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PRAJDHARA

ESSAYS ON
ASIAN ART, HISTORY, EPIGRAPHY AND CULTURE
in Honour of
Gouriswar Bhattacharya

Edited by

Gerd J.R. Mevissen


and
Arundhati Banerji

2009
Kaveri Books
New Delhi - 110 002
Dikplas and Grahas at Paharpur 39
in Context of Contemporaneous Pan-Indian Temple Imagery

GERD J.R. MEVISSEN

Since their discovery in the 1920s and 30s, the sixty-three stone sculptures fixed in niches at the base of the
lowermost platform of the central temple in the Somapura mahvihra at Paharpur, Bangladesh, has puzzled
scholars because of their irregular placement and, above all, their subjects (except one) being exclusively
Brhmaical.1 Whereas some of the sculpture panels exposed during the excavation had been removed from
the structure and are now kept in the nearby site museum, the majority of them after having been numbered,
documented and photographed were buried again when the excavation campaign was over.2 Remaining
beneath the soil, as had been their fate for centuries, their present state and condition is only a matter of
speculation, especially since the courtyard of the monastery, with its buried structures, is now under water
most of the year [...] and waterlogging inside the monuments causes a lot of damage to the walls.3
Among the sculptures that were removed and are now on display in the Paharpur Museum, are two
images of Dikplas (guardians of the directions), viz. Indra (no. 29), the King of gods and regent of the East
(Plate 39.1),4 and Vyu (no. 39), the Wind-god and regent of the Northwest (Plate 39.2),5 as well as an
image of the Moon-god Candra or Soma (no. 60) (Plate 39.5).6 Another Dikpla, Agni (no. 34), the Fire-god
and regent of the Southeast (Plate 39.3),7 had unfortunately not been removed and (hopefully) still resides
in the watery subsoil region. The original positions of the sculptures are indicated in Fig. 1.
The Eight Dikplas (aadikpla) are a group of ancient vedic gods connected with certain phenomena
of nature. In the well-developed mythology of the Puras, they lost their high status, were combined in a
single group and regarded as guardians of the four cardinal and four intermediate directions of mundane
space: Indra (East), Agni (Southeast), Yama (South), Nairta (Southwest), Varua (West), Vyu (North-
west), Kubera (North) na (Northeast).8 In certain cases, the Sun-god Srya and the Moon-god Candra or
Soma do also function as directional guardian deities. Thus, in different passages of the Manusmti (between
c. 200 BC and 200 AD) a list of Lokaplas is mentioned, comprising the traditional (and later) Aadikplas,
with the exception of Nairta and na who are replaced by Arka (Sun) and Soma (Moon).9 Furthermore,
in the Majurbhita-Vstuvidystra, a Mahynic ilpastra of uncertain date,10 an image of Soma is
described on the north instead of Kubera.11
Regarding the Dikplas at Paharpur it may be worthwhile to quote the remarks made by Corinna
Wessels-Mevissen (2001: 72) on the subject:
The so-called Somapura Vihra at Phrpur (District Rajshahi, Bangladesh; ill. 29) has provided an
extremely important evidence regarding the representation of directional guardians in North-eastern
394 Prajdhara Essays in Honour of Gouriswar Bhattacharya

Fig. 1: Paharpur, Central Temple of Somapura vihra, location of Dikpla and Graha images.
Numbering after Dikshit 1938. Adapted from plan A.3 in Hossain/Alam 2004: 6.

India in the late 8th century. In fact, some of their features point to an earlier source.12 The images of
Indra (no. 29; fig. 234 [Plate 39.1]), Agni (no. 34; fig. 235 [Plate 39.3]), and Vyu (no. 39; fig. 236
[Plate 39.2]) belong to a series of 63 surviving stone panels on the basement of the cruciform central
structure at the Buddhist site. Images of na? (no. 40 [Plate 39.4]) and Soma/Candra (no. 60; fig. 237;
[Plate 39.5]) may have been associated with this group, but that cannot be conclusively proven.
The dikpla function of these deities is rather doubtful, since the relief panels are not placed in the
G.J.R. Mevissen: Dikplas and Grahas at Paharpur ... 395

canonical directions. Moreover, the set seems to have remained incomplete. The image of Candra on
the (north-)west slightly differs from the others, since it is made of different material, black basalt.
There is a doubtful image of na (DIKSHIT 1938: pl. XXXIa [Plate 39.4])13 next to the Vyu
image. He stands without his vehicle. Among the securely identifiable dikplas, only Indra is accom-
panied by his vehicle (fig. 234 [Plate 39.1]). He has an ornamented halo and holds a fruit in each hand.
His smiling face with the horizontal eye on the forehead, his pearl necklace, udarabandha (belly
band) and chain girdle have all been delicately modelled. The large elephant behind him leaves no
space for any attendants. Agni (fig. 235 [Plate 39.3] has boldly incised flames behind his body, starting
at hip level. He is pot-bellied, wears a broad necklace and a vastropavta (broad brhmaical cord) like
Candra, and holds rosary (r.) and waterpot (l.). It is a general feature of Eastern Indian Agni images that
the left hand does not extend below the elbow. Agni is shown without a vehicle. He was probably ori-
ginally flanked by two attendants.
The image of Vyu (fig. 236 [Plate 39.2]), which had been earlier identified as Yama,14 has clear-
cut symmetrical features and wears individually conceived ornaments. Like Agni and Soma, he stands
in samapda (feet together). The flowing vastra is beautifully draped over his head. Its lower ends
almost touch the two attendants, male and female, who likewise hold pieces of cloth. His hair is done
in a neat rdhvakea (demonic hairstyle) coiffure. The cloth type of Vyu must have been popular in
this region, since two fine terracotta plaques of seated Wind Gods with a flowing scarf above the head
have been found. On one of the pieces, also from Phrpur, a tiny antelope is visible beside the god (fig.
239). The other example from Mahsthn, Bogra district/Bangladesh (T.N. RAMACHANDRAN 1936-37:
pl. XVIc), corresponds to the Phrpur plaque in many details. It has a similar, square shape, and the
arms of Vyu are also not positioned in a symmetrical manner, the left hand being held much lower
than the right one. Only the antelope is missing. Keeping the three described Vyu images in mind, it
is significant to note that these are the only known representations of the Wind God holding a billowing
cloth in Eastern India.15
In the case of Phrpur, the group of dikplas seems to have remained incomplete, and some of the
images are irregularly placed. The positioning of Indra and Agni was correct (ill. 29 [here Fig. 1], how-
ever. Moreover, on the south-east, two terracotta images of a seated Agni can be seen above the stone
sculptures.
As regards the last-mentioned images, it may be remarked that a terracotta plaque depicting Agni is located
almost in the centre of the lower platform on the eastern side of the monument.16 The original Agni plaque
as well as more than 900 other plaques from the bottom of the lower platform at Paharpur17 have recently
been removed from the monument and were replaced by replicas.18
That the Candra/Soma sculpture (Plate 39.5) at Paharpur may have indeed been associated with the
group as guardian of the northern direction, as suggested by Wessels-Mevissen, is very probable, although
an image of Kubera has also been found at Paharpur. It was detected at the back of stone sculpture no. 59
(Plate 39.6). According to K.N. Dikshit (1938: 53),
It is noteworthy that at the back of this [i.e. no. 59] is a defaced figure of Kubera, the god of wealth
and Lord of the North (Plate XXXVI b), which probably belonged to the same series of the Lord of the
Quarters as the Indra, Agni and Yama [i.e. Vyu] figures. It is likely that while the other figures being
in excellent preservation were refixed in the Paharpur temple, the Kubera figure being damaged was
rejected and the stone utilized for a fresh figure.
396 Prajdhara Essays in Honour of Gouriswar Bhattacharya

It would seem, however, quite unlikely that the Kubera image belonged to the extant series of Dikplas,
since the size of the slab (i.e. of the figure on the front) is given by Dikshit as 1' 7'' in height and 1' in
width, corresponding to c. 48.3 x 30.5 cm. Evidently, as visible on Plate 39.6, the slab containing the
(older) Kubera figure is of oblong (horizontal) shape and had been rotated before it was re-used and re-
carved with a vertical image on the reverse.19 Whereas the height of the extant slabs bearing Dikpla images
is approximately 80 cm, the height of the Kubera slab is only c. 30 cm. Its height would, however, roughly
correspond to the height of the other Dikplas if we assume that the present slab preserves only the upper
half of the original slab. In that case the lower half would have possibly been carved with the throne and the
overturned treasure pots, the usual paraphernalia of Kubera, but still the size of the figure and also its seated
posture would diverge considerably from the other Dikplas. Thus, the Kubera image cannot be regarded as
having belonged to the set of Dikplas.20
Nevertheless, another sculpture occupying a nearby niche (no. 63) may have been associated with the
Dikpla group (Plate 39.7).21 The deitys head is encircled by a large halo. He holds a flower blossom in his
right hand, and his hair is embellished with a lotus mark above the forehead. He thus may represent Srya.
In this connection it may be relevant to draw attention to some temples in other parts of the Indian
subcontinent dating from the 7th and 8th centuries, the formative stage of embellishing the exterior temple
walls with Dikpla images, where Candra/Soma and Srya are associated with the group of Dikplas:
(1) On the early 7th-century Paraurmevara
temple at Bhubaneswar, Orissa, Srya
and Candra/Soma are associated with an
incomplete (or disturbed) group of direc-
tional deities.22
(2-3) The late 7th-century Svarga Brahm and
Viva Brahm temples at Alampur,
Andhra Pradesh, preserve images of
Candra and Srya the latter now miss-
ing from the Viva Brahm associated
Fig. 2: Alampur, Svarga Brahm temple, plan of wall niches. with a full set of eight Dikplas (Fig. 2,
After Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 42, ill. 11.
Plates 39.8, 39.9);23 a similar scheme
was most probably also followed in five
other temples of the Navabrahm group
at the site.24
(4) On the late 7th-century Klikmt tem-
ple at Chittaurgarh, Rajasthan, originally
a Srya temple,25 the eight Dikplas in-
clude a figure of Candra on the northern
side (Fig. 3), thus replacing Kubera who
is not represented.26 Srya appears in the
three main niches.27
Fig. 3: Chittaurgarh, Klikmt temple, garbhagha plan.
After Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 49, ill. 17.
G.J.R. Mevissen: Dikplas and Grahas at Paharpur ... 397

(5-6) On the early 8th-century so-called Srya


temple 1 at Osian, Rajasthan, Candra
appears among the incomplete group of
Dikplas and Srya in the main niche of
the eastern wall (Fig. 4).28 On the slightly
later Harihara temple 1 at the same site,
Srya and Candra occupy wall niches but
are not included in the otherwise com-
plete Dikpla scheme (Fig. 5).
(7) The Mahdeva temple at Bithu, Raja-
sthan, of the 2nd quarter of the 8th century
preserves only three Dikpla images; Fig. 4: Osian, Srya temple 1, plan of wall niches. After
Soma/Candra again replaces Kubera in Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 54, ill. 21.
the north.29
(8) The mid-8th-century Tel-k-mandir at
Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, has a standing
image of Candra (Plate 39.10) associated
with an incomplete set of directional
deities.30
(9) In the early 8th-century Rjasihevara
(Kailsantha) temple at Kanchipuram,
Tamil Nadu, a seated figure with a large
halo, possibly Soma/Candra, is carved in
a niche on the northern prkra, associ-
ated with an incomplete set of directional
deities.31
Fig. 5: Osian, Harihara temple 1, central shrine, plan of wall
All these temples are roughly contemporaneous niches. After Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 55, ill. 22.
with the sculptures from Paharpur. The general
iconographic features of the Paharpur Candra/Soma figure, viz. the samapda stance, an upavta, a rosary
in the raised right hand and a water vessel in the left, and a crescent (or a halo) behind the head, are also
present in nos. (2), (3), (4), (7) and (8) of the above list of temples. In these, however, Srya appears in his
usual form holding two full-blown lotuses. The association of Candra/Soma with the group of directional
deities on all these monuments may be regarded as expressions of the pan-Indian development towards the
formation of the standardized group of Aadikplas of later times.
The concept of employing Candra/Soma as the guardian of the northern direction, witnessed at least in
nos. (4), (7), (9) and perhaps (1) of the above list, was also used in South Indian temples of the Ca period
until the late 12th century:
(10) The ikhara of the northern Dikpla subshrine in the prkra of the early 11th-century Rjarjevara
temple at Tanjavur, Tamil Nadu, preserves four reliefs of standing Candra/Soma on the grva,32 indi-
cating that this deity was originally enshrined there.
398 Prajdhara Essays in Honour of Gouriswar Bhattacharya

(11-12) The slightly later Rjendracvara temple at Gangaikondacholapuram has two sets of Dikplas
with Candra/Soma guarding the northern direction. Nothing remains from the northern prkra
subshrine,33 but the Dikpla figures on the first upper storey of the vimna are still extant, including
a standing image of Candra on the north.34
(13) The mid-12th-century Airvatevara temple at Darasuram, Tamil Nadu, has on its upapha a stone
panel of the Aadikplas riding on their vhanas in which Candra is shown, but not Kubera.35
From the late 12th century onwards Candra/Soma as the Dikpla of the northern direction was replaced
by Kubera also in South India, as indicated by the gopura sculptures at Chidambaram, where both Kubera
and Candra appear on the northern sides, the latter as a member of the Navagrahas.36

*
Let us now focus our attention on another sculpture in the base of the Paharpur temple, a standing, slightly
pot-bellied ascetic with a jamukua, holding an akaml in his right hand and a book in his left (no. 61;
Plate 39.11).37 Referring to the description in the Viudharmottara S.K. Saraswati (1962: 73-74) identified
the figure as Bhaspati (Jupiter), pointing out that it is perhaps the earliest representation of Bhaspati in
art.38 If this identification is correct, it would point to the presence of the group of planetary deities (Grahas)
at Paharpur.
This group would appear, however, as incomplete as that of the Dikplas, again consisting only of a
reduced number of members: Srya(?) (no. 63; Plate 39.7), Candra/Soma (no. 60; Plate 39.5), Bhaspati(?)
(no. 61; Plate 39.11), and perhaps two more, sculpture no. 62 (Plate 39.12)39 and sculpture no. 2 (Plate
39.13)40, both identified by S.K. Saraswati (1962: 76-77) as representing the future Manu of the Viu-
dharmottara. Both figures have a jamukua and hold an akaml in the right hand and a kamaalu in the
left; the latter stands in samapda, the former in a slightly flexed pose between a tree and a seated attendant
on his right. Trees are also found on the images of Candra/Soma (Plate 39.5) and Bhaspati(?) (Plate 39.11),
and the latter is also accompanied by a kneeling attendant figure. No. 62 may perhaps represent ukra(?).41
The iconographic features of all these images, viz. jatmukua, akaml in the right hand and ka-
maalu in the left, are the standard features of Candra, ukra and Bhaspati in Navagraha sequences from
Bengal in later times.42 At Paharpur these features are also found with several iva images, e.g. on sculpture
no. 37, where the head is backed by a large halo.43 An identification of sculptures no. 2 and no. 62 as iva
can, however, be ruled out since the iva images at Paharpur are generally characterized by rdhvaliga and
a vertical third eye on the forehead.44 Nevertheless, a certain aiva trait is present in these supposed Graha
images.45 If the five images were really meant to represent Grahas,46 then the Paharpur temple was one of
the very few temples (and in fact the earliest), where Grahas were depicted as large-scale sculptures47 embel-
lishing and encircling an architectural structure, comparable only to the seven Graha sculptures in the
vedbandha niches around the Lakmaa temple at Khajuraho of the mid-10th century,48 and the Navagrahas
in the sub-base of the four gopuras of the Naarja temple at Chidambaram and the eastern gopura of the
Jambukevara Temple at Tiruvanaikka near Tiruchchirappalli of the late 12th and 13th centuries.49
Be that as it may, in view of what has been said above it becomes clear that the Paharpur scheme of
Dikplas fits in well with the early pan-Indian development of Dikpla representation on temple walls. The
incompleteness of the set and the irregular placement of some images, e.g. Vyu and na(?) in the south
G.J.R. Mevissen: Dikplas and Grahas at Paharpur ... 399

(see Fig. 1), in incorrect directions may either be understood as reflecting the incipient, formative stage of
the Aadikpla scheme in the 7th and 8th centuries, when the sets often remained incomplete cf. nos. (6),
(7) and (8) of the above list , or as resulting from the shifting of the images when they were taken from an
earlier structure,50 not necessarily a Hindu temple,51 and re-used to embellish the basement of the central
temple in the Somapura mahvihra, as has often been suggested.52 This may also have resulted in the other-
wise not explainable concentration of supposed Graha figures in the north-western sector.
Finally, it should be emphasized that some kind of special relation seems to have existed between
Paharpur and South India. Incidentally, one of the earliest temples where the Dikplas appeared on the
exterior temple walls, the late 7th-century Svarga Brahm temple at Alampur (temple no. 2 above), has the
earliest representation of iva Bhikanamrti in one of its niches, a subject that is also found at Paharpur
(sculpture no. 13)53 but has subsequently remained alien to the art of Bengal.

Notes
1. See e.g. Dikshit 1938: 37-55; Saraswati 1943: 508-509; idem 1957: 153-157; idem 1962: 37-90; idem 1976: 116-
121; Asher 1980: 92-93; Huntington 1984: 161-164.
2. According to Ahmed/Sanday 1986: 31, As the annual waterlogging threatened to damage them [i.e. the 63 sculp-
tures], Dikshit decided to bury them again on completion of his excavation. In the following years, a few of these
reliefs were annually re-excavated during the dry season so as to enable visitors to see them. However, more
recently they have all remained underground throughout the year.
3. Gill 2007: 195; this article gives also a brief summary of the excavations at Paharpur up to 2002. For a thorough
review of the historical and archaeological background of Paharpur see Bautze-Picron 1986. For a recent, though
rather speculative, article on the architectural concept and the religious symbolism of the Somapura mahvihra
see Rashid 2004-05.
4. Size: 76.2 x 55.9 cm; in museum: 75.5 x 43.5 cm. Published: Dikshit 1930: 145 black basalt; Vogel 1930: 23,
pl. IX.c; Dikshit 1938: 46-47, no. 29 coarse grey sandstone, pl. XXVII.d; Lohuizen-de Leeuw 1957: 34, fig. 4;
Das Gupta 1961: 27, pl. 9(a); Saraswati 1962: 37, 41, 69-71, pl. VII.22; Mallmann 1963: 126; Majumdar 1971:
pl. XXIII.45; Asher 1980: 93, pl. 221; Qadir 1980: 41, no. 2; Alam 1985: 110-112, fig. 35; Bajpai 1997: 293 fig.
3, 295; Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 72, 95, fig. 234; Bhattacharya 2002: 66, pl. XXVIII.3; Haque 2007: 80, 82, pl.
47; Mevissen 2008c: cat. *331.
5. Size: 81.3 x 40.6 cm; in museum: 83.0 x 39.0 cm. Published: Dikshit 1930: 146 Yama ... blue basalt; idem 1938:
50, no. 39 sandstone, pls. XI.c (left), XXXII.a Yama; Banerjea 1956: 525 Yama or Varua; Das Gupta
1961: 27 Yama; Saraswati 1962: 37 Yama(?), 71-72 Yama or Varua, 119, pl. VII.19 Yama; Mallmann
1963: 133, note 5 Vyu; Khan 1969: 182; Majumdar 1971: pl. XXI.41 Yama; Michell 1973: 86, note 5 Yama
or Varua; Asher 1980: 92, pl. 222 Yma (sic); Qadir 1980: 38 Yama; Sanday et al. 1983: 70 (ill.); Hunting-
ton 1984: 162, fig. 201 Vyu?; Alam 1985: 114, fig. 38 Yama; Bhattacharya 1987: 64, fig. 2 (= 2000: 206,
564, pl. 18.2) Vyu; Tanabe 1990: 61, 79, fig. 20 Vyu; Bhattacharya 1997: 781, fig. 2 (= 2000: 324, 564, pl.
18.2) Vyu; Gail 1999: 138-139 Vyu; Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 72, fig. 236 Vyu; Chakrabarti 2003: 54,
fig. 3 (caption corrected and pasted over as Vyu); Haque 2004: 116, pl. 16.3 Vyu; Hossain/Alam 2004: 21
Yama; Gill 2007: 179 fig. VII.9 (left), 186 Yama; Haque 2007: 80, 87, pl. 59 Vayu; Lefvre 2008: 184-188,
cat. 61 Vyu; Mevissen 2008c: cat. *333 Vyu; Bautze-Picron in press: fig. 1 Vyu.
6. Size: 83.8 x 35.6 cm; in museum: 85.0 x 38.5 cm. Published: Banerji 1928: 111 Siva ... as Somanatha, the Lord
of the Moon; Dikshit 1938: 53-54, no. 60 black basalt, pl. XXX.b iva; Majmudar 1942: 265, pl. II.7
400 Prajdhara Essays in Honour of Gouriswar Bhattacharya

iva; Banerjea 1943: 459, pl. LVI.138 Chandra; Banerjea 1948: 97-98 Candra; Saraswati 1962: 74-75, pl.
IX.24 Chandra; Mallmann 1963: 86 Candra, note 11; Asher 1980: 92, pl. 223 iva; Qadir 1980: 37 Siva;
Rahman 1981: pl. II; Haque 1992: 200, 371, no. 1099 Candra; Bhattacharya 1993: 85-86, fig. 4 (= 2000: 305,
592, pl. 29.3) Soma; Markel 1995: 38, fig. 11 Candra; Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 72, fig. 237 Candra;
Mevissen 2008c: cat. *336 Candra.
7. Size: 83.8 x 33.0 cm. Published: Dikshit 1930: 145, pl. XXXII.d; Dikshit 1938: 48-49, no. 34 greyish buff
sandstone, pl. XXXII.b; Saraswati 1962: 71, pl. VII.18; Majumdar 1971: pl. XX.40; Alam 1985: 114, fig. 39;
Gail 1999: 137, pl. 9.11; Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 72-73, fig. 235; Bhattacharya 2002: 65, pl. XXVIII.2; Haque
2007: 80, 83, pl. 51.
8. For the origin and development of the Dikplas up to 1000 AD see Wessels-Mevissen 2001. For a table listing the
main characteristics of all members of the group see ibid.: 1.
9. See Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 11-17, 89, ill. 31. Interestingly, in the 8th and 9th centuries the Manu Lokaplas
became quite popular in Bihar, where a number of separate friezes of this group were carved (see Bhattacharya
1987: passim, figs. 1, 4 [= 2000: 205-214, 564-565, pls. 18.1, 18.4]; idem 1993: 85, figs. 2-3 [= 2000: 304-305,
564-565, pls. 18.1, 29.2]; Bautze-Picron 1998: 85-86, pl. 238; Wessels-Mevissen 2001: figs. 311-313; idem 2002:
112, 120, Abb. 15; Mevissen 2008a: figs. 6-8), and where the group is also depicted as subsidiary deities above
major gods (see Bhattacharya 1987: 68, fig. 5 [= 2000: 206, 565, pl. 18.5]; Mevissen 2002: 105-108, pls. 8.5-8.8;
idem 2008a: figs. 1, 3, 5, 9). For images with Manu Lokaplas as subsidiary deities from the western part of
northern India, see Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 83-84, figs. 301-305.
10. The text, which is preserved only in Sri Lanka, can so far not be safely dated; according to Bechert (2005: 160),
the suggested dates range from the 5th to the 12th century AD. For editions of the text cf. ibid.: note 10.
11. Cf. Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 81, note 427.
12. The fact that Indra holds only fruits but no thunderbolt is reminiscent of the impressive Indra image from Gay
of c. 7th century (SAHAI 1975: fig. 2; PAUL 1985: 133, n. 75) who holds a fruit in exactly the same manner in his
extended right hand. In the latter case, the god is seated on an elephant throne in dakipralambapda (right leg
pendent). (Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 72, n. 365).
13. Size: 76.2 x 53.3 cm. Published: Dikshit 1930: 146 iva (not ill.); idem 1938: 50 buff grey sandstone, pl.
XXXI.a iva; Saraswati 1962: 119 iva, pl. X.25; Majumdar 1971: pl. XXIV.48 iva; Wessels-Mevissen
2001: 72 (not ill.). Cf. also Mallmann 1963: 137, note 2, and infra, note 44.
14. Cf. supra, note 5.
15. The latter remark by Wessels-Mevissen holds true, of course, only for independent images of Vyu. A unique
bronze image of Vyu from Bangladesh, now in the Sackler Gallery, Washington, has to be added to the list of
independent Vyus from Bengal; see Bhattacharya 1997: 780, fig. 1 (= 2000: pl. 32.1). For some of the numerous
subsidiary Vyu figures from Bengal holding a billowing cloth, see Mevissen 2008c: figs. 4-11, 13-14. For such
figures from Bihar, see Bhattacharya 2000: pls. 18.1, 18.4-5, 19.3-4, 22.4, 29.2; Mevissen 2002: pls. 8.5- 8.8;
idem 2008a: figs. 1, 5-7, 9.
16. For the location of the panel see Mevissen 2008c: fig. 1, position x. For a photograph of the original plaque see
Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 207, fig. 238; Mevissen 2008c: fig. 2. For the new plaque see ibid.: fig. 3. Peculiarly,
this plaque has neither been mentioned nor illustrated by Dikshit 1938.
17. Presently the lowermost frieze of terracotta plaques is located at the very bottom of the monument touching the
ground, but originally this frieze was at a height of about 150 cm above ground level; cf. Breuil/Gill 2005: 482
and figs. 3, 5, 6-7; Gill 2007: figs. VII.8-9, VII.13.
G.J.R. Mevissen: Dikplas and Grahas at Paharpur ... 401

18. On the disastrous conservation and restoration campaign carried out at Paharpur between 1991 and 2002, see
Breuil/Gill 2005 and 2007; Gill 2007.
19. The image on the reverse (now front) represents a fight between two Asuras; see Dikshit 1938: pls. XXVI.d,
XXXVI.e (erroneously labelled No. 58); Ray 1943: 526, pl. XLVII.116. Saraswati (1962: 84-85, pl. XIII.33)
describes the scene as a fight between a monkey and a rkasa, regarding it as some minor theme of the Rm-
yaa war.
20. Another image of Kubera has been found at Paharpur, carved on a loose slab (Dikshit 1938: 55, pl. XXXVIII.b;
Saraswati 1962: 72-73, pl. VIII.20). Its stylistic features do certainly point to a later date. Also its size and format
are different and thus it cannot be regarded as belonging to the original Dikpla set of the basement sculptures.
21. Size: 81.3 x 27.9 cm. Published: Banerji 1928: 111, pl. LIII.[a] probably a form of Siva; Dikshit 1938: 54 buff
grey sandstone, pl. XXX.a iva; Saraswati 1962: 77, 120, pl. XI.27 iva ?; Mallmann 1963: 86 Tejacaa,
Ravi ou Arka, le Soleil?, notes 12-13; Alam 1985: 113, fig. 37 Siva; Gail 1999: 138 Srya ?; Haque 2007:
80, 83, pl. 50 Shiva.
22. Cf. Donaldson 1985: fig. 79 (Candra); Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 33-34, fig. 43, left (Soma or Agni); Gail 2001:
76, Abb. 113 (Srya).
23. Cf. Michell 1973: passim; Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 42-43, ills. 11-12 (plans), figs. 77 (Candra), 79 (Srya), 82
(Candra). The size of the images, approximately 80 x 42 cm, roughly coincides with the size of the Paharpur
images.
24. Cf. Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 39-41, and Table XII on p. 40 for a sculptural typology of the dikplas at Alampur.
25. Cf. EITA 1991: 285-291; Gail 2001: 23.
26. Cf. Wessels-Mevissen 1994: 600, 618, pl. 2 (Candra); idem 2001: 49-50, ill. 17 (plan), fig. 109 (Soma).
27. See EITA 1991: pls. 661, 665 (Srya in north bhadra); Gail 2001: Abb. 9 (Srya in south bhadra).
28. Cf. Wessels-Mevissen 1994: 599-600, 616 fig. 1 (plan), 617 pl. 1 (Candra); idem 2001: 54, ill. 21 (plan), fig. 185
(Candra); EITA 1991: pl. 307 (Srya); Gail 1999: Abb. 4 (Srya).
29. Cf. Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 52-53; Meister 1982: fig. 10.
30. Cf. Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 47-48, ill. 16 (plan), fig. 103 (Candra).
31. Cf. ibid.: 77, fig. 285 (Soma?).
32. Cf. ibid.: 80, fig. 300 (devakulik of Soma). On the architectural elevation of the subshrine published by Pichard
(1995: 152, pl. 28) the griva reliefs have not been drawn, but Somas lion vhanas are well visible.
33. For a reconstruction of the prkra subshrines see Pichard et al. 1994, I: 144, fig. 40.
34. Cf. Pichard et al. 1994, I: 135, fig. 38; II: ph. 135; Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 80-81.
35. Cf. Mevissen 1994: 418-419, 433, pl. 4 (Dikplas accompanying Tripurntaka).
36. Cf. Mevissen 2004: 88-89 and fig. 5 on p. 86 (plan of the images in the lower tier of the four gopuras).
37. Size: 88.9 x 35.6 cm. Published: Banerji 1928: 111 Brahma; Dikshit 1938: 54 dark basalt, pl. XXX.c
Brahm; Banerjea 1943: 459, pl. LVI.139 Bihaspati; idem 1948: 97-98 Bhaspati; Saraswati 1962: 73-74,
pl. IX.23 Bihaspati; Weiner 1962: 182, fig. 39 Brahm; Mallmann 1963: 86 Bhaspati, note 11; Majumdar
1971: pl. XXI.42 Bihaspati; Rahman 1981: pl. II; Alam 1985: 115, fig. 40 Brihaspati; Haque 1992: 200, 371,
no. 1096 Bhaspati; Gail 1999: 138 Brahm; Vacherot 1999: 22, fig. 7 Bhaspati; Bhattacharya 2002: 65-
66, pl. XXVIII.1 Bhaspati; Haque 2007: 80, 82, pl. 49 Brihaspati. A recently published colour photograph
402 Prajdhara Essays in Honour of Gouriswar Bhattacharya

of the image in situ (Hossain/Alam 2004: 20, pl. B.11) seems to have been taken during one of the annual re-
excavations after Dikshits re-burying of the sculpture (cf. supra, note 2).
38. Independent images of Bhaspati are quite rare. A headless image from Kandaran, Malda district, now in the
Malda Museum (RBR 1) has tentatively been identified as Bhaspati (see Bhattacharyya 1982: 8-9, pl. IV.1;
Bhattacharya 2002: 65-67, pl. XXIX.1). The figure holds an akaml in the right hand and a kamaalu in the
lowered left. The figure is flanked by two plantain trees on either side. However, in view of the absence of a pot-
belly it is more likely to represent Candra or ukra rather than Bhaspati.
39. Size: 81.3 x 33.0 cm. Published: Banerji 1928: 111 corpulent ascetic (side view on pl. LIII.[a] = Plate 39.7);
Dikshit 1938: 54 purple sandstone, pl. XXX.d iva; Saraswati 1962: 76-77, 119, pl. X.26 Bhavishya Manu;
Alam 1985: 114 Siva or Manu (not ill.); Gail 1999: 138 iva (not ill.); Bhattacharya 2002: 66 (not ill.).
40. Size: 61.0 x 20.3 cm. Published: Dikshit 1938: 38-39 grey sandstone, pl. XXXVII.d Brahm; Saraswati 1962:
76-77 future Manu; Alam 1985: 96, fig. 30; Gail 1999: 138 Brahm.
41. The figure stands beneath an arch, similar to the one seen above sculpture no. 61 (Plate 39.11). While the latter
arch seems to be original, the former has certainly been added only during the conservation camapign: It is not
present on the side view of the figure visible on Plate 39.7 (published in 1928) but makes its first appearance on
the photos published in 1938 (compare Dikshit 1938: pl. XXX.a with Plates 39.7 and 39.12).
42. See e.g. Mevissen 2008b: figs. 1, 6-11, 13-15, and cats. *55, *103, *104, *272, *312 (only Candra), *321, *400
(only Bhaspati and ukra), *445 (only Bhaspati), *478, *507.
43. See Dikshit 1930: 147; Ray 1943: 530, pl. LVII.141; Dikshit 1938: 49, pl. XXXI.d; Saraswati 1962: 58-59, pl.
IV.12; Weiner 1962: 182, fig. 40; Alam 1985: 112, fig. 36.
44. See e.g. na(?) in sculpture no. 40 (Plate 39.4) or sculpture no. 4 (size: 47.0 x 38.1 cm; publ.: Dikshit 1930:
146; idem 1938: 39 buff sandstone, pl. XXXI.b; Saraswati 1962: 75-76). The latter image, in which iva is
accompanied by his bull (vabha), has been treated by Mallmann (1963: 137) as another possible candidate for
na at Paharpur. However, its small size does not match well with the size of the other Dikpla images.
45. A similar case of aivization occurs with the Dikplas on the garbhagha wall of the early 8th-century Kumbha-
yma temple at Chittaurgarh, Rajasthan, where five members of the Dikpla group have been rendered as iva
(na) images; see Wessels-Mevissen 2001: 50-52, 81, figs. 111, 112.
46. Another sculpture (no. 6, size: 50.8 x 22.9 cm; publ.: Dikshit 1938: 40 grey sandstone, pl. XXXV.a Standing
figure; Saraswati 1962: 89 boyish figure) could be regarded as a Graha. The figure stands in a peculiar pose
with his left leg bent up in an unnatural way, thus reminding of ani, the planetary god Saturn, whose lameness
is usually depicted in eastern India in such a way (cf. Mevissen 1997: pls. 10.5-10.7, 10.11-10.13; idem 2000:
passim, figs. 2, 4, 5, 20). However, there seems to be a smile on the face of the figure, a feature not matching well
with the concept of this dreadful Graha. Also the small size of the figure differs considerably from the others.
47. There may have been also small-scale images of the Grahas at Paharpur. A seated figure of Srya is found among
the terracotta plaques; cf. Dikshit 1938: 60 (not ill.). Another plaque shows a large demonic head backed by a
flame-like halo with hands joined underneath in the manner known from representations of Rhu (ibid.: pl. XL.d,
centre).
48. See Mitra 1965: 24; Desai 1996: 135-143, fig. 12, phs. 139, 142-148; Vacherot 1999: 74-77, figs. 117-125.
49. For Chidambaram see Harle 1963: 112-113, 116-117, 121-122, 125, 127-128, 134-137, figs. 21-22, pls. 147, 153,
154, 159, 162, 165; Mevissen 2004: 86, 89, figs. 5, 8. For the Jambukevara see Harle 1963: 137, fig. 22; LHer-
nault 1987: 119, fig. 5. Another case of similarity between Paharpur and the late Ca temples at Darasuram
and Chidambaram is the rare depiction of large-scale images representing the solar Avins, horse-headed at
G.J.R. Mevissen: Dikplas and Grahas at Paharpur ... 403

Paharpur and human-headed at Darasuram and Chidambaram. For Paharpur see Dikshit 1938: 43-44, no. 21, pl.
XXXVII.c Kinnara pair; Saraswati 1962: 89 kinnaras; Biswas 1981: 269, fig. 571 Two horse-faced Kin-
naras. For Darasuram see LHernault 1987: 120, no. 26 & pl.ico IV, no. 26 (the sculpture was missing in 1987
but has since been found and re-installed in the original niche); for Chidambaram see Harle 1963: 110, pl. 144.
50. For a recently exposed structure predating the first level of the central temple at Paharpur, see Breuil/Gill 2007:
128-128, fig. 3.
51. Cf. Gail 1999: 139.
52. Cf. Dikshit 1938: 5, 38; Saraswati 1943: 509; Lohuizen-de Leeuw 1957: 34; Saraswati 1962: 44-45; Mitra 1971:
242; Saraswati 1976: 120-121; Huntington 1984: 162-163; Alam 1985: 98-99; Bautze-Picron 1986: 24. For a
contrary view see Asher 1980: 93 and Lefvre 2008: 188.
53. See Dikshit 1930: 141, 146, pl. XXXIII.b Offering of poison to iva; Fbri 1932: 29, pl. IV.b; Dikshit 1938:
41-42, pl. XXXI.c; Thomas n.d.: pl. XXIV.72; Lohuizen-de Leeuw 1957: 36-38, fig. 6 scene from the Devadru-
vanamhtmya; Das Gupta 1961: 24, pl. VII.a; Saraswati 1962: 59-62 the true impact ... is still to be investi-
gated, pl. V.14; Ahmed 1984: pl. 18; Ahmed 1984a: 60; Alam 1985: 108-109, fig. 34; Haque 2007: 80, 83, pl.
52. For a fresh study of the sculpture see Bhattacharya 2006.

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Plate 39.1:
Paharpur,
sculpture
no. 29:
Indra.

A: in situ;
after Dikshit
1938:
pl. XXVII.d.

B: Paharpur
Museum;
photo
G.J.R.
Mevissen
2004.

Plate 39.2:
Paharpur,
sculpture no. 39:
Vyu.

A: in situ;
after Dikshit 1938:
pl. XXXII.a.

B: Paharpur
Museum;
photo G.J.R.
Mevissen 2004.
Plate 39.3: Paharpur, sculpture no. 34: Plate 39.4: Paharpur, sculpture no. 40: na(?).
Agni. After Dikshit 1938: pl. XXXII.b. After Dikshit 1938: pl. XXXI.a.

Plate 39.5: Paharpur, sculpture no. 60: Candra/Soma. A: in situ; after Dikshit 1938: pl. XXX.b. B and C: Pahar-
pur Museum; photos G.J.R. Mevissen 2004. The side view (C) is also visible on Plate 39.11.
Plate 39.6: Paharpur, back of sculpture no. 59: Kubera.
After Dikshit 1938: pl. XXXVI.b.

Plate 39.7: Paharpur,


sculpture no. 63: Srya(?).
After Banerji 1928: pl. LIII.[a].
On the right: side view of
ukra(?) in Plate 39.12
before conservation.

Plate 39.8: Alampur, Svarga Brahm temple, east Plate 39.9: Alampur, Svarga Brahm temple, north
wall: Srya. After Wessels-Mevissen 2001: fig. 79. wall: Candra. After Wessels-Mevissen 2001: fig. 77.
Plate 39.10: Gwalior, Tel-k-mandir, east wall: Plate 39.11: Paharpur, sculpture no. 61: Bhaspati(?).
Candra. Photo Klaus Bruhn. After Dikshit 1938: pl. XXX.c.

Plate 39.12:
Paharpur,
sculpture no. 62:
ukra(?).
After Dikshit 1938:
pl. XXX.d.
For a side view
see Plate 39.7.

Plate 39.13:
Paharpur,
sculpture no. 2:
Graha(?).
After Dikshit 1938:
pl. XXXVII.d.
Contents

VOLUME I

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Editorial Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Bibliography of Gouriswar Bhattacharyas Publications (1971-2008) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
List of Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvii
List of Figures, Illustrations, Tables and Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlii
List of Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv

Section I: Gandhra
1. Yaodhars Dreams
ANNA MARIA QUAGLIOTTI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. The Water Tank from Gandhara
MONIKA ZIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3. The Pious Donation of Wells in Gandhara
HARRY FALK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4. Two Stamps with the Bodhigarbhlakralaka Dhra from Afghanistan and Some
Further Remarks on the Classification of Objects with the ye dharm Formula
INGO STRAUCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Section II: Northern India, Central India, Nepal


5. Srya Worship in Vraja in Ancient Times with Special Reference to a Rare Kua Lintel
of a Srya Temple
VINAY KUMAR GUPTA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6. The Formation of Temple Ritual in the Gupta Period: pj and pacamahyaja
MICHAEL WILLIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7. Mapping Masrurs Iconography
MICHAEL W. MEISTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
8. The Kashmir Connection of the Vaikuha Image of Khajuraho
DEVANGANA DESAI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
9. Vaukevara A Vma-Bhairava Sculpture in the Lucknow Museum
R. NAGASWAMY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
viii Prajdhara Essays in Honour of Gouriswar Bhattacharya

10. The Identification of a Sculpture of Mtyujaya/Amtea and Amtalakm


in the Royal Bath in Patan (Nepal)
GUDRUN BHNEMANN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
11. Almora Copper Plate of Abhaya Candra, aka 1296 (AD 1374)
MAHESHWAR P. JOSHI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
12. Omkareshvar Mandhata and Transplantation of Temples
AMAR NATH KHANNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
13. Recasting the Architectural Landscape: The Late 12th Early 13th-Century Ghurid
Annexations of Northern India
ALKA PATEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
14. Umrao Jan Ada: Her carte-de-visite
JOACHIM K. BAUTZE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Section III: Western India


15. Coins of the City-State of Mhimat
DEVENDRA HANDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
16. Buddhism in Rajasthan Its Evolution and Devolution
NAYAN ANANDA CHAKRABORTY & SANGEETA CHAKRABORTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
17. Some Early toraa Representations from the Maharashtra Caves
PARUL PANDYA DHAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
18. To What God Shall We Render Homage in the Temple at Modhera?
K. MANKODI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

Section IV: Southern India


19. Rkasas and puruamgas in the South-Western Corner of the Airvatevara Temple at Darasuram
CORINNA WESSELS-MEVISSEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
20. A Rare aiva Icon at Lepki
PIERRE-SYLVAIN FILLIOZAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
21. Two Klmukha Temples in Haveri District (Jakkacrigui in Karnaka)
VASUNDHARA FILLIOZAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
22. Girij-kalya Friezes in the Temple Art of the Gowas of Yelahaka
ANILA VERGHESE & ANNA L. DALLAPICCOLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
23. Genealogical History of the Nyakas of Vlr, South India, and their Patronage to
Art and Architecture (c. AD 1500-1604)
U.S. MOORTI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Plates (Sections I-IV)


Contents ix

VOLUME II

Section V: Eastern India and Bangladesh

24. Mahmyr and Jgul as Attendants of Prajpramit. Investigation of an unusual iconographic


feature based on Bihari Aashasrik Prajpramit manuscripts from the 11th century
EVA ALLINGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
25. Illustrating the Perfection of Wisdom: The use of the Vessantara Jtaka in a manuscript of the
Aashasrik Prajpramit Stra
JINAH KIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
26. The Viu Image from Sarisadah in the Indian Museum, Kolkata
CLAUDINE BAUTZE-PICRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
27. Further Observations on Some Unusual Aspects of a Recently Acquired Pla Masterpiece
in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art
STEPHEN MARKEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
28. Some Srya Images of the Pla-Sena Period in the National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi
IBRAHIM SHAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
29. A Note on Some Interesting Sculptures in the Koch Bihar Palace Museum
BIMAL BANDYOPADHYAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
30. Jaina Cult in Ancient Bengal The Tutelary Couple of Deopara
ISABELL JOHNE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
31. Dedicatory Inscriptions of the Time of Mahendrapla: A Fresh Appraisal
RAJAT SANYAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
32. Re-Reading Two Copper Plate Inscriptions of Gopla II, Year 4
RYOSUKE FURUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
33. Re-Visioning the State Apparatus in Samataa (Mid-7th to mid-11th Century AD)
SHAHNAJ HUSNE JAHAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
34. Economy of Samataa in the Early Medieval Period: A Brief Overview
SUCHANDRA GHOSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
35. A Note on an Important Coin Collection of the Bengal Sulns in the Bode-Museum, Berlin
SUTAPA SINHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
36. Incarnation Revived: Three Temple Sculptures from Mallabhma
SHARMILA SAHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
37. A Note on the Majuvara Majur Image at the Khiching Museum, Orissa
RAJASRI MUKHOPADHYAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
38. New Light on the di-Bhajas of Khijjigakoa and Other Minor Ruling Families of
Their Times in Orissa (An Epigraphical Perspective)
SNIGHDA TRIPATHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
x Prajdhara Essays in Honour of Gouriswar Bhattacharya

Section VI: Pan-Indian Issues

39. Dikplas and Grahas at Paharpur in Context of Contemporaneous Pan-Indian Temple Imagery
GERD J.R. MEVISSEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
40. Icons of tripda Deities in Indian Art
ARUNDHATI BANERJI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
41. Revisiting the Va/Nandi Issue
PRATAPADITYA PAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
42. A Five-headed Wooden Elephant: A Case Study
N.P. JOSHI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
43. Jala Mandirs, Trtha-Paas and Cosmic Islands: Creating, Replicating and Representing
Landscape in Jaina Art and Architecture
JULIA A.B. HEGEWALD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
44. Hegel and the Trimrti
ADALBERT J. GAIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
45. Can Guided Tours Make Sense of World Heritage?
N. JAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441

Section VII: Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Tibet


46. A Recently Discovered Srya Image from Thailand
PETER SKILLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
47. Sryas Ngas, Candras Square Seat and the Mounted Bull with Two Guardians
Iconographical notes on two Khmer illustrated stela inscriptions
ARLO GRIFFITHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
48. Indo-Tibetan Influences in Banners from Dunhuang
CHHAYA BHATTACHARYA-HAESNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
49. Indras Visit
TIANSHU ZHU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
50. Wall Paintings in the Arhat Chapel of the Monastery at Zhwa lu, Tibet: Notes on
Iconography and Style
HELMUT F. NEUMANN & HEIDI A. NEUMANN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
51. Iconographical Suppositions in Connection with a Thangka Series Made in the Qianlong Period
BLA KELNYI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515

Plates (Sections V-VII)


List of Contributors

Mag. Eva ALLINGER, Member of the National Research Network, The cultural History of the Western Himalaya from
the 8th Century, Institute of Art History, University of Vienna. Mailing address: A 1090 Wien, Kolingasse
13/1/12, Austria, <eva.allinger@univie.ac.at>, <eva.allinger@chello.at>
Dr. Bimal BANDYOPADHYAY, Superintending Archaeologist, Archaeological Survey of India, Kolkata Circle, C.G.O.
Complex (4th Floor), Block-DF, Sector-1, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 064, India, <asical@vsnl.net>
Dr. Arundhati BANERJI, Superintending Archaeologist (Publications), Archaeological Survey of India, Janpath, New
Delhi - 110 011, India, <abanerji150@yahoo.com>, <arundhatibanerji.150@gmail.com>
Priv.-Doz. Dr. habil. Joachim K. BAUTZE, Gastprofessor fr Kunstgeschichte Sdasiens, Freie Universitt Berlin,
Kunsthistorisches Institut, Abteilung Sdasien, Koenigin-Luise-Str. 34a, D-14195 Berlin, Germany,
<JoachimKB@web.de>
Prof. Dr. Claudine BAUTZE-PICRON, Charge de recherche, C.N.R.S., Paris; Charge de cours, Universit Libre de
Bruxelles. Mailing address: Kantstr. 78, D-10627 Berlin, Germany, <cbpicron@gmx.de>
Dr. Chhaya BHATTACHARYA-HAESNER, Independent Researcher, Keithstrasse 15, D-10787 Berlin, Germany,
<chhaya-berlin@gmx.de>
Prof. Dr. Gudrun BHNEMANN, University of Wisconsin, Department of Languages & Cultures of Asia, 1240 Van
Hise Hall, 1220 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA, <gbuhnema@facstaff.wisc.edu>
Mr. Nayan Ananda CHAKRABORTY & Dr. Sangeeta CHAKRABORTY, Dholavira Excavation (Report Writing)
Section, Archaeological Survey of India, Purana Qila, New Delhi 110 001, India,
<n_chakravartiasi@yahoo.com>
Prof. Dr. A.L. DALLAPICCOLA, Honorary Professor, University of Edinburgh, 4, Sydney Terrace, Edinburgh, EH7
6SL, Scotland, U.K., <Annadallapiccola@aol.com>
Dr. Devangana DESAI, Former Vice-President, The Asiatic Society of Mumbai. Mailing address: Shanti 1/30, 19
Pedder Road, Mumbai 400 026, India, <djdesai@bom3.vsnl.net.in>, <djdesai2001@yahoo. com>
Dr. Parul Pandya DHAR, Assistant Professor (History of Art), National Museum Institute, National Museum, Janpath,
New Delhi 110 011, India, <parulpandyadhar@hotmail.com>
Prof. Dr. Harry FALK, Freie Universitt Berlin, Institut fr die Sprachen und Kulturen Sdasiens, Knigin-Luise-Str.
27, D-14195 Berlin, Germany, <falk@zedat.fu-berlin.de>
Dr. Pierre-Sylvain FILLIOZAT, Membre de lAcademie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, 13, Rue Rambuteau, 75004
Paris, France, <filliozat@dataone.in>, <pierre-sylvain@filliozat.net>, <filliozat@noos.fr>
Dr. Vasundhara FILLIOZAT, Independent Researcher, 125, Vivekananda Road Cross, Yadavagiri, Mysore 570 020,
Karnataka, India, <filliozat@dataone.in>, <vasundhara@filliozat.net>
xlvi Prajdhara Essays in Honour of Gouriswar Bhattacharya

Dr. Ryosuke FURUI, Associate Professor, Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-Ku,
Tokyo 113-0033, Japan, <rfurui@hotmail.com>, <furui@ioc.u-tokyo.ac.jp>
Prof. i.R. Dr. Adalbert J. GAIL, Freie Universitt Berlin, Kunsthistorisches Institut, Abteilung Sdasien. Mailing
address: Hagenstr. 35a, D-14193 Berlin, Germany, <adalbert.gail@googlemail.com>
Dr. Suchandra GHOSH, Reader, Department of Ancient Indian History & Culture, University of Calcutta; 1/3, Gopal
Chandra Bose Lane, Kolkata 700 050, India, <suchandra64@gmail.com>
Prof. Dr. Arlo GRIFFITHS, Chair of Sanskrit, Kern Institute, Leiden University; Directeur dtudes, Southeast Asian
History, Ecole franaise dExtrme-Orient (Jakarta); Jl. Ampera III no. 26, Kemang, Jakarta Selatan 12550, Indo-
nesia, <arlo.griffiths@let.leidenuniv.nl>
Mr. Vinay Kumar GUPTA, M.A., National Museum Institute, New Delhi. Mailing address: H. No. 50, Indrapuri,
Dhauli Piyau, Mathura U.P. 281 001, India, <vinay511@yahoo.co.in>
Dr. Devendra HANDA, # 1401, Pushpac Complex, Sector 49 B, Chandigarh 160 047, India,
<devendrahanda@rediffmail.com>
Dr. Julia A.B. HEGEWALD, Art History and Visual Studies, Mansfield Cooper Building, The University of Manchester,
Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, Great Britain, <Julia.Hegewald@manchester.ac.uk>
Dr. Shahnaj Husne JAHAN, Assistant Professor, University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh, House 56, Road 4/A
Dhanmondi R/A (Satmosjid Road), Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh, <adri_12002@yahoo.com>
Dr. Nicholas JAMES, Director, PNL James Management & Interpretation of Historical Resources, 59, Mawson Road,
Cambridge, England, <nj218@cam.ac.uk>
Mrs. Isabell JOHNE, M.A., Independent Researcher, Gondekerstr. 16, D-12437 Berlin, Germany,
<isabell.johne@t-online.de>
Prof. Dr. Maheshwar P. Joshi, Professor & Head, Department of History (Retd.), Kumaun University, Nainital.
Mailing address: r Mallik Kuja, Malla Joshi Khola, Almora, Uttarakhand, India,
<mp_joshi20@rediffmail.com>, <mp_joshi56@yahoo.com>
Dr. N.P. JOSHI, Hon. Acharya, Jna-Pravha, Centre for Cultural Studies & Research, South of Samne Ghat, Varanasi
- 221 005, India, <jpvns@satyam.net.in>
Mr. Bla KELNYI, Curator of the Tibetan-Nepalese Collection, Ferenc Hopp Museum of Eastern Asiatic Arts,
H-1115, Budapest, Thallczy L. u. 26, Hungary, <kelenyi.bela@gmail.com>
Mr. Amar Nath KHANNA, Senior Technical Officer (Retired), Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts. Mailing
address: G-26, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi -110 076, India, <khannaan@rediffmail.com>
Dr. Jinah KIM, Assistant Professor of South Asian Art, Dept. History of Art, B#351801, Vanderbilt University, Nash-
ville, TN 37235-1801, USA, <prajna03@gmail.com>
Dr. Kirit MANKODI, Project for Indian Cultural Studies, Franco-Indian Pharmaceutical Pvt. Ltd., 20, Dr. E. Moses
Road, Mumbai 400 011, India, <klmankodi@francoindian.com>, <klmankodi@rediffmail.com>
Dr. Stephen MARKEL, The Harry and Yvonne Lenart Curator and Department Head of South and Southeast Asian Art,
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 5905 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90036-4504, USA,
<smarkel@lacma.org>
Prof. Dr. Michael W. MEISTER, W. Norman Brown Professor of South Asian Studies, University of Pennsylvania,
Jaffe History of Art Building, 3405 Woodland Walk, Philadelphia PA 19104-6208, USA,
<mwmeister@yahoo.com>
List of Contributors xlvii

Dipl.-Ing. Gerd J.R. MEVISSEN, M.A., Independent Researcher, Erasmusstr. 17, D-10553 Berlin, Germany,
<gerdmevissen@hotmail.com>
Dr. U.S. MOORTI, Joint Director, Center for Art & Archaeology, American Institute of Indian Studies, Plot No. 22,
Sector-32, Institutional Area, Gurgaon - 122 001 (Haryana State), India, <caa.research@aiis.org.in>
Mrs. Rajasri MUKHOPADHYAY, M.A., Research Fellow, The Asiatic Society, Kolkata, and Guest Lecturer, Department
of Islamic History and Culture, University of Calcutta. Mailing address: 29, Parasar Road, Kolkata - 700 029,
India, < rajasri70@yahoo.com>
Dr. R. NAGASWAMY, Tamil Arts Academy, 11, 22nd Cross Street, Besantnagar, Chennai, 600090, India,
<nagaswamy@msn.com>
Dr. Helmut F. NEUMANN & Mrs. Heidi A. NEUMANN, Independent Researchers, Spitzackerstrasse 24, CH-4103 Bott-
mingen, Switzerland, <helmut.neumann@switzerland.org>, <hneumann@intergga.ch>
Dr. Pratapaditya PAL, General Editor, Marg Publications, Mumbai. Mailing address: 10582 Cheviot Drive, Los
Angeles, CA 90064, USA, <chitpal@earthlink.net>
Dr. Alka PATEL, Department of Art History, 85 Humanities Instructional Building, University of California, Irvine,
CA 92697-2785, USA, <alkap@uci.edu>
Prof. Dr. Anna Maria QUAGLIOTTI, Associate professor for Indian and Southeast Asian Art History and Archaeology,
Univerist di Napoli LOrientale. Mailing address: Via Panama, 124, 00198 Roma, Italy,
<quagliottiam@libero.it>
Ms. Sharmila SAHA, M.Sc., Cataloguer, State Archaeological Museum, Government of West Bengal, Kolkata. Mailing
address: Basak House (Top Floor), 3, Princep Street, Kolkata 700 072, India, <arch4life@rediffmail.com>
Mr. Rajat SANYAL, M.Sc., Guest Lecturer, Department of Archaeology, University of Calcutta, Alipur Campus, 1,
Refomatory Street (7th Floor), Kolkata 700 027, India, <sanyal10@rediffmail.com>
Dr. Ibrahim SHAH, Associate Professor & Chairman, Department of Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management,
Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, NWFP, Pakistan, <ibrahimshah01@gmail.com>
Dr. Sutapa SINHA, Reader, Department of Islamic History and Culture, University of Calcutta, Alipur Campus, Kolkata
700 027, India, <sutapasinha@hotmail.com>
Dr. Peter SKILLING, Matre de confrences, Ecole franaise dExtrme-Orient, EFEO - Sirindhorn Anthropology
Centre, 20, Boromarachachonani Road, Taling Chan, Banglok 10170, Thailand, <vararuci@mac.com>
Dr. Ingo STRAUCH, Research Associate, Institut fr die Sprachen und Kulturen Sdasiens, Freie Universitt Berlin,
Knigin-Luise-Str. 34 A, D-14195 Berlin, Germany, <ingo.strauch@fu-berlin.de>
Dr. Snigdha TRIPATHY, Plot No. 1480, Gauda Munda Chhak, Bhubaneswar, Orissa.
Dr. Anila VERGHESE, Principal, Sophia College for Women, Bhulabhai Desai Road, Mumbai 400 026, India,
<anilaverghese@yahoo.com>
Dr. Corinna WESSELS-MEVISSEN, Independent Researcher, Quitzowstr. 126, D-10559 Berlin, Germany,
<tcmevissen@surfeu.de>
Dr. Michael WILLIS, Department of Asia, The British Museum, London WC1B 3DG, Great Britain,
<Mwillis@thebritishmuseum.ac.uk>
Dr. Tianshu ZHU, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, FSH, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China,
<tszhu@umac.mo>
Prof. Dr. Monika ZIN, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt, Institut fr Indologie und Tibetologie, Department fr
Asienstudien, Ludwigstr. 31, D-80539 Mnchen, Germany, <m.zin@t-online.de>