum. Brown sugar was like gold in that era. The
great banking and insurance companies made their fortune from the slave trade.

Taxation Without Representation: Boston Tea Party (16 December 1773). American
colonists disguised as Mohawk indians dump 342 containers of tea into the Boston harbour,
protesting taxes imposed by Britain.
Gun Boat Diplomacy: The Opium Wars (November 1839-1842). Governments protected the
overseas investments in their colonies by private businesses with their navy.
In 1773, Warren Hastings, governor of Bengal (India), established a monopoly on the sale of
opium. In 1836 China made opium illegal and closed opium dens because of the rempant
problem of heroin addiction. They asked England to stop the drug trade. On 10 March 1839 the
Chinese attempted to suppress the illicit British trade in opium by confiscating and throwing out 2
million pounds of opium. The British sent their navy to force the Chinese to buy opium starting
the opium wars. The British won and the Chinese had to resume imports and cede Hong Kong in
the Treaty of Nanjing.
Stock Market and Securities (1602-1610). The "Company" (United Dutch East India Charter
Company) or "VOC" was a Joint Stock and Limited Liability Company started in Amsterdam as
the first securities company. Investors capatilized these companies and shared the profits from
their shipping ventures in the new colonies. The company went bankrupt in 1798. Page 83 of 104

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By 1598 Asian spice trade around the Cape of Good Hope to the east was very profitable, but
risky. Six companies joined together and issued the first share in 1606, allowing owners to sell or
trade their shares but not to redeem them from the company. They had armed ships and 10,000
soldiers to protect their ships by 1610. By 1610, investors were allowed to trade shares. By 1620
they established a monopoly on spice trading. At that time the Dutch were establishing colonies
in the new world and were the first to colonize New Amsterdam (1625) near Wall Street. It was
renamed New York when the British took over the Dutch holdings in 1664.
Bank Notes (1716). John law, the finance minister, merged the functions of a public bank and
a trading company and began issuing paper bank notes. The bank was modeled after the Dutch
company and would issue bank notes.
Insurance (1744). The Scottish Minister's Widows Fund was the first true insurance started by
two ministers: Robert Wallace and Alexander Webster from Scotland. It popularized the idea of
insurance to take care of widows and orphans and soon all respectable people carried insurance
to manage their personal and business risk.
Personal Retirement Account (1979). Private pension plans were introduced in Chile by some
men from Chicago. It became popular because it shifted the risk of retirement to the individual
and it provided a pool of money that could be gambled in the market but not accessible by the

The Money Empire Falls: Market Panics, Bubbles, Booms and Busts
The history of banking shows that the powerful elite always ignored or changed the rules to perpetrate
their fraud. Such disasters are often preceeded by a change in regulation that benefits the bankers at
the expense of the population. When they operate by ignoring the law and all other sense of fair play,
their wealth and apparent success are so powerful that it trumps any criticism and they are allowed to
operate freely while we beg them to share their wisdom and give us a chance at Nirvana.
Bubbles appear to be created with new opportunities that are created through deregulation or new
markets. Vultures take advantage of deregulation to build up speculation, lure the common people and
the novices.

Bardi, Perruzi and Acciaiuoli International Banks of Florence (1345). Free enterprise banks
with no government controls collapsed all the economies of Europe. In 1342, King Edward III
defaulted on his loans and the city of Florence defaluted on their bonds in 1345, triggering a
banking collapse which shattered the Mediterranean and all of Europe, except Germany. The
Vatican bankers, Acciaiuoli and the Buonacorsi went bankrupt in 1342 and Peruzzi and Bardi fell
in 1345.
The merchants of Venice and the bankers in other city states conspired to keep other nations in
debt. These banks worked by procuring monopolies for buying and selling goods and taking
unbelievable rates of profit. As goods declined because of famine and war and a population shift
from the country to the city and competition from the eastern nations, the banks could not
maintain their obligations and the nations could not survive under this debt.
League of Cambrai (1508). The major Christian powers of Europe (France, Spain, Germany,
Switzerland, and Hungary) have allied together against Venice into the League of Cambrai to
end the Venetian thirst for domination. Peace of Cambrai or Peace of Brussels was signed in
1516 and Venice lost all her territories.
Bloated Middle Men. The irony was that they owned and produced nothing nor added value.
They simply inserted themselves in the middle to create systems and reasons to extract profits.
Yet, in their greed they ignored the fact that the enormous profits that they squeezed from the
economy, were extracting more value than the economy produced in reality, leaving nothing but
debt and inflation for the actual owner and producers and workers and consumers.

Prophecy: Dividing the Land for Gain (Daniel 11: 39). The Italian bankers divided the world
between the east and the west in a scheme to monopolize the bullion trade so that they can fix
prices to maximize profits. By rigging the currency standard they engineered their own demise.
The east, abundant in gold, was on a silver standard while the west, abundant in silver, was on a Page 84 of 104

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gold standard.
Tordesillas Line (1493). Pope Alexander VI divided the world between Spain and Portugal at
about 38 W in a settlement and signed the Treaty of Tordesillas on 7 June 1494 which changed
the line slightly 46 37'W to include some of Brazil. This line did not encircle the earth.
Treaty of Saragossa or Zaragoza (22 April 1529). The first treaty covered only one side of
the world, but this treaty established the antimeridian or the division on the other side of the
globe 17 east of the Moluccas or 147 E longitude.
Spanish Territories (Western Hemisphere). Spain received almost the entire territory
west of the Tordesillas line which included the new world (America and Australia), Canary
Islands, Spanish Sahara, Spanish Guinea, Spanish Morocco, Easter Island, Philippines,
Galapagos, Mariana, Caroline and Marshall Islands, Japan and eastern Asia.
Portuguese Territories (Eastern Hemisphere). Portugal received the east of the line
which included the old world, Brazil and western Australia, Madeira Islands, Azores,
Portuguese Guinea, Portuguese India, Portuguese China, Ceylon, Java, Mozambique,
Bahrain, Angola, Muscat, Cape Verde Islands.
Other Powers. The English, French and Dutch were treated like pirates because they had
no right to have their ships in these territories. The Dutch and English started taking over
Portuguese colonies in the early 1600s and Spanish colonies after.
The church exercised unilateral power in determining ownership of parts of the globe without
regard to the rights of sovereign nations which were unknown to them.
Mississippi Company Bubble (1720). Jean Law (John Law) Timeline
of Edinburgh was a convicted murderer (1694) from Scotland Year Event
who indirectly caused the French Revolution. He escaped from 1879 USA third rate power
prison and went to Amsterdam and became a gambler. While USA expands into Spanish
observing the phenomenon of stock trading, he thought that he 1898
could do it better by merging a public bank with trading shares 1914-18 World War 1
by printing bank issued paper notes for share holders. Soon he
1918 Monarchies end
was in charge of the French economy and all the public debt
1918 Strong USA
was being financed through him. He owned a quarter of the
United States and 100 million shares. 1920s Fast money schemes
He created the Mississippi Company in Louisiana which had 1926 Florida land boom and bust
the monopoly on tobacco trade. He engineered a Ponzi 1927
Mississippi River flood.
scheme simply by issuing more stocks and printing the paper 900,000 refugees
money to sell more shares in this Utopian paradise. He 1929
Mosque of Omar bombed.
financed dividends by selling shares (printing more paper Arab-Jewish conflict
money), not from company profits. Unfortunately the new stock 1929 Lateran Treaty
was not based on any real value and he created a bubble. 1929 Stock Market Crash
Then some investors decided to live there and found that it was 1929-39 Great Depression
a bug infested swamp with alligators and tropical diseases in 1931-40 Dust Bowl
Louisiana. 80% of the settlers died and the first stock market 1939-45 World War 2
crash occurred. Shares lost over 90% of their value and John 1945 USA as superpower
Law fled to Venice. The French monarcy was bankrupt. This
1946 Communism (Iron Curtain)
financial debt helped to create the economic conditions which
led to the French Revolution and Europe was mired in war 1948 State of Israel
between 1792-1815. 1951 European Union
The South Sea Bubble (1719-1720). The War of the Spanish Succession with Spain (1701-
1713), left Britain 10 million pounds in debt. In 1711, the British government made a deal with the
South Sea company to finance this debt in return for 6% interest. The government also granted
the company exclusive rights with Spain's colonies in middle America and the South Seas
(South America) through which they could potentially trade in gold and silver and have a
monopoly on slave trade.
Management lied about the deals with Spain, claiming that they had exclusive rights to send a
ship to each of Spain's colonies. Impressed by the lavish corporate offices and evidence of Page 85 of 104

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wealth, investors bought the stock, peaking during 1719-1720, even though business was drying
up by 1718.
In reality, Britain and Spain were at war again in 1718, and the Treaty of Utrecht in March 1713,
which ended the war, only granted Britain the rights to send one 500 ton cargo ship per year to
all of Spains South American colonies and high import fees made the slave trade unprofitable.
So by 1720 management secretly started selling off their own stock, when investors learned of
this panic selling began. The British economy did not recover for a century.
Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company (1858). During a recession, more than 5000
American businesses failed and the stock market declined 66% between 1852 and 1857. The
New York branch of the Ohio life insurance and trust company failed on August 24 because of
embezzlement and it triggered the panic. The USA stock market crashed, triggering an
international market crash.
Ponzi Scheme (1920). Charles Ponzi was an Italian immigrant to the United States. He was a
check forger and scam artist who sold swampland and notes from a phony Securities Exchange
Company. In 1920, he collected $9.8 million from 10,550 people (including 75% of the Boston
police force) by offering profits of 50% every 45 days based on selling foreign postal reply
coupons which he bought at a discount in depressed foreign economies. He served four years
and began a Florida "swampland" sales fraud on 9 November 1925, collecting $7,000 from
investors before mail fraud charges were filed. He was deported from the USA to Italy in 1934
where he embezzled money while working for Mussolini's treasury.
Wall Street Collapse (1929). The infamous Wall Street stock market crash began 24 October
1929 (Black Thursday) and stocks fell 89% by June 1932 losing $26 billion. It sparked the Great
Depression from 1929-1939 in which there was 25% unemployment.
History and Causes. In 50 years America had skyrocketed from a third rate power to a super
power by 1929, leading a global economic upswing. The crash followed a decade of prosperity
and a eight year period in which stocks rose. It was celebrated as a new era of optimism and
permanent prosperity. During this time bankers, brokers and speculators were very rich and
were treated as celebraties. It was a brand new way to amass a fortune that anyone could try.
This caused the general public to begin to invest in the market and the stock industry began
marketing to the public, opening up hundreds of brokerage offices in many places, including
aboard steam ships.
Consumer Revolution and Consumer Credit. The average person could not borrow
money before 1920. As new inventions during the past 50 years and mass marketing
fuelled the global economy, credit became generally available to the public for the first
Debt (Buying on Margin). Stocks were also sold on margin or with borrowed money.
Purchasers only needed to pay 10% down to acquire stocks. With the market
skyrocketing, people borrowed more money to buy stocks.
Fraud (Insider Trading, Price Manipulation and Rigged Insider Pools). A few wealthy
investors pooled money under secret agreements to buy stocks at low prices. Then they
traded among themselves to inflate the price and generate excitement, and bribed
newspapers to hype a stock. By the time they sold to the unsuspecting public prices were
high and the small investor was still pumping money into the stock. Then the original
investors sold their shares before it the stock price collapsed. For example, the price of
RCA went from $20 to $400. In one week ending on March 8-18, a pool led by Michael
Meehan made $100 million by insider trading. When the market collapsed, it was valued at
20 cents.
Bad Advice. Many people were giving advice including Evangeline Adams, an astrologer
who advised J. P. Morgan and calculated stock variations by the stars and gave stock
advice and had a newsletter with 100,000 subscribers. Her advice for the summer of 1929
was to buy because the Dow Jones could climb to heaven.
Unrealistic Expectations. The value of a stock was no longer based on the state of the
economy or the health of a company. Stock prices still soared to record heights under the Page 86 of 104

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speculative boom. Sales dropped, industries declined, people were in debt because of
easy credit, poor getting poorer.
No Regulation. There was no government involvement. By March 22, the Federal
Reserve was uneasy about stocks bought on margin. They knew that it was wreckless.
They had the power to control the borrowing, but they said nothing.
The Crash.
March Panic (March 25-26). Selling triggered a plunge and margin calls were made as
stocks dropped more than 10%. Millions of investors were in trouble by March 26.
Credit Crunch. When stocks fell below their value it caused a credit crunch when the
margin call was triggered. Stocks fell below the value and owners could not pay off the
debt and this immedidately dried up credit. The credit crunch caused interest rates soared
to 20%. The National City Bank, under the leadership of Charles Mitchell, stepped in to
provide $25 million credit, rates fell to 8% and ended the panic in March.
High (September 3). Stocks rose 52% in July and 55% in August. Stocks prices reached
a high of 381.17.
Babson Break (September 5). Stocks took a severe dip after economist Roger Babson
predicted a crash. For two years he had been saying "sooner or later a crash is coming".
Wild Fluctuations (September). The market fluctuated wildly, losing 17% in the weeks to
follow, even on the global market. Prices rallied on September 25. Five days before the
crash every banker and business leader was assuring the president and the public that
everything was optimistic.
October Crash (October 24-29). The crash happened over four business days.
Black Thursday (October 24). The market was uneasy on Wednesday and opened in a
free fall on Thursday, causing a panic. People looked to the House of Morgan because J.
P. Morgan had stopped a panic in 1907. At noon, a pool of bankers met to discuss how to
stop the slide announcing at 12: 30 that they would put in money to help the market. At
1:30 PM, Richard Witney moved in to end the panic and stabilize the market by buying key
stocks at a high price. He ordered 10,000 shares of N.Y. Steel. It stabilized for that day.
Black Friday (October 25). Over the weekend people had time to whip up their fears
and on Monday they decided to sell.
Black Monday (October 28). The market lost 12.82% of its value. Passengers aboard
the Berengaria liner tried to sell their stocks at the on board brokerage office. They left
England as wealthy men and docked in New York six days later, penniless.
Black Tuesday (October 29). The real crash occurred on October 29, going down
11.73% Everyone wanted to sell after thinking about it over the weekend. William Durant
poured his money into it to try to stop the panic. RCA dropped from $110 to 20 cents per
share. Prices did not regain those levels until 23 November 1954.

The Great Depression (1929-39). The 1929 stock market crash and the long depression
afterwards, affected the entire world. It caused civil wars in some countries and caused Nazism
and facism to arise. In the United States the stock market was down 90%, banks were closed,
credit froze, mortgages were foreclosed, farm prices fell 50%, the hungry lined up at soup
kitchens and the unemployment rate was officially 25%.

Dust Bowl (1931-40). Accompanying this mysery was a drought on the Great Plains during
1931-40 which affected 65% of the United States (97 million acres). The drought accompanied
over 150 years of soil erosion and depletion by cotton and destructive farming techniques, forest
depletion and land misuse that eventually converged and caused great dust storms one mile
high between 1934-37.

New Deal Reforms. In the United States, facing 25% unemployment and massive bank
failures. Franklin Roosevelt (FDR) was elected in 1933 and he instituted a series of reforms
called "the New Deal" which created a middle class and encouraged property ownership and Page 87 of 104

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social security for the elderly. Prior to this most people thought that the government had no role
in helping the people. This was the responsibility of families, churches and charities.
Bank Reforms (1933). He instituted reforms designed to bring stability and confidence to
the banking system. There was a bank holiday to stop the run on banks. He separated
regular banks from investment banks and formed the Federal Deposit Insurance
Corporation (FDIC) which insured up to $2500 deposits.
Financial Regulations (1933). The Securities Act formed the Securities and Exchange
Commission (SEC) which regulated the stock market.
Labor Reforms (1933). He created the Fair Labor Standards Act which established 40
hours work week and a minimum wage of 33 cents/hour and outlawed most forms of child
Work Programs (1933). Federally funded back to work movements.
Civilian Conservaton Corp (CCC). "Roosevelt's Tree Army" put 3 million young men to
work at $1 per day for 6 months in camps run by the army to improve and conserve the
environment. They replanted 2.3 billion trees, fought forest fires, reclaimed soil and
abandoned farm land, contoured land, water conservation and built fire trails. They cut
hiking trails and ski trails, improved national parks and 800 state parks.
Education. It taught the men to read and write because most were illiterate or had only
a sixth grade education. It gave them three meals per day, vocational training (typing,
electrical, plumbing) giving them pride and a sense of national service and conservation.
Fortunately, it prepared men whom the army could quickly train and mobilize for World War
II. It probably prepared the nation to be an educated superpower and might have made the
difference between winning and losing the war.
Work Projects Administration (WPA). Constructed roads and buildings. Other work
was created for artists and writers.
Banking (1934). Federal Credit Union Act (June 26). US Federal Savings and Loan
Association (June 27).
Social Security Act (1935). The Social Security System gives financial assistance to the
elderly and handicapped and began paying out in 1942.
Housing Opportunities (1938). Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae)
expanded the flow of money to mortgage lenders. It gave affordable thirty year mortgages
to an emerging middle class in the suburbs. It created in theory a credit rating system
based on a prime and subprime market which determined who got mortgages, but was in
reality divided along racial lines. The negative credit rating were applied to certain people
and neighborhoods and kept them out of the market until the housing boom of 2006-2008
lured them in and squeezed all the assets out of them.

Prophecy: Wrath. These events and the two world wars show the classic signs of upheaval at
the end of a cycle of divine judgment. It frees the people of God and establishes the new powers
in one generation. But one can also see God preparing a country to deal with the evil threat of
the Nazi party. They were prepared because they dared to help their poor and needy.
Black Monday (1987). Stock market crash began in Hong Kong and spread around the world.
On October 19, the USA stock market dropped 508 points or 22.61% of its value in one day
(36.7% from a August 25 high of 2722.44), erasing half a trillion dollars in wealth and taking two
years to regain those points.
Savings and Loan Crisis (1989). Deregulation in 1982 allowed savings and loans to offer more
interest on savings accounts. This created more cash for lending and fraudulent mortgage deals
bloomed. About 500 S&L's collapsed losing $153 billion. Resolution Trust Group (RTG), a new
government agency was created to buy back all bad debt.
Long Term Capital Management (1998). The hedge fund disintegrated on 17 August 1998
when the Russian financial system collapsed and Russia defaulted on their debt. LTCM lost
$550 million or 15% on that day and lost 45% by the end of the month when the impossible
happened and all their financial models failed miserably. Page 88 of 104

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LTCM sold unregulated over the counter stock options (betting on the price of stocks in the
future). It was founded by two men who developed a complex mathematical formula that
calculated risk. They appeared so successful that they were rewarded with the most prestigious
academic prize, receiving the nobel prize for finance. Their Blessings From God?
models assumed that in the worst case, they could not lose (High Interest Returns)
more than $35 million per day, but during the crisis $300-500 A thoughtful Christian needs to consider
million per day were being lost. Their theories which were the source of high interest investments
based on five years of data seemed to be right as they got and the types of companies in which
they invest. Are your high rates of return
wealthy. They had leveraged $5 billion into $1 trillion in based on usury, immorality, slavery,
derivatives, churning out 46% profits. They managed 15 robbery and oppression? Are desperate
banks which each thought they had an exclusive deal. So the people being goughed?
hype was based on fraud, selling the same item in hidden WWJD? Would God make the same
black box deals. investments if He knew how the money
was being made? The highest interest
The New York Federal reserve bailed them out by convincing rates are not a commandment.
14 banks to contribute up to $400 million each ($3.5 billion
total) so that their collapse would not affect the financial markets. Just six weeks before,
Brooksley Born, the chairwoman of the Commodities Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) had
tried unsuccessfully to regulate the secret blackbox market and was shutdown by all the other
powerful financial chairmen and congress.

Money on Crack. Amazingly, like whores on crack the bankers did not learn from the near
disaster but went on with business as usual at a more frenzied pace. At the urging of Alan
Greenspan, Congress did not heed the warning but spent the next ten years deregulating
everything possible believing in the Greenspan financial Model that "the market will take care of
itself" if left to the financial experts because government is a destructive force that just gets in
the way. Instead they undid all the regulatory safeguards developed from the 1929 collapse and
they punished Brooksley Born for being right.
By 2007 derivatives were worth $595 trillion, sucking up savings, mortgages and retirements.
Ten years after the LTCM debacle, unregulated over the counter (OTC) derivatives would blow
up the entire global market.

Free Market, Unregulated Capitalism. The deregulation doctrine was so prevalent that he
believed we should not police fraudulent activity. Alan Greenspan, Chairman of the Federal
Reserve from the Ford Administration until 2008, thought that fraud should not be regulated or
enforced, that "the market would take care of itself" and "the market will protect people". He did
not learn that the love of money is the root of all evil.
So lies, cooked books, fraudulent financial statements, crimes done to pump up market share
and inflate stock value and Ponzi schemes were all allowed to fluorish. The average citizen
counts on the fact that "AAA+ securities" meant secure and that the Securities and Exchange
Committee was policing financial fraud and that their gambling was safe. Instead, many top
accounts and lawyers at the SEC were busy watching and downloading pornography as the ship
was burning.
The market made sure that high rates of return, an atmosphere of wealth, success and
speculation kept the bubble expanding. In the end the market "takes care of itself" by wiping out
the future, college funds, retirement accounts and the assets of the little guy.
Case Study: Banker's Trust. 1993 Banker's Trust sold complex derivatives to Proctor &
Gamble. Employees took advantage of the fact that derivatives were too complex to understand
and set out to defraud the company. There was no record keeping or reporting and contracts
were secret.
Case Study: Bernard L. Madoff. He engineered the largest stock fraud in history which took
the fortunes of charities, retirement accounts, and investment management funds in the United
States, Latin America, Asia, Europe, European royalty and banks such as UBS in Geneva.
Madoff Securities. The company began in the 1960's was advertised as having high Page 89 of 104

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ethical standards and never seemed to fluctuate with bad markets. Bernie always made
money. At one point Madoff Securities was estimated to have managed 9% of all trades.
He was even chairman of NASDAQ. Yet he apparently never bought or traded stocks and
kept his money in a regular bank!
Feeder Funds. Bernie worked in an atmosphere of secrecy through many feeder funds
whose managers were too greedy and incompetent to take the minimum efforts of risk
management or "due diligence". The fund managers concentrated on marketing efforts to
lure in new investors and never once did anything more than visiting the Madoff offices to
see if it was a legitimate firm. They relied on Madoff's reputation and were attracted to the
15% to 20% guaranteed interest and the lucrative management fee kickbacks which kind
Bernie generously offered them. Feeder funds such as the Fairfield Greenwich Group lost
fourteen billion dollars while they issued beautiful reports about the risk management
efforts for their Fairfield Sentry fund which fed money exclusively to Madoff. One manager
of the Broward Investment Firm, which had 441 million in investments in 1992, thought that
he was so lucky because "God wanted him to have this money".
Any greedy, incompetent fool can hang up a shingle declaring themselves to be
"investors". All they need is the look of wealth and you are hooked. You want a piece of
the pie that they are eating.
SEC Complaints. In 2000, while trying to duplicate Madoff's success for his company, it
took Harry Marcopolis only four hours to realize that Bernie was operating a Ponzi
scheme. He warned the SEC in 2000 and in a detailed 21 page memo in 2005 which
outlined over 24 points. The 2005 accusation launched a two year investigation beginning
in January 2006. It cleared Madoff.
Many Happy Returns. One investor (Picower) received over $7 billion, which was 950%
interest during 35 years while the average return on investment in the stock market was
9%. At some point people are either greedy, immoral or incredibly naive. There is no way
one can receive such returns unless a variety of illegal or immoral activity is occurring. In
fact, the spectre of morality does not appear to concern the investment business.
The excess returns may rest on slave labor, under-compensated employees, exploitation,
bribe, unfair deals, theft, fraud or taking profit from the future. Sadly, in the list above, few
people care about anything except fraud. You cannot deny responsibility by insulating
yourself from knowledge of how this amazing result is achieved no matter how many
"professionals" you hire to assure you that this is "legal".
The Collapse. Unbelievably, as the market was down by 40% in September 2008, people
took their money out of failing funds to invest with Madoff Securities. The Fairfield
Greenwich Group tried to launch another fund called Fairfield Emerald, but could not raise
any money. But by December 2008, a failing market could not hide his fraud as institutions
needed money. By then he had lost over $65 billion and was arrested on 10 December
In March 2009 he received 150 years in prison. His unfortunate family is feeling the brunt of the
retaliation of people who lost everything, but who should probably have known better. They also
did not ask questions.

Case Study: Sir Robert Allen Stanford (The Stanford Financial Group). On February 17
and 27 2009, he was charged with operating a massive ongoing fraud and Ponzi scheme
involving $8 billion in certificates of deposits (CDs) from an offshore bank in Antigua. He widened
his popularity by being the patron of many charities and being associated with famous people.
He was even knighted in 2006. However, his financial empire was just another giant Ponzi
scheme which collapsed in the economic downturn. He was arrested June on 18.
Dot Com Bubble (2000). The U.S. stock market for high technology (NASDAQ) rose sharply
between 1998-2001 through speculations by venture capitalists and day traders on overvalued
internet based companies. It climaxed at 5132.52 on 10 March 2000 and dropped 45.9%
between September 1 and January 2, wiping out eight trillion dollars in wealth. It declined as Page 90 of 104

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much as 78.4% to 1108.49 by October 2002.

Enron (2001). On December 2001, Enron filed for the largest bankruptcy in American history
after a fraud scandal was revealed in October. It was an natural gas energy company formed in
1985 and run by Ken Lay that became the fifth largest company in the USA. The energy industry
was deregulated and privatized after the election of George W. Bush. With the deregulation of
natural gas, Enron was allowed to trade gas at higher prices and control the price of electricity.
Enron stock price rose 500% from $20 to over $90 in 2000 and Enron was rated the most
innovative large company in America in a list of the most admired companies. In 2000, Enron's
board of executives was rated among the top five. Enron pioneered illicit business practices that
still plague us.
Stocks. Their traders manipulated the power market to inflate the value of their stocks.
Price Manipulation. It closed power stations to restrict supply and raised the price of
energy causing massive power outages in California. Enron traders can be heard laughing
about grandmothers and the plight of the residents of California who were plagued with
"brown outs".
Cooked Books. They overstated earnings and equity and hid $25 billion in losses and
debts by creating "special purpose entities", declaring only $13 billion in debt when they
had $38 billion on debt. They were even able to mislead the board of directors and
pressure the external auditing firm Arthur Andersen to ignore some issues. Arthur
Andersen, one of the top five accounting firms, was shut down in the wake of the scandal
and 85,000 employees lost their jobs.
Deceptive Accounting. It developed accounting practices designed to fool investors and
meet wall street projections by applying expected future profits to the present and keeping
two sets of books.
Hyperthetical Future Value (HFV). The geniuses took huge bonuses based on future
profits not yet realized. They believed that it was wrong for some future person to take the
profits from their new ideas. So they raped and pillaged the future.
Mark to Market. They booked future profits on the current balance sheets. So as the
company was losing money, these fictitious profits from ventures that were already failing
were added to the bottom line and the losses were ignored.
United States Mortgage Bubble (2007- 14 September 2008).
Derivatives are bets about the future price of a product. Reckless trade in risky derivatives tied to
the future value of subprime mortgages held by owners with poor credit caused a financial
catastrophe. Property value and stock prices fell as homeowners defaulted on risky mortgages
which were repackaged as A+ securities and sold to investors.
The Chinese entered the markets in 2000 causing boom years with cheap capital. Subprime
mortgage lending began in Detroit in 2006 when mortgage lenders offered interest-only
subprime loans and other creative NINJA loans (no income, no job, no asset verification) on the
theory that property value can only rise. They ignored the fact that when these adjustable
mortgages reset that the owners could not afford the payments. In addition homeowners were
encouraged to use the inflated appreciated value of their homes as an ATM and borrow against
this. Unscrupulous bankers targeted old people.
Between June-July 2007 we were optimistic and awash in money and within four months we
were in a panic. Defaults on subprime mortgage began the first run on British banks since 1866
with the nationalization of many banks around the world. Some markets had fallen up to 50% by
Deregulation. This followed a 2005 financial regulation that limited bankruptcy and allowed
banks to charge usury rates and change rules in their favor. The crash exposed many giant
Ponzi schemes and frauds costing hundreds of billions of dollars. The giant company, Lehman
Brothers defaulted.
Risky Mortgage Securities (Abacus 2007-AC1). An employee of Goldman Sachs investment
company developed securities based on questionable high risk mortgages which they knew
would fail, causing a global financial crisis when the $400 trillion derivatives market blew up. He Page 91 of 104

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sold them as highly rated AAA securities to their clients, then bet that the securities will fail,
making $3.7 billion profit from both the sale and failure of this worthless asset. They did not raise
capital nor provide good advice for the clients. They took their client's money and sold them
something worthless and then bet that they would fail. The scheme crippled AIG. Visions of
wealth froze the hearts of the employees of Goldman Sachs who cheered as the housing market
fell and poor people lost everything, just as Enron traders giggled at Grandma being unable to
pay for electricity and people stuck in elevators because of the power outages deliberately
created to drive up the price of energy.
Securities Rating. This highlights the incompetence of the independent rating agencies
(Moodys Investments, Fitch Ratings and Standard and Poors). In addition, the top banks pay
premium dollars to hire away employees of the ratings agency so that they can get the highest
ratings. There is a conflict of interest because these agencies are paid fees by the same
companies that they rated. So they inflated the value of the ratings. The securities were too
complicated for them to understand so they relied on the crooks to set the value. This is the
same level of expertise and oversight given by the Managers of the Madoff feeder funds. They
sit as middle men taking a piece of the pie without doing any real work of evaluating risk and
Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). The total USA government bailout totalled $1553.8
billion dollars and the Federal Reserves secretly poured additional 7.7 trillion dollars into the
financial companies. By October 2008, the total bailout in billions were: AIG ($122.8), Bear-
Sterns ($29), Washington Mutual ($1.9), Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac ($200), and other major
companies and banks had to be bailed out ($400). Hundreds of banks failed or are on the brink
of failure. $102 billion were set aside for loans to help the beleagured homeowners but the
banks have used the money to fix their own bottom line. Every six months they promise to
implement better programs to help homeowners, but they were all stalling tactics. By April 2010,
very few people were helped and the banks have begun to complain that it is unfair. However,
they and many businesses are sitting on a mountain of money gained through the government
programs. They never intended to invest in the people who loaned them the money by hiring or
giving relief on their predatory financing. God curse them and their money.
Precious Metals Investment. As a result of the unpredictable stockmarket, investors have
been buying gold and silver. This event or another like it in the future will cause the rich to hoard
precious metals in preparation for the final global financial collapse.

Financial Exploitation
Prior to 1984 it was difficult to obtain a credit card, but officials at Providian Financials counted on the
fact that there are people who are desperate or naive enough who will take their products. These
desperate souls will always carry a balance which can be misused to earn billions.

The Hook. By luring people in with a promise of no annual fees and low interest rate, they
hoped to make billions with low minimum monthly payments which extended the loan to over 20
The Lies. Sahilesh Mertha of Providian Financials introduced these innovations in bad financial
practices by inventing many credit traps.
Stealth Pricing and Credit Traps. They hoped to increase the loan balance by counting
on a number of stealth pricing practices such as, hidden big penalty fee traps (late, over
limit) which trigger huge increases in interest rate. They reserve the right to change
contracts at will for any reason and they have no limit on interest charged. Interest rates
can jump from 6% to 35% overnight and minimum payments and credit limits can change
and suddenly bring you into a financial crisis. Ahead of pending regulations in 2010 which
regulate fees but not interest rates, a credit card company charged 79.9% in December
Overdraft Fees and Debit Financing. Bill Strunk introduced overdraft fees in 1989 and
lured customers with "free checking" and courtesy services which pile on huge fees which
trigger more overdrafts. Banks also changed the way they process transactions to Page 92 of 104

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maximize these fees.

The Victims. The elderly are discovering that banks first process their payments before
applying their automatic social security deposits. In addition, banks process the larger
checks first so that they can deplete the accounts faster so that more smaller checks
bounce. This particular innovation has been invented since around the early 1990's.
Debit cards work the same as checks without having the instant ability to check balance
before a transaction. Users are finding out that they cannot turn off this "courtesy".
Short Term Financing. Predatory financing lures unsuspecting investors in risky deals
dressed as securities. It categorizes people as subprime, forbidding the very poor to open
bank accounts and charging excessive fees for using their own money. Those driven
outside the banking system have a network of vultures in the form of pawn shops, pay day
loans and check cashing operations which extract large fees and high interest up to 460%
for two week loans. The sky is the limit for the rates they can charge.
The Sinker. By 2000s people were heavily in debt and were convinced to use their home equity
to pay off high interest credit cards. The bankers conspired to keep people in debt by enacting
laws in 2005 that made it legal for them to exploit the people. Bankruptcy was virtually stopped,
blamed on irresponsible users although they were mostly based on skyrocketing medical bills.
Usury rates could be charged and the terms of credit could be manipulated so that people were
kept in debt by using or creating an excuse to raise interest. Even under all these conditions of
total financial advantage and record profits the banks failed spectacularly in 2008 and had to be
bailed out by the same poor citizens whom they robbed.
The financial experts and the market did not take care of themselves, the downtrodden people

What is God thinking? We have violated all the rules that will trigger His wrath. While the bankers hear
the clink of money when they see the desperate poor, He will hear the cries of these people. As
corruption and greed seem to triump untouched and rewarded, the poor and middle class strain under
the burden and they begin to respond to greed and short cuts to achieve more and more. Page 93 of 104

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Prophecy: Global Economic Collapse

We spent a lot of time explaining the roots of an attitude towards people and finance that will be
punished by God. Prophecy condemns evil people, clergy, wicked rulers and evil nations, but it only
condemns one private system: bad businessmen, calling their trade violence.
The pursuit of money, capitalism and the free market will create conditions that will be just as evil as
perpetual slavery, perpetual poverty and communism. In the end a flourishing, free-market economy
will exploit the people. Whereas communism can reward laziness and suppress individual ambition,
capital without regulation will reward a system of debt financing that will collapse, leading to global
revolution and conflict that has never been seen.

Worthless Precious Metals (Revelation 18: 13. Ezekiel 7: 19). A prophecy about the final
global collapse talks about the wealthy who have hoarded gold and silver.
Financial Collapse (Revelation 18: 11). Another prophecy reveals that a global financial
collapse will start in the United States. At the end they will be at the mercy of their creditors.
Slavery and Labor Exploitation (Revelation 18: 13; James 5: 1-5). Slavery will exist at the
end of time. Human trafficking of women and children as sex slaves has become a scourge in
our time. The prophecy condemns the rich and employers from exploiting the poor employees.
Wild capitalism is a form of colonialism of the underclass that cannibalizes their labor, assets and
Mark Of The Beast (Revelation 13: 16). The final global financial system will be so integrated
and sophisticated that they can instantly boycott individuals and exclude them from economic
activity because of religious beliefs. Amazing as it seems, the world will cling to religions for
some reason.
Corrupt Global Trade (Revelation 18: 12-15). In the final collapse, the prophecy condemns
the business world as if they were operating like "The merchants of Venice".

Self Destruction. The classic method for the vengeance of God is to let the enemy destroy
themselves by their own schemes. A system based on greed, lies, crumbling infrastructure, tax burden
on the mass, inflation, unbridled usury, lack of accountability and exploitation will collapse when the
masses become a burden when they can no longer carry the burden. So the final collapse must
include unbridled greed and a Ponzi scheme so huge and unexpected that it will send central banks
into a panic and we will be talking about it for millions of years. After looking at the history of frauds I
must conclude that the prestige of the church will probably be at the center of this massive fraud.

In His mercy, God sends repeated warnings as we are being herded down a path of no return and no
useful options. Hearing the siren song of quick riches and "blessings of the Lord" we will not listen. We
never learn. Page 94 of 104

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The Accidental Discovery Of The American Continent

Christopher Columbus had a hair-brained scheme to reach the east by sailing west, thinking that he
could sail to Japan (Cipangu) and India from the Canary Islands in search of spices, not knowing that
an entire continent lay in between. He did not know where he was going and when he got there he did
not know where he was and for decades after he still did not know where he had been.

The Trade Winds. He discovered the great clockwise Atlantic ocean wind system during the early
1480s and tried to gain support for his trip in late 1483. He felt the west wind along the Portuguese
coasts and in the Madeira Islands. He felt the trade winds in Africa, the Canary and Cape Verde
Islands. He reasoned that he could make an Atlantic round trip using the circular winds by going down
south to catch the trade winds "easterlies" which would blow him west, and return east with the
westerlies at a higher latitude (35-65 degrees). The Romans have used the Monsoon winds in June
and November to cross the Indian Ocean on the spice route since the first century AD. So Columbus
knew that he could depend on the wind systems.

Fifteenth Century Science And Technology. While most people believed that the earth was flat,
some people believed the world was round, but they were not sure how big it was. Sailing ships
generally hugged the land and would sail only if Map of the Old World
they could see land. The sea beyond the western
end of Europe was known as "the Sea of
Darkness" where monsters roamed, cannibals
waited, violent winds, frequent storms, high
waves and rough seas abounded and a hapless
sailor might fall off the edge of the earth. They
also believed in the imaginary islands of Antilia,
St. Brendan's and Brazil. The people of Europe
and Asia were unaware of the existance of the
American and Australian continents. Terra
Australis Incognita (unknown southern land) was
discovered in 1606.

The Size Of The Earth. He believed that the

earth was encircled by 24 hours, of 15 degrees,
and each degree was 56 and 2/3 Roman miles.
There was 225 degrees of land and 135 degrees
covered by sea. So the circumference of the earth
was estimated to be 20,400 miles (25,255 km)
and only a small sea lay between the eastern and
western end of the continent. His calculations
assumed that there was only 2300 miles (3700 km) between the Canary Islands and Cipangu (Japan)
and that there was nothing in between. The circumference is actually 32364 miles (40,066 km) and the
distance between the Canary Islands and Japan was actually 12200 miles (15103 km).
Fortunately he was correct about the importance of the circular winds. He was wrong about everything
else, but that was also fortunate. Since he believed the circumference of the earth was so small, he
found the courage to attempt the voyage, otherwise he would not have attempted a long distance
voyage nor been able to find investors or convince a crew to join him because they would have
believed that they would have starved to death.
The Mission. Columbus was on a mission from God. He believed that the earth would end in 1631
and he had been given the gift of knowledge by God making his voyage prophetic. So it was his duty
to bring the godless multitude into the Catholic fold and to take back Jerusalem from the Muslims.

The Voyage To America. The fleet sailed from Palos, Spain on 3 August 1492 with 90 men in 3
ships (Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria) with the aid of the Pinzon brothers who were experienced sailors. Page 95 of 104

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In 9 days he sailed 700 miles from Spain to the Canary Islands. On 6 September 1492, he sailed west
5400 miles (8678 km) from there to the Bahamas in 36 days using the trade winds. On October 12, at
2:00 AM, under the light of the moon, the Pinta saw land in the Bahamas (San Salvador). He found the
Arawaks and named the people Indians, thinking that he had reached India. Within 50 years the
Arawaks would be virtually extinct by infection and exploitation.
On October 28 he reached Cuba thinking that he was sailing along the coast of Asia, believing that it
must be China. He sailed to Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) on December 5 and saw
gold and resorted to slavery to mine it. So Haiti became the first place where African slaves were
brought and the first Spanish colony after the population of 250,000 Arawaks died. He resorted to
forced conversions, even burning people alive at the stake for the faith.
On November 22 the Pinta sailed off on her own, searching for gold. On December 25, the Santa
Maria went aground and sank. January 6, 1493 he saw the Pinta returning with gold which was used
to gild the Santa Maria Majore church ceiling.
Nine months after their departure, Columbus returned to Spain with the Nina and Pinta under the
power of the westerlies, bringing back gold, tall tales and syphillis. He had symbolically given birth to a
new continent.
He would make four more voyages to the continent, but continued to believe that it was Asia.

1. American Continent (3 August - 6 September 1492 - 15 March 1493). Sailing with three
ships, he discovered the American continent after 39 weeks, landing in the Bahamas. He was
titled Admiral of the ocean seas and Viceroy of all the lands.
2. Islands (24 September 1493). He had seventeen ships and 1,200 men. He named almost all
the islands and instituted a policy of terror and genocide on Hispaniola to obtain gold.
3. Arrested (30 May 1498). He was recalled for governing like a tyrant and torture by disgruntled
Spanish settlers and he was brought back in chains to Spain.
4. Jamaica (11 May 1502 - 7 November 1504). He lost four ships and was stranded on Jamaica
for one year.

A New Continent!!. It was not until 1502-04 that Amerigo Vespucci published journals in which he
reasoned that Columbus had discovered a new continent, not India. The continent was named after
him. However, the mistake was immortalized because the native Americans are still called "Indians"
and the Caribbean Islands are called the "West Indies".
It was the Portuguese explorer, Ferdinand Magellan, who reached the east by sailing west in 1519-
1522. He set sail aboard the Trinidad on 10 August 1519 with five ships and 251 men and returned on
6 September 1522 with only 18 men aboard the Victoria.
The British explorer Sir Francis Drake was the second to circumnavigate the globe in the years 13
December 1577 to 26 September 1580 and was knighted on 4 April 1581. He set sail aboard the
Pelican (renamed The Golden Hind) with 164 men and 4 other ships. Page 96 of 104

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Prophecy: The Discovery Of America.

The treatment of the native Americans and Columbus' belief in forced slavery and forced conversions
leave no doubt that his voyage was not the will of God. Yet, Daniel predicted that a new land would be
opened up for the people fleeing persecution in the old world. The formerly persecuted even continued
this legacy of entitlement, slavery and mistreatment.
And the serpent poured water like a river out of his mouth after the woman, so that he might cause her
to be swept away with the flood. But the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and
drank up the river which the dragon poured out of his mouth. So the dragon was enraged with the
woman, and went off to make war with the rest of her children, who keep the commandments of God
and hold to the testimony of Jesus. (Revelation 12: 15-17)
The events are the classic method of biblical wrath. The people upon whom wrath will fall are the
architects of their own destruction. It is the serpent who sends the flood. However, in the middle of this
catastrophe God carves a way out for His people but the destructive flood still reaches the new world.
The Jews and Protestants made the new land their new home.
The Church Is Helped. The native Americans helped the European strangers and they were even
greeted as gods in South America.

The United States Of America

The United States of America came about as a direct result of Prophetic Footprints
European colonialism in the fifteenth century. Starting with the
1. Christian country
voyages of Christopher Columbus, the New World was opened 2. Helps persecuted
to the strong European monarchies of Britain, France and Spain. church
In 1620, it became a haven for Protestants fleeing Catholic 3. Powerful abilities
persecution in Europe when the pilgrims landed at Plymouth 4. Last super power
Rock. 5. Economic power
6. Will unite with the
Having fled persecution, the Protestants in New England were 7. Will make worldwide religious laws
guilty of such activity to a lesser extent. They were intolerant of 8. Will persecute the people of God with
immoral and non-Christian behavior. the help of the church
9. Will act like ancient Babylon
10. Will be defeated from the east by
By 1776, the nation became independent after it waged a war of God.
independence against Britain because of the high taxes paid to
the British government. They were assisted by the French, who Columbus discovered the new world in 1492.
were rivals and enemies of the British. As a British colony, it Although persecution and genocide
participated in the slave trade through the kidnapping and forced abounded, North America became a refuge
for fleeing Jews (1654) and Protestants
slavery of Africans. This was condoned by the mostly Christian, (1620).
agricultural South because the slave labor was an important part
of their economy and because they justified their activity from the Bible, maintaining that slavery was
condoned in the Bible. The northern states were based more on an industrial economy. Enmity
between the North and south finally broke out into the civil war. Initially, slavery was not the issue, only
unity of the country and free trade along the rivers. But the North eventually made slavery a moral
issue in the war, to the objections of many in the north.
So the United States became a Protestant nation that was anti-Catholic or highly suspicious of the
Catholic political and religious agenda until the election of the first Catholic President - John F.
Kennedy. Several groups still believe that a church-state Catholic global domination will emerge at the
end of time in fulfillment of a prediction in Bible prophecy and this will be accompanied by a United
States global domination.

Economic Power. The country did not achieve real dominance until after World War II, with the
European countries devastated by the war and the American economy booming because of the war.
They quickly became an economic giant.

Cold War. With the threat to peace posed by Russia after World War II, both countries entered into a Page 97 of 104

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period of Cold War with the Soviet Union trying to establish communism and the United states trying to
promote democracy around the world. During this period, both sides created powerful military
weapons and became political super powers. America won the cold war by also becoming a powerful
economic force. Becoming a Super Power
Lessons Learned or Significant
Gulf War. Eventually, with the collapse of the Soviet Event
Union in 1989 and after the clear superiority and (1776) War of
Became a sovereign nation
advanced technology exhibited by the American troops in Independence
the Gulf War against Iraq (the old nation of Babylon) - the The Constitution
Drafted a legal document that
United States was declared the only remaining Super would become the basis for
power in the world. democracy and human rights
Moved the country out of the
Civil War
agricultural economy
The new Babylon symbolically defeated the old Babylon.
It was both a military, political and economic force and it International military action. No
World War I longer isolationist. Industrial
intends to remain the only power. The South Bend economy
Tribune reported that
Became a global political and
World War II economic force while Europe
In a broad new policy statement that is in its final declined
drafting state, the Defense Department asserts that The arms race built up military
America's political and military mission in the era Cold War strength, technology and external
after the Cold War will be to ensure that no rival espionage and surveillance
super power is allowed to emerge in Western Learned the importance of
Europe, Asia, or the territory of the former Soviet Vietnam war managing the propaganda war at
Union. home
Fall of Soviet Cooperated with the church to
The Terrorist Attack of September 11, 2001 Union (1989) achieve political gain
On the morning of September 11, 2001 two hijacked Symbolically overthrew the first
Persian Gulf War
passenger planes from Boston were flown directly into Babylon and became the
undisputed only superpower
each of the North and South twin towers of the World
Terrorist attack on Instituted persecution laws and the
Trade Center at 8:45 AM and 9:03 AM. Within an hour New York and systems to shift focus to internal
both 110 story buildings collapsed killing about 3000 Washington D.C. surveillance
people. Afghanistan War Expected to be quick, it is the
(2001) longest war
At 9:43 AM, another hijacked plane was crashed into the Unjust war. Started acting like a
Pentagon in Washington D.C. collapsing one side of its Iraq War (2003) dragon. Became Babylon the
structure and killing about 100 people. A fourth hijacked Great
plane bound for either the White House, Camp David or
the Senate, crashed in a field in Pennsylvania at 10:00 AM after brave passengers heard about the
other three doomed flights and decided to take over.

Within a month, a war was launched against the country of Afghanistan for its support of the terrorists
and Osama Bin Laden, a Saudi millionaire who sponsored these attacks. Simultaneously, a war on
terrorism began in the country, with the creation of a new government office directly responsible to the
President - Homeland security and the passage of the U.S.A. Patriot Freedom Act of 2001 which gives
enormous power (contrary to the United States Constitution) to the police to eavesdrop on all
communication, conduct secret searches and detain anyone suspected of terrorism.

By March 2003, another war was launched against Iraq, unjustly blaming them for planning to attack
the United States with weapons of mass destruction.

Romancing the Pope. We are at the point of prophetic history where the final powers are courting
each other. The American politicians currently do this for ideology or for political survival. The Catholic
church does this for world domination. Page 98 of 104

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At least since 1989, this is the known involvement of the government with Catholic goals.

1989. Joined forces under Ronald Reagan and Pope Paul II to end communism.
2001. Religious education assistance (School Voucher Bill) which was stated in the language of
Catholic canon law on education.
2001. Religious charity assistance (Faith-Based Initiative).
George W. Bush publicly seeks the approval and advice of the Catholic Bishops. In the months
after his inauguration he did the following.
Proposed the two religious laws on the day of his inauguration.
That Friday he had dinner at the home of the Archbishop Theodore McCarrick.
Met twice with the pope (once while campaigning for president).
March 1, 2001 spoke at the opening of the John Paul II Cultural Center
Met with Miami Archbishop John Favalora
Met with Donald W. Wuerl, Roman Catholic Bishop of Pittsburgh
Met with Archbishop Justin Rigali of St. Louis
Met with Anthony Cardinal Bevilacqua Archbishop of Philadelphia
July 2001, Awards the congressional medal of honor (the highest civilian honor bestowed
by Congress) to the late Cardinal Cardinal O'Connor.
Met with 120 Catholic bishops where he was overheard telling the bishops in an open
microphone that not even the republicans want the school voucher bill.
January 2001, - meeting with Archbishop Egan and thirty other Catholic leaders to discuss
the new faith based initiative.
Appointed John J. DiIulio, a Catholic as head of the new office of Faith-Based Initiatives
He has weekly conferences between his administration and Roman Catholic advisers. He
reportedly tries to meet with any Catholic leaders he can when he visits other cities.
Protestants, are you sleeping! Read Revelation 13.

Rumors abound that he is a closet Catholic, like the British prime minister, Tony Blair. Blair
admitted that he was secretly a Catholic in the week before he left office.

Speaking of the growing power of the church in the top layers of government, "The Central Intelligence
Agency", page 271 Jim Marrs.

Politically, she looms ever larger in the White House, in the Senate and in the Congress.
She is a force in the Pentagon, a secret agent in the FBI and the most subtly intangible
prime mover of the S.S. wheel within a wheel.

If I were a betting person, I would say that we will soon have talk about making Sunday a national day
of rest, if Bush has not already passed a secret executive order or signing statement.

Babylon II - The Final Super Power

The Muslim world may already recognize the Catholic church as the only legitimate spokesperson for
the West that they trust, giving legitimacy to the global political aspirations of the church as a peace
broker and force for moral influence. So the final superpower will be a combination of the United
States and the Roman Catholic Church and at a later point, the nations of Europe against the people
of God. The growth and development of these two powers is close to their peak, and the establishment
of laws within the United States that could be used to enact persecution is seen as the final nail in the
coffin as this final power embraces brutality as a legitimate tool of control. Page 99 of 104

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Historical Dates
Dating a Document. In ancient times most calendars were based on the month beginning with the
new moon. But the designation of the year was a problem. Before the designation of the birth of Christ
as year 0 for the modern era, each culture designated the year by a significant event. So all
documents were dated relative to that significant year. Usually, the event was the reign of a king.

Accession Year. The year a new king came to power until the day before New Year's Day.
Accession Year (465 BC) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Year 7 8
December Hebrew (Tishri) October 464 463 462 461 460 459 October 458 458 457 October
Babylon 14 April 464 463 462 461 460 459 April 458 458 457 April 457
Hebrew (Nisan) April 464 463 462 461 460 459 April 458 458 457 April 457
Hebrew (Tishri) 17 October 465 464 463 462 461 460 October 459 459 458 October
Egypt 17 December 465 464 463 462 461 460 December 459 459 458 December
Establishing the reign of Artaxerxes I is important in biblical prophecy. According to some
sources Xerxes died in August and others claim it was in December, 465 BC. This difference
changes the accession year for a fall calendar.
The best that I can determine is that the seventh year of Artaxerxes is from April 458 BC to
October 457 BC.
New Year's Day. Each year was counted at the beginning of the new year. The new year was
different in each culture, but the new year usually began at the spring equinox.
Babylon. Their new year occurred in spring in Nisanu. Persians used the Babylonian
dating system.
Egypt. Their new year occurred at the beginning of winter in the month Thoth.
Hebrews. They had two months to begin the new year.
Nisan (Spring). This is the beginning of the year established by God and is known
as the beginning of the religious year. It is also the month to start counting the reign
of kings.
Tishri (Fall). This also became the beginning of the civil year. It was a practise that
began with Solomon at the dedication of the temple.
Spring 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Autumn Nisan 8 9 Chislev 10 11 12 1 Tishri 2 3 4 5 6
Fall calendars have the unusual phenomenon of the month numbers out of order. So
the first month comes after the twelfth month in a single year.
Nehemiah. Nehemiah used a fall calendar. In the ninth month of Artaxerxes'
twentieth year Nehemiah received the news that the city was in danger 1:1-4. Then
he approached the king in Nisan of the twentieth year (Nehemiah 2: 1). Since it was
still the twentieth year at the beginning of spring, he was using a fall calendar.

Divided Kingdom. The fall calendar predominated in the south, in the kingdom of
Judah, while the spring calendar was used in the northern kingdom of Israel.
A calendar reform in 359 AD, imposed other rules on the Jewish calendar that did not exist
in ancient times.
Relative Year. So each event was dated relative to the total number of years since the initial
important event. The Greek Olympiads, the current BC and AD system, kings lists and the Julian
calendar are relative dating systems. King lists recorded consecutive rulers and the total years of
their reigns. So they all began with year one for each new king. As simple as this seems, this
method can get us into the right ball park when it comes to determining what year an event
Scientific Year. Since new moons can be calculated, historians calculate back in time to see
when a new moon occurs. This is the basis for many of the modern dates assigned to historically
dated documents such as the Elephantine Papyri. I used to accept this "scientific" calculation
until I discovered that the formula is based on a "constant" that is not constant. While the solar Page 100 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

year seems to be more accurate, the lunar cycle is affected by gravity and other forces that can
change the cycle. Therefore, no one can claim definitively that a certain historical date occurred
exactly on a particular date according to the modern cycle. It would take an ancient listing of
dates and exact new moon sightings for several hundred years to accurately synchronize the
scientific and historical dates.

The chronology of Parker and Dubberstein has been almost Parker and Dubberstein
universally accepted as the standard for over fifty years. But one Event Year (BC)
historian, Crowley, consistently dates events one year earlier than Nebuchadnezzar August or
them. And there seems to be an effort to push back historical dates (Accession year) December 605
about three years. Jerusalem destroyed 587
Cyrus conquered 539
Ptolemy's Canon. Claudius Ptolemy (90 - 168 AD) was an
astronomer and geographer who worked at the Great Library Persian Empire ends 331
of Alexandria before it burned down in 391 AD. He compiled a list of kings in Babylon and Egypt
supposedly from information available at the library. He began his list with Nabonassar's reign
(747 BC), who conquered Egypt. He made only three entries. These were the name of the ruler,
the number of years reigned and the number of years from Nabonassar.
Elephantine Papyri. Babylonian astronomical texts and papyrus documents written in Aramaic
and found on the island of Elephantine (Yeb or Aswan), Egypt and written by Jews who fled
there around 650 BC during the reign of Manasseh. Some sources say (495-399 BC). The Jews
set up a military installation with an alliance with Egypt. The dates were recorded with both the
Persian-Babylonian lunar calendar and the Egyptian solar calendar dates.
Elephantine Papyri
Document Egyptian Date King Year Hebrew Modern Date (BC)
AP 1 Agreement Epiphi 2 Darius 27 - 17 October 494
AP 2 Contract for corn supplied to the
Phaophi 28 Xerxes ? - ?
AP 3 garrison
AP 5 Grant of building rights Pachons 28 Xerxes 15 Elul 18 September 8, 470
Artaxerxes 1 1
A Conveyance Thoth 7 18 Chisleu 30 December 464
Xerxes 21
AP 6 Text: On the seventeenth day of Thoth, that is the eighteenth day of Kislev, year 21, the beginning of
the reign of Artaxerxes I, the king.
Comments. This document was written in the ascension year of Artaxerxes, but year 21 of Xerxes
AP 7 A case of Burglary Phaophi 18 Artaxerxes ? 4 - ?
AP 8 A Conveyance Mesore 1 Artaxerxes 1 5-6 Kislev 21 27 January 459/8
Deed relating to the reversion of
AP 9 Mesore 1 Artaxerxes 1 6 Chisleu 21 ?
AP 10 Loan contract Thoth 4 Artaxerxes 1 9 Chisleu 7 13 December 455
AP 13 Loan contract Mesore 11 Artaxerxes 1 19 Kislev 2 14 December 445
AP 14 Settlement of claim Pahons 19 Artaxerxes 1 25 Ab 14 21 August 439
AP 15 Marriage contract Epiphi 6 Artaxerxes 1 ? Tishri 25 464 - 423 BC
AP 17 Supplies for the garrison Marcheswan 19 Artaxerxes 1 37 - 12 November 326
KP6 Kraeling Papyrus 6 Pharmuthi 8 Darius II 3 Tammuz 8 July 420 BC
KP7 Kraeling Papyrus 7 Epiphi Darius II 4 Tishri 1 October 420 BC
AP 20 Settlement of a claim Payni Darius II 4 Elul 420 BC
Petition to Governor of Judea 20 Marcheswan Darius 17 - 21 November 406
30 This document mentions Johanan, Sanballat, Delaiah and Shelemiah all from the book of Nehemiah
and governor Bigvai of Judea mentioned by Josephus.
AP 8, AP 10 and the Cairo Sandstone stele are assumed to have errors.
Fall Calendar. The two papyri, Kraeling 6 and 7, written in Darius' reign show that a fall
calendar was used. Since his third year was in the fourth month and his fourth year began in the Page 101 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

seventh month, they were using a fall calendar.

Olympiad Dates. The Greeks started dating their calendar with the first olympics in 776 BC in
groups of four years called an olympiad. Darius I and Xerxes invaded Greece and Greek
historians dated their reigns in terms of the Olympiad dating system.
Jerome Chronicles
Persian Modern
Olympiad Year Event
King Date
The war that was waged in Marathon, and those things that are written
72.1 Darius 30 492 BC
about Miltiades and Aristides who was surnamed the Just
73.1 Xerxes 1 Fifth of the Persians, Xerxes son of Darius, for 20 years 485 BC
Xerxes, when he had come to Athens, burned down the city, at the time
74.4 Xerxes 5 481 BC
of the leadership of Callias
75.1 Xerxes 6 The war that was waged in Thermopylae and the naval battle off Salamis 480 BC
Sixth of the Persians, Artabanus, for 7 months, after whom, seventh,
78.4 Artaxerxes 20 465 BC
Artaxerxes, who was surnamed Long-Hand, for 40 years
Cuneiform Text. Babylonian Cuneiform texts with a catalog of dates for kings who ruled there
from 626 BC to 75 AD. The Uruk king list and the Babylonian king list are the two most useful.

Modern Olympiad Ptolemy's Canon Cuneiform Kings List

Date Date Ruler Reign Years Uruk Reign Babylon
747-734 8.1-11.3 Nabonassar 14 14
734-732 11.3-12.1 Nabu-nadin-zeri (Nadinu) 2 16
732-727 12.1-13.2 Mukin-zeri and Pul 5 21
727-722 13.2-14.3 Ululayu 5 26
722-710 14.3- Merodach-baladan 12 38
710-705 17.3 Sargon II 5 43
705-703 18.4 No King 2 45
703-700 19.2 Bel-ibni 3 48
700-694 20.1 Ashur-nadin-shumi 6 54 -
694-693 21.3 Nergal-ushezib 1 55
693-689 21.4 Mushezib-Marduk 4 59
689-681 23.2 No King 8 67
681-668 25.2 Esarhaddon 13 100 -
668-631 28.1 Assurbanipal Not listed 21
Assyrian 668-648 28.1 Shamash-shuma-ukin 20 100 Same
rulers of 648-626 33.1 Kandalanu 22 122 21
Babylon 626 38.3 Sin-sumlisir and Sin-sariskun Not listed 1 (governors)
626-605 38.3 Nabopolassar 21 143 21 - -
605-562 43.4 Nebuchadnezzar 43 186 43 - -
562-560 54.3 Amel-Marduk 2 188 2 - -
560-556 55.1 Neriglissar 4 192 3 years, 8 months - -
556 56.1 Labasi-Marduk Not listed 3 months - -
556-539 56.1-60.2 Nabonidus 17 209 17 - -
559-530 55.2-62.3 Cyrus 9 218 ? - -
538-522 60.3-64.3 Cambyses 8 226 ? - -
522-486 64.3 Darius I 36 262 ? - -
486-465 73.3 Xerxes I (Ahazarus) 21 283 - -
465 78.4 Artabanus (7 months) Not listed - -

Persia 465-425 78.4 Artaxerxes I 41 324 Lacuna - - Page 102 of 104

History of Empires 05/10/17, 11(41 AM

423-405 89.2-93.4 Darius II 19 343 (missing) - -

404-359 94.1-105.2 Artaxerxes II 46 389 - -
358-338 105.3- Artaxerxes III 21 410
337-336 111.1 Arses 2 412
335 111.2 Nidin-Bel Not listed ?
335-330 111.2 Darius III 4 416 5
Greece 334-323 111.3 Alexander the Great 8 424 7 ? ?
(Argead 323-317 114.2 Philip Arrhidaeus 7 431 6 ? ?
Dynasty) 323-310 114.2 Alexander IV 12 443 6 ?
317-311 115.4 Antigonus [the one-eyed] 6 ? ?
311-281 117.2 Seleucus I Nicantor Not listed in 31 25 7
281-261 124.4 Antiochus I Soter Ptolemy's 22 20 32
261-246 129.4 Antiochus II Theos Canon 15 15 52
246-225 133.3 Seleucus II Callinicus ? 20 67
226-223 138.3 Seleucus III 3 87
Greek 223-187 139.2 Antiochus III Not listed in 35 90
Not listed in the
rulers of Ptolemy's
Uruk Kings List
Babylon 187-175 148.2 Seleucus IV Philopator Canon 12 125
175-164 151.2 Antiochus IV Epiphanes 11 137
323-285 114.2 Ptolemy I Soter 20 463
282-246 124.3 Ptolemy II Philadelphus 38 501
246-222 133.3 Ptolemy III Euergetes 25 526
Greek 222-205 139.3 Ptolemy IV Philopator 17 543
rulers of 205-180 143.4 Ptolemy V Epiphanes 24 567
180-146 150.1 Ptolemy VI Philometor 35 602 - -
Ptolemaic 145-116 158.4 Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II 29 631
116-80 166.1 Ptolemy IX Soter II 36 667
80-51 175.1 Ptolemy XII Nero Dionysus 29 696
51-30 182.2 Cleopatra VII Philopator 22 718
Rome 30-14AD 187.3-198.1 Augustus Caesar 43 761
Assurbanipal appointed his brothers, Samas-suma-ukin and Kandalanu, to rule Babylon.
The Greek records have Xerxes ruling for 20 years and Artabanus for 7 months before Artaxerxes ruled 40 years

Time: 600 minutes

God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God. Romans 8: 28
Print: 101 pages
Copyright 2001-2017 Teachinghearts V2.00 - All rights reserved. Created: October 1, 2001 Updated : April 2010
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Patterson (May 2008)
Images were created by Laverna Patterson and are the property of teachinghearts.
Assyria. URL:
Babylon. URL:
Medo-Persia. URL:
Greece. URL:
Rome. URL:
Europe. URL:
Dating of the Kings of Judah was from my own calculations in reading the Bible.
Verse by Verse Commentary on Daniel and Revelation from the SDA Bible Commentary.
Daniel and Revelation by Uriah Smith.
Epidemic information from Medic-Planet epidemics
High Priests of Israel. URL:
What was the story with Shimon the Tzadik and Alexander the Great? URL:
List of Jewish leaders in the Land of Israel. URL:
Sanhedrin. URL:
The Tribe: The Cohen-Levi Family Heritage. URL:
Jerusalem on My Mind (Jerusalem History Timeline). URL:
The Land Question in Palestine. URL:
Lateran Pacts of 1929. URL: Page 103 of 104

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Lateran Treaty Changed - Endtime Issues April 2003. URL:

Milestones on the road to European unification. Presse und Informationsamt der Bundesregierung
Allah - The Moon God. URL:
Muslim Conquests. URL:
Historic Worldwide Earthquakes. URL:
Historical earthquakes. URL:
Earthquake Facts and Statistics. URL:
Earthquake Information for the 1990s, 2000s
Most Destructive Known Earthquakes on Record in the World. URL:
Death Toll Disasters-War. URL:
Pandemics. URL:
Climate changes of 535-536. URL:
List of natural disasters by death toll. URL:
Historic tsunamis. URL:
Chemical engineering timeline. URL:
Twentieth Century Inventions. URL:
Materials Science Timeline. URL:
Timeline of Historic Inventions: URL:
Car History - Early Cars. URL:
A Brief History of Transportation. Dr. Robert Scott Seitz, III. University of Alabama, Huntsville.
History Of Agriculture. URL: copied from Of Agriculture
Cultural Astronomy: Navigational Tools. URL:
A Timeline of Britain. URL:
A Timeline of the USA. URL:
History of Money.
Ascent of Money. Niall Ferguson. PBS documentary. 10-17 September 2009
Frontline: The Warning. October 20, 2009. PBS television broadcast on the collapse of LTCM.
Frontline: The Card Game. November 25, 2009. PBS television broadcast. Lowell Bergman, producer.
Frontline: The Madoff Affair. May 12, 2009. Martin Smith, producer.
Crash of 1929: American Experience. Aired on PBS. 26 October 2009.
Civilian Conservaton Corp: Aired on PBS. 2 November 2009.
List of stock market crashes. URL:
How Venice Rigged the First, and Worst, Global Financial Crash. Paul Gallagher, The New Federalist, and The American
Almanac. URL:
Ponzi. URL:
Mercantilism. URL:
Feudalism. URL:
Christopher Columbus. URL:
The MAAFA (enslavement of Africans) Timeline. URL:
The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. URL:
Historical Dates.
The Chronology of Ezra 7. Siegfried H. Horn, Ph.D. URL:
Ptolemy's Canon of Kings URL:
Elephantine papyri URL:
Egyptian Kings (Pharaohs), Governors and Rulers. URL:
Olympiad Dates. Jerome Chronicles (2005) pp.188-332
Dum Diversas. URL:

The Mighty Creator Light Before The Sun And Moon?

Let There Be Light! Critics laugh at this claim in the "Stupid Bible"
Nucleosynthesis in 3 minutes Hydrogen burns creating light and the elements up to
Each period matches each day of creation. So God created the Sun on day 4 when light was needed in period 4

Evolution Myth and Fables All the beneficial changes needed suddenly occurred in
one egg which hatched a male and female.
Monster Mutation Theory
This violates biological law. One egg, one gender.
How the sexes evolved simultaneously
Tiny changes take millions of years in evolution. But male and female must evolve simultaneously to survive Page 104 of 104