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SUMMER 2015 4.

00

KNOW YOUR AOA LOSS OF CONTROL SAY IT NICELY


And keep it flying The Seminar An Air Trafficker speaks
THE SAFETY SIX
Running head

ROL The most significant


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OF
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LO
serious accidents
in GA or where
AIRSPACE
the associated
INFRINGEMENTS

RUNWAY
EXCURSION
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NF OR
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risk is great*
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HUMAN
FACTORS
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FLIG RAIN
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Promoting Safety
Providing Insurance

Supporting
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Running head

In this issue
Summer 2015

05 Know your Angle Of Attack


Gerry Humphreys, former Harrier pilot, display pilot and qualified engineer
explains the all importance of angle of attack if you are to avoid Loss Of Control
accidents.

10 The GASCo Loss Of Control Seminar


Held at Coventry University last November, this saw what was probably the
P05 greatest ever assembly of UK experts in Loss Of Control in one room. They had
much to say.

17 Who are you Talking to?


Tim Mackay of the Guild of Air Traffic Controllers advises on RT for VFR flights.

18 Safe to Touch
Stephen Furner has some original and stimulating thoughts on the importance
of touch amongst the various sensory inputs experienced by a pilot.
P10
22 True North
Dusty Miller argues that it is high time that we said goodbye to Magnetic North.

24 GASCo News
and uv0h dfl vodnvj8

25 The Write Stuff


More about weather codes. A Good Thing or not?
P18
26 Airspace Infringement News
How are we doing now?

28 Accident Reports
N Sadly, the February AAIB reports brought us a mid air between a Kitfox with a 46
year old pilot and a Cessna C177RG with a 56 year old pilot. Both aircraft were
NW

NE

en route. A Personal Collision Avoidance System (PCAS) might have saved them.
The March bulletin has yet another low level Loss Of Control fatality. A Yak
P22 with a 50 year old ATPL pilot and a passenger carried out a level turn, climbed
W

sharply and entered a stall or spin. The April bulletin has a distressing report of
GASCo is working to reduce accidents a Cessna 150L that appeared to lose power on the climb out and subsequently
within British General Aviation
stalled at low level. The pilot died. The GASCo Stall/Spin Report of 2010 drew
SE

SE

The views expressed in this magazine are attention to the strikingly high fatal stall/spin accident rate of the Cessna 150 K.
S
not necessarily those of the General Aviation
L and M models. The problem appears to be the light stick force in pitch. There
Safety Council. While reasonable efforts are
taken to check the accuracy of statements in was also a PA-38 Tomahawk fatality in strange circumstances.
the magazine, no reliance should be placed
upon them unless independently checked
Editor: Nigel Everett Pictorial Editor: Michael Benson
and confirmed by an appropriate authority.
nigeleverett@btconnect.com mgsbenson@me.com

www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 3


GASCo INFORMATION
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Front cover: Boeing A75N1 Stearman G-RJAH prepares copyright. All images are copyright
for take-off. (Michael Benson) unless otherwise stated.

4 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


Know your AoA

Know your AoA


GA flying seems to be in the throes of rediscovering the
importance of Angle of Attack as an aid to avoiding yet
another Loss Of Control fatality. Get aboard the AOA
revolution.
I believe that the aviation industry is the Lines but shortly after he had taken off,
starting to have a Eureka moment about he did a right hand turn, stalled & spun. I
solving the problem of Stalls, Spins and watched him from above & he didnt pull
Loss of Control. Authorities in the USA and out of his spin but spun straight into the
Europe have recently agreed that Angle of ground from 500 ft. He was killed
Attack devices can be retro-fitted to any instantly, poor fellow, rotten luck, wasnt
certified aircraft with minimal bureaucracy it? Quite his own fault poor chap pulled
in the USA simply a logbook entry is all the stick back to try & get the nose up & of
that is required. Why is this such a big deal course the bus spun faster than ever.
many will ask? Therein lies the problem.
It will come as no surprise to most GA
Unless pilots appreciate the importance of
pilots that Stall/Spin and loss of control
AoA and are convinced to think more AoA
close to the ground continues to be the
and less speed, then simply fitting another
single biggest cause of fatalities worldwide.
device to aircraft will not have the desired
Experience helps, but even experienced
effect. Heres what Sully thinks:
pilots are still dying in what appear to be
For more than half a century, weve had the avoidable tragedies. Its not just a GA-thing;
capability to display AoA in the cockpits of the highly regulated environment that is
most jet transports, one of the most critical modern commercial aviation has had tragic
parameters, yet we choose not to do it. Stall/Spin LoC accidents in the recent past.
Most pilots will have heard about a
Amazingly neither Boeing nor Airbus
landmark accident in the USA at Colgan on
aircraft display AoA to their pilots, although
12 Feb 2009. The NTSB determined that the
it is measured and fed to onboard
accident was caused by the pilots inability
computers. (Both companies are currently
to respond properly to the stall warnings
giving serious consideration to changing
The captain overrode the pusher and
this policy.) Sully knows what he is talking
continued pulling on the control yoke
about, having learned to fly on a tail-
causing loss of control
dragger at 16, he flew gliders and on the
A few months later in June 2009 the
way to fame on the Hudson spent a lot of
aviation world was rocked by the
time on the McDonnell Douglas F-4.
disappearance of Air France 447. Later the
Anyone who has flown an aircraft with
incredible news that The aircraft
AoA indication will realise why it is such a
wonderful concept, not just for military
remained stalled during its entire 3
minute 30 second descent from 38,000
neither Boeing
fast jets and large transport aircraft but for
every fixed-wing aircraft, and heres why
feet led people to question the
fundamentals of stall awareness.
nor Airbus aircraft
Stall/Spin/Loss of Control Understanding the stall From our very
display AoA to
Every Pilot is taught to avoid stalling. Much
first flying lesson we are taught to fly
airspeeds rotate speed, climb speed, stall
their pilots
time and effort is put into preventing
speed, approach speed and so on. However,
inadvertent loss of control. Yet not a lot has
to quote from one of my favourite letters
changed in the 100-odd years since the 18-
to the editor of all time (by Brian Lecomber
year old 2nd Lieutenant Guy Knocker, a
in the Spring 2004 edition of GASCO Flight
Sopwith Camel fighter pilot with 65
Safety) "The ASI is a vague and sometimes
Squadron on the Western front, wrote this
actually misleading device. In the absence of
in a letter home:
anything better, we have, however, become
A fellow called Hancock who was at college obsessed by speed as a measure of how
with me arrived here two days ago. I went close we are to the stall. Brian goes on to
up this afternoon with him to show him say There is no such thing as stalling

www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 5


Know your AoA

speed..... The stall is only and solely related to


angleof attack (Alpha). This is the key to
understanding the stall..

A little theory I like Wolfgang Lange


wiesches approach to Aerodynamic theory
in his book Stick and Rudder first published
in 1944. Forget Bernoulli he says, although
undoubtedly true, it is a poor concept for pilots
in understanding how wings work. I agree, I
like to think of wings displacing air, rather
like a plough. Sea-level air weighs well over
1 Kg per cubic Metre. So the more air the
wing displaces the more lift is generated
due to Newtons law of equal and opposite
reaction. The shape of the wing helps the
air make the turn. For any given speed,
the greater the angle of attack, the greater
the amount of air displaced until, instead
of displacing air, at a critical angle, the
wing simply causes commotion. Stick
your hand out the window of a moving car
and feel how a wing works.
The artwork on the left illustrates the
concept of Alpha, or Angle of Attack. The
CL Vs Alpha graph in plain English simply
tells us, More angle of attack = displace more
air (more lift). Too much angle of attack =
stall
The half rho V squared lift equation in
Wings displace air
plain English says that Lift is a product of
Angle of Attack and Dynamic Pressure
(assuming the wing is below stalled AoA).
= Angle of Attack Dynamic Pressure, from a Pilots point of
view, is equivalent to indicated airspeed, so
from our perspective, in even plainer
Chord English:
Relative Wind
LIFT is a product of IAS and Angle
of Attack Thats it, nothing else!!

Pilots control lift by varying either


speed or Alpha. When Alpha gets too much
2
the wing stalls and lift fails. Everything we
do when we control an aircraft can be
1.75
thought of in terms of changing angles of
1.5 attack. Ailerons change the local angle of
attack of a wing, a little more lift on one
Coefficient of lift (C)

1.25 side, a little less on the other, we roll.


Elevators cause the wings angle of attack to
1 change; if we are flying Level, Lift = weight.
Increase the AoA and lift increases, we go
0.75 up, reduce it and we go down, simple.
When we land a Tricycle Undercarriage
0.5 aircraft at the correct angle of attack (ie low
speed), at touchdown the C of G tends to
0.25
pull the nose down, reducing AoA,
dumping lift & causing the aircraft to stay
0
10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 on the ground. Land a tail-wheel aircraft at
Angle of attack (AoA) a low AoA (ie fast) and the C of G will tend

6 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


Know your AoA

to pull the tail down, increasing AoA & lift,


leading to a bounce unless the AoA is
controlled after touchdown by the pilot
pushing forward on the stick.
So whats the big deal with knowing
what our AoA is? A practical advantage for
GA aircraft is to be able to fly the
appropriate AoA for short landings with a
safe margin above the stall, irrespective of
weight or density altitude.

A letter to the Editor in the 2014 Winter A range of AoA devices are available commercially.
edition of the GASCo Flight Safety magazine
from Robert Jago described an ingenious measure a wings AoA. Displays can be part
device that displayed AoA using a piece of of an EFIS or stand-alone units. Some
bent wire and a tuft of wool. showing reserve lift available, others use a
Robert puts the case for AoA very linear scale colour coded to represent high
succinctly In the conventional control of the and low AoA. Some have an audio function
approach the IAS is always the surrogate for as well. Whatever system becomes popular
the angle of attack and the relationship may the basic principle remains the same. The
vary (for example when banking or pulling G wing always stalls at the same angle of attack.
Knowing where you are relative to that
Stick your hand
or with varying AUW). The actual angle of
attack is the crucial measurement. The effect of critical AoA is vital whether you are
manoeuvering, approaching to land,
out the window of
this device is transformative. I cannot
overemphasise the reassurance that comes from coping with an engine failure, towing a
banner, dropping parachutists, or in a
a moving car and
looking directly at the instantaneous
representation of the actual parameter which cloud wondering which way is up. feel how a wing
determines the stall. Robert goes on to say
that in his opinion if all aircraft had AoA What can I do if I dont have an AoA
device? Most people will be in this
works.
devices, and pilots understood the
significance of, and were trained to fly using situation for many years to come. However,
an AoA indication, then the incidence of there is a lot we can do to get aboard the
Loss of Control would be sharply reduced. AoA revolution. For a start, most aircraft
Many great new designs of AoA gadgets already have a basic AoA device fitted the
are coming on the market, some use vanes stall warner. The very name suggests
and some have pressure tappings to danger we tend to avoid them going off

www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 7


Know your AoA

and students are (rightly) taught to recover almost directly ahead of the wing, very little
immediately if the stall warner activates on air is being displaced, AoA is very low, lift is
approach. However, for more experienced low, G force is less than 1... The speed right
pilots, it could be regarded as an AoA/ now is very low, in fact it could easily be less
airspeed calibration device and, if set than the book stalling speed.. but the stall
correctly, a stall warner going off as a light warner does not go off. As the nose drops,
aircraft touches down might be considered pull out of the dive by increasing AoA then
a good thing. I particularly like the Cessna level off.
172/182 pressure measuring-type device Both of these exercises are simple from
that starts with a gentle squeak and with a flying point of view, but the point is to
increasing AoA develops into a blaring think of AoA and not speed.
squeal.
Apart from thinking of the Stall warner Limitations and food for thought It is
as an AoA measuring device, here are a important to understand that any AoA or
couple of mind exercises to help improve stall-warning device will have its limitations.
Glider pilots have for years used tufts of wool
awareness of angle of attack: Stalling AoA may change if flaps or slats are
to show out-of-balance flight. However, here a
Imagine you are Flying Straight and used. Ice will change the shape of a wing
Pilot has improvised a wonderfully simple and
level at a low angle of Attack (ie at high and probably reduce the critical AoA. Wings
reliable AoA device I would imagine quite
speed). Look out along the wing and do not necessarily have constant span-wise
a useful Head up Display in a Thermal no
imagine where the airflow is coming from. AoA. Several factors, including slipstream,
doubt the budget would even stretch to having
The angle between that and the wing chord asymmetric wing loading (fuel imbalance,
one on both sides!
line is your angle of attack. Now, staying use of ailerons, ball not in the middle, a
level, increase the AoA (ie slow down twin engine-out etc) will mean that one
while maintaining S & L). As the speed part of a wing may in fact be quite close to
decreases the AoA must increase to keep the critical AoA while another is still happily
lift the same (= weight). Increase the AoA producing lift. Just a small overall demand
all the way to the point when the stall for more lift can cause the high-AoA part of
warning goes off. Fly there for a while, the wing to stall, in which case a flick or
think again about where the airflow is spin can result. Some aircraft have no
coming from; the angle between that and washout which makes them prone to tip
your chord is now close to critical AoA. stall if even a small amount of aileron is
Next, try loading the wing. Before we present in a high AoA situation videos of
start, however, first a health warning it both the 2012 Red bull air-race accidents
should be obvious that none of the following illustrate this very well.
is applicable to flex- or rotary-wing aircraft.
Push overs should not be practised in In Summary, Stalls/Spin accidents have
aircraft that cannot operate safely at low or been around since aircraft first flew.
negative G. From straight and level in a Low Traditional emphasis has been on speed,
AoA cruise (you got it high but Angle of Attack ALONE determines
speed) look out along the wing, pull when a stall occurs. AoA awareness is vital
back gently on the controls and for pilots of all aircraft. AoA measuring
think about what is happening. As devices are becoming readily available.
you increase the angle of attack you Pilots should be educated in Angle of
displace more air, lift increases, the Attack concepts if the full potential of this
aircraft accelerates towards the new technology is to be realised and the
centre of a huge vertical circle current trend towards more and more Loss
which you feel as a G force of Control fatal accidents is to be reversed.
pushing on the seat of your pants Gerry Humphreys
and you go up. The stall warner
might sound during the pull up,
Gerry Humphreys
especially if you pull too hard, not
Gerry has been flying for 40 years and
because you are slow, but because
logged 10,000 flying hours in over 100
you have a high Angle of attack.
types, mostly single-engine aircraft. A
Now, before you run out of energy,
retired RAF Harrier pilot, he instructs at
gently relax the pull. As you do so,
the Atlantic Flight Training Academy in
the angle of attack decreases, less
Cork specialising in aerobatics, spin and
lift is produced, G force reduces
upset recovery training. He is chairman
and the aircraft stops rising. Now
of the General Aviation Safety Council of
push forward gently as you go over
Ireland.
the top of a giant imaginary roller-
An F22 at High AoA shifting lots of air!
coaster. The air is now coming from

8 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


Running head

www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 9


Loss of Control The Seminar

Loss of Control
The Seminar
This is a very condensed The seminar at Coventry University was a GASCos Chairman, Air Cdre Rick Peacock
very successful attempt to get together a Edwards, former Lightning pilot, RAF
report on the GASCo wide range of experts in the one chamber Inspector of Flight Safety and Director of
to put forward their considered thoughts Eurofighter.
seminar at Coventry on this intractable subject. I doubt whether A more comprehensive account of the
University last November. there has ever been assembled in one room papers delivered can be found at www.
in the UK before, audience as well as gasco.org.uk and anyone interested in the
The very full day was speakers, such a knowledgeable and wide subject would do well to study that rather
GASCos latest move in ranging body of expertise in LOC as it than this necessarily condensed version.
affects GA. Among the audience was The speakers were, in order of speaking:
its battle to reduce the
remarkably high rate of PEDRO PINHEIRO
fatal and serious injury Safety Performance Analyst at the CAA. (Because of his unavoidable
absence his paper was delivered by Nils Jamieson, GASCos Regional Safety
accidents to UK pilots and Officer North).
passengers as a result of Pedro Pinheiro offers us the benefit of what The conclusions that Pedro draws from
Loss Of Control. little research into these areas has so far been this chart are that neither age nor
carried out by the CAA. He is clear that experience are, in isolation, likely to
LOC-I VMC fatalities easily dominate the indicate whether a particular pilot is less or
sum total of GA fatalities, from which we more likely to suffer a LoC I VMC accident.
might conclude that an improvement in The data evidenced the natural ageing
this area would have the greatest effect on process and the increasing individual
the total of GA fatalities. He demonstrates experience patterns. In this context, the
convincingly that neither age nor experience accumulation of experience does not reflect
influence the likelihood of a LOC-I VMC necessarily enhanced safety performance.
fatality: its never something that you grow Simultaneously, the data illustrates that
away from. Currency, however, does appear the currency levels have been progressively
Nomenclature to be a relevant factor so keeping current declining over the years, indicating that
will reduce the risk of this sort of disaster pilots are flying less regularly, and this
Back in the day these accidents were
befalling you and your passengers. element is the most prominent safety factor
commonly called Stall/spin accidents but
Note: Currency in the chart below is identified.
this title fell out of favour because there
hours flown in the past 90 days.
were often cases where a spin could not be
said to have developed before the aircraft
hit the ground. Loss of Control (LOC) has
now been adopted as a more accurate
general description but it has become
necessary to distinguish between loss of
control on the ground and loss of control
in flight and the latter is sometimes known
as LOC I.
Finally there has arisen the need to
differentiate between LOC I accidents in
VFR and IFR so that we now have the title
LOC I VFR for the type of accident that
kills or seriously injures so many UK GA
pilots and their passengers. This is the type
that particularly interests GASCo at present
and in this article it is referred to simply as
LOC.

10 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


Loss of Control The Seminar

DR MIKE BROMFIELD
Senior Lecturer in Aerospace at
the Faculty of Engineering and
Computing at Coventry University.
Mike Bromfield reminds us of those
essential truths in flight safety: the Heinrich
Pyramid and the Swiss Cheese theory. He
argues for an agreed taxonomy for GA so
that we can evolve a common, systematic
and holistic methodology to analyse
Human Factors competently and so acquire
an evidence based insight into accidents.

DR DAVID JOYCE
Europa self builder and extensive tourer with a particular interest in
stall/spin accidents.
David Joyce brings us a practical pilots point of view. He argues for re-equipping
with one of the new angle of attack style of voice based warning systems and in
doing so he is in tune with recommendations coming out of the US General Aviation
Joint Steering Committees Loss of Control Report of October 2014.
He also advocates turning back in the right circumstances on an EFATO
although we doubt that many private pilots will keep themselves trained sufficiently
to follow safely his recommendations here.

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www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 11


S&G advert.indd 1 12/01/2014 17:14
Loss of Control The Seminar

DR BILL BROOKS Bleriot cockpit with joystick and


Chief Designer at P & M Aviation. rudder bar. Joystick operating
wing warping for roll and elevator
Bill Brooks offers some fascinating varieties for pitch, push right = fly right
of light aircraft design, some quite extreme. rudder, the convention accepted
Aircraft design is always a compromise today.
and if there is no overriding requirement
for performance at any cost, it is possible to
design aircraft which are less demanding
on the pilot. No system is ideal in all
respects.

DR GUY GRATTON
Head of the UKs facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements.
Guy Gratton reports upon some captivating research involving many aircraft types into which is the best procedure for stall recovery
amongst three standard methods commonly recommended.

He has four questions for the authorities:

It would be helpful if the authorities could


agree amongst themselves on the following
issues:
1 What is the best recovery? Is it the
recovery that is easiest to fly or is it
the one with a consistent recovery and
minimum height loss?
2 Is is desirable that Europe and the USA
should have different standard stall
recoveries for SEPs?
3 Are SEP recoveries being influenced by
practices?
4 Do we have aeroplanes being flown to
one recovery method that were
originally tested against another?

CAPT SARAH KELLMAN


Womens World Gliding Champion in 2001 and again
in 2007 and Captain of an Airbus with easyJet.
Captain Kellman reminds us that gliding experience can benefit
any power pilot and take them towards a much better understanding
of slow speed flight than power flying instruction is ever likely to
have revealed.

The gliding approach to upsets


When glider pilots find lift they often reduce speed to stay in it for
longer and in a thermal when seeking maximum climb they will
aim to remain within the sometimes narrow core of the lift.
Consequently they will habitually fly with only a small margin
above the point of stall turning at a 45 deg angle of bank or more.
Sometimes they will be sharing a thermal with several other gliders.
all seeking best climb while looking out for the others. These are Gliding embraces a high alpha culture with much attention to
handling and traffic conditions that power pilots are trained to handling when approaching the stall and after the stall.
avoid and consequently glider pilot training has a very different Energy management is always vital as there are usually no other
emphasis. sources of energy than the gliders own inertia and its height
above the ground.
From the trainees very first launch an introduction is made to An appreciation of meteorology is essential. A glider pilot
unusual attitudes. without an understanding of what is going on in the surrounding
atmosphere will get nowhere.

12 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


Loss of Control The Seminar

ALAN CASSIDY
Four times British Aerobatic Championship winner and a member of the
British Aerobatic team on seven occasions.
Alan Cassidy argues that a pilot properly and the accident record of the British
trained to advanced aerobatics standards is Aerobatic Association seems to bear this
unlikely to get caught out in a LOC accident out.

This diagram shows load factor against speed and includes the Stalled Every light aircraft flying in the UK already has an Angle of Attack
Region, the Minimum Level Speed, the envelopes at aerobatic and indicator fitted and here it is!
normal weights, V max manoeuvring, Vne and Vd.

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www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 13


Loss of Control The Seminar

Where Should We Go Next?


accident considerably and subsequent
The range of points of view put forward at research published in this magazine has
this absorbing seminar was highly looked particularly at LOC accidents
authoritative and extraordinarily diverse. following engine or other failure. In the
At the end of the day, however, I doubt longer term more stall resistant airframes,
that any speaker would disagree with the more effective stall warning equipment and
view that when an emergency occurs it is more flying training, particularly involving
literally vital to keep at the forefront of aerobatics and gliding should make a
your mind the all important essential: fly difference
the plane. The force of the impact of a plane But in the meanwhile we have to
with the ground from a stall from as low as consider the aircraft fleet and the pilot
100 ft is enormously greater than an arrival community as it now is. For that, in my
into almost any sort of terrain and still personal view, we need a sustained and
under control. The difference is usually one effective campaign to get every pilot to
between life and death for the occupants. remember that when a crisis such as a
This is a very simple concept but we are still power loss suddenly occurs, the
some way from convincing every pilot of overwhelming necessity is keep flying the
its crucial importance at the moment when plane. Adjusting the engine controls, trying
they experience a high risk situation. to avoid the built up area, striving to get
GASCo has always held Loss Of Control the aircraft to where the pilot would wish it
accidents well within its sights because this to be or making a MAYDAY call are all of
accident type kills far more GA pilots and secondary importance to just keeping the
their passengers than any other. The aircraft flying no matter what.
GASCo Stall and Spin Report of 2010 Nigel Everett
enlarged our understanding of this type of

The Loss of Control (LOC) Seminar at Coventry University in


Come November 2014 was the latest move by GASCo in its protracted
see
us at endeavour to reduce the frequency of this accident type that ever
AeroE
xpo since the invention of the fixed wing aircraft has imposed such a toll
2014
on the lives of UK GA pilots and their passengers. The seminar was a
major step forward in our campaign and followed on our publication
Your SkyDemon in 2010 of A Study of Fatal Stall or Spin Accidents to UK Registered Light
subscription is now Aeroplanes 1980 to 2008. Ably led by Mike Jackson, who has a
accessible on iPad, background in statistics, the team considered an analysis of 28 years
Android, PC and Web. of LOC fatalities and arrived at some surprising conclusions:
Unique ultra-clear There are some aeroplane types or specific models within
vector charts types that are particularly prone to this accident type.
Peerless brieeng and LOC fatal accidents as a percentage of total fatal accidents
safety features
did not change over the period.
Unmatched integration Within that percentage, however, LOC fatalities that followed
between planning and
ying engine or airframe problems had increased noticeably. It
seemed that we were getting less able to cope with the
Packed with powerful
features but simple to use sudden emergency such as Engine Failure After Take Off.
While the turn on to Final had been generally regarded as
SkyDemon makes VFR the moment at which a LOC accident was most likely, it
easy and more fun. Start turned out that the climb out from take off or go around was
your free trial today. a more likely phase of flight for a fatal LOC.
In 22% of the accidents an instructor had been on board.
On the other hand there was only one solo student LOC
www.skydemon.aero fatality during the period.
I was privileged to serve as a member of the team that compiled that
report and will happily send an e mail copy to anyone who asks me.

14 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


Who Are You Talking To?

Who Are You


Talking To?
An experienced Air Trafficker and private pilot reminds
us about VFR RT procedures.
This article is written mainly for those who it is his first solo or his n-thousandth flight published non-radio procedures because
use VHF RT but if you fly non-radio, keep in a lifetime flying career. Non-radio pilot ? the AFISO is unable to ask what you are
reading, there is something for you too. Yes this could apply to you too. If the safe doing and can only advise other aircraft of
There are 3 categories of VHF radio conduct of a flight, particularly in the situation as he sees it. If all pilots follow
stations that GA pilots commonly use, emergency, requires it you may have to published arrival and departure procedures
identifiable by the suffix in the callsign. disregard instructions/advice shown in that carefully it will give the best chance that
signal square. these events will be able to continue safely
1 Manned by air traffic controllers: Our next category is the most recently for the enjoyment of all.
Tower, Approach, Radar, Control, created and perhaps less well understood:- Now to the humble radio operator. At
Delivery, Ground, etc. the Flight Service Information Officer who most airfields he/she will be someone with
2 Manned by flight information officers: despite his /her stringent training, good local knowledge and in many cases
Information. Either FISO at a Control competency and medical standards not much flying experience as well. Valuable
Centre or AFISO at an aerodrome much short of an air traffic controller, may information and advice can be expected
3 Manned by competent persons: Radio. not give instructions to a pilot in the air but if a pilot is uncertain of what is meant
Those providing the service must hold (however the instructions of a controller then the correct course of action, as always,
an R/T licence and are bound by may be relayed). At an aerodrome the is to ask, using plain language if required. If
wireless communications regulations. AFISO does have authority to pass you are struggling to remember the words/
instructions to aircraft on the ground to phrases laid down in CAP 413, just
Air traffic controllers must pass a demanding create a safe , orderly and expeditious traffic remember that excellent document is for
training regime and once qualified are flow and by providing high quality guidance. Your responsibility as regards
subject to checks that assure their information to airborne aircraft help them RTF is to obtain information or pass details
continuing competence to provide the form a similar flow. The scenario in which of your intentions that will maximise the
service. They are in charge and their the AFISO plays a particularly important safe conduct of your flight and if that
instructions must be obeyed, yes ? No, not role is when the aerodrome is host to a means lapsing into plain language so be it.
quite. The concept of air traffic control is large scale fly-in event. There will be a Many aerodromes are PPO and often this is
that it is permissive which means that briefing sheet (on a website or Aeronautical so that visiting pilots can be briefed on
pilots should arrange and manage flights as Information Circular) on procedures to be local procedures, especially if a special
they see fit. However this would inevitably followed and this should be respected as if event is taking place.
create conflicts ranging from six airliners it were a clearance issued by an air traffic Tim MacKay
all wishing to land at Heathrow at exactly controller. The role of the AFISO is to keep
the same time to six GA flights at a 3-strip a picture of the continually changing air
airfield wanting to fly six different circuits situation and to advise pilots of other
at the same time. Step in the air traffic aircraft in the traffic pattern, particularly of
controller whose job is to create a safe, any deviations from the published
orderly and expeditious flow of traffic. procedures. These procedures normally
However the orderly flow created may not include details of the calls to be made by Planeweighs
suit everybody and this is where the pilot pilots and which ones they can expect to be Limited
in command has the ultimate responsibility acknowledged by the AFISO. It is very Aircraft weighing & technical services
for safe conduct of the flight. If the runway important that pilots understand them
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in use is out of crosswind limits then it is before arriving and have the details Load/Trim sheet design
PIC who must ask to use a suitable (perhaps on an abbreviated crib sheet) in CAA approval A1/8538/79
alternative when available. It is the pilot front of them. Best of all is that they are Engineers throughout the UK
who must tell the controller that a radar memorised so that the maximum lookout Telephone 44+ (0)1792 310566 Fax: 310584
heading is unacceptable if it would take can be maintained from initial arrival until Mobile: 07798 662 939
email: info@planeweighs.com
him into a Cb. This ultimate responsibility engine shutdown. Non-radio pilot ? It is
web: www.planeweighs.com
for safety is on the pilots shoulder whether imperative that you know and follow the

www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 17


Safe To Touch

Safe To Touch
Stephen Furner has flown Touch is a great friend. The change in feel panel; but, of course the control layout is so
of a textured surface or shape of a handle radically different between weight shift and
a variety of GA aircraft and can be really helpful in distinguishing 3 axis that there are lots of tactile cues to
between individual controls. Touch can prevent confusion between them.
has found that touch can enable you to detect very small differences After my instructor again yelled I have
be a useful guide at times, in surfaces1 during walk round checks control shortly followed by major control
feeling along cables or smooth surfaces can reversal, this to prevent me turning us in
but not at other times. reveal subtle kinks and distortions the eye the wrong direction and departing the
Beware! has missed or reveal loose fixings, rough runway or descending into the runway
spots or jerking felt in mechanical control when we should have been climbing away,
movements can indicate hidden problems. it became clear that just because something
Touch provides a pilot with many cues feels right doesnt mean that it always is.
about an aircrafts condition to support his Confusion can arise where even very large
or her skilled operation of it. tactile cues such as holding a horizontal
control bar and not a control yoke or
Microlights for fun column, an open cockpit with the wind in
your face, vibration from an engine in the
I recently decided to broaden my experience rear etc can break down and errors
of flying into the world of flexwing result.
microlights. Converting from three axis Clearly, difference training to build
Cessnas to weight shift is not quite as skills in handling the weight shift is needed
straight forward as it might first appear. so that the cues from the very different
The controls on the weight shift all work in look and feel between weight shift and 3
reverse to the Cessna even the steering axis can bring the relevant skills into play
and the primary throttle is a foot pedal not when needed. Pilots can and regularly do
a knob or quadrant in the instrument move safely between these two systems for
controlling an aircraft.
For me at least, this does raise the
question of whether there are perhaps more
subtle situations where a private pilot could
be confused by touch? Its such a common
part of daily life easily taken for granted,
always on, always there in the background
only rarely the focus of attention. Can this
be both a strength and a weakness that a
pilot needs to be alert for as a human factor;
one that should not be taken for granted?
If it is, then is there any obvious evidence
to support this idea?

Show me the evidence


I was reminded by this question of a CAA
safety evening I once attended several years
ago. One of the video clips shown was of a
group of parachutists inside their jump ship
departing the aircraft through a large side
door. A very common occurrence happening
regularly over many airfields during good
summer weather. What was different about
this one was the parachutists who could be
seen going out of the door without his
parachute.
The video then cut to a camera the
Rigging a microlight is good opportunity to become familiar with its physical condition and check
parachutist had been wearing strapped to
that major components not only look good but feel correct.

18 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


Safe To Touch

his shoulder by a complex body harness.


The picture before the screen went blank
was the hands of the parachutist searching
around his chest for the D-ring to pull and
throw out his chute from its pack. In the
discussion afterwards about the safety
lessons to be learnt from the video, it was
generally believed that the feel of the camera
harness through clothing had been confused
with the feel of a parachute harness.
Many videos of flying can be seen on
YouTube. While searching out videos about
flying weight shift microlights I came
across a couple of hang glider incidents
that seemed to offer evidence about the
need not to take touch for granted. The first
was by a glider pilot who launched off the
Regular washing and cleaning is a good opportunity to become familiar with its physical condition
side of a mountain without the leg loops or
and check that major components not only look good but feel correct.
chest strap of his harness attached.2 He
fared better than the parachutist. The was a tight fit. The pilot believed the
harness was worn underneath a one piece sensation of the tight jacket had masked
jacket and attached bag that usually the sensation of the leg loops and chest
shielded his body legs and feet in flight. By harness not being attached correctly. Im
standing in the bag intended to shield his inclined to believe this. At a human
legs and feet the pilot was able to stay sciences conference I was once lucky
attached to the glider and control it enough to attend I met some young female
sufficiently to find a suitable landing area researchers who believed a constant
and steer his aircraft safely to the ground. pressure could overwhelm other touch
The glider pilot believed he had been sensations and that this was used by pick
mislead by the feel of the jacket. This jacket pockets to mask their theft. It was rumoured

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www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 19


Safe To Touch

these researchers had a competition going to see who could use


this to lift the largest number of business cards out of their
unsuspecting colleagues wallets during the conference dinner.
The second video was a tow launch of a hang glider.3 The
pilot lined up behind the tow. He was wearing the one piece
Eleven Years of Service to the jacket and bag to shield his body and legs in flight. The pilot ran

Recreational Aviation Community forward with the glider which started to climb upwards with the
pilot clinging onto its A-frame. The aircraft climbed a few feet
nosed down and whipped vertical to dive straight into the ground
with the pilot still griping onto the A-frame for support. The pilot
(Formerly Funkwerk-Avionics) had failed to connect his harness to his aircraft. Possibly, again
the pilot had been misled by the feel of the harness and jacket.
Mistakenly he believed it all felt right so it was.

What can we take away


Can we take anything away from this discussion to improve the
safety of our airmanship? Two learning points spring out for me:

Visually inspect safety harnesses are being correctly warn and


are connected. Dont assume that because you can feel its
pressure on your clothing everything must be OK
(interestingly the pilot who failed to connect his leg loops
now has a check list that he keeps in the nose of his glider to
remind him to check his harness).
Dont be afraid to touch your aircraft. The sensation of touch
Contact us for deals on 8.33 Radio provides you with a very sensitive tool you can use on walk

and Mode S Transponder packages rounds and checks.


Use touch and vision to support each other and get the best
of both dont take either for granted but cross check
between them where possible.

People live in a multisensory world. Touch, taste and smell are


all available as information sources about our aircraft when we
operate them. In our everyday lives many tasks that would
have included touch taste and smell are now made visually do
you purchase food or clothing online? since this works well
for the on-line world of consumer broadband. With the
increasing computerisation of private aircraft operation we
should not forget the strengths and benefits of human sensory
MODE S TRANSPONDERS modalities not yet easily available from current human
computer interaction.
Perhaps the most interesting account of the use smell as an
information source I once came across was an anecdote from a
blind microlight pilot. He told me he used speech output from
his instruments for a lot of basic information he needed, but,
when flying near his home airfield, he could identify his
position by the smell of the crops he was passing over. He knew
KANARDIA NESIS III where he was since he knew the physical location of some local
lavender fields.

Notes and references


1 Lisa Skedung, Martin Arvidsson, Jun Young Chung, Christopher
M. Stafford, Birgitta Berglund & Mark W. Rutland, Feeling Small:
Exploring the Tactile Perception Limits, Scientific Reports 3,
Article number: 2617, published 12 September 2013, retrieved
07/02/2015 http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130912/srep02617/
full/srep02617.html
For advice and service call John Delaeld on 07850 950349
2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B3UbztgTtsc I Launched
or Mike Pettican on 07788 986362
Without Buckling into my Harness a hang gliding film by Greg
johnd@lxavionics.co.uk or mike.pettican@lxavionics.co.uk Porter retrieved 06/02/2015

www.lxavionics.co.uk 3 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u51qpPLz5U0 Un-Hooked


Aerotow Hang Glider retrieved 06/02/2015

20 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


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PILOT SHOPS MANCHESTER OXFORD LONDON PILOT SHOPS MANCHESTER OXFORD LONDON
True North

True North
Checking the DI against Our daily work has lots of colourers. WHITE Magnetic Heading the M V T part of the
/ GREEN / BLUE at the right time great formula from above. This is taken from the
the magnetic compass, Tea on the way. Not so good when AMBER U S Agency that publishes a worldwide half
and lets hope not RED showing as we had decade program that it inserted into the
then applying Variation then better take notice and earn our pay. sealed INS boxes according to the time they
and Compass Correction Aviation is stuck on using an are manufactured. The overhaul life of the
increasingly unsure Magnetic North as a INS is 10 years, then back to the
would cease to be reference, so a little reminder of C D M V manufactures for update and overhaul and
necessary if we all worked T west is least . Is that all coming back to off we go for another 10 years. This does
you? 8W+/ degrees 40 years ago around not appear to be happening as most
to True North using UK now near 0 deg in 2015. Most public equipment is now on condition and

equipment other than the transport has Inertial Navigation Systems


that use as a reference a point so way off
since INS`s rarely fail, your aircraft even
new ones may well have older INS boxes
compass. The magnetic that is both suitable for space craft and our on board.
aircraft INS`s to have a stable point to align The only way to tell how far out they
system is becoming to. In our case we then depend on an may be is to repeat the survey undertaken
increasingly difficult to embedded variation program to convert to by myself of quickly noting the Heading
Magnetic indication. Box reading at 80 Knots aircraft steady on
defend. How does this work? The True North the runway. I then compare the six month
INS output has to be converted via a survey heading done at the same time as
variation program to give corrected the ILS recalibration and printed as the
small number below the runway designator
on the Airfield layout plate. The ILS Track
should also agree. I found out my fleet
(757/767) was often 4-5 degrees out
especially around the Prime Meridian. The
survey was worldwide however.

So why do I think we need to change the

N switch on the instrument panel to True


from Magnetic?
A few ideas; you may have others:
1 With the increased rush to use GPS for
NW

NE

all flight stages, what happens when it


fails? Jamming for example. Also take
the approach into a very mountainous
airfield requiring much manoeuvring
to line up to the runway. At any stage
W

a heading might have to be flown to


E

escape. Are we sure that it is the


correct heading? Now, possible
AMBER when the Remarkables or
Alps get close.
2 Another escape procedure occurs
SE

SE

when following an engine fail at take-


off, with terrain or often chimneys an
S issue. The crew has to use a Heading
dependent route away from that
terrain. They may be in cloud. Are
they sure the Heading is correct?
AMBER.

22 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


True North

3 NDB approaches mandate the aircraft INSs age and the situation is fast
to be within 5 degrees of the final becoming RED NOT ACCEPTABLE. Czech Sport PS-28 CRUISER (2012)
course before the final start down or
drop down to the beacon crossing This last example is the one most worrying
height. Are you sure your heading is as on several occasions while going South
correct and within limits? AMBER in the west London area another aircraft
Especially if you have no cross checks given same heading with now reduced
on position and without a verified separation a climb along side. Yet even
compass. These are not conventionally this distance starts to reduce with much
swung any more, even the standby E2. comment from ATC about not flying the TT 110Hrs. Annual/ARC both valid Oct/2015. 100HP
What if you have radio/ electrical given heading. The truth is though that the Rotax 912-S2 (Certified). Operates on MoGas
failure? Your compass could be really two headings indicate the same but due to
or AvGas. Garmin SL30 NAV/COM, Garmin GPS
deviated out? the different ages of the Variation program
695, Garmin GTX 328 Mode S Transponder, Dynon,
4 In parallel trail, current separation is the actual headings can be different.
some 10 miles laterally but if a Radar The costs of forever updating variation
D-100 EFIS PFD, Dynon HS-34 Navigation Extension
heading is given, this can reduce to 5 on Ground Aids/Radar heads/compasses/
Module, Dynon, D-120 Engine Monitor, Magnetic
miles. If however the compass has an charts/ GPS receivers yes they must also Compass, Backup AI & ASI, Ameriking AK451 Triple
error, how will that separation be have this variation program and may not FrequencyELT, PS Engineering PM3000 Intercom.
maintained? One in sixty rule even agree with your Navigation system- 72,500 + VAT.
(Cosecant?) says for a base line of (say) are enormous. Lets all use the same
60 miles, an error of one degree means reference and change the E2 to a possible
Contact DERRICK INGS AIRCRAFT SALES,
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PO Box 1559, Gillingham, Dorset SP8 4WB, England.
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the distance will be 5 miles out. At 8 of Aviation For safety sake.
Tel: +44 (0) 1747 825378
miles per minute it does not take long Dusty Miller
Fax: +44 (0) 1747 826870
to do 60 miles AMBER. With time ex ADO/AGE and now retired
Mobile: +44 (0) 7836 708564
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www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 23


GASCo News

From Chief Executive, Mike ODonoghue

The Welcome Return of cooperation and collaboration and the rest also reminded us of how we can make the
Military Civil Air safety Days of the day lived up to that idea. For any pilot most of a systematic scan while also using
operating in this area there was a rich diet of radio and transponder to increase electronic
(MCASD)
information and insight during the day, conspicuity. The value of a transponder
When commanders and staff at the Royal which could readily be used to good effect. now and in the future, especially Mode C
Naval Air Station, Yeovilton decided that There were many real nuggets during or S, was made crystal clear by Jonathan
they would like to hold a safety fly-in day the day, for example knowing the types Smith of NATS who gave us a glimpse into
for GA pilots who operate in the vicinity of operating from Yeovilton, their duties and the not too distant future by describing the
the Air Station and its Area of Intense Aerial their operational areas was really interesting trials currently underway on an affordable,
Activity and discussed the idea with and very useful. low power ADS-B transceiver (LPAT) that
GASCo, it seemed obvious that the best A variety of types operate regularly incorporates the minimum functionality to
way to proceed would be to follow the from Yeovilton. Merlin, Lynx, Wildcat, and make GA aircraft visible and enable some
much loved format of a MCASD. Sadly, in Sea King Helicopters, Hawks, Tutors as well key safety functionality.
recent years these have rather fallen by the as the RN Historic Flight (Swordfish, Sea Before adjourning to meet the crews of
wayside, largely due to the operational Fury, Sea Hawk and Chipmunk.) and thats types of aircraft operated from Yeovilton
demands placed on military resources. before fast jet diversions from Boscombe which were ranged in a very impressive
GASCo discussed the possibility of Down or aircraft practising NDB approaches static display, there were three short
resurrecting the idea with the CAA which from Bournemouth are taken into account. presentations on small unmanned aerial
readily supported the initiative and so on Looking at the size of the AIAA on the map, vehicle systems (SUAVS). Military and
Thursday 30th April 2015 some eighty GA it would be easy to think that the airspace commercial operations were covered first
pilots took part in a fulfilling and would be empty, but with Yeovilton and and then Lawrence Hay from the CAA
interesting day with a third being able to Merryfield generating over 100,000 covered the regulatory aspects. Maplin
take advantage of the opportunity to fly-in. movements between them annually, Electronics, Yeovil kindly put on a static
The aim of the day was to promote contact with the AAIA radar service seemed display with some examples of accessible
understanding among all the airspace users a very sensible thing to do if in the AAIA. SUAVs on hand to view and staff to answer
in the area, especially the Yeovilton Area of Commandos being delivered to Dartmoor questions and explain the lengths to which
Intense Aerial Activity (AIAA) and this was or Merlins and Wildcats heading for the the firm goes to ensure that potential
very much achieved. Presentations were Danger Areas off the South Coast mean recreational operators were aware of the
given by all the resident Squadrons, which that aircraft sometimes operating below legislation. In summing up, Commander
covered all aspects of the airspace use and a 1000feet but often transitting at up to Mitchell said chillingly that it wasnt a
real insight was gained into the types of 6000feet are a possible source of conflict to question of if but when it came to mid air
operational flying that originated from GA aircraft en route to Dunkeswell or collisions between UAVs and other aircraft.
Yeovilton and the heights and routes they Compton Abbas. The next MCASD is due to be held at
typically followed. The tone set by the There was a presentation on avoiding RAF Linton-on-Ouse on Saturday 26
Commander Flying, aka Wings, airborne conflict and collisions, a priority September 2015. Details will be published
Commander Henry Mitchell, in his for both civil and military operations. Even in the aviation press, the CAA website and
introduction, was that safety is best the best radar service does not mean a good in Flight Safety Extra and on the GASCo
promoted through understanding, lookout is not required. This presentation website.

24 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


GASCo News / The Write Stuff

Safety Evening Programme


Thanks to all of you attended a safety
evening this season. We completed a total
of 51 events and we are now open for
bookings for 2015/16 so if your organisation
or club would like to host an evening,
simply get in touch with Penny in the
GASCo office to make a booking Penny in
the GASCo Office (01634 200 203).

Seminars
The Ditching and Sea Survival seminar at the
RNLI College, Poole on Thursday 24th
March 2015 was fully subscribed and we will
hold another one in March next year. As
always, the practical sessions using GA life-
saving equipment in a realistic environment the Small Helicopter Safety Seminar at Sywell popular seminar on Weather Decision
were voted most useful. There is really no that was due to take place on 7th May due Making at The Met Office is all set for
substitute for hands on practice when it to lack of support, but we hope to offer Thursday 24th September and registrations
comes down to it. Sadly, we had to cancel another date later in the year. The ever will open shortly via the GASCo website.

Letters for publication are always welcome by e-mail to nigeleverett@btconnect.com


The publication of a letter within these columns does not imply that the General Aviation
Safety Council accepts any facts presented or approves any sentiments expressed.
Simple if coded information European price when in a caf or the souk.
Similarly the TAFs, I have learnt the code so
I beg to differ with Rick Fornalski, Autumn
that each morning I use them as my main
2014, the write stuff p24, Unnecessarily
weather forecast. Do not say they are too
Garbled Information. Anything written is
difficult to learn. For a fun code breaking
a form of code to express the spoken word
lesson I have presented the TAF for EGSS to
in a visual format. The technical words and
a bottom set year 6 (10-11 year old
jargon of different areas of life including
children). With discussion amongst
aviation are a code to express oneself
themselves, questions to me and the odd
quickly. Aileron is so much quicker than
hint, they could work it out. And these
the hinged bit on the outer back edge of
were non-aviators deemed to be very poor
the wing which moves up and down with
at language skills. I find the TAFs quick and
opposing movement to its partner on the
easy to read, much easier than a long wordy
other wing to provide a turning force. The
sentence. My only complaint is when they
TAFs etc are a form of written code for a
moved from oktas of cloud to FEW, SCT,
quick reading of the weather. If one has not
BKN, OVC. I visualise numbers better than
learnt the code then one will not
words but over the years have got used to
understand the TAFs. When in the Middle
it. So all the complainers, ready to blame
East I noted that everything was written in
someone else, why not emulate that
the Arabic script. I did not blame everyone
bottom set of kids and have a bit of fun
else because I could not read and so
with the code?
understand the script. I did something
Jane Giffould
about it. I made an effort to learn at least
Essex
enough so that I would not get charged the

www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 25


Airspace Infringement News

Airspace Infringement News


Flight Safety is indebted to Irv Lee of www.flyontrack.co.uk, which is provided for the
CAA by GASCo, and the Airspace Infringement Working Group (AIWG) for the latest
information on UK airspace infringements.

NATS reported infringements the five year record to 28th February 2015
700
638
605 607
600
546
500
High Risk
400
Medium Risk
300
Low Risk
200
100 65
51 38 44
3 3 4 0 10 2 0
0
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

NATS reported infringements for the 12 months to 28th February 2015


80
Number of infringements

60 Higher Risk
Lower Risk

40

20

0
Southampton

LTCC Approach Luton

LTCC Approach Stansted

Manchester

LTCC Approach Gatwick

LTCC Approach Heathrow

Birmingham

LTCC Approach Thames

LTCC Radar

Glasgow

Bristol

WEE

Aberdeen

Farnborough

LTCC No Sector

LAC

Oceanic
Cardiff

Belfast

London City

Edinburgh

Heathrow
W2

Higher risk includes both high


and medium risk to operations

LTCC refers to the actual controller being in the London Terminal Control Centre. Others listed above are LACC = London Area Control, MACC = Manchester
Area Control and ScACC = Prestwick Control (Scottish).

WRITE IT UP!
If you have something that will help other pilots improve
their safety, please lets hear from you. By working together
we can make all of ourselves safer.
Contact nigeleverett@btconnect.com Tel 01626 776199

26 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


The natural choice
01765 690777
hillaviation@btconnect.com
www.hillaviation.com
Unit 1a, Sycamore Business Park,
Copt Hewick, Ripon, HG4 5DF

Established 1991
AA and AA- rated security
Private and Club risks quoted
Solid reputation and experience
Cover for UK based fixed wing aircraft
Security Ratings from Standard & Poors
Accident/incident summary

Accident/incident
summary

This information is published in the interests of flight safety and must be regarded
as provisional and subject to subsequent alteration or correction.
Some Recent Airprox Reports

These are short and incomplete summaries only. Full reports are available on www.airproxboard.org.uk.

Report No Location and Circumstances


Date
A/c Involved
2014133 The Fournier motor glider pilot was flying SSW at Altitude 1800 ft near Thurrock, Essex leading a loose formation of
3 Aug 2014 three motor gliders. Because of difficulties involved with checking in a formation on a busy ATC LARS frequency, the
Fournier RF5/ Fournier pilot decided to keep the pilots on a discrete formation frequency whenever possible and adjusted the
PA28 second leg of their route to the west, toward Thurrock and away from the western corner of the Southend Radio
Mandatory Zone. (Note: this RMZ has since been superceded by the Soutnend CTA as shown on the latest Half
Million chart.) He saw another aircraft around 100200 ft in his 9.3010 oclock and about to pass just behind. He
broadcast a warning to the others in the formation. The PA28 pilot was on a Reduced Traffic Service from
Farnborough East and received Traffic Information on traffic converging from his 1 oclock. There was no time to take
avoiding action and shortly afterwards the other formation aircraft were seen on the right hand side. Discussion of
the funnelling effect of the Southend RMZ and the distinction between a RMZ and controlled airspace.
Recommendation that GASCo considers ways of improving pilots understanding of RMZs.

2014140 The Robin pilot was cleared to cross Wycombe ATZ en route at Height 1500 ft, 2 nm to the northwest. While doing
9 Aug 2014 so he saw the PA28 fly beneath him on a reciprocal track frighteningly close. The PA28 pilot had recently taken off
Robin DR221/ from Wycombe and was transiting back through the ATZ prior to calling Luton for transit clearance. He had switched
PA28 to Luton frequency early to make the clearance request. His Monroy TAS sounded and he saw the opposite traffic at
400 m. Discussion of the risks in re-entering the Wycombe ATZ without clearance or radio contact.

2014173 The helicopter pilot was flying to a private site near Wellesbourne and was receiving a Basic Service from Birmingham
8 Aug 2014 Approach. They advised of traffic near Wellesbourne and advised him to contact Wellesbourne. He did so but ATC
Robinson R44/ was closed. However another pilot advised of two aircraft operating in the area and the R44 pilot passed details of his
PA28 flight. He saw the PA28 in his 11 oclock about 300 m away in opposite direction and at the same height. No
avoiding action was possible in time and they passed at 50 to 100 m distance. The PA28 pilot had no recollection of
such an incident but believed that he was probably swapping between Wellesbourne and Coventry frequencies at
the time.

2014145 The Chipmunk pilot was aerotowing the K21 glider out of Husbands Bosworth, climbing through Altitude 1500 ft in
17 Aug 2014 a gentle left turn. He saw the Falke coming straight towards him at the same height and steepened his turn to avoid.
Chipmunk & At the same time the K21 pilot, who had also seen the Falke, released from the tow in anticipation of trouble. The
ASK21/ SF25 Falke was on a airfield familiarisation and field landing refresher training. Both pilots pushed forwards to avoid
Falke collision. Discussion of enhanced collision risks in an aero tow out area. Regret that the Chipmunk was not fitted with
Flarm or Power Flarm. The Falke was using Flarm and this would have given a warning to the Chipmunk pilot.

2014161 The helicopter pilot had lifted for a short local flight from Goodwood with clearance to depart to the North. He
16 Aug 2014 began to level at Height 900 ft and saw the PA12 in his 9 oclock coming towards him. He descended and the PA12
R44 helicopter/ turned behind him. The circuit height for helicopters at Goodwood is 900 ft and for fixed wing it is 1200 ft. The
PA12 Piper PA12 pilot was joining for a Vintage fly in and was flying a tight circuit as vintage aircraft often do. He had
Cruiser commenced a gentle descent from 1200 ft on the downwind leg from abeam the runway when he saw the R44 in
his 2 oclock climbing towards him. He made a turn to pass behind. The Board decided that contributory factors
were: (1). The PA12 pilot did not fly the recommended [circuit] track or altitude. (2). The FISO did not pass traffic
information to either pilot.

28 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


Accident/incident summary

Report No Location and Circumstances


Date
A/c Involved
2014177 The DR 400 pilot was aerotowing the K21 out of Bicester, climbing through Height 2300 ft, when he saw the
6 Sept 2015 Bonanza behind his right wing about 50 m away hard turning to the right and climbing. He then saw it descend
DR400 & ASK21/ below the glider tug combination, roll to the left and pass in front and below. The K21 pilot prepared to release but
Beech A35 did not actually do so. The Bonanza pilot was flying a regular route but lower than usual because of cloud nearby. He
Bonanza was aware of gliding activity at Bicester, saw the tug and glider and turned right and climbed to be safe. Discussion
of the need to give gliding sites a wide berth when below the maximum launch height.
(/3.3 on the chart indicates launches up to Altitude 3300 ft)

2014167 The pair of Typhoons were squawking Modes C and S and flying low level along part of the Machynlleth Loop in a
9 Sep 2014 valley at Height 250 ft when they saw the gyrocopter less than 1 nm away. There was no room to turn so they flew
Typhoon/ beneath the gyrocopter, which was some 350 ft higher. The gyroplane pilot was with a student on a cross country
Gyrocopter exercise and was squawking Mode C. He saw the Typhoons approaching from behind too late for any avoiding
action. Neither aircraft had any sort of Traffic Advisory System. Discussion of the dangers of flying below Height 2000
ft in areas and at times popular for military low level flying. The Machynleth Loop is well known to military pilots
and marked on military maps with flow arrows. Recommendation that HQ Air Command reviews GA education with
regard to flow arrows.

2014198 The paraglider pilot was ridge soaring on Rushup Edge near Chapel-en-le-Frith, Derbyshire when a DJI Phantom
2 Oct 2014 FC40 type quadcopter approached him, descending to about 20 ft above his canopy and following him up and
Paraglider/ down the ridge. The quadrocopter flew concerningly close on occasions and seemed to be making a video of his
Untraced flying. He was unable to locate the operator. Concern expressed by the Board at the growth of this type of activity.
quadcopter. It is illegal and can be dangerous for others but the operator may not appreciate this.

2014201 The Saab 2000 pilot was flying an ILS approach to Cambridge and was fitted with TCAS. When fully configured on
27 Sep 2014 the approach at Height 1500 ft he received Traffic Information of traffic at 11 oclock at 5 nm. Shortly afterwards the
Saab 2000/ TCAS gave a Traffic Advisory followed by a Climb, Climb command. The autopilot was switched off and a shallow
Cessna 170 climb established with the configuration unchanged. He then saw the C170 at 10 oclock crossing left to right. It
passed 300 ft below and 50 metres behind. The C170 pilot was in constant visual contact with the Saab and was not
in contact with Cambridge ATC being in good VMC. Concern that two previous recommendations had been
rejected. These were that the CAA reviews the required content of airfield briefs with specific emphasis on informing
foreign visiting pilots of their responsibilities under ATSOCAS. This places responsibility for collision avoidance in
Class G on every pilot, even those flying an instrument approach. For his part, the Board opines, the C170 pilot was
enjoying a local area flight in fine weather conditions and under VFR without the aid of an Air Traffic Service. Although this
was entirely acceptable for many GA flights, flying within 300 ft and 0.3 nm of a 22 ton, 50 seat passenger airliner, on the
approach path to an airfield that was clearly marked on the chart and causing a TCAS RA, was not.

RECENT OCCURRENCES, JANUARY TO MARCH 2015


Occurrences are often potential accidents that become nothing worse because luck was on the side of those involved. Some occurrence
reports describe the skilled and successful handling of an unexpected threat.
The full list of all reports including a search facility can be viewed on the CAA website at: CAA Safety Data General Aviation Reports
Here are a few selected flying occurrence reports from the January, February and March 2015 lists.

Reference, Type, Detail


Engine, Flight Status
and Position
16 Nov 2014. Infringement of the Errol Airfield parachute drop zone (Class G) by a microlight at 1000ft. Parachute drop
201416189. Mainair was aborted.
Blade. Rotax 912. En At the time stated I was Drop Zone controller at the skydiving club based at the airfield. I had just given our
route. Errol A/F. a/c clearance to drop skydivers at 9000ft. While the a/c was in the process of dropping I spotted a microlight
aircraft approaching from the North which then crossed the centre of the DZ. I immediately contacted our
a/c and instructed it to abort the drop. The microlight continued on and then turned in a westerly direction. I
called Perth ATC who confirmed the ID of the microlight.

31 Oct 2014. Aircraft landed in field following engine failure after take-off exercise.
201415538. Cessna 152. Pilot of aircraft reports aircraft landed in field following engine failure after take-off exercise. No injuries or
Lycoming. Initial climb. apparent damage. Aircraft later recovered after engineering attendance.
Wycombe Air Park..

www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 29


Accident/incident summary

Reference, Type, Detail


Engine, Flight Status
and Position
14/09/2014. The aircraft had been handed over and was identified and verified at 3500 feet, receiving a basic service as
201412949. Cessna 172. requested by pilot. I noticed that its mode C was now indicating 1000 feet QNH. Believing that the pilot
Continental. Cruise. may have mis-identified the airfield, I gave him his position and a QDM for his destination airfield whilst also
trying to confirm his altitude again. Initially the pilot said 2000 feet, but when questioned again, confirmed it
was 1000 feet. His transmissions then became very broken, but whilst trying to find out what assistance
might still be necessary, I could make out that the aircraft had a low voltage indication. I asked how many
were on board pilot only. The aircraft then disappeared from both primary and secondary radars and I lost
contact on RTF at 05:26. I rang D&D immediately, followed by local police HQ. I also tried to ring LACC Sup,
but they did not answer. At 05:36, I received a call on RTF from the pilot, saying that he had made a
successful precautionary landing at another airfield but had now taken off again and was continuing his flight
saying that there was no emergency, and that he did not require any assistance. All agencies were informed
again.

201416971. A/c was observed to have infringed the NW corner of the EGKK CTA at altitude 2200ft for approx 2mins at
CTSW. Rotax 912. En 1237 UTC. As the a/c was wearing a squawk from EGKR, I called them to take action but although they said
route. Gatwick. the a/c was on their frequency they could not contact him. I then called EGKK TWR to suspend SAM and
BOG deps as I felt there may be an issue with the infringer if they were allowed to continue. After approx 3
mins, a/c was observed descending rapidly below the CTA and turning left to exit to the West.

201416976. On Saturday the 06/12/14 I decided to go on a pleasure flight, I was approx 40 mins into the flight and had
Piper PA28. started returning to the airfield. I was approaching approx 16nm to the n/e of the airfield at 2200 feet when
Lycoming 320. all of a sudden there was a loud audible warning in the cockpit. Initially I was not sure of the source of the
Approach. warning but it became pretty obvious when the cockpit started becoming hazy due to smoke/fumes I then
Southend. checked the carbon monoxide alarm in the glove box and confirmed my suspicions that we possibly had an
engine issue. My passenger then asked how I was feeling as he was light headed at this stage I realised we
were in serious danger of been overcome by the fumes and decided to declare a PAN so that I could be given
priority to lands kept an eye on vital instruments and gauges and continued my now hurried approach. At
this point I decided to open the window and door to allow fresh air into the cockpit as I had started feeling
slightly lightheaded and sickly. Joined and landed safely and shut down on the runway and evacuated the
aircraft. We were attended to by the emergency services and it was decided that due to carbon monoxide
absorption we were to be taken to the hospital. After 6 hrs of high flow oxygen my passenger and I were
released. On inspection the next day it was found the exhaust silencer had failed due to fatigue.

201415866. During practice autorotation with 180deg turn into wind, after entry a bank angle and nose up attitude
Robinson R44 helicopter. occurred. During the recovery action to stop the RRPM from rising further, a high engine RPM was suspected,
Lycoming 540. possibly beyond operating limits. Engineering company informed. Engine inspected iaw SB369L no fault
Autorotation practice. found, aircraft released to service. Instructor memo issued.
Leicester.

201503561. Cessna 172. Airfield Ground Support Unit (AGSU) was carrying out daily surface inspection during the weekend period
Landing. Warton whilst the airfield was closed. Whilst at the 25 threshold, they spotted a light aircraft approaching to land.
They cleared the runway area ASAP, whereupon the aircraft landed. The RFFS were conducting a crash gate
inspection at the time, advised the RFFS watch room what had happened and approached the aircraft, along
with the AGSU airfield inspection team. By hand signals, the RFFS instructed the pilot to shut down. It
transpired that the aircraft, flown by a student pilot, was en-route and had been cleared to land but had
misidentified Warton for Blackpool. After noting details, and at his discretion, the pilot was advised to depart
for his destination.

201502970. Cessna 177. B737 was being descended and vectored for R/W27; when a 7000 squawk was observed tracking NNE from
Cruise. E. Midlands. Leicester indicating 3000ft. B737 was descended initially to 4500ft (in anticipation of the 7000 squawk
establishing 2-way). The projected track indicated the 7000 squawk would infringe CAS; several calls were
made on 134.175 without response, so a turn was given to the B737 avoid that contact. The 7000 squawk
entered CAS, CTA-3 base level 2500ft on East Midlands QNH, without a clearance and tracked NNE before
turning north along the eastern edge of CTA-2, base level 1500ft. The squawk changed to a 3601 squawk,
and I received a call from Waddington ATC as the aircraft had called them. The a/c was identified. B737 was
vectored for a shorter final than normal and landed safely.

30 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


Accident/incident summary

Reference, Type, Detail


Engine, Flight Status
and Position
201503709. Paraglider. Paraglider over Airfield. A yellow and green paraglider was observed flying in the vicinity of Gibraltar, over
Unknown. Gibraltar. the eastern side of the airfield and in the 09 climb out area at approximately 1000ft whilst an aircraft was
parked on stand 3. At approximately 1322 the Station Commander called to inform us he had seen a
paraglider. At approximately 1327 returned a call to the RGP who had asked if we required their assistance.
The duty sergeant was going to call us back. SCOD called RGP to ask them to report paraglider to Spanish
authorities. At approximately 1332 Sappho was instructed to fire 4 red flares. Aircraft was shortly to push
back off stand for departure on runway 09. At 1347 the paraglider disappeared from sight as he was heading
north. At 1353 aircraft departed safely with no delay.

ACCIDENT REPORTS

February 2015 Bulletin


AAIB Field Investigation
Kitfox G-TOMZ PPL 46 years 990 hours (4 in last 28 days)
Cessna F177RG G-AZTW PPL 56 years 1038 hours (7 in last 28 days)
 Near St Neots, Beds.
Two aircraft collided in visual meteorological conditions in Class G airspace;
neither aircraft was receiving an ATC service. The investigation concluded
that the accident occurred because neither pilot saw the other aircraft in
sufficient time to take effective avoiding action.

Above: Relative positions of G-TOMZ and G-AZTW prior to collision.


Upper left: Pilots eye view from a Cessna F177RG in the direction
of G-TOMZ. Lower left: Pilots eye view from a Denney Kitfox in the
direction of G-AZTW. (Photographs courtesy of AAIB.)

AAIB Correspondence Investigations


Cessna 152 G-GFID PPL 40 years 226 hours (5 in last 28 days) Cirrus SR20 G-VGAC PPL 68 years 2344 hours (3 in last 28 days)
 Nr Defford, Worcs  Southend A/F
The pilot landed at Croft Farm strip but touched down just before the The aircraft bounced after a firm touchdown in a 14 KT crosswind from
halfway point of the 570 m long grass strip. On wet grass he was unable the left and the pilot applied full power with the intention of flying a
to stop in the remaining distance. He steered to the left into an adjacent go-around. However, the aircraft rolled to the left and its wing struck
field damaging the wingtip and the propeller in the process. the runway. The aircraft deviated to the left and landed on the grass
beyond the runway edge. The aircraft sustained damage to its left wing,
Cessna 172M G-BIHI PPL 53 years 160 hours (1 in last 28 days) landing gear and propeller.
 Fenland A/F, Lincs
The pilot encountered worsening weather after takeoff and decided to Chipmunk 22 G-BXHF PPL 65 years 671 hours (3 in last 28 days)
curtail her flight. She joined the visual circuit in reducing visibility and  Goodwood A/F, Sussex
flew a closer than normal approach which, combined with a light The pilot was manoeuvring the aircraft to park at the designated
headwind on final, placed the aircraft higher on the approach than was temporary parking area when the aircraft struck a permanent wooden
usual. The pilot considered that a safe landing could still be achieved so fence. The aircraft was pointing approximately in-line with the direction
continued the approach. The aircraft bounced on touchdown and the of the fence which probably made the fence less obvious to the pilot.
nose landing gear subsequently struck the ground prematurely and
collapsed.

www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 31


Accident/incident summary

Piper PA28-140 G-COLH PPL 19 years, 121 hours (12 in last 28 days) collapse. The aircraft was brought to a stop on the grass just beside the
 Full Sutton A/F, Yorks. runway. None of the occupants was injured.
The aircraft experienced a multiple bird strike on final approach. The
pilot continued to a landing but the aircraft landed long and there was Kitfox Mk2 G-KITY NPPL 73 years 682 hours (3 in last 28 days)
insufficient runway remaining in which to stop. The aircraft overran on  Nr Castle Lytham, Lincs
to unprepared ground and overturned. After touching down on a relatively short, wet grass runway, the pilot
decided that he would be unable to stop the aircraft before encountering
Cessna F172P G-BITM LAPL 76 years 1463 hours (4 in last 28 days) a boundary fence. He applied full power and selected a climbing attitude
 Nr Warrington, Cheshire in order to fly a go-around. The aircraft cleared the fence but failed to
The aircraft suffered a sudden and significant loss of engine power climb, subsequently colliding with the roof of a bungalow, about 50 m
during the cruise portion of the flight. The pilot identified a field for a beyond the fence. The pilot, who sustained a serious injury, believed
forced landing, but the aircraft struck trees at its near boundary and that the aircraft had most probably been placed in a high drag situation
stalled, dropping into the field of intended landing. Engineering which exceeded its performance capabilities.
inspection revealed that No 3 inlet valve had dropped into the cylinder
causing the substantial power loss. PA-28-161 Warrior G-BFYM CPL 62 years 1163 hours (6 in last 28 days)
 Beverley A/F Yorks
Robin DR400/180 G-ETIV PPL 73 years 698 hours (7 in last 28 days) Two days previously, the aircraft had force-landed without damage in a
 Spilstead strip, Sussex field following an engine failure. After examination by an engineer
The pilot misidentified the threshold. The aircraft touched down during which no faults were found, the engine was successfully test run.
approximately 25 m short of the runway, encountered soft ground and The aircraft took off under full power and climbed away normally.
the nose landing gear collapsed. The pilot reported that, on arrival, it However, on final approach the engine again lost all power and the
was apparent that the surrounding crop had been cut for hay. This led pilot lowered the nose to maintain airspeed. Fearing that it might strike
to him mistaking a line in the cut hay for the start of the runway. a ditch that preceded the threshold, he raised the nose again just
clearing the ditch, although the aircraft now stalled and landed heavily.
March 2015 Bulletin No cause of the failure has been determined.

AAIB Field Investigation PA-28-181 Archer G-TALE NPPL 35 years 163 hours (0 in past 28 days)
 Blackbushe A/F, Surrey
Yak-52 G-YAKR ATPL 50 years Over 15,000 hours
The aircraft had been high on the approach to land and bounced a
(1 in the last 28 days) Nr Chelmsford, Essex
number of times. The pilot later discovered that the throttle had
The aircraft was carrying out a local flight when, five minutes into the flight,
jammed slightly open as a result of nose leg damage sustained at some
it was observed flying at low level. Having carried out a level turn, the aircraft
point during the landing. He assessed the cause of the accident as a
climbed sharply and entered a stall or spin, from which it did not recover
pilot-induced-oscillation and that he should have initiated a go-around
before striking the ground. Both occupants received fatal injuries and there was
at an early stage.
a fire. The reason the aircraft was flying at low level and the cause of the final
manoeuvre could not be determined. Ikarus C42 FB100 G-FLYC NPPL 55 years 298 hours (3 in past 28 days)
 Lower Upham A/F, Hants
The pilot commenced takeoff from the left side of the grass runway in
AAIB Correspondence Investigations order to avoid wetter ground to the right. There was a crosswind from
Pietenpol Air Camper G-ECVB PPL 34 years 133 hours (1 in past 28 days) the right and the aircraft deviated to the left early in the takeoff roll. The
 RAF Cranwell, Lincs pilot abandoned the takeoff and attempted to slow the aircraft, but
The right landing gear collapsed during a touch-and-go due to the wheel braking was ineffective on the wet surface. The pilot was unable
failure of the right landing gear tie-rod-end. The Light Aircraft to prevent the aircraft leaving the runway on the left-hand side, where
Association (LAA) investigation identified that the tierod-end was of a it encountered a drainage ditch and came to an abrupt stop.
lower specification to that required by the production drawings. As a
Pegasus Quik G-CBVN NPPL 60 years 90 hours (2 in past 28 days)
result of feedback on the condition of the tie-rod-ends on other aircraft,
 Ballad A/F Kinross
the LAA published airworthiness Information Leaflet LAA/MOD/047/009
The aircraft arrived at Balado Airstrip after a flight from the Isle of Bute.
Issue 1 in November 2014 which introduced a routine inspection and a
The wind was light and from the west as the pilot made a normal
100 flying hour life for landing gear tie-rod-ends.
approach to Runway 24. As he rounded out prior to touchdown, he
experienced an area of sink, in addition to being blinded by the glare
from a low and bright winter sun. The aircraft landed heavily on the
right mainwheel, followed by the nosewheel which dug into the soft
grass surface and bent the front forks back as the aircraft came to a halt.

Pegasus XL-Q G-MWOY PPL 69 years 78 hours (2 in last 28 days)


 Sywell A/F, Northants
On starting the engine ran up to high power. The aircraft lurched
forward, overpowering the foot brake and the pilot found he could not
close the throttle. In addition his gloved hand could not operate the
ignition switch in time to prevent the aircraft from striking a parked
unoccupied microlight 8 m away. The pilot reports that a kinked
throttle cable, which he possibly damaged when he climbed into the
aircraft, and a weak throttle return spring were probably responsible for
the stuck throttle.

Team Minimax G-MYRG PPL 56 years 1616 hours (6 in past 28 days)


 Northrepps A/F, Norfolk
Following an engine failure from fuel exhaustion, the pilot states that he
misjudged the glide performance of the aircraft with a stationary propeller
DA 42 Twin Star G-CTCF CPL 59 years 8,160 hours (23 in last 28 days) and, in attempting to land on the base runway, feared he would not be
 Bournemouth A/F, Dorset able to clear some power lines which ran across the approach. He
Immediately after landing in crosswind conditions, the aircrafts right therefore force-landed the aircraft in a field of sugar beet but, as soon as
main landing gear drag strut failed, causing the right landing gear to a bar which stretched between the two landing gear wheels entered the

32 Flight Safety | Summer 2015 www.gasco.org.uk


Accident/incident summary

crop, the aircraft flipped inverted. The pilot admits that unfamiliarity
AAIB Correspondence Investigations
with the aircraft type and its fuel consumption combined with
overestimating its glide performance with a stationary propeller by about EV-97A Eurostar G-CCEM PPL 60 years 506 hours (1 in past 28 days)
300 feet per minute were the main causal factors in the accident.  Oxenhope A/F, Yorks
During the takeoff run the aircraft suddenly turned towards the left and
April 2015 Bulletin the pilot attempted to regain the centreline using rudder. The aircraft
did not respond and it departed the left side of Runway 29, striking two
AAIB Field Investigation aircraft. In the pilots opinion, his attempt to apply right rudder to
Cessna F150L G-YIII PPL 70 years 293 hours (2 in past 28 days) regain the centreline resulted in both pedals being operated, with no
 Nr Hucknall A/F, Notts consequent rudder deflection being achieved.
The aircraft failed to reach normal circuit height after takeoff probably
Beech 76 Duchess G-GCCL CPL 28 years 3255 hours
because of a partial loss of engine power. The aircraft continued flight at low (44 in past 28 days) Cambridge A/F
altitude and airspeed before stalling, and an incipient spin entry resulted in After selecting the landing gear lever to down, the nose landing gear
the aircraft striking the ground vertically nose-down. failed to extend. After several further attempts, an approach to
Cambridge Airport was made with the nose landing gear retracted. The
aircraft touched down and the nose was held up for as long as possible
before it descended and contacted the runway surface. Neither flight
crew sustained any injuries. The reason for the failure of the gear to
extend could not be established at the time of this report. Previous
events have identified reasons why the nose gear may not extend and
that this aircraft type requires accurate rigging and vigilant maintenance
of the nose landing gear.

Cessna T210L N2257S ATPL 54 years 5893 hours (10 in past 28 days)
 Providenciales A/F, Turks and Caicos Islands
After a normal approach to Providenciales, the aircraft landed with the
landing gears retracted, sliding on its belly for an estimated 100 ft. The
pilot reported that he omitted to extend the gear before touchdown. It
is uncertain whether the audio warning, which should sound if the
throttle is retarded to a low level without all three gears being down and
locked, was serviceable.
[Editors comment: The GASCo Stall/Spin report of 2010 revealed that
during the period 1980 to 2008 in the UK the Cessna 150 K, L and M models Maule MX-7-180CN1052UNPPL51 years189 hours
suffered 11 stall/spin fatal accidents in 1,103,000 flying hours. That (23 in past 28 years) Strathaven A/F, S. Lanarkshire
compared with 1 fatal stall/spin accident suffered by all the other C150 The aircraft was landing at Strathaven Airfield. The final approach
models and also the C152s over 3,055,000 hours. Subsequent research by seemed satisfactory to the pilot but when he glanced at the airspeed
Brunel University showed that the likely reason for this is the very light stick indicator, he saw that he was below his target speed. However, when he
forces in pitch on C150 K,L and M models.] tried to increase power, the engine stopped and the aircraft stalled,
hitting some trees before coming to rest in a field. The pilot considers
that either carburettor ice or water in the fuel may have been responsible
for the engine stoppage.

PA-47 Malibu N71WZ PPL 51 years 680 hours (1 in last 28 days)


 Bournemouth A/F
The aircraft touched down but deviated to the left. It ran off the paved
surface on to the grass before the pilot was able to regain directional
control through rudder pedal application and use of the right side wheel
brakes. As it crossed back on to the paved surface the nose landing gear
encountered a slightly recessed drain and collapsed. The pilot noted
that as the aircraft was being recovered, the left wheel brake appeared
to be binding.

Rotorsport UK MT-03 G-JBRE PPL 57 years 149 hours (9 in last 28 days)


Piper PA-38-112 Tomahawk G-BNDE CPL 60 years 3027 hours  Shoreham A/F, Sussex
(13 in past 28 days) Nr Padbury, Bucks During the initial part of an attempted takeoff from Runway 20 at
The aircraft was flying in the vicinity of the town of Buckingham when it Shoreham Airport, the gyroplane rotors came into contact with the
entered a spin from which it did not recover. The pilot sustained fatal injuries propeller causing damage to the rotor blades, the tips of the propeller
in the impact. blades and the tailplane. The pilot rejected the takeoff and steered the
gyroplane into the grass at the side of the runway. The control inputs
and forward speed were inappropriate for the rotor speed, resulting in
retreating blade stall. The pilot did not have much experience of busy
airfields and believes this was a factor.

Skyranger J2 2(3) G-CBXS NPPL 60 years 175 hours (4 in last 28 days)


 Ince A/F Merseyside
The pilot reported that the approach was normal until touchdown,
when a gust of wind lifted the starboard wing, causing the aircraft to
become airborne again with insufficient airspeed. The aircraft then
landed heavily on its nosewheel, causing the nose leg to bend backwards
and the propeller to strike the ground.

www.gasco.org.uk Flight Safety | Summer 2015 33


Accident/incident summary

And finally
AAIB Bulletin 2/2011, page
55. Piper
PA-22-150 Caribberan
G-ARHN. PPL 74 years, 340
hours, 4 in past 28 days.
Woodlands, Hants
The synopsis reads:

A forced landing was conducted following


an engine failure. The pilot was unable to
achieve his selected field and the aircraft
struck the roof of a house before crashing
into the garden. Both the aircraft occupants
received serious injuries; however, there
were no injuries to persons on the ground.
No cause for the engine failure could be
established.

Much of the report deals with the


eventually inconclusive endeavour to
establish the cause for the engine failure.
As regards the conduct of the flight the
pilot seems, as a result of his injuries, to
have been unable to recall the final
moments of the flight and in particular to
state which was his selected field for the
forced landing. Two details stand out:

1.The pilot recalls practising forced


landings only at his biennial flight
with an instructor.
G-ARHN circled, witness ground track arrowed, note wires crossing field in foreground, pylon boxed.
2.The pilot had, however, maintained
flying speed and thus control of the With no other information available to me injury and damage but on the other hand,
aircraft, avoiding stalling and/or other than the contents of the report, I if he had not made sure that he kept the
spinning which, with the resultant high tentatively speculate that if the pilot had plane flying he and his passenger could
vertical descent rates, usually result in been in better practice at forced landings he well have been killed.
the most serious or fatal injuries. might have put down in a field with less

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