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Ultrasonic Examination for Forgings

Rev No Prepared by/Date Reviewed by/Date Approved by/Date
1.0 Purpose

In order to have the ultrasonic examination processes met the requirements of ASME Section
III, and ensure the consistency of examination results.

2.0 Scope

This procedure describes techniques with direct contact method of the manual ultrasonic
examination and acceptance standards to be used when performing the ultrasonic
examination of all forgings for use in ASME Section III.

3.0 References

3.1 ASME Code Sec. III, Div.1, NB/NC/ND/NF-Latest Edition and Addenda.
3.2 ASME Code Sec. V, Art.5-Latest Edition and Addenda.
3.3 ASME Section V Article 23, SA-388M Specification for Ultrasonic Examination of Heavy
Steel Forgings- latest edition and addenda.
3.4 ASME Section V Article23, SA-745M Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of
Austenitic Steel Forging-latest edition and addenda.
3.5 SNT -TC-1A Code Adopted Edition

4.0 Procedure Qualification

4.1 This procedure shall be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the QC Dept. Manager
before use.
4.2 When procedure qualification is specified, a change of a requirement in above table
identified as an essential variable shall require re-qualification of the written procedure by
demonstration. A change of a requirement identified as a nonessential variable does not
require requalification of the written procedure. All changes of essential or nonessential
variables from those specified within the written procedure shall require revision of, or an
addendum to, the written procedure.

5.0 Personnel

5.1 The examiners under this procedure shall be qualified and certified in accordance with NDE
Personnel Qualification and Certification Procedure (Procedure No.: NTP-12) which
conforms to the requirements of SNT-TC-1A (Code Adopted Edition) as modified in NX-

5.2 Only qualified and certified Level II or Level III personnel shall interpret examination results
to determine acceptability.
6.0 Instrument and Equipments

6.1 A pulse-echo type of ultrasonic instrument shall be used as following TableSee Table 1,
The instrument shall be capable of operation at frequencies over the range of at least 1MHz
to 5 MHz and shall be equipped with a stepped gain control in units of 2dB or less. If the
instrument has a damping control, it may be used if it does not reduce the sensitivity of the
examination. The reject control shall be in the "off" position for all examinations unless it can
be demonstrated that it does not affect the linearity of the examination.
Table 1

Instrument Type Digital Ultrasonic

Model LBUT-55

Range of Frequencies 0.5~15MHz

0.2dB, 0.5dB, 1 dB 2dB,6dB, 12
Gain Step Control
Manufacture Chong Qing LB

6.1.1 The ultrasonic instrument shall provide linear presentation (within 5%) for at least 75% of the
screen height (sweep line to top of screen). The 5% linearity referred to is descriptive of the
screen presentation of amplitude.

6.1.2 The electronic instrument shall contain an attenuator [accurate over its useful range to
10% (l dB) of the amplitude ratio] which will allow measurement of indications beyond the
linear range of the instrument.

6.2 Search Unit

6.2.1 The search unit shall be used as following TableSee Table2,


Search unit 2.5P 2.5P K1

Frequency 2.5MHz 2.5MHz 2.5MHz
Element sizemm 20mm 14mm 1325mm
Shape roundness roundness rectangle

6.2.2 Having a transducer with a maximum active area of 650mm2 with 20mm minimum to 30mm
maximum dimensions shall be used for straight-beam scanning; and search units with 13mm
minimum to 25mm maximum dimensions shall be used for angle-beam scanning.

6.2.3 For austenitic steel forgings, The maximum nominal active area of 970mm2 with 13mm
minimum to 30mm maximum dimensions of search units or 20mm diameter minimum
dimension of search units shall be used for straight beam scanning. Angle-beam scanning
transducers shall have a nominal active area of 1325 2525mm2, and shall produce a
beam angle of 30 to 70 in the material.

6.2.4 The nominal frequency shall be from 1 MHz to 5 MHz , and shall use 1MHz for the coarse
grained austenitic materials ,if necessary, May use a frequency of 0.5 MHz to assure
adequate penetration or better resolution. Search units with contoured contact wedge may
be used to aid ultrasonic coupling.

6.3 Block

6.3.1 Calibration block requirements

The material from which the block is fabricated shall be of the same product form, material
specification or equivalent P-Number grouping, and heat treatment as the material being
examined. For the purposes of this paragraph, P-No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 through 5c and 15A to 15F
materials are considered equivalent. The finish on the scanning surface of the block shall be
representative of the scanning surface finish on the material to be examined.

6.3.2 Reference block containing flat-bottom holes shall be used for calibration of equipment in
accordance with 6.1.1.

6.4 Couplant

A suitable couplant having a good wetting characteristics such as SAE No. 20 or No. 30
motor oil, glycerin, pine oil, or water shall be used between the transducer and the
examination surface. The same couplant shall be used for calibration and examination.

6.4.1 General

The couplant, including additivesshall not be detrimental to the material being examined.

6.4.2 Control of Contaminants

1) Couplants used on nickel base alloys shall not contain more than 250ppm of sulfur.

2) Couplants used on austenitic stainless steel or titanium shall not contain more than
250ppm of halides (chlorides plus fluorides).

7.0 Calibration

7.1 Instrument linearity checks

Instrument linearity checks shall be performed in accordance with 7.1.1and 7.1.2, checks
shall be met at intervals not to exceed three months for analog type instruments and one
year for digital type instruments. or prior to first use thereafter. See Calibration Record of UT
Equipment (CRUT) Exhibit 1

7.1.1 Screen Height Linearity

Position an angle beam search unit on calibration block, so that indications from both the
1/2and 3/4T holes give a 2:1 ratio of amplitudes between the two indications, Adjust the
sensitivity (gain) so that the larger indication is set at 80% of full screen height(FSH),Without
moving the search unit, adjust sensitivity (gain) to successively set the larger indication from
100% to 20% of full screen height, in 10% increments ,and read the smaller indication at
each setting. The reading shall be 50% of the larger amplitude, within 5%of FSH.

7.1.2 Amplitude Control Linearity

Position an angle beam search unit on a basic calibration block so that the indication from
the 1/2T side drilled hole is peaked on the screen. Adjust the sensitivity (gain) as shown in
the following table 2. The indication shall fall within the specified limits. Alternatively, any
other convenient reflector from any calibration block may be used. The settings and readings
shall be estimated to the nearest 1% of full screen.

Table 2

Indication Set at Indication Limits

dB Control Change
% of Full Screen % of Full Screen
80% -6dB 32-48%

80% -12dB 16-24%

40% +6dB 64-96%

20% +12dB 64-96%

7.2 General Calibration Requirements

7.2.1 Ultrasonic System

Calibrations shall include the complete ultrasonic system and shall be preformed prior to use
of the system in the thickness range under examination.

7.2.2 Calibration of Range Scale

The same equipment shall be used during calibration and examination, e.g. apparatus,
probes, cables and coupling medium.

Calibration of range scale with normal probes is to be performed using calibration blocks or
the reference block for calibration of amplification. The range scale for normal probes is to be
selected such that there are always at least 2 back-wall echoes (reflections) on the screen.

7.2.3 Calibration Surface

Calibrations shall be performed from the surface (convex or concave) corresponding to the
surface of the material from which the examination will be performed.

7.2.4 Couplant
The same couplant to be used during the examination shall be used for calibration

7.2.5 Contact Wedges

The same contact wedges to be used during the examination shall be used for calibration.

7.2.6 Instrument Controls

Any control which affects instrument linearity (e.g., filters, reject, or clipping) shall be in the
same position for calibration, calibration checks, instrument linearity checks, and

7.2.7 Temperature
For contact examination, the temperature differential between the calibration block and
examination surfaces shall be within 14.

7.3 Calibration Confirmation

7.3.1 System Changes

When any part of the examination system is changed, a calibration check verify that distance
range point and sensitivity setting(s) satisfy shall be made on the calibration block to verify
requirements of 7.3.3.

7.3.2 Calibration Checks

A calibration check on at least one of the reflectors in the calibration block or a check using a
simulator shall be made at the finish of each examination or series of similar examinations,
and when examination personnel (except for automated equipment) are changed. and at the
beginning of each production run of a given size and thickness of a given material or after
each 4 hours or less during the production run, or at the end of the production run, or at any
time that malfunctioning is suspected The distance range points and sensitivity setting(s)
recorded shall satisfy the requirements of 7.3.3.

1) Simulator Checks
Any simulator checks that are used shall be correlated with the original calibration on the
calibration block during the original calibration. The simulator checks may use different types
of calibration reflectors or blocks (such as IIW) and/or electronic simulation. However, the
simulation used shall be identifiable on the calibration sheet(s). The simulator check shall be
made on the entire examination system. The entire system does not have to be checked in
one operation; however, for its check, the search unit shall be connected to the ultrasonic
instrument and checked against a calibration reflector. Accuracy of the simulator checks
shall be confirmed, using the calibration block, every three months or prior to first use

7.3.3 Confirmation Acceptance Values

1) Distance Range Points

If any distance range point has moved on the sweep line by more than 10% of the distance
reading or 5% of full sweep (whichever is greater), correct the distance range calibration and
note the correction in the examination record. All recorded indications since the last valid
calibration or calibration check shall be reexamined and their values shall be change on the
data sheets or re-recorded.
2) Sensitivity Settings
If any sensitivity setting has changed by more than 20% or 2dB of its amplitude,
correct the sensitivity calibration and note the correction in the examination record. If
the sensitivity setting has decreased, all data sheets since the last valid calibration or
calibration check shall be marked void and the area covered by the voided data shall
be reexamined. If the sensitivity setting has increased, all recorded indications since
the last valid calibration or calibration check shall be reexamined and their values
shall be changed on the data sheets or rerecorded.

8.0 Preparation of Forging for Ultrasonic Examination

8.1 Shape of Forging

Shape of forging shall be simple The forging shall be machined to provide cylindrical
surfaces for radial examination in the case of round forgings. The ends of cylindrical forging
shall be perpendicular to the axis, Faces of disk and rectangular forgings shall be machined
flat and parallel to one another.

8.2 Surface Condition

8.1.1 The surface of the bars to be examined shall be free of extraneous material such as loose
scale, paint, dirt, etc.

8.1.2 The surface roughness of scanning surfaces shall not exceed 6m unless otherwise stated
in the order or contract.

9.0 Procedure

9.1 General

9.1.1 Time of Examination

Ultrasonic examination may be performed at any time after forging. And the maximum
practical volume, including weld repairs, if required, shall be examined after final heat
treatment, excluding post weld heat treatment.
9.1.2 Scanning

1) To assure complete coverage of the forging volume, index the search unit with at least
15% overlap with each pass. The forgings shall be scanned in two perpendicular
directions to the maximum extent possible. Do not exceed a scanning (manual) rate of
2) Scan disk forgings using a straight-beam technique from at least one flat face and
radially from the circumference, whenever practicable.
3) Noncylindrical section bars shall be scanned in two perpendicular directions to the
maximum extent possible (through each pair of parallel sides).
4) Cylindrical section bars shall be scanned from the entire external circumference.
5) Scan cylindrical sections, ring and hollow forgings from the entire external surface (sides
or circumference), using the straight-beam technique, and scan the forging in the axial
direction to the extent possible. When the length divided by the diameter ratio
(slenderness ratio) exceeds 6 to 1 (or axial length exceeds 600mm), scan axially from
both end surfaces to extend possible. If axial penetration is not possible due to
attenuation, angle beam examination directed axially may be substituted in place of axial
straight beam. Examine ring and hollow forgings having an outside-diameter to inside-
diameter ratio of less than 2 to 1and axial length greater than 50mm and wall thickness
less than 200mm by angle beam techniques from the outside diameter or inside

9.2 Straight-Beam Examination

9.2.1 Frequency of search unit shall be selected in according to the paragraph 6.2.4.

9.2.2 Sensitivity
Establish the instrument sensitivity by the back reflection.

9.2.3 During the examination of the forging, monitor the back reflection for any significant changes
in amplitude.

9.3 Angle-Beam Examination-Rings and Hollow Forgings

9.3.1 Selected frequency of search unit shall be 2.5 MHz, beam angle is 45 in the material.

9.3.2 Reference Amplitude

1) Reference amplitude of the angle-beam examination to obtain an indication amplitude of

approximately 75% full-screen height from a rectangular or a 60 V-notch on inside
diameter in the axial direction and parallel to the axis of the forging.
2) Cut the inside diameter notch depth to 3%maximum of the thickness or 6mm,whichever
is smaller, and its length approximately 25mm.

9.3.3 Perform the examination by scanning over the entire surface area circumferentially in both
the clockwise and counter-clockwise directions from the out diameter surface. For axial
scanning, these notches shall be perpendicular to the axis of the forging and the same
dimensions as the axial notch.

9.4 Post-Examination Cleaning

1) Remained couplants on the examined surface shall be cleaned immediately after evaluation,
recording and interpretation are completed.

2) Couplants may be cleaned by wiping with absorbent cotton or paper dampened with
solvent (HR-ST), and other suitable clean technical may be used if they will not interfere
with subsequent requirements.

10.0 Recording Indications

10.1 Ultrasonic examination results shall be recorded in the Ultrasonic Examination Report (UER)
Exhibit 2) by certified personnel who perform the ultrasonic examination.

10.2 Straight-Beam Examination

10.2.1 Bar products do not require recording and reporting of indications smaller than the
acceptance standard, except when so specified for specialized applications.

10.2.2 Individual indications equal to or exceeding 10% of a nominal back reflection from an
adjacent area free from indications.

10.3 Angle Beam Examination

In the reference-block technique, indications equal to or exceeding 100% of the reference

10.4 Rejectable indications shall be recorded. As a minimum, the type of indication (i.c., crack,
lamination, inclusion, etc.), location, and extent (i.e., length) shall be recorded.

11.0 Post Treatment

When post examination is required, the couplant should be removed with a cloth or
absorbent paper as soon as possible.

12.0 Acceptance Criteria

Acceptance criteria performed according with ASME Section , Sub. NB - 2542.2 (For
Forging and Bars):
12.1 Straight Beam General Rule
A forging shall be unacceptable if the results of straight beam examinations show one or
more reflectors which produce indications accompanied by a complete loss of back reflection
not associated with or attributable to geometric configurations. Complete loss of back
reflection is assumed when the back reflection falls below 5% of full calibration screen

12.2 Angle Beam Rule.

A forging shall be unacceptable if the results of angle beam examinations show one or more
reflectors which produce indications exceeding in amplitude the indication from the
appropriate calibration notches.

12.3 Acceptance criteria for bolts, studs, and nuts (nominal bolt size greater than 50mm)
Any discontinuity that causes an indication in excess of 20% of the height of the first back
reflection or any discontinuity that prevents the production of a first back reflection of 50% of
the calibration amplitude is not acceptance.

12.4 Acceptance criteria for bolts, studs, and nuts (nominal bolt size greater than 100mm)
Any discontinuity that causes an indication in excess of that produced by the calibrattion hole in
the reference specimen as corrected by the distance-amplitude curve is not acceptable.

13.0 Report

13.1 Before examination, an Ultrasonic Examination Instruction (Exhibit 4) which prescribes

technical details shall be prepared by the NDE examiner certified as UT Level II or Level III,
and approved by another examiner certified as UT Level III.

13.2 Examination results shall be recorded on a record form or report (Exhibit 2 and Exhibit 3).

13.3 The report shall be prepared by the NDE examiner(s) certified as UT Level II or Level III who
interpret and evaluate the results, reviewed by another NDE examiner certified as UT Level
II or Level III, and approved by the NDE examiner certified as UT Level III.

14.0 Appendix

Appendix 1: Requirements of Ultrasonic Examination for Forgings Procedure

15.0 Exhibits

Exhibit 1 Calibration Record of UT Equipment (CRUT), Form No.:NQR315

Exhibit 2 Ultrasonic Examination Report (UER), Form No.:NQR321
Exhibit 3 Record of Ultrasonic Examination Results (RUER), Form No.: NQR322
Exhibit 4 Ultrasonic Examination Inspection Instruction (UEII), Form No.:NQR320
Appendix 1
Requirements of Ultrasonic Examination for Forgings Procedure

No. Requirements Ess ential Nonessent ial Referenced

Variab le Var iab le Parag raph
Material types and configurations to be
1 examined, including thickness dimensions and 2/ 8.1
product form (castings, forgings, plate, etc.)
2 Personnel qualification requirements 5
Personnel performance requirements, when
3 5
4 The surface from which the examination shall
be performed
Surface condition(examination surface,
5 6.3/ 8
calibration block)
6 Couplant: brand name and type 6.4
Technique(s) (straight beam, angle beam,
7 9.2/9.3
contact, and/or immersion)
Angle(s) and mode(s) of wave propagation in
8 9.2/9.3
the material
9 Search unit type(s), frequency(ies), and
element size(s)/shape(s)
10 Special search units, wedges, shoes, or
saddles, when used
11 Ultrasonic instruments 6.1
Calibration [calibration block(s) and
12 6.3/ 7
13 Directions and extent of scanning 9.1.2
Automatic alarm and/or recording equipment,
14 N/A
when applicable
15 Scanning(manual vs. automatic) 2/ 9.1.2

16 Method for sizing indications NA

Computer enhanced data acquisition, when
17 NA
18 Records, including minimum calibration data to
7/ 10
be recorded (e.g., instrument settings)
Scan overlap(decrease only)
19 9.1.2
Exhibit 1
Exhibit 2
Exhibit 3
Exhibit 4