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Judicial Department

Composition Review Courts:

1. Supreme Court
2. Court of Appeals
Trial Courts:
1. Regional Trial Court
2. Metropolitan Trial Court
3. Municipal Trial Court
4. Municipal Circuit Trial Court
Special Courts:
1. Court of Tax of Appeals
2. Sandiganbayan
3. Sharia District Court
4. Sharia Circuit Court
Power Scope of Judicial Power
1. to settle actual controversies
2. determining the grave abuse of discretion
Judicial Review:
1. Validation of Laws
2. Interpretation of Laws
3. Render binding judgments
Incidental Powers pursuant to Art 6 sec. 22 (e.g. administrative hearing within
their departments, when the security of the state and public interest so

Jurisdiction of Courts
1. General: to decide all disputes which may come before it.
2. Limited: to hear and determine only a few specified cases.
3. Original: when it can try & decide a case presented at the 1st time.
(exclusive or concurrent)
4. Apellate: when it can take a case already heard and decided by lower
courts (Appeal / escalated from lower court)
5. Exclusive: when it can try and decide a case which cannot be presented
before any other court.
6. Concurrent: when any one of two (2) or more courts may take
cognizance of a case.
7. Criminal: which exists for the punishment of crimea
8. Civil: subject matter is not of a criminal in nature
Functions to Interpret and to apply the laws

To interpret laws and serves as one of the checks and balances to executive and
legislative department. It expounds on the inherent structure of a democratic
government where a system of checks and balances exists.
Qualifications Justice
1. Natural Born citizen (Filipino)
2. At least 40 years of aged
3. Been a judge of a lower court or engaged in practice of law in the
Philippines for 15 years or more.
4. He must be a person of proven competence, integrity, probity, and

Regional Trial Court:
-Natural Born Citizen (Filipino)
-at least 35 years of age
-Engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines or held as a public office for at
least 10 years

Lower Courts:
nm-Natural Born Citizen (Filipino)
-at least 30 years of age
- Engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines or held as a public office for
at least 5 years