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Vol. XXXV No. 6 June 2017


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CONTENTS 63

8 Toppers Talk

12 Ace Your Way 77


84
Class XI

(Series 2)

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MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 7


Team Applauds
J E E (M a in ) 2 0 1 7 T o p p e r
It gives us immense pleasure to felicitate the
achievement of our reader Kalpit Veerwal
(MTG Subscription Code PCM-102332). We feel
Rank
proud that we could lay a brick for the foundation of
his success. We are sharing his success story here so
that it can inspire others to ace in exams.
Kalpit Veerwal

MTG : Why did you appear for Engineering that it is the traditional method. I was not very confident
Entrance? with the online option.
Kalpit : I had interest in studying Science and Mathematics, Moreover, I was comfortable with the offline pattern as my
so wanted to appear for the entrance exams. Now, I want to coaching institute follows it. Therefore, I chose to take my
opt for Computer Science Engineering. exam in pen and paper pattern.
MTG : What exams have you appeared for and MTG : On which topic and chapters you laid more
what are your ranks in these exams? stress in each subject?
Kalpit : I have appeared for JEE Main 2017 in which I got Kalpit : I focussed on complete syllabus, rather than
AIR 1 with 360 marks out of 360. I have also achieved selective study. Hence, gave equal weightage to all chapters
ranks in exams like NSO-7th International rank, IMO- of each subject.
17th International rank (conducted by Science Olympiad
MTG : How much time does one require for serious
Foundation, New Delhi), NTSE (Stage I-Rajasthan
preparation of this exam?
1st rank and Stage II-cleared),
KVPY, IJSO Stage II (Top 35), Kalpit : I studied sincerely from
IJAO Stage II (Top 20) and IAO I was a 2 year subscriber of the MTG class VIII but any kind of serious
Stage II (Top 25). magazines : Physics For You, Chemistry Today preparation from my side for JEE
and Mathematics Today and was really an Main started from class XI. Every
MTG : How many hours avid reader of them. They were highly useful day after coming back from school,
in a day did you dedicate especially because of the good question I studied regularly. I never bunked
for the preparation of the bank and articles published in every issue. any of my classes and followed my
examination? I also studied from NCERT books and solved teachers religiously. I used to wake
Kalpit : Apart from studying in JEE Main previous years question papers. up early in the morning to study.
school and coaching, I used to
spend 5-6 hours on self study.
MTG : Was there a difference in the preparation
MTG : Any extra coaching? strategy during the last months of JEE Main
Kalpit : I pursued coaching from Resonance, Udaipur. considering that the board exams were also
MTG : Did you appear for the offline JEE Main scheduled in this period? How did you manage
exam or the online one? What is the reason behind the preparation for both?
this choice of yours? Kalpit : As you know that board exams were scheduled in
Kalpit : I appeared for the JEE Main offline exam as I believe March and JEE Main 2017 was scheduled in April so I revised

8 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


my complete syllabus of class XII boards in November and Kalpit : I used to listen to music, play cricket and badminton
once again in February. When one month was left I revised to release the stress, in between my studies. I like listening to
the entire syllabus from NCERT. Coldplay and Linkin Park.
MTG : Which books/magazines you read? MTG : What do you feel is lacking in our education/
Kalpit : I read HC Verma, Resnik, Irodov, SL Loney and JD examination system? Is the examination system
Lee. fair to the student?
Kalpit : Yes, it is fair.
MTG : In your words what are the components of
MTG : Had you not been selected then what would
an ideal preparation plan?
have been your future plan?
Kalpit : There are 3 main components of an ideal preparation
Kalpit : I have not thought about it.
plan : Focus, Practice and Dedication. Stick to the basics and
master the speed with the help of regular tests. MTG : What advice would you like to give to our
readers who are JEE aspirants?
MTG : What role did the following play in your Kalpit : I advise to all aspirants that continuous hardwork
success: along with dedication and time management would give the
(a) Parents (b) Teachers and School desired results.
Kalpit : (a) My parents took care of my health and kept me All the Best!

stress free.
(b) My teachers and school were very supportive as they
PUNJAB at
taught all the concepts and covered the syllabus.
Sunder Book Depot - Amritsar
MTG : What is your family background? Ph: 0183-2544491, 2224884, 5059033; Mob: 9814074241
Malhotra Book Depot - Amritsar Mob: 8000300086, 9646537157, 9888733844
Kalpit : My father is a nurse in a government hospital. My Navchatan Book Depot - Barnala
Mob: 97790220692, 9417906880, 9779090135, 9876147263, 9779050692
mother is a teacher in government school and my brother is
Mehta Book Centre - Bathinda Mob: 9876029048, 9464158497
pursuing MBBS at AIIMS, Jodhpur. Goyal Traders Book Sellers - Bathinda
Ph: 0164-2239632; Mob: 9417924911, 9814485520
MTG : How have MTG magazines helped you in Aggarwal Book Centre - Bathinda Ph: 0164-2236042; Mob: 9417816439
your preparation? S M Enterprises - Bathinda Ph: 0164-2240450; Mob: 7508622881, 9417363362
Hans Raj Dogra & Sons - Gurdaspur Mob: 9872032357
Kalpit : I was a 2 year subscriber of MTG magazines : Physics Gupta Technical & Computer Book Shop - Jalandhar
For You, Chemistry Today and Mathematics Today and was Ph: 0181-2200397; Mob: 9915001916, 9779981081
Cheap Book Store - Jalandhar Mob: 9872223458
really an avid reader of them. These magazines were highly City Book Shop - Jalandhar Ph: 0181-2620800; Mob: 9417440753
useful especially because of the good question bank and Deepak Book Distributiors - Jalandhar
Ph: 0181-2222131; Mob: 8528391133, 9872328131
articles published in every issue. Kiran Book Shop - Jalandhar Mob: 9876631526, 9779223883, 9872377808
Amit Book Depot - Ludhiana
MTG : Was this your first attempt? Ph: 0161-5022930, 5022930; Mob: 9815323429, 9815807871
Kalpit : Yes, this was my first attempt. Bhatia Book Centre - Ludhiana Ph: 0161-2747713; Mob: 9815277131
Chabra Book Depot - Ludhiana Ph: 0161-6900900, 2405427; Mob: 9501080070
MTG : What do you think is the secret of your Gupta Book World - Ludhiana
Ph: 0161-2446870, 2409097, 3942992; Mob: 9463027555
success?
Khanna Book Depot - Nabha Ph: 01765-220095; Mob: 9814093193, 9814309320
Kalpit : Consistency, dedication and hardwork is the secret. Goel & Sons Book Depot - Patiala Ph: 0172-2213643, 2202045; Mob: 9914096991
Adarsh Pustak Bhandar - Patiala
Proper preparation requires you to practice questions on Ph: 0175-2311430; Mob: 9814347613, 9815651737
regular basis. Pepsu Book Depot - Patiala Ph: 0175-2214696; Mob: 9814041623, 9914903305

MTG : How did you de-stress yourself during the


preparation? What are your hobbies? How often
could you pursue them?

10 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


CLASS XI Series 2

CBSE
Relations and Functions
IMPORTANT FORMULAE

X If A and B be two non-empty sets, then cartesian R1 = {(b, a) : b, a R}


product of sets is
A B = {(xi , yi) : xi A, yi B} X A subset f of X Y is called a function (or map
or mapping) from X to Y iff for each x X,
X (x, y) = (p, q) x = p, y = q
there exists a unique y Y such that (x, y) f.
X AB=BAA=B It is written as f : X Y.
X If n(A) = p, n(B) = q, then n(A B) = pq h Set X is called domain and Set Y is called
X A A A = {(a, b, c) : a, b, c A} is called ordered co-domain of the function f.
triplet. h The set of elements of Y, which are assigned to the
X A B = f A = f or B = f elements of X is called range of f.
X Subset of X Y is called a relation from X to Y. X Algebra of real functions
X If n(X) = p and n(Y) = q then the total number of If f : X R and g : X R, then
pq
relations from X to Y is 2 . h (f + g) (x) = f(x) + g(x), x X
X The set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in h (f g) (x) = f(x) g(x), x X
relation R from set X to set Y is called the domain of h (af )(x) = a f (x), x X
the relation R.
h (f g)(x) = f(x)g(x), x X
X The set of all second elements of the ordered pairs in
relation R from set X to Y is called the range of the f f (x )
h g (x ) = g (x ) , g (x ) 0, x X
relation R.
X The whole set B is called the co-domain of the X Function Relation Cartesian Product
relation R.
X If A and B be two non-empty sets having n elements
h Range Co-domain
in common, then A B and B A have n2 elements
X If R = {(a, b) : a, b R}, then in common.

12 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 13
WORK IT OUT 15. Consider the following :
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE (i) f : R R : f (x) = logex
1. Let A = {1, 2} and B = {3, 4, 5}. Find (ii) g : R R : g(x) = x
(i) B A (ii) A A A 1
(iii) h : A R : h(x) = , where A = R {2, 2}
2. Let P = {x, y, z} and Q = {3, 4}. Find the number of x2 4
relations from P to Q. Which of them are functions? Also find their range,
if they are functions.
3. Let f be the exponential function and g be the
LONG ANSWER TYPE - II
logarithmic function. Find (fg)(1).
16. Find the domain and range of the real valued
4. Let f(x) = x2 and g(x) = (3x + 2) be two real functions. 4x
Then, find (f + g)(x). function f (x) given by f (x) = .
x4
5. Let g = {(1, 2), (2, 5), (3, 8), (4, 10), (5, 12), (6, 12)} 17. If f : R R is defined by f (x) = x3 + 1 and g : R R
Is g a function? If yes, find its domain and range. If is defined by g(x) = x + 1, then find
no, give reason. (i) f + g (ii) f g (iii) f g
SHORT ANSWER TYPE f
(iv) (v) af (a R)
6. Let f : Z Z, g : Z Z be functions defined by g
f = {n, n2) : n Z} and g = {(n, |n|2) : n Z}. 18. Find the domain and range of the function
Show that f = g. 1
f (x) =
9x 2 sin 3x
7. The function F(x) = + 32 is the formula to
5 19. Let A = {x N : x2 5x + 6 = 0}, B = {x Z : 0 x < 2}
convert x C to Fahrenheit units. Find and C = {x N : x < 3}, then verify that:
(i) F(0) (ii) F(10) (i) A (B C) = (A B) (A C)
(iii) the value of x when F(x) = 212. (ii) A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

1+ x 2x 20. Find the domain of the function


8. If f(x) = log , prove that f = 2 f (x ).
1 x 1 + x 2 f(x) = (log 2 (x )) + 7 x x 2 6
9. Let R be a relation on the set of natural numbers SOLUTIONS
N defined by xRY x + 2y = 41; x, y N. Find 1. (i) B A = {3, 4, 5} {1, 2}
the domain and range of R. = {(3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (4, 2), (5, 1), (5, 2)}
10. If P = {a, b} and Q = {x, y, z}, then show that (ii) A A A = {1, 2} {1, 2} {1, 2}
P Q Q P. = {(1, 1, 1), (1, 1, 2), (1, 2, 1), (1, 2, 2), (2, 1, 1),
(2, 1, 2), (2, 2, 1), (2, 2, 2)}
LONG ANSWER TYPE - I
2. Given, P = {x, y, z} and Q = {3, 4}
1 \ n(P) = 3 and n(Q) = 2
11. Given f (x) = , g(x) = f {f (x)} and
(1 x ) \ n(P Q) = 32 = 6
h(x) = f [f {f (x)}]. Then find the value of f (x) g(x) h(x). Total number of relations from P to Q = number of
subsets of P Q = 26 = 64.
12. Find the domain of the function
3. We have, f : R R given by f(x) = ex and g : R+ R
1
y= + x+2 given by g(x) = logex
log10 (1 x ) Domain (f ) Domain (g) = R R+ = R+.
13. If A B and C D, prove that A C B D. \ fg : R+ R is given by (fg)(x) = f(x) g(x) = exlogex.
Now, (fg)(1) = f(1)g(1) = e1 loge1 = e 0 = 0.
14. Let f be a real valued function defined by
4. We have (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) = x2 + (3x + 2)
e x e |x|
f (x ) = , then find the range of f. 5. Yes, dom ( g) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6},
e x + e|x| range ( g) = {2, 5, 8, 10, 12}

14 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


6. Given, domain of f = Z and domain of g = Z 1
Hence, domain f = domain g = Z (1) = =x
1 x
Also, f(n) = n2, for all n Z and g(n) = |n|2 = n2 for 1+
x
all n Z
Hence, f(n) = g(n) for all n Z (2) 1 1 x
\ f(x) g(x) h(x) = x = 1
From (1) and (2), we have f = g. 1 x x
9x 12. For y to be defined
7. F(x) = + 32 (given)
5 (i) log10 (1 x) must be defined 1 x > 0 x < 1
90 (ii) log10 (1 x) 0 1 x 100 1 x 1 x 0
(i) F(0) = + 32 = 32 F(0) = 32
5 (iii) x + 2 0 x 2

(ii) F(10) = {
9 (10)
5 }
+ 32 = 14 F(10) = 14
From (i), (ii) and (iii), we get 2 x < 1 and x 0
\ 2 x < 0 or 0 < x < 1
Hence domain = [2, 0) (0, 1).
9x
(iii) F(x) = 212 + 32 = 212 13. Let (a, b) be an arbitrary element of A C. Then,
5
9x = (5 180) x = 100 (a, b) A C
a A and b C
1+ x a B and b D [ A B and C D]
8. Given, f (x ) = log
1 x (a, b) B D
2x Thus, (a, b) A C
1+ 1 + x 2 + 2x (a, b) B D for all (a, b) (A C).
2x 1 + x2
\ f = log = log \ ACBD
1 + x 2 1 2x 1 + x 2 2x
1 + x2 e x e |x|
14. Let y = f (x ) =
1+ x
2
1+ x e x + e|x|
= log = 2 log = 2 f (x ).
1 x 1 x e2 x 1
If x 0 then y =
41 x 2e 2 x
9. We have, y = N 1
2 e2 x = 1 ( x 0)
Clearly x = 1, 3, 5, 7, , 39 1 2y
1 y y
\ Domain R = {x : (x, y) R; x + 2y = 41} 1 0 0 or 0
= {1, 3, 5, 7, , 39} 1 2y 1 2y 2y 1
= set of odd natural numbers less than 40. 1
1
Now, y can be only those natural numbers for which \ 0 y< y 0,
x N i.e., x = 41 2y N. 2 2
15. f and g are not functions as they are not defined for
Clearly, y = 1, 2, 3, , 20.
negative values of x. But h is a function.
\ Range of R = {y : x + 2y = 41} = {1, 2, 3, , 20}
1
= set of natural numbers less than 21. \ For range of h, Let y = h(x) = 2
x 4
10. We have, P = {a, b} and Q = {x, y, z}
1 1 4y +1
Now, P Q = {(a, x), (a, y), (a, z), (b, x), (b, y), (b, z)} x2 4 = x2 = 4 + x =
Q P = {(x, a), (x, b), (y, a), (y, b), (z, a), (z, b)} y y y
\ P Q Q P. 1
Hence, range of h = , (0, )
4
11. Given, g(x) = f {f (x)}
1 1 1 x KEY
= f = = MPP-2 CLASS XII ANSWER
1 x 1 x
1 1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (d) 5. (c)
1 x
1 x 6. (c) 7. (a,b) 8. (b,c) 9. (b,c) 10. (b)
and h(x) = f [f {f (x)}] = f {g(x)} = f 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
x (a,b) (a) (a,b,d) (d) (b)
16. (d) 17. (2) 18. (3) 19. (2) 20. (7)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 15


4x C = {x N : x < 3} = {1, 2}
16. We have, f (x ) = . \ A = {2, 3}, B = {0, 1} and C = {1, 2}
x4
(i) (B C) = {0, 1, 2}
Domain of f : We observe that f (x) is defined for all x
\ A (B C) = {2, 3} {0, 1, 2}
except at x = 4. At x = 4, f (x) takes the indeterminate
= {(2, 0), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 0), (3, 1), (3, 2)}
0 (A B) = {2, 3} {0, 1} = {(2, 0), (2, 1), (3, 0), (3, 1)}
form . Therefore, Domain (f ) = R {4}.
0 (A C) = {2, 3} {1, 2} = {(2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 1), (3, 2)}
Range of f : For any x Domain (f ) i.e. for any x 4, \ (A B) (A C) = {(2, 0), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 0),
we have (3, 1), (3, 2)}
4 x (x 4) Hence, A (B C) = (A B) (A C)
f (x ) = = = 1.
x4 x4 (ii) (B C) = {0, 1} = {1}
\ Range (f ) = {1}. \ A (B C) = {2, 3} {1} = {(2, 1), (3, 1)}
And,
17. (i) f + g : R R is defined by (A B) (A C) = {(2, 1), (3, 1)}
(f + g) (x) = f (x) + g(x) = x3 + 1 + x + 1 = x3 + x + 2 Hence, A (B C) = (A B) (A C)
(ii) f g : R R is defined by
(f g) (x) = f (x) g(x) = x3 + 1 x 1 = x3 x 20. We have, f(x) = (log 2 (x )) + 7 x x 2 6
(iii) f g : R R is defined by
= (log 2 (x )) + (1 x )(x 6)
(fg) (x) = f (x) g(x) = (x3 + 1) (x + 1) = x4 + x3 + x + 1
For f (x) to be defined.
f
(iv) : R { 1} R is defined by (i) (log2(x)) 0 x 20 x 1
g
(ii) (1 x) (x 6) 0 1 x 6
f f (x ) x 3 + 1 (x + 1)(x 2 x + 1)
g ( x ) = = = = x2 x + 1 Therefore domain of f = [1, 6].
g (x ) x + 1 x +1

(v) af : R R is defined by
(af ) (x) = a f (x) = a (x3 + 1) = a x3 + a
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Hence, range (f ) = [1/3, 1]
19. We have
A = {x N : x2 5x + 6 = 0} = {2, 3};
B = {x Z : 0 x < 2} = {0, 1} and

16 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 17
Class XI

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations


Total Marks : 80 Time Taken : 60 Min.

Only One Option Correct Type 6. Solve for x :


log2x + 3 (6x2 + 23x + 21) + log3x + 7 (4x2 + 12x + 9) = 4
8
1 + i sin + cos (a) 4 (b) 2
1. 8 8 equals
1
(c) (d) All of these
1 i sin + cos 4
8 8
(a) 28 (b) 0 One or More Than One Option(s) Correct Type
(c) 1 (d) 1 7. ABCD is a rhombus, its diagonals AC and BD
2. If a, b, c are in G.P., then the equations intersect at the point R where BD = 2AC. Its points
ax2 + 2bx + c = 0, dx2 + 2ex + f = 0 have a common D and R represent the complex numbers 1 + i
d e f and 2 i respectively, then the complex number
root if , , are in represented by A is
a b c
(a) A.P. (b) G.P. (a) (3, 1/2) or (1, 1/2)
(c) H.P. (d) none of these (b) (3, 1/2) or (1, 3/2)
3. For positive integers n1 and n2 the value of the (c) ( 1/2, 3/2) or ( 3/2, 1/2)
(d) None of these
expression (1 + i)n1 + (1 + i 3 )n1 + (1 + i 5 )n2 + (1 + i 7 )n2
where i = 1 is a real number iff 8. (1 + i)5+ (1 i)5 =
(a) n1 = n2 (b) n2 = n2 1 (a) 8 (b) 8
(c) n1 = n2 + 1 (d) n1 and n2 5 7/2 5
(c)27/2 cos (d) 2 cos
4. If x, y, z are distinct positive reals such that 4 4
log x log y log z 9. If a and are non-real cube roots of unity and
= = , then value of xx yy zz is
yz zx x y x = a + b, y = aa + b , z = a + ba, then
(a) 1 (b) 0 (a) x + y + z = 1
(b) x + y + z = 0
(c) 1 (d) none of these
(c) x3 + y3 + z3 = 3(a3 + b3)
5. If the roots of the equation bx2 + cx + a = 0 (d) none of these
be imaginary, then for all real values of x, the
expression 3b2x2 + 6bcx + 2c2 is 10. The equation whose roots are a + and a + ,
if a are the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0
(a) less than 4ab (b) greater than 4ab
and , are roots of the equation a x2 + b x + c = 0,
(c) less than 4ab (d) greater than 4ab is

18 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


(a) aa x2 + bb x + cc = 0 Matrix Match Type
(b) ax2 + (a + a + b )x + bc = 0 16. Match the following :
(c) aa x2 bb x + cc = 0
(d) none of these Column I Column II
P. If a and b are positive 1.
11. If A and B are the points (3, 1) and (2, 1) respectively, 3 3
a+b
then the locus of the points P(z), z = x + yi, x, y R, numbers and log
2
such that |z 3 + i| = |z 2 i| is 1 a
= (log a + log b) then
(a) a circle containing A and B 2 b
(b) P is equidistant from A and B is equal to
(c) right bisector of segment joining A and B Q. Let A(2 + 0i), B(1 + 3i ) 2.
(d) none of these an d C ( 1 3i ) b e t h e
12. The value of x : |x2 + 2x 8| + x 2 = 0 is vertices of ABC. Then,
(a) 5 (b) 2 6 sin A is equal to
(c) 2 (d) 3 R. If one root of the equation 3.
13. If a C be such that |a| = 1, then the equation (x 1)(7 x) = is three
4 times the other, then =
1 + iz
1 iz = a has all the roots S. Conjugate of the complex 4. 2 + 3
number
(a) real and distinct 7 3 3i
is
(b) non-real 2 2
(c) two real and two non-real
(d) none of these P Q R S
(a) 4 2 3 1
Comprehension Type
(b) 3 4 1 2
Let a be the roots of the equation 6x2 + 6px + p2 = 0, (c) 1 4 3 2
where p is a real number. (d) 2 1 3 4
14. If both a and are greater than 2, then Integer Answer Type
(a) p < 4
17. The number of values of x in the interval [0, 3 ]
(b) p < 2 6 satisfying the equation 2sin2x + 5sinx 3 = 0 is
(c) p < 6 2 6 18. The least integral value of k for which
(d) none of these (k 2)x2 + 8x + k + 4 > 0 for all x R, is
15. The equation whose roots are (a + )2 and (a )2 19. If a, are non-real cube roots of unity then (1 + a)
is (1 + ) (1 + a2) (1 + 2) (1 + a4) (1 + 4)....upto 2n
(a) 3x2 + 4p2x + p4 = 0 factors is equal to
(b) 3x2 4p2x + p4 = 0 20. If a be non real cube root of unity, then
(c) 3x2 4p2x p4 = 0 equals
(d) none of these

Keys are published in this issue. Search now! J
Check your score! If your score is
> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the final exam.

No. of questions correct 74-60% SATISFACTORY ! You need to score more next time.
Marks scored in percentage < 60% NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 19


CLASS XII Series 2

CBSE
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
IMPORTANT FORMULAE

X Functions Domain Range Functions Domain Range


cot1x ( , ) (0, )

sin1x [1, 1] 2 , 2 { }
cosec1x ( , 1] [1, ) 2 , 2 0
cos1x [1, 1] [0, ]

tan1x ( , )

2 , 2
sec1x ( , 1] [1, ) [0, ] {}

2

PROPERTIES OF INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

1.
sin1(sin x) = x x , 2. sin(sin1x) = x, x [1, 1]
2 2
cos1(cos x) = x, x [0, ] cos(cos1x) = x, x [1, 1]

tan1(tan x) = x, x , tan(tan1x) = x, x R
2 2

cot1(cot x) = x, x (0, ) cot(cot1x) = x, x R

sec1(sec x) = x, x [0, ] {}
2
sec(sec1x) = x, x R (1, 1)


cosec1(cosec x) = x, x , {0} cosec(cosec1x) = x, x R ( 1, 1)
2 2

3. sin1(x) = sin1x, x [1, 1] cot1(x) = cot1x, x R

cos1(x) = cos1x, x [1, 1] sec1(x) = sec1x, x ( , 1] [1, )

tan1(x) = tan1x, x R cosec1(x) = cosec1x, x ( , 1] [1, )

20 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


4. sin1(1/x) = cosec1x, x ( , 1] [1, ) 5. sin1x + cos1x = /2, x [1, 1]

cos1(1/x) = sec1x, x ( , 1] [1, ) tan1x + cot1x = /2, x R

cot 1 x , for x > 0


tan 1 (1 / x ) = 1 sec1x + cosec1x = /2, x ( , 1] [1, )
+ cot x , for x < 0

6. 1 x + y
tan 1 xy , if x > 0, y > 0, xy < 1

x+y
tan1x + tan1y = + tan 1 , if x > 0, y > 0 and xy > 1
1 xy
x+y
+ tan 1 , if x < 0, y < 0 and xy > 1
1 xy

1 x y
tan 1 + xy , if x > 0, y < 0, xy > 1

xy
tan1x tan1y = + tan 1 , if x > 0, y < 0 and xy < 1
1 + xy
xy
+ tan 1 , if x < 0, y > 0 and xy < 1
1 + xy

{ }
7. sin 1 x 1 y 2 + y 1 x 2 , if 1 x , y 1 and x 2 + y 2 1

or
if xy < 0 and x 2 + y 2 > 1
{ }
1 1
sin x + sin y = 1 2 2
sin x 1 y + y 1 x , if 0 < x , y 1 and x 2 + y 2 > 1

{
siin 1 x 1 y 2 + y 1 x 2 ,
} if 1 x , y < 0 and x 2 + y 2 1

{
sin 1 x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2 , } if 1 x , y 1 and x 2 + y 2 1
or

1 1 if xy > 0 and x 2 + y 2 > 1
{ }
sin x sin y =
1 2 2
sin x 1 y y 1 x , if 0 < x 1, 1 y 0 and x 2 + y 2 > 1

{
sin 1 x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2 ,
} if 1 x < 0, 0 < y 1 and x 2 + y 2 > 1

{ }
8. cos 1 xy 1 x 2 1 y 2 , if 1 x , y 1 and x + y 0
1 1
cos x + cos y =
{ }
2 cos 1 xy 1 x 2 1 y 2 , if 1 x , y 1 and x + y 0

1
cos x cos 1
y =
{ }
cos 1 xy + 1 x 2 1 y 2 , if 1 x , y 1 and x y

{ }
cos 1 xy + 1 x 2 1 y 2 , if 1 y 0, 0 < x 1 and x y

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 21


9. 1 2 1 1
sin (2 x 1 x ) , if x
2 2
1
2 sin 1 x = sin 1 (2 x 1 x 2 ) , if x 1
2
1 2 1
sin (2 x 1 x ) , if 1 x
2
1 3 1 1
sin (3x 4 x ) , if x
2 2

1 1 3 1
3 sin x = sin (3x 4 x ) , if < x 1
2
1 3 1
sin (3x 4 x ) , if 1 x < 2
10. 1 3 1
cos 1 (2 x 2 1), if 0 x 1
2 cos 1 x = cos (4 x 3x ) , if x 1
2
1 2
2 cos (2 x 1), if 1 x 0 1 1
3 cos 1 x = 2 cos 1 (4 x 3 3x ) , if x
2 2
1 3 1
2 + cos (4 x 3x ) , if 1 x 2
11.
1 2 x 1 3x x 3 1 1
tan , if 1 < x < 1 tan , if <x<
1 x
2 1 3x 2
3 3

3x x
3
2x 1
2 tan 1 x = + tan 1 , if x > 1 3 tan 1 x = + tan 1 , if x >
1 x 2 1 3x
2
3
3x x
3
1
1 2 x + tan 1 , if x <
+ tan , if x < 1 2

1 x2 1 3x 3
12. 1 2 x
sin , if 1 x 1
1 + x2 1 1 x 2
cos , if 0 x <
2x 1 + x 2
2 tan 1 x = sin 1 , if x > 1 2 tan 1 x =
1 + x 2 cos 1 1 x , if < x 0
2

1 + x 2

1 2 x
sin , if x < 1
1 + x2
13.
( 1 x ) = tan x 1 x2 1
1 1 1
sin 1 x = cos 1 2 1
= cot 1 = sec = cosec x
1 x2 x 1 x2

cos 1 x = sin 1 ( 1 x ) = tan


2 1 1 x2

x
1
= cot
x
1 x2


1 1
= sec 1 = cosec 1
x 1 x 2

x
tan 1 x = sin 1
1 + x2
1
= cos
1
1+ x 2
1 1
= cot x = sec
1
( 1 + x ) = cosec
2 1 1 + x2

x

14. S S +S S + . . .
If x1, x2, ... , xn R, then tan 1 x1 + tan 1 x2 + . . . + tan 1 xn = tan 1 1 3 5 7
1 S2 + S4 S6 + . . .
where Sk = Sum of the products of x1, x2, ... , xn taken k at a time.

22 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


WORK IT OUT LONG ANSWER TYPE-II
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE
16. If a, b, c > 0 such that a + b + c = abc, find the value
of tan1 a + tan1 b + tan1 c.
1. Find the value of cot 2 cot 1 3 .
4 x y
17. If cos 1 + cos 1 = , prove that
4 a b
2. If tan 1 = , find the value of cos .
3 x2 2 xy y2
2 cos + = sin2 .
3. Find the principal value of sin 1 sin . a2 ab b2
3
4. For the principal values, evaluate the following: 18. If a1, a2, a3, ..., an is an arithmetic progression
with common difference d, then show that
2
cot 1 ( 3 ) + tan 1 (1) + sec 1 d d
3 tan tan 1 + tan 1
1 + a1a2 1 + a2a3
5. Evaluate : cos 1 ( cos(680))
d d
+ tan 1 + ... +
SHORT ANSWER TYPE 1 + a a
3 4 1 + a a
n 1 n
a a
6. Evaluate : (i) sin (cot1 x) (ii) cos (tan1 x) is equal to n 1 .
1 + a1an
8 3 36 19. Solve :
7. Prove that sin 1 + sin 1 = cos 1 .
17 5 85 1
(i) cos sin 1 + cos 1 x = 0
13 3
8. Solve for x : cos(tan1 x) = sin sec 1 .
12 x + 1 x 1
(ii) tan 1 + tan 1 = + tan 1(7)
x 1 x
9. Solve : sin 1 x = + cos 1 x
6 20. Prove that
A = tan12 and B = tan13, then 1 12 4 63
10. If in a ABC, (i) sin + cos 1 + tan 1 =
13 5 16
show that C is equal to .
4 1 4 3 27
(ii) cos + tan 1 = tan 1
LONG ANSWER TYPE-I 5 5 11
11. Write each of the following in the simplest form: SOLUTIONS

1 x 32 1
(i) tan1(sec x + tan x) (ii) sin 2 tan 1 1. cot 2 cot 1 3 = cot cot 1
1+ x 4 4 2 3
2 4 4
1+ x 1 1 x cot + 1 +1
12. Show that 2 tan 1 + sin = 4
1 x
1 + x2 = cot cot 1 = 4 3 = 3 =7
4 3 4 4
13. Evaluate the following : cot 1
3 4 3
1
(i) sin (2 sin1 0.8) (ii) tan 2 tan 1 4
5 4 2. Given, tan 1 = , where ,
3 2 2
14. Find the value of 4
\ tan = .
5 13 1 9 3
tan 1 tan + cos 1 cos + sec sec
6 6 5
We know that cos > 0, when , .
2 2
1 + x 2 1 x 2
15. If tan 1 = , then prove that \ cos =
1
=
1
=
1
=
3
2 2
1 + x + 1 x sec 1 + tan2 16 5
1+
x2 = sin 2 a. 9

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 23


2 8 3 36
3. Since, sin = sin = sin Hence, sin 1 + sin 1 = cos 1 .
3 3 3 17 5 85
2 x
\ sin 1 sin = sin 1 sin = . 8. Let tan1 x = f. Then, tan =
3 3 3 1
1 1
2 \ cos = = cos 1
Hence, the principal value of sin1 sin is .
3 3 1 + x2 1 + x2
2 1 1
4. cot 1 ( 3 ) + tan 1 (1) + sec 1 So, cos(tan1x) = cos cos 1 =
3
1 + x2 1 + x2
5 13 13
= cot 1 cot + tan 1 tan + sec 1 sec Also, let sec 1 = . Then, sec =
6 4 6 12 12
5 5 5 5
= + + = \ sin = = sin 1
6 4 6 4 13 13
cos 1 {cos(680)} = cos 1 (cos 680) 13 5 5
5. So, sin sec 1 = sin sin 1 =
12 13 13
34 1 2 1 5 1 25
= cos 1 cos = cos cos 4 Thus, = =
9 9 2
1 + x 2 13 (1 + x ) 169
1 2 2 169 169 144
= cos cos = = 40 1 + x2 = x2 = 1 x =
9 9 25 25 25
x 12
6. (i) We have, sin (cot1 x) = sin cot 1 . Hence, x = .
1 5

1 9. We have, sin x = + cos 1 x
1
Now, cot 1 x = sin 1 6
1 + x2 1 1
sin x cos x =

6
1 1
Hence, sin (cot1 x) = sin sin 1 =
1 + x 2 1 + x2
sin 1 x sin 1 x =
2 6
x 2 3
(ii) cos (tan1 x) = cos tan 1 2 sin 1 x = sin 1 x = x =
1 3 3 2
1
10. We have, A = tan 2, B = tan 3 1
1
Now, tan 1 x = cos 1 We know that, A + B + C =
1 + x2 tan1 2 + tan1 3 + C =
2+3
1 1 + tan 1 + C =
Hence, cos (tan1 x) = cos cos 1

= 1 2 3
1 + x 2 1 + x2
+ tan1(1) + C = + C =
8 3 15 4 4
7. L.H.S. = sin 1 + sin 1 = cos 1 + cos 1 3
17 5 17 5 + C = C =
4 4
2 2
1 15 4 15 4 1 cos + x
= cos 1 1 1 + sin x 2
17 5 17 5 11. (i) sec x + tan x = =
cos x

{ }
12 sin + x
64 9 12 8 3 2
= cos 1 = cos 1 x
17 289 25 17 17 5 2 sin2 +
4 2 x

{ }
12 24 36 = = tan +
1 x x 4 2
= cos = cos 1 = R.H.S. 2 sin + cos +
17 85 85 4 2 4 2

24 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 25
x x
\ tan1 tan + = +
4 2 4 2 tan 1 tan + cos 1 cos 2 +

6 6
(ii) Put x = cos
+ sec 1 sec 2
1 x 1 cos 5
\ sin 2 tan 1 = sin 2 tan 1
1+ x 1 + cos
tan 1 tan + cos 1 cos

6 6
2 sin2 / 2
= sin 2 tan 1
+ sec 1 sec
2 cos2 / 2 5
.
= + + =
6 6 5 5
= sin 2 tan 1 tan = sin = 1 x 2
2 1 + x 2 1 x 2
1+ x 1 x2 15. We have, tan 1 =
12. Given expression is 2 tan 1 + sin 1 2 2
1 x 1 + x2 1 + x + 1 x
Putting x = tan , we get 1 + x2 1 x2
= tan
1 + tan 1 tan2 1 + x2 + 1 x2
2 tan 1 + sin 1
1 tan 1 + tan2

( 1 + x2 1 x2 + ) ( 1 + x2 + 1 x2 )

1
tan

4
+ tan

1
( 1 + x2 1 x2 ) ( 1 + x2 + 1 x2 )
= 2 tan + sin (cos 2 ) tan + 1
=
1 tan tan tan 1
4
2 1 + x2 tan + 1 1 x2 1 tan
1 1 = =
= 2 tan tan 4 + + sin sin 2 2 2 1 x 2 tan 1 1 + x2 1 + tan

1 x2 cos sin
= 2 + + 2 = + 2 + 2 = =
4 2 2 2 1 + x2 cos + sin
2 1 x2 1 sin 2
13. (i) sin (2 sin10.8) = sin sin 1 2 0.8 1 (0.8) = x 2 = sin 2
2 1 + sin 2
1+ x
1
= sin[sin (2 0.8 0.6)] 16. It is given that a + b + c = abc
= sin[sin1(0.96)] = 0.96 abc a b
\ = + +1
1 c c c
2
1 1 1 5 a b a+b
(ii) tan 2 tan = tan tan ab = 1 + + ab 1 =
5 4 1 2 4 c c c
1 a+b
5 ab 1 > 0 a, b, c > 0 c > 0
ab > 1
5 5 Now, tan1 a + tan1 b + tan1 c
= tan tan 1 = tan tan 1 tan 1 1
12 4 12 a+b
= + tan 1 + tan 1 c [ ab > 1]
1 ab
5
1 12 1 1 7 7 abc c
= tan tan = tan tan = = + tan 1 + tan 1 c
5
17 17 1 ab
1 + 1
12
c (1 ab)
= + tan 1 + tan 1 c
1 5 1 13 1 9 1 ab
14. tan tan + cos cos + sec sec
6 6 5 = + tan1 (c) + tan1 c = tan1 c + tan1 c =

26 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


x y 1 1
17. We have cos 1 + cos 1 = x = cos sin 1 x = cos sin 1
a b 2 3 2 3
x2 1 1 1
1 x y y2 = sin sin 1 = = cos + sin 1
cos 1 1 = 3 3 2 3
a b a2 b2
1 1
xy x2 y2 x2 y2 = sin sin 1 =
1 + = cos 3 3
ab a 2 b2 a 2 b2 1
\ x=
3
xy x2 y2 x2 y2
cos = 1 + (ii) We have,
ab a 2 b2 a 2 b2 x + 1 x 1
tan 1 + tan 1 = + tan 1(7)
Squaring both sides, we have x 1 x
x2 y2 2 xy x2 y2 x2 y2 x +1 x 1
cos + cos2 = 1 + +
a 2 b2 ab a 2 b2 a 2 b2 1 x 1 x = + tan 1(7)
tan
x +1 x 1
x2 2 xy y2 1
cos + = 1 cos2 x 1 x
a2 ab b 2
(x + 1)x + (x 1)2
x 2 2 xy y2 \ = tan + tan 1 (7)
\ cos + = sin2 (x 1)x (x + 1)(x 1)
2 ab 2
a b x2 + x + x2 2x + 1 = 7(x2 x x2 + 1)
18. Given, a1, a2, a3, a4, ... , an is an arithmetic 2x2 8x + 8 = 0 i.e., x2 4x + 4 = 0
progression, then d = a2 a1 = a3 a2 = ... = an an 1 (x 2)2 = 0
\ x=2
d d
\ tan tan 1 + tan 1 12 4 63
1 + a1a2 1 + a2a3 20. (i) L.H.S. = sin 1 + cos 1 + tan 1
13 5 16
d d 12 3 63
+ tan 1 + ... + tan 1 = tan 1 + tan 1 + tan 1

1 + a3a4 1 + an 1an 5 4 16
a a a a 12 3
= tan tan 1 2 1 + tan 1 3 2 +
1 5 4 63
1 + a1a2 1 + a2a3 = + tan + tan 1
12 3 16
1
a a a a 5 4
+ tan 1 4 3 + ... + tan 1 n n 1
1 + a a
3 4 1 + a a
n 1 n 63 63
= + tan 1 + tan 1
16 16
= tan [tan1 a2 tan1
a1 + tan1
a3 a2 + tan1
1 1
... + tan an tan an 1] 63 63
= tan 1 + tan 1 =
= tan[tan1 an tan1 a1] 16 16
4 4
a a a a (ii) Let cos 1 = . Then cos = .
= tan tan 1 n 1 = n 1 . 5 5
1 + ana1 1 + a1an
1 cos2 3 3
1
\ tan = = = tan 1
19. (i) Here, cos sin 1 + cos 1 x = 0 = cos cos 4 4
3 2 4 3
Consequently, cos 1 = tan 1
1 5 4
\ sin 1 + cos 1 x = 1 4 1 3 1 3 3
3 2 \ cos + tan = tan + tan 1
1 5 5 4 5
i.e., cos 1 x = sin 1 3 3
2 3 +
1 4 5 27
1 = tan = tan 1
\ x = cos sin 1 3 3 11
2 3 1
4 5
MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 27
Class XII

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Inverse Trigonometric Functions


Total Marks : 80 Time Taken : 60 Min.
Only One Option Correct Type 3p
6. If sin1 x + sin1 y + sin1z = , then the value of
1. The number of positive integral solutions of 2
216
25 (x + y + z) 3 must be
y 3 (x + y 3 + z 3 )
tan 1 x + cos 1 = sin 1 is
1+ y 2 10 (a) 1 (b) 2
(c) 3 (d) none of these
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) > 2
1 x2 p One or More Than One Option(s) Correct Type
2. If cos 1 < , then x belongs to the interval
1 + x2 3 2
7. If cos1x + (sin1y)2 = pp and
1 , 1 4
(a) (b) 1 , 1 p2
3
1 1 2
3 3 3 (cos x )(sin y ) = , then
16
1 4
(c) 0, (d) none of these (a) 0 p + 1
3 p
(b) p = 2 is the integral value of p
17 p
3. cos 1 cos is equal to (c) p = 0, 1, 2 (integral values)
15 (d) none of these
17 p 13p
(a) (b)
15 15 8. For 0 < f < p , if x = cos f , y =
2
2n
sin2n f ,
3p 17 p n=0 n=0
(c)
15
(d) z = cos2n f sin2n f , then
15
n=0
4. The domain of the function (a) xyz = xz + y (b) xyz = xy + z
2 x (c) xyz = x + y + z (d) xyz = yz + x
f (x ) = cos 1 1
+ [log(3 x )] is
4 9. For the equation

(a) [6, 6] (b) [5, 2) (2, 3) 2x = tan(2 tan1a) + 2 tan(tan1a + tan1a3),
(c) (2, 3) (d) [6, 2) (2, 3) which of the following is invalid?
(a) a2x + 2a = x (b) a2 + 2ax + 1 = 0
5. If q are f are the roots of the equation (c) a 0 (d) a 1, 1
8x2 + 22x + 5 = 0, then
(a) both sin1 q and sin1 f are real 10. tan 1 a1x y + tan 1 a2 a1 + tan 1 a3 a2
(b) both sec1 q and sec1 f are real a1 y + x a1a2 + 1 a2a3 + 1
(c) both tan1 q and tan1 f are real a a 1
+ ...... + tan 1 n n1 + tan 1 is equal to
(d) none of these an1an + 1 an

28 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 29
x
(a) tan1 xy (b) tan1 (a) p (b) p
y 4 2
(c) tan1 y (d) none of these
x 3p
(c) (d) none of these
11. The value of q for which 4
1 3 sin 2q Matrix Match Type
= q tan 1 (2 tan2 q) sin 1 , is/are:
2 5 + 4 cos 2q 16. Match the following :
p
(a) np + tan1(2) (b) np, np + Column I Column II
4
(c) np + cot1(2) (d) none of these 1
P. If 2 tan (2x + 1) = cos 1 1
(x), then 1.
12. If x, y and z are in A.P. and tan1 x, tan1 y and tan1 z x is 2
are also in A.P. then
(a) x = y = z (b) 2x = 3y = 6z
Q. If 2 cos1x = sin1
then x is
( 2x 1 x ),2
2.
2
3

(c) 6x = 3y = 2z (d) 6x = 4y = 3z 3. 1
x 1 1 x + 1
p R. If tan 1 + tan x + 2
13. In DABC, C = and x 2
2 p
= , then x is
ax bx 4
sin 1 x = sin 1 + sin 1 4. 0
c c
where a, b and c are the sides of triangle, then the P Q R
values of x is/are (a) 2 1 3
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 1 (b) 3 2 1
Comprehension Type
(c) 3 1 2
(d) 4 2 1
( tan1 xr tan1 xr 1 )
n n
xr xr 1
tan1 1= Integer Answer Type
r =1 + xr 1xr r =1
17. The number of solutions for the equation
= tan 1 xn tan 1 x0 , n N
3p is
On the basis of above information, answer the following 2 sin 1 (x 2 x + 1) + cos 1 (x 2 x ) =
2
questions: p p
18. If tan q + tan + q + tan + q = a tan 3q,
14. The value of cosec1 5 + cosec1 65 + 3 3
then a is equal to
cosec1 (325) + .... to is
3p
3p 19. If sin1x + sin1y + sin1z = and f(1) = 2,
(a) p (b) (c) p (d) p 2
4 2 4 f(p + q) = f(p). f(q), p, q R, then
15. The sum to infinite terms of the series (x + y + z )
x f(1) + y f(2) + z f(3) f (1) is equal to

tan 1
2
+ tan 1
4 x + y f ( 2 ) + z f ( 3)
2 4 2 4
1 1 +1 1 2 + 2 20. If = tan 2 tan 1 1 p , then the value of 17 2
5 4
6 must be
+ tan1 + ... is
1 3 + 34
2

Keys are published in this issue. Search now!

Check your score! If your score is


> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the final exam.
No. of questions correct 74-60% SATISFACTORY ! You need to score more next time.
Marks scored in percentage < 60% NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

30 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


CATEGORY-I (Q. 1 to Q. 50) x + 2 3x x 0
6. Let A = ,B= . Then all
Only one answer is correct. Correct answer will fetch full
3 x + 2
5 x + 2
marks 1. Incorrect answer or any combination of more than
one answer will fetch marks. No answer will fetch 0 solutions of the equation det (AB) = 0 is
marks. (a) 1, 1, 0, 2 (b) 1, 4, 0, 2
1. The number of all numbers having 5 digits, with (c) 1, 1, 4, 3 (d) 1, 4, 0, 3
distinct digits is 7. The value of det A, where
(a) 99999 (b) 9 9P4 (c) 10P5 (d) 9P4 1 cos 0

A = cos 1 cos lies
2. The greatest integer which divides (p + 1)(p + 2) 1 cos 1
(p + 3).....(p + q) for all pN and fixed q N is
(a) p! (b) q! (c) p (d) q (a) in the closed interval [1, 2]
(b) in the closed interval [0, 1]
3. Let (1 + x + x2)9 = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ..... + a18x18.
(c) in the open interval (0, 1)
Then
(d) in the open interval (1, 2)
(a) a0 + a2 + ..... + a18 = a1 + a3 + ... + a17
(b) a0 + a2 + ..... + a18 is even 8. Let f : R R be such that f is injective and
(c) a0 + a2 + ..... + a18 is divisible by 9 f(x)f(y) = f(x + y), x, y R. If f (x), f (y), f (z) are in
(d) a0 + a2 + ..... + a18 is divisible by 3 but not by 9 G.P., then x, y, z are in
(a) A.P. always
8 x 3 y 5z = 0 (b) G.P. always

4. The linear system of equations 5x 8 y + 3z = 0 (c) A.P. depending on the value of x, y, z
has 3x + 5 y 8z = 0 (d) G.P. depending on the value of x, y, z
(a) only zero solution
9. On the set R of real numbers we define xPy if and
(b) only finite number of non-zero solutions
only if xy 0. Then the relation P is
(c) no non-zero solution (a) reflexive but not symmetric
(d) infinitely many non-zero solutions (b) symmetric but not reflexive
5. Let P be the set of all non-singular matrices of order (c) transitive but not reflexive
3 over R and Q be the set of all orthogonal matrices (d) reflexive and symmetric but not transitive
of order 3 over R. Then 10. On R, the relation be defined by 'x y holds if and
(a) P is proper subset of Q only if x y is zero or irrational'. Then
(b) Q is proper subset of P (a) is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric.
(c) Neither P is proper subset of Q nor Q is proper (b) is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive.
subset of P (c) is symmetric and transitive but not reflexive.
(d) P Q = f, the void set (d) is equivalence relation

By : Anil Kumar Gupta (akg Classes), Asansol (W.B.) Mob : 09832230099

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 31


11. Mean of n observations x1, x2, ....., xn is x. If an 19. The common chord of the circles x2 + y2 4x 4y = 0
observation xq is replaced by xq then the new mean and 2x2 + 2y2 = 32 subtends at the origin an angle
is equal to
(n 1)x + x q
(a) x xq + xq (b) (a) (b) (c) (d)
n 3 4 6 2
(n 1)x x q nx xq + x q 20. The locus of the mid-points of the chords of the
(c) (d) circle x2 + y2 + 2x 2y 2 = 0 which make an angle
n n
of 90 at the centre is
12. The probability that a non leap year selected at
(a) x2 + y2 2x 2y = 0
random will have 53 Sundays is
(b) x2 + y2 2x + 2y = 0
(a) 0 (b) 1/7 (c) 2/7 (d) 3/7 (c) x2 + y2 + 2x 2y = 0
13. The equation sin x(sinx + cos x) = k has real (d) x2 + y2 + 2x 2y 1 = 0
solutions, where k is a real number. Then 21. Let P be the foot of the perpendicular from focus
1+ 2 x2 y2
(a) 0 k (b) 2 3 k 2 + 3 S of hyperbola = 1 on the line bx ay = 0
2 a 2 b2
1 2 1+ 2 and let C be the centre of the hyperbola. Then the
(c) 0 k 2 3 (d) k
2 2 area of the rectangle whose sides are equal to that of
14. The possible values of x, which satisfy the SP and CP is
trigonometric equation (a) 2ab (b) ab
2 2 a
x 1 x + 1 (a + b )
tan 1 + tan 1 = are (c) (d)
x 2 x + 2 4 2 b
1 1 22. B is an extremity of the minor axis of an ellipse
(a) (b) 2 (c) (d) 2
2 2 whose foci are S and S . If SBS is a right angle,
then the eccentricity of the ellipse is
15. Transforming to parallel axes through a point
1 1 2 1
(p, q), the equation 2x2 + 3xy + 4y2 + x + 18y + 25 = 0 (a) (b) (c) (d)
becomes 2x2 + 3xy + 4y2 = 1. Then 2 2 3 3
(a) p = 2, q = 3 (b) p = 2, q = 3 23. The axis of the parabola x2 + 2xy + y2 5x + 5y 5 = 0
(c) p = 3, q = 4 (d) p = 4, q = 3 is
(a) x + y = 0 (b) x + y 1 = 0
16. Let A(2, 3) and B(2, 1) be two angular points of
1
ABC. If the centroid of the triangle moves on the (c) x y + 1 = 0 (d) x y =
line 2x + 3y = 1, then the locus of the angular point 2
C is given by 24. The line segment joining the foci of the hyperbola
(a) 2x + 3y = 9 (b) 2x 3y = 9 x2 y2 + 1 = 0 is one of the diameters of a circle. The
(c) 3x + 2y = 5 (d) 3x 2y = 3 equation of the circle is
17. The point P(3, 6) is first reflected on the line y = x (a) x2 + y2 = 4 (b) x 2 + y 2 = 2
and then the image point Q is again reflected on (c) x2 + y2 = 2 (d) x 2 + y 2 = 2 2
the line y = x to get the image point Q . Then the 25. The equation of the plane through (1, 2, 3) and
circumcentre of the PQQ is (2, 2, 1) and parallel to X-axis is
(a) (6, 3) (b) (6, 3) (c) (3, 6) (d) (0, 0) (a) y z + 1 = 0 (b) y z 1 = 0
18. Let d1 and d2 be the lengths of the perpendiculars (c) y + z 1 = 0 (d) y + z + 1 = 0
drawn from any point of the line 7x 9y + 10 = 0 26. Three lines are drawn from the origin O with direction
upon the lines 3x + 4y = 5 and 12x + 5y = 7 cosines proportional to (1, 1, 1), (2, 3, 0) and
respectively. Then (1, 0, 3). The three lines are
(a) d1 > d2 (b) d1 = d2 (c) d1 < d2 (d) d1 = 2d2 (a) not coplanar (b) coplanar

32 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


(c) perpendicular to each other 2 tan x
35. lim(sin x )
(d) coincident x 0

27. Consider the non-constant differentiable function f (a) is 2 (b) is 1


of one variable which obeys the relation (c) is 0 (d) does not exist
f (x )
f ( y)
= f(x y). If f (0) = p and f (5) = q, then f (5) is 36. cos(log x)dx = F(x) + c, where c is an arbitrary
p2 q p constant. Here F(x) =
(a) (b) (c) (d) q (a) x[cos(log x) + sin(log x)]
q p q
(b) x[cos(log x) sin(log x)]
28. If f(x) = log5 log3 x, then f (e) is equal to
x
(a) e loge 5 (b) e loge3 (c) [cos(log x) + sin(log x)]
2
1 1
(c) (d) x
e log e 5 e log e 3 (d) [cos(log x) sin(log x)]
2
29. Let F(x) = ex, G(x) = ex and H(x) = G(F(x)), where x2 1
dH 37. dx (x > 0) is
x is a real variable. Then at x = 0 is x 4 + 3x 2 + 1
dx
1 1
1 (a) tan 1 x + + c (b) tan 1 x + c
(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) (d) e x x
e
30. If f (0) = k, k 0, then the value of 1 1
x+
1 x 1
2 f (x ) 3 f (2 x ) + f (4 x ) x x
lim is (c) log e +c (d) log e +c
x 0 x2 1 1
x + +1 x +1
(a) k (b) 2k (c) 3k (d) 4k x x
1 d2 y dy 19
sin x
31. If y = emsin x, then (1 x2) 2 x ky = 0,
where k is equal to dx dx 38. Let I = 1 + x 8 dx. Then,
10
(a) m 2 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) m2 (a) I < 109 (b) I < 107
32. The chord of the curve y = x2
+ 2ax + b, joining (c) I < 105 (d) I > 107
the points where x = a and x = , is parallel to the
n n
tangent to the curve at abscissa x =
a+b 2a + b 2 + +
39. Let I1 = [x]dx and I2 = {x}dx, where [x] and
(a) (b) (c) (d) 0 0
2 3 3 2 {x} are integral and fractional parts of x and
33. Let f (x) = x13 + x11 + x9 + x7 + x5 + x3 + x + 19. Then nN {1}. Then I1/I2 is equal to
f (x) = 0 has
1 1
(a) 13 real roots (a) (b) (c) n (d) n 1
(b) only one positive and only two negative real n 1 n
roots n n 1
40. The value of lim 2 2 + 2 2 + ..... + is
(c) not more than one real root n n + 1 n +2 2n
(d) has two positive and one negative real root
n
(a) (b) (c) (d)
xp 4 4 4n 2n
, if 0 < x <
34. Let f(x) = (sin x )q 2 , (p, q R). Then 1
2
0 , if x = 0 41. The value of the integral e x dx

Lagrange's mean value theorem is applicable to f (x) (a) is less than 1 0

in closed interval [0, x], (b) is greater than 1


(a) for all p, q (b) only when p > q (c) is less than or equal to 1
(c) only when p < q (d) for no value of p, q (d) lies in the closed interval [1, e]

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 33


100 CATEGORY-II (Q. 51 to Q. 65)
x [ x ]
42. e dx = Only one answer is correct. Correct answer will fetch full
marks 2. Incorrect answer or any combination of more than
0 one answer will fetch marks. No answer will fetch 0 marks.
e100 1 e100 1
(a) (b) 1 1 1
100 e 1
51. Let A = 0 1 1 Then for positive integer n, An is
e 1 0 0 1
(c) 100(e 1) (d)
100 n + 1
dy
43. Solution of (x + y)2 = a2 ('a' being a constant) is 1 n n2 1 n n 2
dx
(a) 0 n2 n (b) 0 1 n
(x + y ) y+c 0 0 n
(a) = tan , c is an arbitrary constant 0 0 1
a a
(b) xy = a tan cx, c is an arbitrary constant 1 n 2n 1
1 n2 n n +1
x y 0 n2
(c) = tan , c is an arbitrary constant (c) 0 n n2 (d) 2
a c n +1
(d) xy = tan (x + c), c is an arbitrary constant 0 0 n2 0 0
2
44. The integrating factor of the first order differential 52. Let a, b, c be such that b(a + c) 0.
equation a a +1 a 1 a +1 b +1 c 1
dy If b b + 1 b 1 + a 1 b 1 c +1 = 0
x2(x2 1) + x(x2 + 1)y = x2 1 is c c 1 c + 1 (1)n+2 a (1)n+1b (
dx 1)n c
1 1 1 then the value of n is
(a) ex (b) x (c) x + (d) 2 (a) any integer (b) zero
x x x
(c) any even integer (d) any odd integer
45. In a G.P. series consisting of positive terms, each
term is equal to the sum of next two terms. Then 53. On set A = {1, 2, 3}, relations R and S are given by
the common ratio of this G.P. series is R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 2), (2, 1)}
S = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 3), (3, 1)}. Then
5 1 5 5 +1 (a) R S is an equivalence relation
(a) 5 (b) (c) (d)
2 2 2 (b) R S is reflexive and transitive but not
46. If (log5 x)(logx 3x)(log3x y) = logx x3, then y equals symmetric
(c) R S is reflexive and symmetric but not
(a) 125 (b) 25 (c) 5/3 (d) 243
transitive
(1 + i)n (d) R S is symmetric and transitive but not
47. The expression equals reflexive
(1 i)n2
(a) in + 1 (b) in + 1 (c) 2in + 1 (d) 1 54. If one of the diameters of the curve x2 + y2 4x 6y
+ 9 = 0 is a chord of a circle with centre (1, 1), the
48. Let z = x + iy, where x and y are real. The points radius of the circle is
z +i (a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 2 (d) 1
(x, y) in the X-Y plane for which purely
imaginary lie on z i 55. Let A(1, 0) and B(2, 0) be two points. A
(a) a straight line (b) an ellipse point M moves in the plane in such a way that
(c) a hyperbola (d) a circle MBA = 2 MAB. Then the point M moves along
(a) a straight line (b) a parabola
49. If p, q are odd integers, then the roots of the equation (c) an ellipse (d) a hyperbola
2px2 + (2p + q)x + q = 0 are
x
(a) rational (b) irrational
(c) non-real (d) equal
56. If f(x) = | t | dt , then for any x 0, f(x) is equal to
1
50. Out of 7 consonants and 4 vowels, words are 1
(a) (1 x2) (b) 1 x2
formed each having 3 consonants and 2 vowels. The 2
number of such words that can be formed is 1
(c) (1 + x2) (d) 1 + x2
(a) 210 (b) 25200 (c) 2520 (d) 302400 2

34 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


57. Let for all x > 0, f(x) = lim n ( x 1) , then
1 CATEGORY-III (Q. 66 to Q. 75)
n One or more answer(s) is (are) correct. Correct answer(s)
n will fetch full marks 2. Any combination containing one or
1 more incorrect answer will fetch 0 marks. Also no answer will
(a) f(x) + f =1 (b) f(xy) = f(x) + f(y)
x fetch 0 marks. If all correct answers are not marked and also
(c) f(xy) = xf(y) + yf(x) (d) f(xy) = xf(x) + yf(x) no incorrect answer is marked then score = 2 number of
correct answers marked actual number of correct answers.
100
66. If a, b {1, 2, 3} and the equation ax2 + bx + 1 = 0
58. Let I = (1 cos 2 x ) dx, then
has real roots, then
0
(a) I = 0 (b) I = 200 2 (a) a > b
(b) a b
(c) I = 2 (d) I = 100
(c) number of possible ordered pairs (a, b) is 3
59. The area of the figure bounded by the parabolas (d) a < b
x = 2y2 and x = 1 3y2 is
4 2 67. If the tangent to y2 = 4ax at the point (at2, 2at)
(a) square units (b) square units where |t| > 1 is a normal to x2 y2 = a2 at the point
3 3
3 6 (a sec , a tan ), then
(c) square units (d) square units (a) t = cosec (b) t = sec
7 7
x2 y2 (c) t = 2 tan (d) t = 2 cot
60. Tangents are drawn to the ellipse + =1
9 5 68. The focus of the conic x2 6x + 4y + 1 = 0 is
at the ends of both latusrectum. The area of the (a) (2, 3) (b) (3, 2) (c) (3, 1) (d) (1, 4)
quadrilateral so formed is
69. Let f : R R be twice continuously. Let f(0) = f(1) =
13
(a) 27 sq. units (b) sq. units f (0) = 0. Then
2
15 (a) f (x) 0 for all x
(c) sq. units (d) 45 sq. units (b) f (c) 0 for some c R
4
(c) f (x) 0 if x 0
61. The value of K in order that f(x) = sin x cos x Kx + 5
(d) f (x) > 0 for all x
decreases for all positive real values of x is given by
(a) K < 1 (b) K 1 (c) K > 2 (d) K < 2 70. If f(x) = xn, n being a non-negative integer, then the
values of n for which f (a + ) = f (a) + f ( ) for
62. For any vector x, the value of
   all a, > 0 is
(x i)2 + (x j)2 + (x k )2 is equal to
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 0 (d) 5
(a) |x|2 (b) 2|x|2 (c) 3|x|2 (d) 4|x|2
71. Let f be a non-constant continuous function for all
63. If the sum of two unit vectors is a unit vector, then
x 0. Let f satisfy the relation f(x) f(a x) = 1 for
the magnitude of their difference is a
(a) 2 units (b) 2 units dx
some a R+. Then I = 1 + f (x) is equal to
(c) 3 units (d) 5 units 0

x2
64. Let a and be the roots of + x + 1 = 0. If n be a a
(a) a (b) (c) (d) f(a)
positive integer, then an + n is 4 2
2n 2n 72. If the line ax + by + c = 0, ab 0, is a tangent to the
(a) 2 cos (b) 2 sin curve xy = 1 2x, then
3 3
n n (a) a > 0, b < 0 (b) a > 0, b > 0
(c) 2 cos (d) 2 sin (c) a < 0, b > 0 (d) a < 0, b < 0
3 3
x 2 + 2x + 4 73. Two particles move in the same straight line
65. For real x, the greatest value of is starting at the same moment from the same point
2x 2 + 4 x + 9
in the same direction. The first moves with constant
1 1 velocity u and the second starts from rest with
(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) (d)
2 4 constant acceleration f. Then

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 35


(a) they will be at the greatest distance at the end x + 2 3x x 0
u 6. (b) : AB =
of time from the start 3 x + 2 5 x + 2
2f
(b) they will be at the greatest distance at the end x 2 + 17 x 3x 2 + 6 x
= 2
of time
u
from the start 8 x + 10 x + 4 x + 4
f x + 17 3
u2 det(AB) = x(x + 2)
(c) their greatest distance is 8 x + 10 x + 2
2f
= x(x + 2)(x2 5x + 4) = x(x + 2)(x 1)(x 4)
u2
(d) their greatest distance is \ det(AB) = 0 x = 1, 4, 0, 2
f
1 cos 0
74. The complex number z satisfying the equation
7. (a) : |A| = cos 1 cos = (1 + cos2 )
|z i| = |z + 1| = 1 is
1 cos 1 cos (0) + 0
(a) 0 (b) 1 + i (c) 1 + i (d) 1 i
75. On R, the set of real numbers, a relation is defined = 1 + cos2 [1, 2].
as 'a b if and only if 1 + ab > 0. Then 8. (c) : f(x)f(y) = f(x + y) ...(i)
(a) is an equivalence relation \ f(y)f(y) = f(y + y) {f(y)}2 = f(2y)
(b) is reflexive and transitive but not symmetric f(x)f(z) = f(2y) [ f(x), f(y), f(z) are in G.P.]
(c) is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive f(x + z) = f(2y) [from (i)]
(d) is only symmetric x, y, z are in A.P. but will depend on the value of
x, y, z.
SOLUTIONS
9. (d) : x2 0 \ xx 0 xPx Reflexive
1. (b) : 1st digit must be other than 0 (zero) i.e. 9 ways.
xy 0 yx 0 Symmetric
\ Other 4 digits can be filled in 9P4 ways
(5)(0) 0 & (0)(7) 0
\ Total no. of numbers having 5 (distinct) digits = 9 9P4
i.e., (5, 0) P & (0, 7) P
2. (b) : (p + 1)(p + 2)(p + 3).....(p + q) is a product But, (5)(7) < 0 (5, 7) P
of q consecutive positive integers \ P is not transitive.
\ It must be always divisible by q!
10. (b) : Here (x, y) if x y is zero or irrational.
3. (b) : (1 + x + x2)9 = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ..... + a18x18 x x = 0 for all x R
Putting x = 1 and 1, we get is reflexive
39 = a0 + a1 + a2 + ..... + a18 ...(i)
If x y is zero or irrational then y x is also zero or
1 = a0 a1 + a2 ..... + a18 ...(ii)
irrational.
Adding (i) & (ii), we get
is symmetric.
39 + 1 Let (x, y) & (y, z)
= a0 + a2 + a4 + ..... + a18
2 \ x y = 0 or irrational & y z = 0 or irrational
a0 + a2 + a4 + ..... + a18 = 9842, which is even but But, their sum x z may or may not be 0 or irrational
not divisible by 3 or 9.
e.g., 2 3 is irrational & 3 5 both are irrational
8 3 5 0 3 5 but their sum 2 5 = 3 is neither zero nor irrational
4. (d) : 5 8 3 = 0 8 3 is not transitive.
3 5 8 0 5 8
11. (d) : Mean of n observations x1, x2, ....., xn is x .
[C1 C1 + C2 + C3] \ Sum of n observations = nx
=0 If xq is replaced by xq then sum = nx xq + xq
\ Given system of equation has infinitely many non-
zero solutions. nx xq + xq
\ New mean =
5. (b) : Every orthogonal matrix is non-singular n
but every non-singular matrix may or may not be 12. (b) : A non-leap year has 52 weeks & 1 extra day
orthogonal. 1
\ Prob. of 53 sundays =
\ Q is proper subset of P. 7

36 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


1 13(3x + 4y 5) = 5(12x + 5y 7)
13. (d) : We have, k = sin2 x + sinx cos x = [(1 cos 2x) 21x 27y + 30 = 0 & 99x + 77y = 100
2
+ sin 2x] 7x 9y + 10 = 0 & 99x + 77y = 100
1 1 1 1 7x 9y + 10 = 0 is one of the bisector.
= + sin 2 x cos 2 x \ Perp. from any pt. on it will be equal to both given
2 2 2 2
lines \ d1 = d2.
1 1
= + sin (2 x 45) 19. (d) : Equation of common chord i.e., S1 S2 = 0 will be
2 2
(x2 + y2 16) (x2 + y2 4x 4y) = 0
1 sin(2x 45) 1
x + y = 4, which subtends 90 at (0, 0)
1 1 1 1
\ k + 20. (c) : Let M(h, k) be the mid
2 2 2 2
point of chord of
1 2 1+ 2 (x + 1)2 + (y 1)2 = (2)2 ...(i) C(1, 1)
k
2 2 subtending 90 at centre C(1, 1) 45 2
1 x + 1 1 1 x 1 \ 2CM2 = CB2 A
M 45
14. (a) : tan = tan 1 tan (h + 1)2 + (k 1)2 = (2) (h, k) B
x + 2 x 2
x 1 x2 + y2 + 2x 2y = 0 is the reqd. locus.
1
x +1 x 2 x + 1 = 1 b ae 0 abe
= 21. (b) : CS = ae, SP = =
x+2 x 1 x + 2 2x 3
1+ b2 + a 2 b2 + a 2
x 2 2 2
1 \ CP = CS SP P
2x2 = 1 x =
2 bae 2 2 2

15. (b) : Putting x = x + p and y = y + q in given = a 2e 2 C ae S(ae, 0)


a 2 + b2 (0,0)

0
equation, it becomes

=
a 2e

ay
2(x + p)2 + 3(x + p)(y + q) + 4(y + q)2 + (x + p) =


bx
+ 18(y + q) + 25 = 0 a 2 + b2
On comparing with 2x2 + 3xy + 4y2 = 1, we get \ Area of rectangle with sides SP and CP = SPCP
4p + 3q + 1 = 0 ...(i)
3p + 8q + 18 = 0 ...(ii) ab a2e 2
= 2 2 = ab [ b2 = a2(e2 1)]
and 2p2 + 3pq + 4q2 + p + 18q + 25 = 1 ...(iii) a +b
On comparing (i) & (ii), p = 2, q = 3 by which (iii)
22.
(b) : CB = b, CS = ae
is also satisfied. B
SBS = 90
2 2 + h 3 + 1 + k \ CB = CS
16. (a) : Centroid ,
45

3 3

b = ae b2 = a2e2 S C S
h k 2 A(2, 3) a2(1 e2) = a2e2
i.e., ,
3 3 x2 y2
1 + =1
lies on 2x + 3y = 1 2e2 = 1 \ e = a2 b2
h k 2 2
\ 2 + 3 =1
3 3 23. (a) : Parabola is (x + y)2 = 5(x y + 1) whose axis
2h + 3k 6 = 3 B C is x + y = 0.
(2, 1) (h, k)
2x + 3y = 9 is the reqd. locus. 24. (c) : Foci of hyperbola y2 x2 = 1 are
17. (d) : P(3, 6) has reflection on y = x as Q(6, 3) (0, be) i.e., (0, 2)
Again reflection of Q(6, 3) on y = x will be Q (3, 6) \ End points of a diameter of reqd. circle are
Slope of PQ slope of QQ = (1)(1) = 1
(0, 2 ) and (0, 2 ) .
\ PQQ is a right angled with PQQ = 90
\ Circumcentre will be mid pt. of hypotenuse PQ \ Eqn. of reqd. circle is
i.e. (0, 0) (x 0)(x 0) + ( y 2 )( y + 2 ) = 0
18. (b) : Bisectors of 3x + 4y = 5 & 12x + 5y = 7 or x2 + y2 = 2
3x + 4 y 5 12 x + 5 y 7 25. (d) : Any plane through (1, 2, 3) is given by
are =
32 + 42 122 + 52 a(x 1) + b(y 2) + c(z + 3) = 0 ...(i)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 37


If (i) is || to x-axis then a = 0 1
If (i) passes through (2, 2, 1) then 31. (a) : We have, y = e m sin x
b(2 2) + c(1 + 3) = 0 b = c dy 1 1 my
= e m sin x m =
\ (i) becomes b(y 2) + b(z + 3) = 0 dx 1 x 2
1 x2
y+z+1=0 2
dy
1 1 1 (1 x 2 ) = m2 y 2
dx
26. (b) : Here, 2 3 0 = 1(9 0) + 1(6 0) + 1(0 + 3) 2
dy d 2 y dy dy
1 0 3 = 9 + 6 + 3 = 0 (1 x 2 ) 2 2 2 x = m2 2 y
dx dx dx dx
\ 3 lines with d.r.s (1, 1, 1), (2, 3, 0) & (1, 0, 3) are
coplanar. d2 y dy
(1 x 2 ) 2 x = m2 y k = m2
27. (a) : Given, f(x) is non-constant & differentiable dx dx
f (b) f (a)
f (x ) 32. (d) : Using mean value theorem, f (c) =
s.t. = f(x y) ...(i) ba
f ( y) f () f ()
2c + 2a =
Let f(x) = amx satisfying (i). Now, f (x) = mamx
Given f (0) = p ma0 = p m = p ...(ii) (2 + 2a + b) ( 2 + 2a + b)
Also, f (5) = q ma5m = q = = + a + 2a

q q +
a5m = = ...(iii) \ c=
m p 2
p
\ f (5) = mam(5) = pa5m = p [using (iii)] 33. (c) : f(x) = x13 + x11 + x9 + x7 + x5 + x3 + x + 19
q
p2 f (x) = 13x12 + 11x10 + 9x8 + 7x6 + 5x4
= + 3x2 + 1 > 0 x R
q
\ f(x) is a strictly increasing function.
28. (c) : f(x) = log5log3x = loge(log3x)log5e
f( ) = , f( ) = , f(0) = 19
= log5e loge(log3x)
\ f(x) = 0, will have only one real root
1 d
f (x) = log 5 e (log 3 x ) 34. (b) : LMVT is applicable to f(x) in [0, x]
log 3 x dx
\ f(x) must be continuous in [0, x]
1 d
= log 5 e (log e x log 3 e) xp
log 3 x dx \ lim f (x ) = f (0) lim =0
1 1 1 x 0+ (sin x )q
x 0+
= log 5 e log 3 e = log 5 e log x e
log 3 x x x (0 + h) p h p q
lim = 0 lim =0
1 1 h0 {sin(0 + h)}q h0 sin h q
\ f (e) = log 5 e log e e =
e e log e 5
p q h
x h
29. (c) : H(x) = G(F(x)) = G(ex) = ee lim = 0 \ L.H.L exists only if p > q.
dH x d x h 0 1
\ = e e ( e x ) = e e ( e x ) 2 tan x
dx dx 35. (b) : Let A = lim (sin x )
x 0
dH 0 1
\ = e e (e 0 ) = e 1 = log A = lim 2 tan x log(sin x )
dx x =0 e x 0
2 f (x ) 3 f (2 x ) + f (4 x ) 0 log(sin x )
30. (c) : lim form = 2 lim form
x 0 x2 0 x 0 cot x
2 f (x ) 6 f (2 x ) + 4 f (4 x ) 0 1
= lim form cos x
x 0 2x 0 = 2 lim sin x 2 = lim sin 2 x = 0 A=1
x 0 cosec x x 0
2 f (x ) 12 f (2 x ) + 16 f (4 x )
= lim
x 0 2 36. (c) : Let I = cos(log x)dx
= f (0) 6f (0) + 8f (0) 1
= cos(log x ) (x ) sin(log x ) (x )dx
= 3f (0) = 3k x

38 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


2
= x cos(log x ) + sin(log x )dx 41. (d) : 0 x 1 \ 1 ex e
1 1 1
1 x2
= x cos(log x) + sin(log x)(x) cos(log x ) (x )dx
x dx e dx e dx
2I = x[cos(log x) + sin(log x)] 0 0 0
1
x 2
I = [cos(log x) + sin(log x)] + c 1 e x dx e
2
0
1 1
x 2 1 2 dx 1 2 dx 100(1) 100(1) 1
x x
37. (a) : = 42. (c) : e x [ x ]dx = e{x }dx = 100 e{x }dx
2 2 1 1
2
x x + 2 + 3 + 0 0 0
x x +1
x [ {x} is periodic with period 1]
dz 1
= 2 , where z = x + 1
z +1 x = 100 e x dx = 100(e 1)
1
= tan1 z + c = tan 1 x + + c 0
x
19 dy dz
sin x 43. (a) : Putting x + y = z 1+ =
38. (b) : I= 8
dx dx dx
10 1 + x dz
Given eq. becomes z 2 1 = a2
19
sin x
19
sin x dx
\ I = 1 + x 8 dx 1 + x 8 dx
dz
= 1+ 2
a 2
10 10
dx z
19 19
|sin x | dx z2 (z 2 + a 2 ) a 2
I 1 + x 8 dx 1 + x 8 | sin x | 1 z2 + a dz = dx dz = x
10 10 2 z 2 + a2
19 19 1 z
x 7
dx z a2 tan 1 = x c
I 8 = a a
10 x
7
10 x + y
10 7 x + y a tan1 = x c
1 7
(10 19 7
) < < 10 7 a
= 7 7 y+c x + y x+ y y + c
n n1 1
= tan 1 = tan ,
a a
39. (d) : I2 = {x}dx = {x}dx = n {x}dx a a
0 0 0
c is an arbitrary constant.
[ {x} is periodic with period = 1]
1 dy x(x 2 + 1) x2 1
n 44. (b) : We have, + 2 2 y= 2 2
= n x dx = dx x (x 1) x (x 1)
0
2
n 2
n n
x2 n2 dy x +1 1
I1 + I2 = ([x] + {x})dx = x dx = = + 2
y= 2
2 0 2 dx x(x 1) x
0 0 1
n2 n I1 n2 n 1+ 2
x
\ I1 = \ = = n 1 x 2 +1 1 dx 1
2 2 I2 n x ( x 2 1) dx x
x
log e x
x 1
\ I.F.= e =e = e =x
n n n x
40. (b) : lim 2 2 + 2 2 + ..... + 2 2
n n + 1 n +2 n +n 45. (b) : Let G.P. be a, ar, ar2, .....
1 1 1 1 A.T.Q., a = ar + ar2 r2 + r 1 = 0
= lim + + ..... + 2
n n 2 2
n 1 1 + 4 1 5
1 + 1 2
1+ 1+ r= =
n n n 2 2
1 + 5
1 n
1
1
dx Terms are positive \ r < 0 \ r =
= lim = = [tan 1 x]10 = 2
n n 2 2 4
r =1 r 0 1+ x 46. (a) : Using property of logarithm, log5y = 3logxx = 3
1+ \ y = 53 = 125
n

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 39


n n (b, a) R S a, b {1, 2, 3} Symmetric
1+ i (1 + i)2
47. (c) : (1 i)2 = (1 + i 2 2i) (iii) (2, 1) & (1, 3) R S but (2, 3) R S
1i 1 i2 Not transitive

{ }
n
1 1 + 2i
= (2i) = 2in+1 54. (a) : Let radius of circle with centre (1, 1) be a
2 Its eqn. is (x 1)2 + (y 1)2 = a2 ...(i)
z +i Given circle is x2 + y2 4x 6y + 9 = 0 ...(ii)
48. (d) : Let = ki (k R)
z i Eqn. of common chord (S1 S2 = 0) is
2z ki + 1 2x + 4y = a2 + 7 ...(iii)
By componendo & dividendo, we have =
2i ki 1 If (iii) be a diameter of (ii) then centre (2, 3) will lie
ki + 1 k 2 + 12 on (iii)
z= .i z = .| i |= 1 4 + 12 = a2 + 7 a2 = 9
ki 1 k 2 + (1)2
Radius = 3 units
x2 + y2 = 1 which represents a circle
k k
49. (a) : 2px2 + 2px + qx + q = 0 55. (d) : tan =& tan 2 =
2px(x + 1) + q(x + 1) = 0 h +1 2h
k
2
q k 2 tan h + 1
\ x = 1, , which are rational as p & q are odd = =
2p 2 h 1 tan2 k
2
integers. 1
h + 1
50. (b) : 3 out of 7 consonants can be chosen in 7C3 2k(h + 1)
=
ways and 12 out of 4 vowels can be chosen in 4C2 ways (h + 1)2 k 2 M(h, k)
\ Total no. of words that can be formed = 7C3 4C2 5 (h + 1)2 k2
= 25200 k
= 2(2 h)(h + 1)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 h2 + 2h + 1 k2 A O h B
(1, 0) (2, 0)
51. (b) : A2
= 0 1 1 0 1 1 = 0 1 2 = 4h + 4 2h2 2h
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
h2 k 2
Only (b) is satisfied by putting n = 2 3h2 k2 = 3 =1
1 3
a a +1 a 1 a b c \ M moves on a hyperbola
52. (d) : D1 = b b + 1 b 1 = a + 1 b + 1 c 1 x 0 x
c c 1 c +1 a 1 b 1 c +1
[Interchanging rows & columns]
56. (c) : f(x) = | t | dt = | t | dt + | t | dt
1 1 0
a +1 b +1 c 1 a +1 b +1 c 1 0 x 0 x
= (1)2 a 1 b 1 c + 1 = a 1 b 1 c + 1 = | x | dx + | x | dx = ( x) dx + x dx
a b c a b c 1 0 1 0
0 x
a +1 b +1 c 1 x2 x2 1 x2 x2 + 1
D2 = a 1 b 1 c +1 = + = (0 1) + 0 =
2 1 2 0 2 2 2

( )
n+ 2 n+1
(1) a (1) b (1)n c 1
xk 1 1
a +1 b +1 c 1 57. (b) : f(x) = lim n x n 1 = lim , where n =
= (1)n a 1 b 1 c + 1 n k 0 k k
a b c = log e x
1
\ D1 + D2 = 0 is possible only when n is any odd Now, f (x ) + f = log e x + log e 1 / x = log e 1 = 0
integer. x
53. (c): R S = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 2), (2, 1), (1, 3), (3, 1)} \ f(xy) = log e xy = log e x + log e y = f(x) + f(y)
A = {1, 2, 3} 100
(i) (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3) R S Reflexive 58. (b) : I = 2 sin2 x dx
(ii) (a, b) R S 0

40 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


100 9
\ CA = , CB = 3
= 2 |sin x | dx = 2 100 |sin x | dx 2
0 0 \ Reqd. area of quad. = 4 Area of CAB
[ Period of |sin x|is ] 1 9
= 4 3 = 27 sq. units.
2 2
= 100 2 sin x dx = 100 2 [ cos x ]0
0
61. (c) : f(x) = sin x cos x Kx + 5
= 100 2 (1 + 1) = 200 2
f (x) = cos x + sin x K = 2 sin x + K
4
59. (a) : y2
2 sin x + 2
y1 4
(2, 0) O (1, 0)
\ f(x) will be decreasing for all +ve real x if f (x) < 0

2 sin x + K < 0
4
x = 2 x=0 x=1
x 1
Parabolas are = y2 ...(i) & y2 = (x 1) ...(ii) K> 2 sin x + K > 2
2 3 4
x (x 1)    
On solving, = 62. (b) : Let x = ai + b j + ck

2 3 \ x i = bk + c j
2x + 2 = 3x x = 2  
(x i)2 = | x i |2 = b2 + c 2
1 0  2 2 
\ Reqd. area = 2 y2dx y1dx Similarly, (x j) = c + a2 & (x k )2 = a2 + b2
   
2 2 \ (x i)2 + (x j)2 + (x k )2 = 2(a2 + b2 + c 2 ) = 2 | x |2
[y1, y2 are values of y from (i) & (ii) resp.] 63. (c) : Let a , b , c be three unit vectors such that
c =a+b
1 1 x x
0
= 2 dx dx \ c 2 = (a + b )2 1 = 1 + 1 + 2a b
2 3 2
2 2 a b = 1
2 (1 x )3/2
1
2 ( x )3/2
0
Now, | a b |2 = 1 + 1 2a b = 3 | a b | = 3 units.
= 64. (a) : Roots of x2 + x + 1 = 0 are & 2
3 3 2 3
1 + 3i 2 2
2 2 2 2 Let a = = = cos + i sin
4 4 2 3 3
= [0 33/2 ] + [0 23/2 ] 1 3i 2 2
3 3 3 2 and = 2 = = cos + i sin
2 3 3
8 4 2 2 2n
= 4 = square units = cos i sin \ n + n = 2 cos
3 3 3 3 3
60. (a) : We have, x 2 + 2x + 4
B 65. (c) : Let y =
x2 y2 L 2x 2 + 4 x + 9
+ =1 ...(i)
9 5 C S A (2y 1)x2 + 2(2y 1)x + (9y 4) = 0
5 2 L For real x, D 0 4(2y 1)2 4(2y 1)(9y 4) 0
e= 1 = 4y2 4y + 1 18y2 + 17y 4 0 14y2 13y + 3 0
9 3
3 1
b2 5 (7y 3) (2y 1) 0 y
7 2
\ L ae, 2,
a 3 x 2 + 2x + 4 1
Greatest value of y i.e. is
5 2
2x + 4 x + 9 2
Eqn. of tangent to (i) at L 2, is
3 2
66. (c, d) : a, b {1, 2, 3} & ax + bx + 1 = 0 has
x y 5 x y real roots
2 + = 1 + =1
9 5 3 9/2 3 D 0 i.e., b2 4a ...(i)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 41


\ Possible ordered pair (a, b) are (1, 2), (1, 3) a 1
& (2, 3) only If (i) be a tangent to (ii) then = 2 < 0
b x
67. (a, c) : Equation of tangent to y2 = 4ax at (at2, 2at) b
= x2 > 0
is y 2at = 2a (x + at2) a
\ a & b must be of same sign
ty = x + at2 ...(i)
\ a > 0, b > 0 or a < 0, b < 0
dy x
For x2y2 = a2, = f =0
dx y 73. (b,c) : u
dy a sec 1 0 f
At (a sec , a tan ), = = Dist. between them at any instant is given by
dx a tan sin
\ Eqn. of normal to x2 y2 = a2 at (a sec , a tan ) is
y a tan = sin (x a sec )
{ 1
x = u t 0 t + ft 2
2 }
dx 1 d2 x
y = x sin + 2a tan ...(ii) = u f 2t = u ft 2 = f < 0
(i) & (ii) are identical dt 2 dt
dx u
t 1 at 2 t2 For max. distance between them, =0 t=
\ = = = dt f
1 sin 2a tan 2 tan
u 1 u2 u2 u2 u2
t = cosec & t = 2 tan Max. distance = u f 2 = =
f 2 f f 2f 2f
68. (c) : Conic may be written as (x 3)2 = 4(y 2)
X2 = 4AY ...(i) 74. (a, c) : |z i| = |z + 1| = 1
Here, X = x 3, Y = y 2 & 4A = 4 ...(ii) x2 + (y 1)2 = (x + 1)2 + y2 = 1 ...(i)
For focus, X = 0, Y = A x 3 = 0, y 2 = 1 2y + 1 = 2x + 1 y = x ...(ii)
x = 3, y = 1 \ Focus is (3, 1) When y = x, we have x2 + 2x + 1 + x2 = 1
2x(x + 1) = 0 x = 0, 1
69. (b)
when x = 0 y = 0
70. (b,c) : f(x) = xn ...(i) f (a + ) = f (a) + f ( ) ...(ii) when x = 1 y = 1
When n = 2, f(x) = x2 , f (x) = 2x \ z = 0, 1 + i
\ f (a + ) = 2(a + ) = 2a + 2 =f (a) + f ( )
75. (c) : (i) 1 + aa = 1 + a2 > 0 Reflexive
(ii) is satisfied
(ii) If 1 + ab > 0 then 1 + ba > 0 Symmetric
When n = 0, f(x) = 1 f (x) = 0 (ii) is satisfied.
1 3 1
(ii) is not satisfied if n = 1 or 5 (iii) 1 + 1 = > 0 1,
2 2 2
a dx
71. (c) : I = 0 1 + f (x) ...(i) 1 1 1
1 + ( 1) = > 0 , 1
2 2 2
a dx a f (x ) f (a x )
= 0 1 + f (a x) = 0 f (x ) f (a x ) + f (a x )
dx But, 1 + (1)(1) = 0 >/ 0
(1, 1)
a f (x ) \ is not transitive.
I= 0 f (x ) + 1
dx ...(ii)

a a
Adding (i) & (ii), 2I = 0 dx = a I=
2
72. (b,d) : ax + by + c = 0 ...(i) MANIPUR at
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Its slope = (ab 0)
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Now, xy = 1 2x y + 2 = ...(ii)
x P.C. Jain And Co. Ph: 0385-2451756, 2225004; Mob: 9856084649
dy 1
Differentiating (ii), we get, = 2
dx x
dy
\ <0
dx

42 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


SOLVED PAPER 2017

Kerala PET
1 1 1 (a) 0, 0, 1 (b) 1, 1, 0 (c) 1, 0, 0 (d) 0, 0, 0
(e) 1, 1, 1
1. p q r is equal to
2
p q r +1 7 1 5 1
6. 3 +5 is equal to
(a) q p (b) q + p (c) q (d) p 8 0 0 0
1

(e) 0
16 27 15 16
5 0 0 1 (a) (b) (c) (d)
2. Let A = 27 16 16 15
and B = 1 .
1 0 0
(e) 16
If 4A + 5B C = O, then C is 16
5 25 20 5 1 2 4
(a) (b) 1 0
1 0 7. If 1 3 5 is singular, then the value of a is

5 1 5 25 1 4 a
(c) (d)
0 25 1 5 (a) a = 6 (b) a = 5
(c) a = 5 (d) a = 6
0 5 (e) a = 0
(e)
5 25 1 2 3 x 1
1 1 8. If 0 4 5 y = 1 , then (x, y, z) is equal to



3. If U = 2 2 , then U1 is 0 0 1 z 1
1 1
(a) (1, 6, 6) (b) (1, 6, 1)
2 2
(c) (1, 1, 6) (d) (6, 1, 1)
(a) UT (b) U (c) I (d) 0 (e) (1, 6, 1)
(e) U2
1 5
9. If A = , then
0 1 0 0 2
4. If A = 1 0 0 , then A1 is (a) A2 2A + 2I = O (b) A2 3A + 2I = O

0 0 1 (c) A2 5A + 2I = O (d) 2A2 A + I = O
(e) A2 + 3A + 2I = O
(a) AT (b) A2 (c) A (d) I
(e) O 2x + y x + y 1 1
10. If = , then (x, y, p, q) equals
p q p + q 0 0
x+y x y 0 0
5. If = , then the values of x, y (a) 0, 1, 0, 0 (b) 0, 1, 0, 0
2x + z x + z 1 1 (c) 1, 0, 0, 0 (d) 0, 1, 0, 1
and z are respectively (e) 1, 0, 1, 0

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 43


20. The roots of ax2 + x + 1 = 0, where a 0, are in the
11. The value of 4 + 2 3 4 2 3 is ratio 1 : 1. Then a is equal to
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 3 (a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 3 (d) 1
(e) 5 4 2 4
12. The value of 82/3 161/4 91/2 is (e) 0
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 21. If z2 + z + 1 = 0 where z is a complex number, then
(e) 5 2 2 2
the value of z + 1 + z 2 + 1 + z 3 + 1
13. Let x = 2 be a root of y = 4x2
14x+q = 0. Then y is z
equals z2 z3
equal to
(a) 4 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 7
(a) (x 2) (4x 6) (b) (x 2) (4x + 6)
(c) (x 2) (4x 6) (d) (x 2) (4x + 6) (e) 8
(e) (x 2) (4x + 3) 1 1 1
14. If x1 and x2 are the roots of 3x2 2x 6 = 0, then 22. Let = 1 1 w 2
w 2 , where w 1 is a complex
x21 + x22 is equal to 1 w w4
50 40 30 20
(a) (b) (c) (d) number such that w3 = 1. Then equals
9 9 9 9 (a) 3w + w2 (b) 3w2
(e) 10 (c) 3(w w2) (d) 3w2
9 2
(e) 3w +1
15. Let x1 and x2 be the roots of the equation x2 + px 3 = 0.
3i 9i 1
If x21 + x22 =10, then the value of p is equal to
23. If 2 9i 1 = x + iy, then
(a) 4 or 4 (b) 3 or 3
(c) 2 or 2 (d) 1 or 1 10 9 i
(e) 0 (a) x = 1, y = 1 (b) x = 0, y = 1
16. If the product of roots of the equation mx2
+ 6x + (c) x = 1, y = 0 (d) x = 0, y = 0
(2m 1) = 0 is 1, then the value of m is (e) x = 1, y = 0

(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 3 (d) 1


24. If z = cos i sin , then z2 z +1 is equal to
3 3 3
(e) 3
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d)
1 4 4 2
17. If f (x ) = 2 4 3 2
+ 3 , (e)
x + 4x + 4 x + 4x + 4x x + 2x 2
72
1
then f is equal to 1 + cos + i sin
2 12 12
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 3 25. is equal to
(e) 4 1 + cos i sin
12 12
18. If x and y are the roots of the equation x2 + bx + 1 = 0,
1
1 1 (a) 0 (b) (c) 1 (d)
then the value of + is 2
x +b y +b 1
(e)
1 2
(a) 1 (b) b (c) (d) 2b
b 2b 4 k k
(e) 1
26. If A = 0 k k and det (A) = 256, then k equals
19. The equations x5 + ax + 1 = 0 and x6 + ax2 + 1 = 0 0 0 k
have a common root. Then a is equal to
(a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 1 (a) 4 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 7
(e) 0 (e) 8

44 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


1 0 36. Three numbers are in arithmetic progression. Their
27. If A = , then An + nI is equal to sum is 21 and the product of the first number and
1 1
the third number is 45. Then the product of these
(a) I (b) nA
three numbers is
(c) I + nA (d) I nA
(a) 315 (b) 90 (c) 180 (d) 270
(e) nA I
(e) 450
z 5
28. If |z| = 5 and w = , then Re(w) is equal to 37. If a+1, 2a + 1, 4a 1 are in arithmetic progression,
z +5 then the value of a is
1 (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
(a) 0 (b) (c) 25 (d) 1
(e) 1 25 (e) 5
1 1 38. Two numbers x and y have arithmetic mean 9 and
29. If A = , then A2017 is equal to geometric mean 4. Then x and y are the roots of
1 1
(a) x2 18x 16 = 0 (b) x2 18x +16 = 0
(a) 22015A (b) 22016A 2
(c) x +18x 16 = 0 (d) x2 +18x +16 = 0
(c) 22014A (d) 22017A 2
(e) x 17x +16 = 0
(e) 22020A
39. Three unbiased coins are tossed. The probability of
1+ a
30. If a = ei , then is equal to getting at least 2 tails is
1 a 1
(a) 3 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d)
(a) cot (b) tan 4 4 2 3
2
2
(e)
(c) i cot (d) i tan 3
2 2
(e) 2 tan 40. A single letter is selected from the word TRICKS.
The probability that it is either T or R is
31. Three numbers x, y and z are in arithmetic
1 1 1 2
progression. If x + y + z = 3 and xyz = 8, then (a) (b) (c) (d)
x2 + y2 + z2 is equal to 36 4 2 3
(a) 9 (b) 10 (c) 21 (d) 20 1
(e)
(e) 1 3
32. The 30th term of the arithmetic progression 10, 7, 4, .... 41. From 4 red balls, 2 white balls and 4 black balls,
four balls are selected. The probability of getting
is
2 red balls is
(a) 90 (b) 87 (c) 77 (d) 67
7 8 9 10
(e) 57 (a) (b) (c) (d)
21 21 21 21
33. The arithmetic mean of two numbers x and y is 3
11
and geometric mean is 1. Then x2 + y2 is equal to (e)
(a) 30 (b) 31 (c) 32 (d) 33 21
(e) 34 42. In a class, 60% of the students know lesson I, 40%
know lesson II and 20% know lesson I and lesson
34. The solution of 32x1 = 811x is II. A student is selected at random. The probability
2 1 7 5 that the student does not know lesson I and lesson
(a) (b) (c) (d)
3 6 6 6 II is
1 4 3
(e) (a) 0 (b) (c) (d) 1
3 5 5 5
1 2
35. The sixth term in the sequence is 3, 1, , ... is (e)
3 1 5
1 1 1
(a) (b) (c) (d) 43. Two distinct numbers x and y are chosen from 1, 2,
27 9 81 17
1 3, 4, 5. The probability that the arithmetic mean of
(e) x and y is an integer is
7

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 45


1 3 2 (a) x (3, ) (b) x (3, )
(a) 0 (b) (c) (d) (c) x (2, ) (d) x (1, )
4 5 5 5
(e) (e) x (1, )
5
54. The mode of the data 8, 11, 9, 8, 11, 9, 7, 8, 7, 3, 2, 8 is
44. The number of 3 3 matrices with entries 1 or +1 is
(a) 11 (b) 9 (c) 8 (d) 3
(a) 24 (b) 25 (c) 26 (d) 27
(e) 7
(e) 29
55. If the mean of six numbers is 41, then the sum of
45. Let S be the set of all 2 2 symmetric matrices
these numbers is
whose entries are either zero or one. A matrix X is
(a) 246 (b) 236 (c) 226 (d) 216
chosen from S. The probability that the determinant
(e) 206
of X is not zero is
x
1 1 3 1 56. If 0 f (t )dt = x 2 + e x (x > 0), then f(1) is equal to
(a) (b) (c) (d)
3 2 4 4 (a) 1 + e (b) 2 + e (c) 3 + e (d) e
2
(e) (e) 0
9
x +1
46. The number of words that can be formed by using all 57. dx =
the letters of the word PROBLEM only once is x1/2
(a) 5! (b) 6! (c) 7! (d) 8! (a) x3/2 + x1/2 + c (b) x1/2
(e) 9! 2 3/2
(c) x + 2x1/2 + c (d) x3/2 + x1/2 + c
47. The number of diagonals in a hexagon is 3
(a) 8 (b) 9 (c) 10 (d) 11 (e) x3/2
(e) 12 58. In a flight 50 people speak Hindi, 20 speak English
48. The sum of odd integers from 1 to 2001 is and 10 speak both English and Hindi. The number of
(a) 10012 (b) 10002 (c) 10022 (d) 10032 people who speak at least one of the two languages is
(e) 9992 (a) 40 (b) 50 (c) 20 (d) 80
(e) 60
49. Two balls are selected from two black and two red
balls. The probability that the two balls will have no x +1
59. If f (x) = , then the value of f(f(x)) is equal to
black ball is x 1
(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) 1 (a) x (b) 0 (c) x (d) 1
7 5 4 3 (e) 2
(e) 1
60. Two dice are thrown simultaneously. What is the
6
probability of getting two numbers whose product
50. If z = i9 + i19, then z is equal to is even?
(a) 0 + 0i (b) 1 + 0i (c) 0 + i (d) 1 + 2i
2
(e) 1 + 3i (a) 3 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d)
4 4 2 3
51. The mean for the data 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 4, 8, 12 is 1
(a) 9 (b) 8 (c) 7 (d) 6 (e)
16
(e) 5
2+x 2x
52. The set of all real numbers satisfying the inequality 61. lim is equal to
x 0 x
x 2 < 1 is
(a) (3, ) (b) [3, ) 1
(a) (b) 2
(c) [3, ) (d) ( , 3) 2
(e) ( , 3) (c) 0 (d) Does not exist
x 3 1
53. If > 0, then (e)
x 3 2 2

46 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


dx f (x ) 3
62. x x
is equal to 70. If f(9) = f (9) = 0, then lim is equal to
e +e +2 x 9 x 3
1 1 (a) 0 (b) f(0) (c) f (3) (d) f(9)
(a) +c (b) x
+c
x
e +1 e +1 (e) 1
1 1
(c) +c (d) +c 71. The value of cos + x + cos x is
1+ e x e x
1 4 4
1 (a) 2 sin2 x (b) 2 sin x
(e) x
+c
e 1 (c) 2 (d) 3 cos x
2 cos x
(e) 2 cos x
63. tan + + tan is equal to
4 2 4 2 72. Area of the triangle with vertices (2, 2), (1, 5) and
(6, 1) is
(a) sec (b) 2 sec (c) sec (d) sin 3 29 33
2 (a) 15 (b) (c) (d)
(e) cos 5 2 2
35
(e)
2
dx
64. 0 is equal to 73. The equation of the line passing through(3, 5) and
1 2
x + x +2 perpendicular to the line through the points (1, 0)
and (4, 1) is
(a) (b) (c) (d) 0
4 2 (a) 5x + y + 10 = 0 (b) 5x y + 20 = 0
(e) (c) 5x y 10 = 0 (d) 5x + y + 20 = 0
(e) 5y x 10 = 0

65. sin x dx is equal to 74. The coefficient of x5 in the expansion of
02 sin x + cos x (1 + x2)5 (1 + x)4 is
3 (a) 30 (b) 60 (c) 40 (d) 10
(a) 0 (b) (c) (d) (e) 45
2 2

(e) 75. The coefficient of x4 in the expansion of (1 2x)5 is
4 equal to
66. If (x, y) is equidistant from (a + b, b a) and (a) 40 (b) 320 (c) 320 (d) 32
(a b, a + b), then (e) 80
(a) x + y = 0 (b) bx ay = 0 76. The equation 5x2 + y2 + y = 8 represents
(c) ax by = 0 (d) bx + ay = 0 (a) an ellipse (b) a parabola
(e) ax + by = 0 (c) a hyperbola (d) a circle
67. If the points (1, 0), (0, 1) and (x, 8) are collinear, (e) a straight line
then the value of x is equal to 77. The centre of the ellipse 4x2 + y2 8x + 4y 8 = 0 is
(a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 6 (d) 7 (a) (0, 2) (b) (2, 1) (c) (2, 1) (d) (1, 2)
(e) 7 (e) (1, 2)
68. The minimum value of the function max{x, x2} is 78. The area bounded by the curves y = x2 + 3 and
equal to y = 0 is
1 (a) 3 + 1 (b) 3
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d)
2 (c) 4 3 (d) 5 3
3
(e)
2 (e) 6 3
69. Let f(x + y) = f(x) f (y) for all x and y. If f(0) = 1,
79. The order of the differential equation
f(3) = 3 and f (0) = 11, then f (3) is equal to 2 2
(a) 11 (b) 22 (c) 33 (d) 44 d 3 y d 2 y dy 5
3 + 2 + dx = 0 is
(e) 55 dx dx

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 47


(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 1 (d) 5 88. The equation of the plane that passes through the
(e) 6 points (1, 0, 2), (1, 1, 2), (5, 0, 3) is
(a) x + 2y 4z + 7 = 0 (b) x + 2y 3z + 7 = 0
4
80. If f(x) = 2x + , then f (2) is equal to (c) x 2y + 4z + 7 = 0 (d) 2y 4z 7 + x = 0
2x (e) x + 2y + 3z + 7 = 0
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) 2
89. The vertex of the parabola y2 4y x + 3 = 0 is
(e) 2
(a) (1, 3) (b) (1, 2)
81. The area of the circle x2 2x + y2 10y + k = 0 is (c) (2, 1) (d) (3, 1)
25 . The value of k is equal to (e) (1, 2)
(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) 2
(e) 3 90. If a, b , c are vectors such that a + b + c = 0 and
a = 7, b = 5, c = 3, then the angle between
2017 x
82. 2016 dx is equal to
x + 4033 x c and b is
1 3 2017 1
(a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d)
4 2 2 2 3 6 4
(e) 508 (e) 0

dy 91. Let f (x) = 2x 3 9ax 2 + 12a2x + 1, where a > 0. The


83. The solution of + y tan x = sec x, y(0) = 0 is minimum of f is attained at a point q and the
dx
(a) y sec x = tan x (b) y tan x = sec x maximum is attained at a point p. If p3 = q, then a is
(c) tan x = y tan x (d) x sec x = tan y equal to
(e) y cot x = sec x (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 2
1
84. If the vectors 2i + 2 j + 6k, 2i + j + 6k, 2i 3 j + k are (e)
2
coplanar, then the value of is
92. For all real numbers x and y, it is known that the
(a) 10 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) 10
real valued function f satisfies f(x) + f (y) = f(x + y).
(e) 2 100
85. The distance between (2, 1, 0) and 2x + y +2z + 5 = 0 is If f(1) = 7, then r =1 f (r) is equal to
(a) 7 51 102 (b) 6 50 102
10 10
(a) 10 (b) (c) (d) 5 (c) 7 50 102 (d) 6 25 102
3 9 (e) 7 50 101
(e) 1
86. The equation of the hyperbola with vertices 93. The eccentricity of the ellipse
(0, 15) and foci (0, 20) is 2
(x 1)2 3 1
x2
y 2
x 2
y 2 +y+ = is
(a) =1 (b) =1 2 4 16
175 225 625 125 1 1 1 1
(a) (b) (c) (d)
y 2
x 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4
(c) =1 (d) y x = 1
225 125 65 65 1
(e)
4 2
y2 x2
(e) =1 1
225 175 94. 1 max{x, x 3}dx is equal to
153 + 63 + 3 6 15 21 3 1 1
87. The value of is equal (a) (b) (c) (d) 1
to 1 + 4(6) + 6(36) + 4(216) + 1296 4 4 2
(e) 0
29 7 6 21
(a) (b) (c) (d)
7 19 17 19
95. If x 0, , y 0, and sin x + cos y = 2, then
27 2 2
(e)
7 the value of x + y is equal to

48 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


103. The difference between the maximum and
(a) 2 (b) (c) (d) minimum value of the function
4 2
(e) 0 x
f (x) = 0 (t 2 + t + 1)dt on [2, 3] is
96. Let a, a + r and a + 2r be positive real numbers such 39 49 59 69
that their product is 64. Then the minimum value (a) (b) (c) (d)
6 6 6 6
of a + 2r is equal to
1 79
(a) 4 (b) (c) 2 (d) (e)
2 6
(e) 1
104. If a and b are the non zero distinct roots of
1 1 1 1 1 x2 + ax + b = 0, then the minimum value of
97. The sum S = + + + + is equal to
9 ! 3! 7 ! 5! 5! 7 ! 3! 9 ! x2 + ax + b is
2 9 9 2
210 29 27 26 (a) (b) (c) (d)
(a) (b) (c) (d) 3 4 4 3
8! 10 ! 10 ! 10 !
(e) 1
25
(e) 105. If the straight line y = 4x + c touches the ellipse
8!
x2
x x 2
x 3 + y 2 = 1 then c is equal to
4
98. If f (x) = 1 2x 3x 2 , then f (x) is equal to (a) 0 (b) 65 (c) 62 (d) 2
0 2 6x (e) 13
106. The equations x y = 2, 2x 3y = and
(a) x3 + 6x2 (b) 6x3 3x 2y = 1 are consistent for
(c) 3x (d) 6x2 (a) = 4 (b) = 1, 4
(e) 0 (c) = 1, 4 (d) = 1, 4
(e) = 1
x2
99. dx is equal to 107. The set {(x, y):|x|+|y|=1} in the xy plane represents
1+ (x 3)2
(a) a square (b) a circle
2 1 3
(a) tan1 (x2) + c (b) tan (x ) + c (c) an ellipse
3 (d) a rectangle which is not a square
1 1 3 1
(c) tan (x ) + c (d) tan 1(x 2 ) + c (e) a rhombus which is not a square
3 2
3
(e) tan1 (x3) + c 108. The value of cos tan 1 is
4
100. Let fn(x) be the nth derivative of f(x). The least 4 3 3 2
value of n so that fn = fn+1 , where f(x) = x2 + ex is (a) (b) (c) (d)
5 5 4 5
(a) 4 (b) 5 (c) 2 (d) 3 (e) 0
(e) 6 109. Let A(6, 1), B(1, 3) and C(x, 8) be three points
101. sin 765 is equal to such that AB = BC. The values of x are
(a) 3, 5 (b) 3, 5 (c) 3, 5 (d) 4, 5
3 1
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) (d) (e) 3, 5
2 2
1 110. In an experiment with 15 observations on x, the
(e)
2 following results were available x 2 = 2830 and
102. The distance of the point (3, 5) from the line x = 170 . One observation that was 20, was found
3x 4y 26 = 0 is to be wrong and was replaced by the correct value
3 2 7 3 30. Then the corrected variance is
(a) (b) (c) (d)
7 5 5 5 (a) 9.3 (b) 8.3 (c) 188.6 (d) 177.3
(e) 1 (e) 78

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 49


111. The angle between the pair of lines
(n + 2)(n + 1)
x 2 y 1 z + 3 x +2 y 4 z 5 (a) n (b)
= = and = = is 3
2 5 3 1 8 4
(c) n2 1 (d) n
21 1 23
(a) cos 1 (b) cos
9 38 9 38 3
(e) 2n
24 25
(c) cos 1 (d) cos 1
9 38 9 38 119. Let S = {1, 2, 3, ..., 10}. The number of subsets of S
containing only odd numbers is
1 26
(e) cos (a) 15 (b) 31 (c) 63 (d) 7
9 38
(e) 5
112. Let a be a unit vector. If (x a) (x + a) = 12, then
the magnitude of x is 120. The area of the parallelogram with vertices (0, 0),
(a) 8 (b) 9 (c) 10 (d) 13 (7, 2) (5, 9) and (12, 11) is
(a) 50 (b) 54 (c) 51 (d) 52
(e) 12 (e) 53
113. The area of the triangular region whose sides are
y = 2x + 1, y = 3x + 1 and x = 4 is SOLUTIONS
(a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 7 (d) 8 1. (a) : We have,
(e) 9
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
114. If nCr1 = 36, nCr = 84 and nCr+1 = 126, then the
p q r = p q r + p q 0
value of r is
(a) 9 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5 p q r +1 p q r p q 1
(e) 6
1 1 0
115. Let f(x + y) = f(x) f(y) and f(x) = 1 + sin(3x)g(x),
= 0 + p q 0 ( R2 ~ R3 in 1st determinant)
where g is differentiable. Then f (x) is equal to
p q 1
(a) 3f(x) (b) g(0)
(c) f(x)g(0) (d) 3g(x) 1 1 0
(e) 3f(x)g(0)
= p q 0 = 1(q p)
x 1 1 1 p q 1
116. The roots of the equation 1 x 1 1 = 0 are
1 1 x 1 5 0 0 1
2. (b) : Given, A = and B =
(a) 1, 2 (b) 1, 2 (c) 1, 2 (d) 1, 2 1 0 1 0
(e) 1, 1 Now, 4A + 5B C = O
117. If the 7th and 8th term of the binomial expansion
5 0 0 1
2a + 3b C = 4A + 5B = 4 + 5
(2a 3b)n are equal, then is equal to
2a 3b 1 0 1 0
13 n n +1
(a) (b) 20 0 0 5 20 5
n +1 13 n = + =
n 1 4 0 5 0 1 0
6n
(c) (d)
13 n 13 n 1/ 2 1/ 2
2n 1 3. (a) : Given, U =
(e) 1/ 2 1/ 2
13 n
1
118. Standard deviation of first n odd natural numbers Since, U1 = adj(U)
is |U |

50 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


T
1 1 1 2 3 x 1
1/ 2 1/ 2
Hence, adj (U) = =
2 2 8. (d) : We have, 0 4 5 y = 1


1/ 2 1/ 2 1 1 0 0 1 z 1
2
2
x + 2 y 3z 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 4 y + 5z = 1
|U| = = + =1
2 2 2 2 2 2
z 1
1/ 2 1/ 2
\ U1 = = UT On comparing, we get
1/ 2 1/ 2
x + 2y 3z = 1 ...(i) 4y + 5z = 1 ...(ii)
0 1 0 and z = 1 ...(iii)
On solving (i), (ii) and (iii), we get z = 1, y = 1
4. (a) : We have, A = 1 0 0

and x = 6
0 0 1
1 5
T 9. (b) : We have, A =
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2

Hence, adj(A) = 1 0 0 = 1 0 0
1 5 1 5 1 15
0 0 1 0 0 1 A2 = A A = =

0 2 0 2 0 4
Now, |A| = 0 + (1)(1) = 1
0 1 0 1 5 3 15
3A = 3 =

\ A1 = 1 0 0 = AT 0 2 0 6
0 0 1 1 0 2 0
2I = 2 = 0 2
0 1
x+ y x y 0 0
5. (a) : We have, = 1 15 3 15 2 0
2x + z x + z 1 1 \ A2 3A + 2I = +

0 4 0 6 0 2
On comparing, we get
x+y=0 ...(i), xy=0 ...(ii) 0 0
= =O
2x + z = 1 ...(iii), x + z = 1 ...(iv) 0 0
On solving (iii) and (iv), we get x = 0, z = 1.
Hence, from (i), we get y = 0 2x + y x + y 1 1
10. (a) : We have, =
\ x = 0, y = 0, z = 1. p q p + q 0 0
2 On comparing, we get
7 1 5 1 2x + y = 1 ...(i), x+y=1 ...(ii)
6. (b) : We have, 3 + 5

8 0 0 0 pq=0 ...(iii), p+q=0 ...(iv)
1 On solving (i) and (ii), we get x = 0 and y = 1
14 + 3 + 5 5 22 5 27 And, on solving (iii) and (iv), we get p = 0 and q = 0
= + = + = \ (x, y, p, q) = (0, 1, 0, 0)
16 + 0 + 0 0 16 0 16
1 2 4 11. (b) : Let | 4 + 2 3 | | 4 2 3 | = x
7. (d) : Let A = 1 3 5
On squaring both sides, we get

( )
1 4 a 2
4+2 3 42 3 = x2
Since A is singular matrix \ |A| = 0
(4 + 2 3 ) + (4 2 3 ) 2( 4 + 2 3 ) ( 4 2 3 ) = x2
1 2 4
Hence, 1 3 5 = 0 8 2 16 12 = x2 8 4 = x2
x2 = 4 x = 2
1 4 a
1(3a 20) 2(a 5) + 4(4 3) = 0 a = 6 Hence, | 4 + 2 3 | | 4 2 3 | = 2

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 51


12. (a) : We have, 82/3 161/4 91/2 1 4 4
= ((2)3)2/3 ((2)4)1/4 ((3)2)1/2 \ f(1/2) = + 2
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
= 4 2 3 = 4 5 = 1 + 2
2 + 2 + 2
2 2 2 2
13. (a) : Given, x = 2 is a root of y = 4x2 14x + q = 0
then, x = 2 satisfy the given equation i.e., y(2) = 0 1 4 4
= +
4(2)2 14(2) + q = 0 5
2
1 5
2 1 5
16 28 + q = 0 q = 12
2
4 2 4 2
\ y = 4x2 14x + 12 = 0
4 64 32 60 + 160 100
y = 4x2 6x 8x + 12 = + = = =4
y = 2x(2x 3) 4(2x 3) 25 25 5 25 25
y = (2x 4) (2x 3) y = (x 2)(4x 6) 18. (b) : We have, x2 + bx + 1 = 0 and x, y are its roots.
14. (b) : We have, 3x2 2x 6 = 0 \ Sum of roots = (x + y) = b ...(i)
And product of roots = (xy) = 1 ...(ii)
\ Roots of given equation (x1, x2)
1 1 y +b+ x +b
Now, + =
(2) 4 + 72 2 76 2 2 19 x +b y +b (x + b)( y + b)
= = =
6 6 6 (x + y ) + 2b (b) + 2b
= =
=
1 19 xy + b(x + y ) + b2 1 b2 + b2
3 (Using (i) and (ii))
=b
1 + 19 1 19
Hence, x1 = and x2 = 19. (b) : Let y be the common root of
3 3
x5 + ax + 1 = 0 and x6 + ax2 + 1 = 0
2 2
Then, y5 + ay + 1 = 0 and y6 + ay2 + 1 = 0
Now, x12 + x22 = 1 + 19 + 1 19
y5 + ay + 1 = y6 + ay2 + 1
3 3
y5 y6 + ay ay2 = 0
1 40 y5(1 y) + ay(1 y) = 0
= (1 + 19 + 2 19 + 1 + 19 2 19 ) =
9 9 (y5 + ay) (1 y) = 0 y = 1
15. (c) : Given, x1 and x2 are roots of x2 + px 3 = 0. Hence, the common root is 1.
Also, x12 + x22 = 10 i.e., 1 + a + 1 = 0 a = 2
p 20. (a) : Let x1 and x2 be the roots of ax2 + x + 1 = 0
\ Sum of roots = (x1 + x2) = = p then,
1
1 1
3 x1 + x2 = ...(i) and x1x2 = ...(ii)
And, product of roots = x1x2 = =3 a a
2 2 1 Also, x1 : x2 = 1 : 1 x1 = x2 ...(iii)
\ (x1 + x2) = p
1 1
x12 + x22 + 2x1x2 = p2 10 + 2(3) = p2 Using (iii) in (i), we get 2x1 = x1 =
a 2a
p2 = 4 p = 2 1 1 1
Hence, the value of p is 2 or 2. Using (iii) in (ii), we get x12 = \ =
a 4a 2 a
16. (a) : Given, mx2 + 6x + (2m 1) = 0 and product 1
of roots is 1. 4a = 1 a =
4
(2m 1) 1 21. (c) : We have, z2 + z + 1 = 0
= 1 2m 1 = m 3m = 1 m =
m 3 z = or 2
17. (e) : We have, where , 2 are complex cube roots of unity.
2 2 2
1 4 4 1 2 1 3 1
f(x) = + 3 Now, z + + z + 2 + z + 3
x + 2x 2 z z z
x2 + 4x + 4 x 4 + 4x3 + 4x2
1 4 4 2 2 2
= 2 + 2 1 2 1 3 1
2 2 = + + + 2 + + 3
(x + 2) x (x + 2) x (x + 2)

52 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


2 + 1
2
4 + 1
2
25. (c) : Let z = cos + i sin
= + 2 + (1 + 1)2 12 12


1
[using 3 = 1] \ = cos i sin
2 z 12 12
2
2 Now, from given expression, we have
= + + 4 [using 1 + + 2 = 0]

2

72

=1+1+4=6 1 + cos 12 + i sin 12 1+ z
72
=
1 1 1 1 + cos i sin 1 + z 1
12 12
22. (b) : We have, = 1 1 w 2 w2
72 72
1 w w4 (1 + z )z
= = (z)72 = cos + i sin
1 1 1 1 1 1 (z + 1) 12 12

= 1 1 w
2
w 2
= 1 w w2 72 72
= cos
12 + i sin 12
1 w w 1 w w
(Using De-Moivre's theorem)
( 1 + w + w2 = 0) = cos 6 + i sin 6 = 1
Applying C1 C1 C2 and C2 C2 C3 , we get 4 k k
0 0 1 26. (e) : We have, A = 0 k k

= 1 w w w 2
w2 0 0 k
1 w 0 w Now, expanding along C1, we get |A| = 4(k2)
But det(A) = 256 (Given)
= 1(0 (1 w) (w w2)) (on expanding along R1) \ On comparing, we get
= (w w2 w2 + w3) 4k2 = 256 k2 = 64 k = 8
= (1 w2 w2 w2 + 1) = (3w2) = 3w2 Hence, |k| = 8
3i 9i 1 1 0
27. (c) : We have, A =
23. (d) : We have, 2 9i 1 = (x + iy) 1 1
10 9 i 1 0 1 0 1 0
3i(9i2 + 9) + 9i(2i + 10) + (18 90i) = x + iy \ A2 = =
1 1 1 1 2 1
3i( 9 + 9) + 18i2 + 90i + 18 90i = x + iy
18 + 18 = x + iy 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
0 + 0i = x + iy A3 = = \ An =

2 1 1 1 3 1 n 1
On comparing, we get x = 0 and y = 0
1 0 1 0
24. (a) : We have, z = cos i sin Hence, An + nI = + n
3 3 n 1 0 1
1 3i 1 3i
= = 1 0 n 0 1 + n 0
2 2 2 = + =
2 n 1 0 n n 1 + n
1 3i 1 3i
then, z2 z+1= +1 1 0 n 0 1 0 1 0
2 2 = + = + n
0 1 n n 0 1 1 1
1 1 3i
= (1 3 2 3 i) + + = I + nA
4 2 2
28. (a) : Let z = x + iy
1 3i 1 3i
= + + =0
2 2 2 2 \ |z| = 5 x 2 + y 2 = 5 x2 + y2 = 25

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 53


z 5 x + iy 5 (x 5) + iy
Now, w = = = cos sin + i cos2 + i sin2 cos sin
z +5 x + iy + 5 (x + 5) + iy 2 2 2 2 2 2
= cot
On rationalizing the denominator, we get 2 2 2
sin + cos
2 2
((x 5) + iy )((x + 5) iy ) x 2 25 + y 2 + 10 yi
= = i cot
(x + 5)2 + ( y )2 (x + 5)2 + y 2 2
10 yi 31. (c) : We have, x + y + z = 3 ...(i)
= [Using x2 + y2 = 25] On squaring both sides, we get
(x + 5)2 + y 2 (x + y + z)2 = (3)2
10 yi x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx = 9 ...(ii)
=0+ \ R(w) = 0 Also, x, y, z are in A.P. 2y = x + z
(x + 5)2 + y 2
2y = 3 y y = 1 ...(iii)
1 1 So, xyz = 8 xz = 8 ...(iv)
29. (b) : We have, A =
1 1 Now, using (iii) and (iv) in (ii), we get
x2 + y2 + z2 2x 2z 16 = 9
1 1 1 1 2 2 x2 + y2 + z2 2(x + z) 16 = 9
\ A2 = A A = = x2 + y2 + z2 + 4 16 = 9
1 1 1 1 2 2 x2 + y2 + z2 = 9 + 12 = 21
Hence, x2 + y2 + z2 = 21
1 1
= 2 = 2A 32. (c) : We have the series of an A.P. as 10, 7, 4....
1 1 \ First term (a) = 10
Common difference (d) = 7 10 = 3
2 2 1 1 4 4
A3 = A2 A = = \ a30 = a + (30 1)d = 10 + 29(3) = 10 87 = 77
2 2 1 1 4 4 33. (e) : Given, arithmetic mean of x and y is 3
1 1 x+ y
= 4 = 22 A i.e., =3 x+y=6 ...(i)
1 1 2
and geometric mean of x and y is 1
Similarly An = 2n 1 A
i.e., xy = 1 xy = 1 ...(ii)
\ A2017 = 22017 1 A = 22016 A
Squaring (i) on both sides, we get
30. (c) : We have, a = eiq = cos + i sin (polar form) (x + y)2 = (6)2 x2 + y2 + 2xy = 36
1+ a 1 + cos + i sin x2 + y2 + 2 = 36 (Using (ii))
\ = x2 + y2 = 34
1 a 1 (cos + i sin )
34. (d) : We have, 32x 1 = 811 x
(3)2x 1 = ((3)4)1 x (3)2x 1 = (3)4 4x
2 cos2 + i 2 sin cos
2 2 2 \ On comparing, we get, 2x 1 = 4 4x
=
2 5
2 sin i 2 sin cos 6x = 5 or x =
2 2 2 6
1
35. (c) : Given series 3, 1, , .... forms a G.P.
2 cos cos + i sin 3
2 2 2 1
= where first term (a) = 3 and common ratio (r) =
3
2 sin sin i cos
2 2 2 \ Sixth term, a6 = ar5
5 4
1 11
cos + i sin sin + i cos = (3) = =
2 2 2 2 3 381
= cot
2 36. (a) : Let three numbers in A.P. be a, b and c
sin 2 i cos 2 sin 2 + i cos 2 Then, according to question

a + b + c = 21 ...(i) and ac = 45 ...(ii)
[Rationalizing the denominator] a, b and c are in A.P. \ 2b = c + a ...(iii)

54 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


Substituting (iii) in (i), we get Number of outcomes having arithmetic mean an integer
3b = 21 b = 7 i.e., {(1, 3), (1, 5) (2, 4), (3, 5)} = 4
Hence, product of these three numbers = abc 4 4 2
= 7(45) = 315 (Using (ii)) \ Required probability = = =
5
C2 10 5
37. (b) : Given, a + 1, 2a + 1, 4a 1 are in A.P.
44. (e) : There are 9 elements in 3 3 matrices and
\ 2(2a + 1) = 4a 1 + a + 1
each element can be filled in two ways either 1 or 1.
4a + 2 = 5a a = 2
\ Total possible matrices = 29
38. (b) : Given, arithmetic mean of x and y is 9
45. (b) : Total possible set of 2 2 symmetric matrices
x+ y
i.e., = 9 x + y = 18 of entries either zero or one = 8
2 Possbile set of matrices having determinant not zero = 4
Geometric mean of x and y is 4 i.e., xy = 4 xy = 16 4 1
\ Required probability = =
Now, sum of roots (x + y) = 18 8 2
Product of roots (xy) = 16 46. (c) : Number of words that can be formed by
\ Required quadratic equation is x2 18x + 16 = 0 using all 7 letters of word PROBLEM only once is 7!.
39. (c) : Total number of outcomes = 8 i.e., 47. (b) : Number of diagonals in n-sided polygon
{HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, TTH, THT, HTT, TTT} n(n 3)
Number of favourable outcomes = 4 =
2
i.e., {TTH, THT, HTT, TTT} = 4 6(6 3)
4 1 \ Number of diagonals in hexagon = =9
\ P(getting atleast 2 tails) = = 2
8 2 48. (a) : We know sum of n odd numbers = n2
40. (e) : Number of letters in TRICKS = 6 Number of odd terms from 1 to 2001 = 1001
Number of favourable outcomes = {T, R} = 2 \ Sum of 1001 odd terms = (1001)2
2 1 49. (e) : Total number of ways of selecting two balls = 4C2
\ P(either T or R) = =
6 3 Number of ways of selecting 2 balls in which no ball
41. (c) : Total number of outcomes = 10C4 is black = 2C2
2 red balls can be selected from 4 red balls in 4C2 ways 2
C 1
And, remaining 2 balls can be selected from 2 white \ Required probability = 4 2 =
C 6
balls and 4 black balls in 6C2 ways. 2
4
C2 C26
3 9 50. (a) : We have, z = i9 + i19 = (i2)4 i + (i2)9 i
\ Required probability = = or = i + (i) = 0 = 0 + 0i
10 7 21
C4
51. (a) : Given data is 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 4, 8, 12
42. (d) : Let A and B be two events of knowing lesson I 6 + 7 + 10 + 12 + 13 + 4 + 8 + 12 72
and lesson II respectively. \ Mean = = =9
8 8
\ According to question,
52. (e) : Given, x 2 < 1 x < 1 + 2 = 3
60 40
P(A) = ; P(B) = Hence, set of all real numbers satisfying the inequality
100 100 x 2 < 1 is ( , 3)
20
P(A B) = | x 3|
100 53. (b) : Given, >0
x 3
\ P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B) |x 3| > 0 x 3 > 0 x > 3
60 40 20 80 \ x (3, )
= + =
100 100 100 100 54. (c) : From the given data 8 has highest frequency.
Hence, required probability = P(AC BC) \ Mode of the given data is 8.
= P(A B)C = 1 P(A B) 55. (a) : Let the six numbers be x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6
80 20 1 Given, mean of six numbers = 41
=1 = = x + x + x3 + x 4 + x5 + x6
100 100 5 \ Mean = 1 2 = 41
43. (d) : Two distinct numbers can be chosen from 6
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 in 5C2 ways. x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6 = 246

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 55


x
56. (b) : Given, 0 f (t ) dt = x2 + ex (x > 0) tan
4
+ tan
2 +
tan tan
4 2
f(x) = 2x + ex =

\ f(1) = 2(1) + e = 2 + e 1 tan tan 1 + tan tan
4 2 4 2
x +1 1
57. (c) : 1/2 dx = x dx + dx
x x 1 + tan 1 tan
= 2 + 2
2
= x3/2 + 2x1/2 + c 1 tan 1 + tan
3 2 2
58. (e) : Let H and E be the two events of people 2 2

speaking Hindi and English respectively. 1 + tan 2 + 1 tan 2 2 1 + tan2
\ n(H) = 50, n(E) = 20 2
= =
n(H E) = 10 2
1 tan 2 1 tan2
\ n(H E) = n(H) + n(E) n(H E) 2
= 50 + 20 10 = 60
1
i.e., number of people who speak atleast one of two = 2 = 2 sec
languages is 60. cos
x +1 64. (None of the options is correct) :
59. (a) : Given, f(x) = 0
x 1 dx
x +1
+1
We have, x2 + x + 2
x + 1 1
\ f(f(x)) = f = x 1 0 0
x 1 x +1 dx dx
x 1
1 = 2 1 1
= 2
1 x + x + 2 + 1 1 7
( x + 1 + x 1) 2x 4 4 x + +
= = =x 2 4
( x + 1 x + 1) 2 0
0
60. (a) : Total number of outcomes = 6 6 = 36 dx 1 1 x + 1 / 2
Favourable number of outcomes = 27
= 2 2
=
7 2
tan
7 /2
1 1 7 1
\ Required probability =
27
=
3 x + +
2 2
36 4
2 1 1 / 2 1 1 / 2
2+ x 2x = tan tan
61. (a) : We have, lim 7 7 /2 7 / 2
x 0 x
On rationalizing the numerator, we get 2 1 1 1 4 1
(2 + x ) (2 x ) 2x = tan + tan 1 = tan 1
lim = lim 7 7 7 7 7
x 0 x ( 2 + x + 2 x ) x 0 x ( 2 + x + 2 x )
2
2 2 1 sin x
= lim
x 0 2+ x + 2x
=
2 2
=
2
65. (e) : Let I = sin x + cos x
dx ...(i)
0
dx e x dx
62. (b) : We have, ex + ex + 2 = e2x + 1 + 2e x 2

sin x dx
2
e x dx dt I=
= (e x + 1)2 = t 2 0
sin x + cos x
2 2
[Put (ex + 1) = t exdx = dt]
1 1 2
= +c= x +c cos x dx
t e +1 I= cos x + sin x
...(ii)
0
63. (b) : We have, tan + + tan
4 2 4 2 Adding (i) and (ii), we get

56 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


2
sin x + cos x f (0 + h) f (0)
= f (3) lim = f(3) f (0)
2I = sin x + cos x dx h 0 h
0
= 3 11 = 33 \ f (3) = 33
2
1 1 f ( x ) f (9)
I=
2 1 dx =
2 2
=
4
70. (a) : We have, f (9) = lim
x 9 x9
0
f (x ) f (x ) 3
66. (b) : Given, (x, y) is equidistant from 0 = lim
(a + b, b a) and (a b, a + b) x 9 x 9 f (x ) 3
\ Using distance formula, we have
f (x ) 3 f ( x ) + 9 9
(x (a + b))2 + ( y (b a))2 0 = lim
x 9 ( x 3)( x + 3) f ( x ) 3

= (x (a b))2 + ( y (a + b))2

On squaring both sides, we get
0 = lim
f (x ) 3
lim



( f (x ) )2 (3)2


(x (a + b))2 + (y (b a))2
= (x (a b))2 + (y (a + b))2
x 9 ( x 3) x 9
( f ( x ) 3 ( x + 3 )
x + a2 + b2 + 2ab 2ax 2bx + y2 + b2 + a2
2
9
2ab 2by + 2ay lim
x 9 ( f ( x ) 3) ( x + 3)

= x2 + a2 + b2 2ab + 2bx 2ax + y2 + a2 + b2
+ 2ab 2by 2ay f (x ) + 3
4bx + 4ay = 0 ay bx = 0 or bx ay = 0 0 = lim
x 0 x 3
67. (e) : Given, (1, 0), (0, 1) and (x, 8) are collinear
\ Area of formed by these points is zero f (x ) + 3 9
lim
1 x +3 ( f (9) 3)( 9 + 3)
i.e., |1(1 8) + 0(8 0) + x(0 1)| = 0 x 9
2
f (x ) + 3 3 9
1 0 = lim +
| 7 x| = 0 x = 7 x 9 x 3 6 3 6
2
68. (a) : Graph of max{x, x2} is shown below f (x ) + 3
lim =0
Y x 9 x 3
2
x
y=
71. (e) : cos + x + cos x
4 4
y = x2
x


y=

X = cos cos x sin sin x + cos cos x


0 1 4 4 4

+ sin sin x
4
2
Hence, min value of max{x, x2} is 0. = 2 cos cos x = cos x = 2 cos x
4 2
69. (c) : Given, f(x + y) = f(x) f(y)
72. (d) : Area of triangle
f (3 + h) f (3) 1
f (3) = lim = |(2)(5 + 1) + 1( 1 2) + 6(2 5)|
h 0 h 2
f (3) f (h) f (3) f (h) 1 1 1
= lim = f (3) lim = |( 2)(6) 3 18| = |12 3 18|
h 0 h h 0 h 2 2
f (h) f (0) 1 33
= f (3) lim [ f(0) = 1] = | 33| = sq. units
h 0 h 2 2

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 57


73. (b) : Equation of line passing through (1, 0) and 78. (c) :
(4, 1) is y

y 0 x 1 x 1 (0, 3) y = x2 + 3
= y=
1 0 4 1 5
or x + 5y 1 = 0
x x
Now, equation of line perpendicular to x + 5y = 0 is ( 3 , 0)
O
( 3 , 0)
5x y + = 0 is for some constant
y
Also, 5x y + = 0 passes through ( 3, 5)
\ 5( 3) 5 + = 0 = 20 3
Hence, 5x y + 20 = 0 is the required equation of line Required area = 2 ( x 2 + 3)dx
0
74. (b) : Given expansion is (1 + x2)5 (1 + x)4
3
x3 3 3
= [5C0(x2)0 + 5C1(x2)1 + 5C2(x2)2 + 5C3(x2)3 + 5C4(x2)4 + = 2 + 3x = 2 + 3 3
5C 2) 5] [ 4C 0 + 4C 1x + 4C 2x 2 + 4C 3x 3 + 4C 4x 4] 3 0 3
5(x 0x
= [5C0 + 5C1x2 + 5C2x4 + 5C3x6 + 5C4x8 + 5C5x10] = 2(2 3 ) = 4 3
[ 4C 0 + 4C 1x + 4C 2x 2 + 4C 3x 3 + 4C 4x 4] 79. (a) : Order of differential equation
2 2 5
\ Coefficient of x5 = 5C
1 4C
3 + 5C
2 4C
1 d3 y d2 y dy
3 + 2 + dx = 0 is 3.
= 20 + 40 = 60 dx dx

75. (e) : Given expansion is 4


80. (a) : We have, f(x) = 2x +
(1 2x)5 = 5C0 5C1(2x) + 5C2(2x)2 5C3(2x)3 2x

+ 5C4(2x)4 5C5(2x)5 1 4 1
\ f (x) = 2 +
\ Coefficient of x4 = 5C4 . (2)4 = 80 2 x 2 2 x 3/2
76. (a) : We have, 5x2 + y2 + y = 8 1 2
= 3/2
1 1 2x
(x )
5x2 + y2 + y 8 + =0 1 1
4 4 f (2) = =0
2 2
33
( 5 x)2 + (y + 1/2)2 =0 81. (b) : Let r be the radius of given circle.
4
Given, area of circle x2 2x + y2 10y + k = 0 is 25
2
33 i.e., r2 = 25 r2 = 25 ...(i)
( 5 x)2
+ (y + = 1/2)2
Also, radius from the given equation is
2
which represents an ellipse. r= (1)2 + (5)2 k r2 = 26 k
77. (e) : We have, 4x2 + y2 8x + 4y 8 = 0 25 = 26 k [Using (i)]
4(x2 2x + 1 1) + (y2 + 4y + 4 4) 8 = 0 k=1
4(x 1)2 4 + (y + 2)2 4 8 = 0 2017
x
( x 1) 2 82. (d) : Let I = x + 4033 x
dx ...(i)
+ (y + 2)2 = 16 2016
1/ 4
2017
4033 x

(x 1) 2
+
( y + 2)
=1
2 Also, I = 4033 x + x
...(ii)
4 16 2016

\ Centre (1, 2). Adding (i) and (ii), we get

58 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


2I =
(
2017 x + 4033 x ) dx = 20171 dx 87. (e) : Given,
153 + 63 + 3 6 15 21

2016 ( 4033 x )
x+ 1 + 4(6) + 6(36) + 4(216) + 1296
2016

1 1 (15 + 6)3 (21)3 27


I = [2017 2016] = = = 4
=
4 (7) 7
2 2 (1 + 6)
dy 88. (a) : The equation of the plane passing through
83. (a) : We have, + y tan x = sec x, y(0) = 0
dx the points (1, 0, 2), (1, 1, 2) and (5, 0, 3) is
This is a linear differential equation
x 1 y 0 z 2 x 1 y z 2
I.F. = e
tan x dx
\ = elog|sec x| = sec x 1 1 1 0 2 2 = 0 2 1 0 =0
5 1 0 0 3 2 4 0 1
\ Solution is given by y sec x = sec x sec x dx
2 (x 1) (1) y(2) + (z 2)(4)
y sec x = sec x dx y sec x = tan x + c x 1 + 2y 4z + 8 = 0
Now, we have y(0) = 0 x + 2y 4z + 7 = 0
(0)sec 0 = tan (0) + c c = 0 89. (b) : Given equation is y2 4y x + 3 = 0
(y 2)2 x 1 = 0 (y 2)2 = x + 1
\ Particular solution is, y sec x = tan x Now, shifting the origin to the point (1, 2) without
rotating the axes and denoting the new coordinates
84. (e) : Since the vectors 2i + 2 j + 6k , 2i + j + 6k ,
w.r.t. these axes by X and Y, we get
2i 3 j + k are coplanar. y 2 = Y and x + 1 = X
2 2 6 Now, substituting (X = 0, Y = 0)
y = 2, x = 1
\ 2 6 =0 Hence, vertex w.r.t to old axes (1, 2).
2 3 1
90. (a) : Given, a + b + c = 0
2( + 18) 2(2 12) + 6( 6 2 ) = 0 a = (b + c ) | a |2 = | (b + c )|2
10 + 20 = 0 = 2
| a |2 = | b |2 + | c |2 + 2 | b | | c | cos
85. (b) : Distance of the point (2, 1, 0) from the plane
( is angle between b and c )
2x + y + 2z + 5 = 0 is given by
49 = 25 + 9 + 30 cos
(2 2) + (1 1) + (0 2) + 5 4 +1+ 5 10 15 1
= = cos = = =
22 + 12 + 22 3 3 30 2 3
86. (e) : Coordinates of vertices of hyperbola 91. (d) : Let f(x) = 2x 9ax + 12a2x + 1
3 2

(0, 15) = (0, b) \ f (x) = 6x2 18ax + 12a2


and foci (0, 20) = (0, be) Now, f (x) = 0 6x2 18ax + 12a2 = 0
\ b = 15 and be = 20 (x 2a) (x a) = 0
20 4 x = a or 2a
e= = Also, f (x) = 12x 18a
15 3
\ f (a) = 12a 18a = 6a < 0 (a > 0)
a2 16 a2 and f (2a) = 24a 18a = 6a > 0
Now, e2 = 1 + =1+
b2 9 225 Hence, p = a and q = 2a
7 Now, p3 = q a3 = 2a a(a2 2) = 0
a2 = 225 = 175
9 a= 2
2 2
y x 92. (e) : We have, f(x) + f(y) = f(x + y)
\ Equation of hyperbola =1
b 2
a2 Put x = y = 1, we get
y2 x2 f(1 + 1) = f(1) + f(1) f(2) = 7 + 7 = 14
i.e., =1 f(2 + 1) = f(2) + f(1) f(3) = 14 + 7 = 21
225 175

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 59


Continuing in the same way, we get = x(12x2 6x2) x2(6x) + x3(2 0)
f (4) = 28, f (5) = 35 and so on. = 6x3 6x3 + 2x3 = 2x3 \ f (x) = 6x2
100
x2
\ f (r ) = f (1) + f (2) + f (3) +...+ f (100) 99. (c) : Let I = 1+ (x 3 )2 dx
r =1
= 7 + 14 + 21 +.....+ 700 Put x3 = t 3x2dx = dt
Since, the series forms an A.P.
1 dt 1 1
100
100 \ I=
3 1+ t 2
= [tan1 t] + c = tan1(x3) + c
\ f (r ) = [7 + 700] = 50 707 = 50 7 101 3 3
r =1 2 100. (d) : We have, f(x) = x2 + ex
2 \ f (x) = 2x + ex
(x 1)2 3 1
93. (a) : Given, +y+ = f (x) = 2 + ex
2 4 16 f (x) = ex
2 Hence, the least value of n so that fn = fn + 1 is 3.
or ( x 1)2 + ( y + 3 / 4) = 1
1 / 16 101. (e) : sin 765 = sin(2 360 + 45)
1/ 8
1
b2 = sin 45 =
1 (1 / 16) 2
\ Eccentricity (e) = 2
= 1
a (1 / 8) 102. (d) : Distance of the point (3, 5) from the line
1 1 3x 4y 26 = 0 is
= 1 =
2 2 3 3 + (4)(5) 26 9 + 20 26 3
= =
1 2
3 +4 2 5 5
3
94. (b) : We have, max {x, x } dx
x t3 t2
x
1 2
103. (c) : Given, f(x) = (t + t + 1)dt = + + t
0 1 x4
0
x2
1
0 3 2 0
3 1
= x dx + x dx = + =
x3 x2
1 0 4 1 2 0 4
\ f(x) = + + x
95. (d) : We have, sin x + cos y = 2 3 2
It is possible only if sin x = 1 and cos y = 1 x3 x2
\ f(x) = + + x on [2, 3] gives
x= and y = 0 \ x + y = +0= 3 2
2 2 2
96. (a) : Given numbers a, a + r, a + 2r are in A.P. 8 4 20
f(2) = + +2= (minimum)
Also their product = 64. This is possible only when 3 2 3
three numbers are equal to 4. 27 9 33
i.e., a = a + r = a + 2r = 4 and f(3) = + +3= (maximum)
\ Minimum value of a + 2r is 4. 3 2 2
\ Difference between the maximum and minimum
1 1 1 1 1
97. (b) : We have, S = + + + + 33 20 59
9 ! 3!7 ! 5!5! 7 !3! 9 ! value is =
2 3 6
1 2 8 9 9 8 7 6 104. (c) : Let, f(x) = x2 + ax + b = 0
= 2+ +
9 ! 3! 5!
Since a and b are roots of f(x)
\ a + b = a and ab = b a = 1
1 2 120 + 2(72)(20) + (3024) 1 6144 29 \ 1 + b = 1 b = 2
= = =
9! 120 10 ! 12 10 ! So, f(x) = x2 + x 2
Also, f (x) = 2x + 1. For maximum/minimum f (x) = 0
x x2 x3
1
98. (d) : Given, f(x) = 1 2 x 3x 2 x=
2
0 2 6x
Now, f (x) = 2 > 0

60 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


1 3 3
\ x= is the minimum point. 108. (a) : Let tan1 = tan =
2 4 4
4
2 \ cos =
1 1 1 5
\ Minimum value = f = + 2
2 2 2 1 3 4
Now, cos tan = cos =
1 1 9 4 5
= 2=
4 2 4 109. (b) : AB = BC
x2 \ By using distance formula, we have
105. (b) : We have, y = 4x + c and + y2 = 1
4
y = 4x + c touches the given ellipse (1 6)2 + (3 + 1)2 = (x 1)2 + (8 3)2
On squaring both sides, we get
x2 (5)2 + (4)2 = (x 1)2 + (5)2
\ + (4x + c)2 = 1
4 x2 + 1 2x = 16 x2 2x 15 = 0
x2 + 4(16x2 + c2 + 8xc) = 4 (x + 3)(x 5) = 0 x = 3, 5
x2 + 64x2 + 4c2 + 32xc 4 = 0 110. (e) : We have, n = 15, Incorrect x2 = 2830,
65x2 + 32xc + 4c2 4 = 0 Incorrect (x) = 170
Now, discriminant D = 0 (32c)2 4(65)(4c2 4) = 0 \ Correct (x) = (Incorrect x Incorrect value)
1024c2 1040c2 + 1040 = 0 + Correct value
16c2 = 1040 c2 = 65 = (170 20) + 30 = 180
c = 65 x 180
\ Correct Mean = Correct = = 12
106. (d) : Given equations x y = 2, 2x 3y = 15 15
and 3x 2y = 1 are consistent Similarly, Correct x2 = Incorrect x2 (Incorrect value)2
1 2 + (Correct value)2
2 2
= 2830 (20) + (30) = 2830 + 500 = 3330
\ 2 3 = 0
(x 2 )
3 2 1 \ Correct variance = Correct (Correct mean)2
n
(3 + 2 ) + 1(2 3 ) 2(4 + 9) = 0 3330
= (12)2 = 222 144 = 78
3 + 2 2 + 2 3 + 8 18 = 0 15
2 3 4 = 0 ( 4)( + 1) = 0 111. (e) : Let be the angle between the lines
\ = 1, 4 x 2 y 1 z +3 x+2 y4 z 5
= = and = =
107. (a) : The set {(x, y) : |x| + |y| = 1} in xy plane 2 5 3 1 8 4
represents
| 2(1) + 5(8) + (3)(4)|
x + y = 1; x > 0, y > 0 \ cos =
x y = 1; x > 0, y < 0
(2)2 + (5)2 + (3)2 (1)2 + (8)2 + (4)2

x + y = 1; x < 0, y > 0 | 2 + 40 12 | 26
= =
x y = 1; x < 0, y < 0 38 81 9 38
y
(0, 1) 26
i.e., = cos1
x
+ 9 38
1

y
=

=
y

1
+

(1, 0) 112. (d) : We have, (x a ) (x + a ) = 12


x

i.e., x (1, 0) x
O | x |2 | a |2 = 12
1
x

=
y Since, a be a unit vector \ | a | = 1

x
=

| x |2 1 = 12 | x |2 = 13 | x | = 13
1

(0, 1)
y 113. (d) : Sides of triangular region are y = 2x + 1;
Hence, the given set represents a square. y = 3x + 1 and x = 4.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 61


117. (None of the options is correct) :
(4, 13) C Given, T7 = T8
Y nC6(2a)n 6 (3b)6 = nC7(2a)n 7 (3b)7

1
B

+
(4, 9)

3x
n! n!

y=
+
1 (2a)n 6 (3b)6 = (2a)n 7 (3b)7
2x (n 6)! 6 ! (n 7)! 7 !
(0, 1) y= x=4
A 1 (3b) 2a (n 6)
(1/2, 0) (2a) = =
(n 6) 7 3b 7
X X
O
Applying componendo & dividendo, we get
\ Area of shaded region i.e., ABC where
2a + 3b 6 n + 7 13 n n 13
A = (0, 1), B = (4, 9), C = (4, 13) = = =
2a 3b 6 n 7 n 1 n + 1
1 1
= |0(9 13) + 4(13 1) + 4(1 9)| = |4(12) 32|
2 2 118. (c) : Mean of first n odd natural numbers
1 1 + 3 + 5 + .... + (2n 1) n2
= 16 = 8 sq. units
2 x= = =n
n n
114. (b) : Given, nCr 1 = 36, nCr = 84, nCr + 1 = 126 Sum of square of first n odd natural numbers i.e.,
n n(2n + 1)(2n 1)
Cr n r +1
Since, = 12 + 32 + 52 + ... + (2n 1)2 =
n
Cr 1 r 3
84 n r +1 n r +1 7 n(2n + 1)(2n 1) 2
\ = = \ Standard deviation = n
36 r r 3 3n
7r = 3n 3r + 3 10r = 3n + 3 ...(i)
n n2 1
Cr r +1 84 r +1 r +1 2 =
Also, = = = 3
n n r 126 n r n r 3
Cr +1
119. (b) : Given, S = {1, 2, 3, ..., 10}.
3r + 3 = 2n 2r 5r = 2n 3 ...(ii) \ Set containing odd numbers of S = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}
Solving (i) & (ii), we get r = 3 \ Number of subsets of S containing only odd
f ( x + h) f ( x ) numbers = (2)5 1 = 32 1 = 31
115. (e) : f (x) = lim
h 0 h 120. (e) : Let the vertices of parallelogram be
A(0, 0), B(7, 2), C(5, 9) and D(12, 11)
f (x ) f (h) f (x )
= lim [ f(x + y) = f(x)f(y)] D (12, 11) C (5, 9)
h 0 h
f (h) 1 1 + sin 3h g (h) 1
= f (x ) lim = f ( x ) lim
h 0 h h0 h
A B
sin 3h (0, 0)
= f ( x ) lim g (h) (7, 2)
h0 h Area of || gm ABCD = area of ABC + area of ADC
sin 3h 1
= f ( x ) g (0) lim 3 = 3 f(x) g(0) Now, area of ABC = |0(2 9) + 7(9 0) + 5(0 2)|
h0 3h 2
x 1 1 1 1 53
= |63 10| =
2 2
116. (b) : Given, 1 x 1 1 =0
1
1 1 x 1 \ Area of ADC = |0(11 9) + 12(9 0) + 5(0 11)|
2
(x 1)[(x 1)2 1] 1[x 1 1] + 1[1 x + 1] = 0
1 53
(x 1)[x2 + 1 2x 1] x + 2 + 2 x = 0 = |108 55| =
(x 1) x(x 2) 2x + 4 = 0 2 2
x(x 1)(x 2) 2(x 2) = 0 53 53
\ Area of || gm ABCD = + = 53 sq. units
(x 2)[x2 x 2] = 0 (x 2)(x 2)(x + 1) = 0 2 2
x = 2, 1

62 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


SOLVED PAPER 2017

Karnataka CET
1. The distance of the point (2, 4, 5) from the line m
1 + i
x +3 y 4 z +8 8. If = 1 , then the least positive integral
= = is 1 i
3 5 6
value of m is
37 37 37 37 (a) 4 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
10 10 10 10 5
2. If A is a square matrix of order 3 3, then |KA| is 9. | x + 2 | dx is equal to
equal to 5
(a) K|A| (b) K2|A| (a) 28 (b) 29 (c) 27 (d) 30
(c) 3K|A| (d) K3|A|
cos 2 x cos 2
3. Equation of line passing through the point (1, 2) 10. cos x cos
dx is equal to
and perpendicular to the line y = 3x 1 is
(a) 2(sinx + x cos ) + C
(a) x 3y = 0 (b) x + 3y = 0
(b) 2(sinx x cos ) + C
(c) x + 3y 7 = 0 (d) x + 3y + 7 = 0
(c) 2(sinx + 2x cos ) + C
4. General solution of differential equation (d) 2(sinx 2x cos ) + C
dy 11. The area of the region bounded by the curve y = x2
+ y = 1( y 1) is
dx and the line y = 16 is
1 256 128
(a) log = x + C (b) log|1 y| = x + C (a) sq . units (b) sq . units
1 y 3 3
1 32 64
(c) log|1 + y| = x + C (d) log = x + C (c) sq . units (d) sq . units
1 y 3 3
12. If A and B are finite sets and A B, then
5. The value of C in mean value theorem for the (a) n(A B) = n(B) (b) n(A B) = n(B)
function f(x) = x2 in [2, 4] is (c) n(A B) = f (d) n(A B) = n(A)
7 13. If a matrix A is both symmetric and skew symmetric,
(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) (d) 3
2 then
1 cos 4 (a) A is diagonal matrix
6. The value of lim is (b) A is a zero matrix
0 1 cos 6
9 4 9 3 (c) A is scalar matrix
(a) (b) (c) (d) (d) A is square matrix
4 9 3 4
3 x 3 2
1 sin x + cos x dy 14. If = then x is equal to
7. If y = tan , then is equal to x 1 4 1
cos x sin x dx
(a) 8 (b) 4
1
(a) 0 (b) (c) (d) 1 (c) 2 2 (d) 2
2 4

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 63


15. The integrating factor of the differential equation 22. A box has 100 pens of which 10 are defective. The
dy probability that out of a sample of 5 pens drawn one
x + 2 y = x 2 is (x 0)
dx by one with replacement and atmost one is defective
is
(a) elog x (b) log |x|
4
(c) x (d) x2 9 1 9
(a) (b)
16. The perpendicular distance of the point P(6, 7, 8)
10 2 10
from XY-plane is 5 4 5
9 1 9 1 9
(a) 7 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 5 (c) + (d)
10 2 10 2 10
17. The shaded region in the figure is the solution set of
d2 y
the inequations 23. If y = log (log x), then is equal to
dx 2
(1 + log x ) (1 + log x )
(a) 2
(b)
x log x ( x log x )2
(1 + log x ) (1 + log x )
(c) (d)
( x log x )2 x 2 log x

(a) 5x + 4y 20, x 6, y 3, x 0, y 0 ( x + 3) e x
(b) 5x + 4y 20, x 6, y 3, x 0, y 0
24. ( x + 4)2
dx is equal to

(c) 5x + 4y 20, x 6, y 3, x 0, y 0 ex ex
(a) +C (b) +C
(d) 5x + 4y 20, x 6, y 3, x 0, y 0 ( x + 4) ( x + 4)2
18. If an LPP admits optimal solution at two consecutive ex 1
vertices of a feasible region, then (c) +C (d) +C
( x + 3) ( x + 4)2
(a) the required optimal solution is at the midpoint
/2
of the line joining two points. 1
(b) the optimal solution occurs at every point on
25. a 2
sin x + 2
b 2
cos 2
x
dx is equal to
0
the line joining these two points.
(c) the LPP under consideration is not solvable. a b a
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(d) the LPP under consideration must be 4b 4a 2ab 2b
reconstructed. 26. Let f : R R be defined by f(x) = x4, then
19. 3 + 5 + 7 + .... to n terms is (a) f is one-one but not onto
(a) n2 (b) n(n 2) (b) f is neither one-one nor onto
(c) n(n + 2) (d) (n + 1)2 (c) f is one-one and onto
(d) f may be one-one and onto
1 3 y 0 5 6 27. The point on the curve y2 = x where the tangent
20. If 2 + = , then the value of
0 x 1 2 1 8
makes an angle with X-axis is
x and y are 4
(a) x = 3, y = 3 (b) x = 3, y = 3 1 1
(a) (1, 1) (b) ,
4 2
(c) x = 3, y = 3 (d) x = 3, y = 3
1 1
21. The derivative of cos1(2x2 1) w.r.t cos1 x is (c) , (d) (4, 2)
2 4
2
(a) 2 (b) 28. The total number of terms in the expansion of
x (x + a)47 (x a)47 after simplification is
1
(c) 1 x2 (d)
2 1 x2 (a) 24 (b) 96 (c) 47 (d) 48

64 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


29. The function f(x) = x2 + 2x 5 is strictly increasing 2
in the interval (c) ( x + 1) x + 2 x + 5
(a) [1, ) (b) ( , 1) +2 log x + 1 + x 2 + 2 x + 5 + C
(c) ( , 1] (d) (1, )
30. The degree of the differential equation (d) ( x + 1) x 2 + 2 x + 5
2
dy
2
d2 y 1
1 + = is + log x + 1 + x 2 + 2 x + 5 + C
dx 2
dx 2
(a) 1 (b) 4 (c) 2 (d) 3 37. If nC12 = nC8 then n is equal to
(a) 12 (b) 26 (c) 6 (d) 20
31. Binary operation * on R {1} defined by
f ( x ) g ( x ) h( x )
a dy
a*b = is 38. If y = l m n , then is equal to
b +1 dx
(a) * is associative and commutative a b c
(b) * is neither associative nor commutative f ( x ) g ( x ) h ( x )
(c) * is commutative but not associative
(a) l m n
(d) * is associative but not commutative
a b c
32. The plane 2x 3y + 6z 11 = 0 makes an angle
sin1 (a) with X-axis. The value of a is equal to l m n
(b) f ( x ) g ( x ) h( x )
3 2 2 3
(a) (b) (c) (d) a b c
2 7 3 7
33. If coefficient of variation is 60 and standard f ( x ) l a l m n
deviation is 24, then arithmetic mean is g ( x ) m b
(c) (d) a b c
20 7 1
(a) (b) (c) (d) 40 h( x ) n c f ( x ) g ( x ) h( x )
7 20 40
34. The contrapositive statement of the statement If x 4
39. If tan 1 x + tan 1 y = , then cot1x + cot1y is
is prime number, then x is odd is 5
equal to
(a) If x is not a prime number, then x is odd.
3 2
(b) If x is not a prime number, then x is not odd. (a) (b) (c) (d)
(c) If x is a prime number, then x is not odd. 5 5 5
(d) If x is not odd, then x is not a prime number. 40. The range of the function f ( x ) = 9 x 2 is
35. The probability distribution of X is (a) [0, 3] (b) (0, 3]
(c) (0, 3) (d) [0, 3)
X 0 1 2 3
41. Two events A and B will be independent if
P(X) 0.3 k 2k 2k (a) P(A B ) = (1 P(A)) (1 P(B))
The value of k is (b) A and B are mutually exclusive
(a) 0.7 (b) 0.3 (c) 1 (d) 0.14 (c) P(A) + P(B) = 1
(d) P(A) = P(B)
36. x 2 + 2 x + 5 dx is equal to
x2 y2
2
(a) ( x + 1) x + 2 x + 5 42. The eccentricity of the ellipse + = 1 is
36 16
2 log x + 1 + x 2 + 2 x + 5 + C 2 5 2 13 2 5 2 13
(a) (b) (c) (d)
1 6 4 4 6
(b) ( x + 1) x 2 + 2 x + 5 43. If a & b are unit vectors, then angle between
2
+ 2 log x + 1 + x 2 + 2 x + 5 + C a and b for 3 a b to be unit vector is
(a) 45 (b) 30 (c) 90 (d) 60

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 65


 
44. If a = 2i + j + k and b = i + 2 j + 3k are Kx 2 if x 2
54. If f ( x ) = is continuous at x = 2, then
orthogonal, then value of is 3 if x > 2
3 5 the value of K is
(a) (b) 1 (c) (d) 0
2 2 4 3
(a) (b) (c) 3 (d) 4
45. The value of cos245 sin215 is 3 4
3 +1 3 1 x
(a) (b) sin ( x ) tan 1
2 2 4 1
55. If A =
3 1 3 1 x 1
(c) (d) sin cot ( x )
2 2 2
46. The range of sec1x is 1 1 x

(a) [0, ] (b) [0, ] {}



2
cos ( x ) tan
B=
sin 1 x tan 1( x )


(c) , (d) ,
2 2 2 2
then A B is equal to
47. If a, b , c are unit vectors such that a + b + c = 0 , 1
(a) I (b) I (c) O (d) 2I
then the value of a b + b c + c a is equal to 2
3 3 56. If f(x) = 8x3, g(x) = x1/3, then fog(x) is
(a) (b) 3 (c) (d) 1
2 2 (a) 83x (b) 8x3
(c) 8x (d) (8x)1/3
/2
dx
48. is equal to Ax x 2 1
sin x
+1 A B C
/2 e 2
57. Let = By y 1 and 1 = x y z then
(a) 1 (b) 0 (d)
(c) zy zx xy
2 2 Cz z2 1
49. The rate of change of volume of a sphere with
(a) 1 = (b) 1 =
respect to its surface area when the radius is 4 cm is
(c) =2 (d)
(a) 2 cm3/cm2 (b) 4 cm3/cm2 1 1
3 2
(c) 8 cm /cm (d) 6 cm3/cm2 2t 2t dy
58. If sin x = , tan y = , then is equal
2 2 dx
to 1+t 1t
/2
tan7 x (a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 0
50. 7 7
dx is equal to
0 cot x + tan x 59. Reflection of the point (a, , ) in XY plane is
(a) (0, 0, ) (b) (a, , )
(a) (b) (c) (d) (c) (a, , ) (d) (a, , 0)
4 2 6 3
51. If |x 2| 1, then 60. Area of the region bounded by the curve y = cos x,
(a) x (1, 3) (b) x (1, 3) x = 0 and x = is
(c) x [1, 3] (d) x [1, 3) (a) 2 sq. units (b) 3 sq. units
3.5 (c) 4 sq. units (d) 1 sq. units
52. [x ]dx is equal to
MPP-2 CLASS XI ANSWER KEY
0.2
(a) 3.5 (b) 4.5 (c) 3 (d) 4 1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (a) 5. (b)
53. The area of triangle with vertices (K, 0), (4, 0), (0, 2) 6. (c) 7. (b) 8. (a,c) 9 . (b,c) 10. (d)
is 4 square units, then value of K is 11. (b,c) 12. (a,c,d) 13. (a) 14. (a) 15. (b)
(a) 8 (b) 0 or 8 (c) 0 (d) 0 or 8 16. (d) 17. (4) 18. (5) 19. (1) 20. (1)

66 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


SOLUTIONS f (4) f (2) (4)2 (2)2 12
1. (c) : Given, point is A(2, 4, 5), 2C = = =
42 2 2
x +3 y 4 z +8 2C = 6 C = 3
Line (l) is = = = (say)
3 5 6 1 cos 4
Co-ordinates of B are (3 3, 5 + 4, 6 8) 6. (b) : We have, lim
0 1 cos 6
\ Direction ratios of AB are (3 1, 5 , 6 3)
sin2 2 (2)2 4
= lim = =
2 2 9
0 sin 3 (3)
1 sin x + cos x
7. (d) : We have, y = tan
cos x sin x
Now, (3 1)(3) + (5 )(5) + (6 3)(6) = 0
1 + tan x
3 = tan 1 = tan 1 tan + x = + x
= 1 tan x 4 4
10
 1 3 6 dy
=1
AB = i + j k dx
10 2 5
m
 1 9 36 1 + i
d =| AB |= + + 8. (a) : Given, = 1 im = i4 m = 4
100 4 25 1 i
5
1 + 225 + 144 370 37
= = = 9. (b) : Let I = | x + 2 | dx
100 100 10
5
2 5
2. (d) : We have |KA| = Kn|A|, Here n = 3
= ( x + 2)dx + (x + 2)dx
\ |KA| = K3|A|
5 2
1 2
3. (c) : Equation of required line is y 2 = (x 1) x2 x2
5
3
x + 3y 7 = 0 = + 2x + + 2x
2 5 2 2
dy
4. (a) : Given, + y =1
dx 9 49 58
= + = = 29
This is a linear differential equation. 2 2 2
1dx
I.F. = e = ex cos 2 x cos 2
x x x
10. (a) : Let I =
cos x cos
dx
\ Solution is given by, ye = e 1 dx = e + C1
(2 cos2 x 1) (2 cos2 1)
ex(y 1) = C1 x + log|y 1| = log C1 = dx
x log|y 1| = logC1 cos x cos
2(cos2 x cos2 )
log
1
= x +C [where logC1 = C]
= cos x cos
dx = 2 (cos x + cos )dx
y 1
= 2(sinx + x cos ) + C
1 11. (a) : Required area = Area of shaded portion
or log = x +C
1 y

5. (d) : We have, f(x) = x2 in [2,4]


\ According to mean value theorem,
f (b) f (a)
We have, f (C ) =
ba
[where a = 2 and b = 4]

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 67


16 2 16 4 256 dy 1
=2 ydy = 2 y 3/ 2 0 = [43 ] = sq. units 23. (b) : We have, y = log (log x) =
3 3 3 dx x log x
0
12. (a) : Given, A B A B = A d2 y 1 1 (1 + log x )
\ n(A B) = n(A) + n(B) n(A B) = x x + log x 1 =
2 2
dx ( x log x ) ( x log x )2
= n(A) + n(B) n(A) = n(B)
13. (b) : Given, A is symmetric aij = aji ...(i) i j ( x + 4 1)e x
( x + 3)e x
A is skew symmetric aij = aji ...(ii) and aii = 0 24. (a) : Let I = (x + 4)2 dx = ( x + 4)2
dx
Adding (i) and (ii) we get 2aij = 0 aij = 0
\ A is a zero matrix.
3 x 3 2
1 1 x ex
= e dx = +C
14. (c) : We have, = 2
x + 4 ( x + 4) x+4
x 1 4 1
e x ( f ( x ) + f ( x ))dx = e x f ( x ) + C
3 x2 = 3 8 x 2 = 8 x = 2 2
dy dy 2 y
15. (d) : Given, x + 2 y = x2 + =x /2
1
dx dx x
2
25. (c) : Let I = 2 2 22
dx
x dx 2
0 a sin x + b cos x
I.F. = e = e log x = x 2
/2
16. (c) : Perpendicular distance of the point P(6,7,8) sec2 xdx
from XY-plane is 8. = a2 tan2 x + b2
0
17. (c) : Clearly, shaded region represents
5x + 4y > 20, x < 6, y < 3, x > 0, y > 0 Put tan x = t sec2 x dx = dt
18. (b) : The optimal solution occurs at every point on
dt dt
the line joining these two points. I= a2t 2 + b2 =
2 b2
0 0 a2
19. (c) : Given series is in A.P. with first term (a) = 3, t + 2
common difference (d) = 2 a

Sn = n [ 2 3 + (n 1)2] = n(n + 2 ) =
1 a at
tan 1 =

2 2 b b 0 2ab
a
2 + y 6 5 6
20. (a) : Given = 26. (b) : Given f(x) = x4
1 2 x + 2 1 8 Now, f(1) = f(1) but 1 1
2 + y = 5 and 2x + 2 = 8 y = 3, x = 3 \ f is not one-one
Also, co-domain of f is R and range of f is [0, )
21. (a) : Let u = cos1(2x2 1) and v = cos1 x cos v = x
\ u = cos1(2cos2v 1) = cos1(cos2v) = 2v \ f is not onto
du 27. (b) : We have, y2 = x 2yy = 1
=2
dv 1 1
y = = tan y =
2y 4 2
10 1 9
22. (c) : p = = , q = 1 p = ,n = 5 2
100 10 10 1 1 1
When y = , x = y 2 = =
x 5 x 2 2 4
1 9
P( X = x ) = 5C x
10 10 28. (a) : Number of terms in (x + a)47 (x a)47
\ P(X 1) = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) 47 + 1
= = 24
0 5 1 4
2
1 9 1 9 n +1
= 5C0 + 5C1 [Number of terms in (a + b)n (a b)n is ,
10 10 10 10 2
when n is odd number]

68 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


29. (d) : f is strictly increasing f (x) > 0 2 2
2x + 2 > 0 x > 1
40. (a) : Let y = 9 x2 y = 9 x
d2 y x2 = 9 y2 x = 9 y2
30. (a) : Highest order derivative is and its power is 1.
dx 2
Hence, degree of differential equation is 1. Clearly, 9 y2 > 0 y2 < 9
3 < y < 3
a
31. (b) : We have, a * b = But y > 0. Hence 0 < y < 3.
b +1
1 2 41. (a) : If A and B are independent
1 * 2 = but 2 * 1 = = 1
3 2 Then A and B are also independent
Thus 1 * 2 2 * 1 \ * is not commutative P(A B ) = P(A )P(B )
1 1/3 1 = (1 P(A))(1P(B))
Now, (1 * 2) * 3 = * 3 = =
3 4 12 a2 b2 36 16 2 5
1 1 2 42. (a) : e = = =
and 1 * (2 * 3) = 1 * = = a 6 6
2 1 3 43. (b) : Given, | a |=| b |= 1
+1
2
2 2 2
\ * is not associative Now, | 3a b | = 3 | a | + | b | 2 3 (a b )
[Infact, * is not a binary operation !!!] 1 = 3(1) + 1 2 3 | a || b | cos
32. (b) : Let f be the angle made by plane 1 = 4 2 3 (1)(1)cos
2x 3y + 6z 11 = 0 and X-axis i.e., (1,0,0)
3
| 2 1 3 0 + 6 0 | cos = = 30
sin = 2
4 + 9 + 36 1 + 0 + 0
44. (c) : For, a and b to be orthogonal a b = 0
1 2 1
= sin 7 = sin () (2)(1) + ( )(2) + (1)(3) = 0
5
5+2 =0 =
2
33. (d) : We have C.V. = 100
x 45. (b) : cos245 sin215 = cos(45+15)cos(4515)
24
60 = 100 x = 40 1 3 3
x = cos60 cos30 = =
2 2 4
34. (d) : The contrapositive statement of the statement

If x is prime number, then x is odd is If x is not 46. (b) : Range of sec1 x is [0, ]
odd, then x is not a prime number. 2
35. (d) : We know, P ( X ) = 1 47. (a) : Here, a , b , c are unit vectors and a + b + c = 0
0.3 + k + 2k + 2k = 1 5k = 0.7 0.14 (a + b + c )2 = 0

36. (b) : Let I = x 2 + 2 x + 5 dx = ( x + 1)2 + 22 dx | a |2 + | b |2 + | c |2 + 2(a b + b c + c a ) = 0


( x + 1) 2 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 (a b + b c + c a ) = 0
= x + 2 x + 5 + 2 log x + 1 + x 2 + 2 x + 5 + C
2
3
37. (d) : Given, nC12 = nC8 8 + 12 = n n = 20 a b +b c + c a =
2
[ nCx = nCy x = y or x + y = n]
/2
38. (a, c, d) dx
48. (c) : Let I = ...(i)
sin x
4 /2 e +1
39. (a) : Given, tan1 x + tan1 y =
5 /2
dx
/2
e sin x dx
1 1
cot x + cot y =
4
=
I= sin x
+1
= sin x
...(ii)
5 5 /2 e /2 1 + e

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 69


Adding (i) and (ii), we get 1
/2 sin x 2 A x
e +1 Ax x 1 x
2I = sin x
+1
dx
1
/2 e
2
57. (b) : We have, = By y 1 = xyz B y
y
/2
/2 Cz z 2 1 1
2I = 1dx = [ x ] / 2 = I =
2
C z
z
/2

dr A x yz A B C
4 r 2
dV dV / dt dt = r = 4 = 2 cm3 /cm2 = B y xz = x y z = 1
49. (a) : = =
dS dS / dt dr 2 2
8 r C z xy zy zx xy
dt
/2
tan7 x 2t
50 . (a) : 7 7
dx = 58. (a) : We have, x = sin 1 = 2 tan 1 t
cot x + tan x 4 2
0 1+t
2t
and y = tan 1 = 2 tan 1 t

/2 2
f (x ) 1t
dx =

0 f (x ) + f x
4
dy
2 y=x = 1.
dx
51. (c) : Here, |x 2| 1 1 x 2 1 1 x 3 59. (b) : Reflection of the point (a, , ) in XY plane is
x [1,3] (a, , ) .
3. 5 1 2 3 3. 5 60. (a) : Given, curves are y = cos x ; x = 0 and x =
52. (b) : Here, [ x ]dx = 0 dx + 1dx + 2 dx + 3dx
0. 2 0. 2 1 2 3

= 0 + [x]12 + [2x]23 + [3x]3.5


3 = 1 + 2(1) + 3(0.5) = 4.5
53. (d) : Given, area of triangle with vertices (K, 0),
(4, 0), (0, 2) is 4 sq. units i.e.,
K 0 1
1 2 K + 8 /2
4 = 4 0 1 = 4 \ Required area = 2 cos xdx
2 2
0 2 1 0
/2
K = 0 or 8 = 2 [sin x ]0 = 2 sq. units
54. (b) : Given, f(x) is continuous
lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = f ( 2 )
x 2 x 2+ Solution Sender of Maths Musing
3 SET-173
lim (Kx 2 ) = 3 4 K = 3 K =
x 2 4
1. V. Damodhar Reddy (Telangana)
55 . (None of the options is correct) : SET-172
x
cos1 x tan 1 1. Satyadev. P (Bangalore)
1
If matrix B will be, B = 2. Gouri Sankar Adhikary (West Bengal)
1 x
sin tan 1 x 3. P.N.L Bhavana (Hyderabad)

1
Then, A B = I 4. Shubham Agarwal (Hyderabad)
2
5. K. Poojasree (Hyderabad)
1/3 1/3 3
56. (c) : fog(x) = f(g(x)) = f ( x ) = 8( x ) = 8x 6. N. Jayanthi (Hyderabad)

70 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 71
M aths Musing was started in January 2003 issue of Mathematics Today. The aim of Maths Musing is to augment the chances of bright
students seeking admission into IITs with additional study material.
During the last 10 years there have been several changes in JEE pattern. To suit these changes Maths Musing also adopted the new
pattern by changing the style of problems. Some of the Maths Musing problems have been adapted in JEE benefitting thousand of our
readers. It is heartening that we receive solutions of Maths Musing problems from all over India.
Maths Musing has been receiving tremendous response from candidates preparing for JEE and teachers coaching them. We do hope
that students will continue to use Maths Musing to boost up their ranks in JEE Main and Advanced.

JEE MAIN COMPREHENSION

1. If a1 = 11, a2 = 75, a3 = 20, a4 = 23 and an = an 1 an 2 =


Let f ( x ) [sin 1 x ] + [cos1 x ], x [0,1]
+ an 3 an 4, n 5, then a31 a53 + a75 = 7. The number of points at which f(x) is not
(a) 53 (b) 58 differentiable is
(c) 65 (d) 75 (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
1 1 1 8. The solution set of the equation f(x) = 0 is an interval
2. If xyz = 1, x + = 5, y + = 29, then z + =
z x y of length
1 1
(a) (b) p p
3 4 (a) 2 sin 1 (b) 2 sin 1 +
4 4
3
(c) 2 (d) p p
4 (c) 2 cos 1 (d)
2 cos 1 +
1 4 4
1 1 1
3. In a triangle ABC, D 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = INTEGER TYPE
r r1 r2 r3
9. Ten boys and two girls are to be seated in a row
(a) 2 tanA (b) 2 cotA
such that there are atleast 3 boys between the
(c) 4 tanA (d) 4 cotA
girls. The number of ways this can be done is
4. A straight line through the point (a, b) meets x-axis 12!, where =
at A and y-axis at B. O is the origin. If (a, b) = (4, 1), MATRIX MATCH
then the minimum value of OA + OB is
(a) 7 (b) 8 (c) 9 (d) 10 10. The curve f (x, y) = 0 lies in the first quadrant.
The tangent at a point on it meets the positive
a y z x and y axes at A and B and O is the origin
5. If x a, y b, z c and x b z = 0, then List-I List-II
x y c P. f(x, y) = 4xy 1 1. AB = 1
x +a y +b z +c Q. f(x, y) = x2 + y2 1 2. OA + OB = 1
+ + =
x a yb z c f (x, =
y) x+ y 1 3. OA OB = 1
R.
(a) 1 (b) 0
1 1
(c) 1 (d) 2 S. f(x, y) = x2/3 + y2/3 1 4. + =
1
2
OA OB2
JEE ADVANCED
P Q R S
6. A bag contains 30 tokens numbered serially from (a) 2 1 3 4
0 to 30. The number of ways of selecting 3 tokens (b) 1 2 4 3
from the bag, so that the sum of the numbers on (c) 4 3 2 1
them is 30, is divisible by (d) 3 4 2 1
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 5 (d) 7 See Solution Set of Maths Musing 173 on page no. 85

72 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


20
1. Let x, y, z be real numbers such that
cos x + cos y + cos z = 0 and
cos 3x + cos 3y + cos 3z = 0, then
cos 2x cos 2y cos 2z
(a) 0
CHALLENGING
PROBLEMS
For Entrance Exams
7. Let a, , , be positive numbers such that for all x,
sin ax + sin x = sin x + sin x, then + =
(a) a (b) 2a (c) 3a (d) 4a
8. Let S be the set of all triangles ABC for which
(b) 0 1 1 1 3 6
5 + + = ,
(c) depends on x, y, z values AP BQ CR min. {AP , BQ, CR} r
(d) data insufficient where r is inradius and P, Q, R are points of
2. Eliminate from the system : cos 2 = cos ( + a) tangency of incircle with sides AB, BC, CA
and sin 2 = 2 sin ( + a) respectively then all the triangles in the set S are
(a) (cos a)2/3 (sin a)2/3 = 2/3 (a) scalene (b) isosceles
(b) (cos a)2/3 + (sin a)2/3 = 2/3 (c) equilateral (d) right angled
(c) (cos a)1/3 (sin a)1/3 = 1/3 9. Let ABC be a triangle such that max. {A, B} = C + 30
(d) (cos a)1/3 (sin a)1/3 = 1/3 R
and = 3 + 1 , R is circumradius, r is inradius
3. The bisector of BAC intersects the circumcircle r
of ABC at D. If AB2 + AC2 = 2AD2 then angle of then ABC is
intersection of AD and BC is (a) scalene (b) isosceles
(a) 30 (b) 45 (c) equilateral (d) right angled
(c) 60 (d) 90 10. Let ABCDEFGHIJKL be a regular do-decagon then
4. The laws of points (x, y) satisfying the equations AB AF
+ =
x2 + y cos2 a = x sin a cos a and AF AB
x cos 2a + y sin 2a = 0 lies on (a is a parameter) (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
(a) circle (b) parabola 11. Let a, b, c, d [0, ] such that
(c) ellipse (d) hyperbola 2 cos a + 6 cos b + 7 cos c + 9 cos d = 0
5. In ABC, ABC = ACB = 40. If P is a point in and 2 sin a 6 sin b + 7 sin c 9 sin d = 0 then
the interior of the triangle such that PBC = 20 cos (a + d )
=
and PCB = 30 then cos (b + c)
(a) BP = BA (b) BP = 2BA
7 3 3 5
1 (a) (b) (c) (d)
(c) BP = BA (d) BP = 3BA 3 7 5 3
2
1 3
6. Let ABC be a triangle of area , then minimum 12. If sin x cos y + sin y cos z + sin z cos x = , then
2 2
value of a2 + cosec A is (a) sin x = cos 2y (b) sin x = sin y
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5 (c) sin x = cos y (d) sin x = cos z

By : Tapas Kr. Yogi, Mob : 9533632105.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 73


13. In ABC, = sin A sin B + sin B sin C + sin C sin A SOLUTIONS
and (1 + sin A)(1 + sin B) (1 + sin C) = 2( + 1), then 1. (a) : Using cos 3x = 4 cos3x 3 cos x.
ABC is We have, cos3 x = 0
(a) scalene (b) isosceles
using identity a3 3abc = ( a)( a2 ab)
(c) equilateral (d) right angled
We have, abc = cos x cos y cos z = 0
14. Let ABC be a triangle such that Let cos z = 0. So, cos x = cos y and
sin2B + sin2C = 1 + 2 sinB sinC cosA, then ABC is cos 2x = cos 2y and cos 2z = 1
(a) scalene (b) isosceles So, cos 2x cos 2y cos 2z = cos2 2x 0.
(c) equilateral (d) right angled
2. (b) : Expanding the given equations, we have
(cos cos a sin sin a) = (cos2 sin2 )
2 2
A B C 6s
15. In ABC, cot + 4 cot 2 + 9 cot 2 =
2 2 2 7r and sin cos a + cos sin a = sin cos
where s semiperimeter and r inradius, then cos a = cos3 and sin a = sin3
the ratio of the sides of the triangle is Hence, (cos a)2/3 + (sin a)2/3 = 2/3.
(a) 45 : 40 : 13 (b) 50 : 55 : 45
3. (b) : Let CAB = a, ABC = , BCA = then
(c) 55 : 65 : 70 (d) 60 : 65 : 80
using sine rule, we have
16. Let n be a positive integer and for real numbers
AB AC AD
and akl . (k, l = 1, 2, 3, ... n) (k > l), we have = =
sin sin sin ( / 2 + )
sin2 nx
= + akl cos (2k 2l ) x So, AB2 + AC2 = 2AD2 becomes
sin2 x 1 l < k n
sin2 + sin2 = 2 sin2 (a/2 + )
(x m , m I) then =
Simplifying, cos ( )[1 + cos ( + )] = 0
(a) l (b) k (c) n (d) k l
i.e., cos ( ) = 0. So, a + 2 = /2
17. In ABC, A = 30 and an inscribed circle of fixed

radius r is drawn. If ABC has least perimeter then So, AEC = + = = 45
B= 2 4
(a) 30 (b) 45 (c) 60 (d) 75 4. (b) : Simplifying the first equation, we have
x sin 2a y cos 2a = 2x2 + y
18. If A1, A2, A3, A4 are the angles of a convex quad.
then max. value of and the other given equation is
x cos 2a + y sin 2a = 0
A A A A
sin 1 + sin 2 + sin 3 + sin 4 is Solving, we have
2 2 2 2
x (2 x 2 + y ) y(2 x 2 + y )
sin 2a = and cos 2 =
(a) 2 (b) 2 2 (c) 3 2 (d) 4 2 x2 + y2 x2 + y2
19. If a, b, c, k are constants and a are variables Hence, sin2 2a + cos2 2a = 1 gives
subject to the relation a tan a + b tan + c tan = k
then minimum value of tan2 a + tan2 + tan2 is (2 x 2 + y )2
= 1 i.e., 4x2 + 4y 1 = 0, Parabola.
k2
k 2 x2 + y2
(a) (b)
(a + b + c)2 a + b2 + c 2
2
5. (a) : Let us assume that AB = AC = 1 unit then
BC = 2 cos 40 and BPC = 130
(a + b + c)2 a 2 + b2 + c 2
(c) (d) Applying sine rule in BPC, we have
k2 k2
BP BC
20. For x R, the minimum value of =
sin (30) sin (130)
|sin x + cos x + tan x + sec x + cosec x + cot x| is
BC sin 30 2 cos 40 sin 30
(a) 2 2 (b) 2 2 1 BP = = =1
cos 40 cos 40
(c) 2 2 + 1 (d) 2 1 BP i.e., BP = AB.

74 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


1 1 1 A B C
6. (d) : Given, area = bc sin A = We have, r = 4r 3 + 1 sin sin sin
2 2 2 2 2 2
cosec A = bc and [bc 1]
Now, 3 1 B AC A+C
i.e., = sin cos cos
a2 + cosec A = a2 + bc = b2 + c2 2bc cos A + bc 4 2 2 2
[cosine rule]
3 1 B 30 180 B
= b2 + c 2 2bc 1 sin2 A + bc i.e., = sin cos cos
4 2 2 2
= b2 + c 2 2 b2 c 2 (bc sin A)2 + bc
2 B B 6 + 2 3 1
2 2 2 2
= b + bc + c 2 b c 1 i.e., sin sin . + =0
2 2 4 4

3bc 2 b2 c 2 1
6 2 2
2 Solving, sin (B/2) = or
Let x = bc ( 1) then y = 3x 2 x 1 gives 4 2
5x2 6xy + y2 + 4 = 0. As x R, D 0 gives B
i.e., = 15 or 45.
(6y)2 20(y2 + 4) 0 i.e., y 5 . 2
7. (b) : Differentiating the given identity three times, But B = 90 is not possible. Hence, B = 30 and
we have, a3 cos ax + 3 cos x = 3 cos x + 3 cos x A = 90, C = 60, i.e., [Right angled ]
Also, acos ax + cos x = cos x + cos x
10. (d) : Let R be the circumradius then
In particular for x = 0, we have
a+ = + and a3 + 3 = 3 + 3 5
AB = 2R sin and AF = 2R sin
i.e., (a + ) = ( + )3
3
12 12
a = on simplification. 2R sin 2R sin 5
So, (a )(a ) = a2 a( + ) + So, the required quantity is +
2R sin 5 2R sin
= a2 a(a + ) + a = 0
= a and = a i.e., + = 2a
where = 12
8. (b) : Let us assume that min. {AP, BQ, CR} = AP
and let tan (A/2) = x, tan (B/2) = y, tan (C/2) = z. sin2 + sin2 5 1 cos 2 + 1 cos 10
= =
r r r sin 5 sin cos 4 cos 6
So, AP = , BQ = and CR =
x y z = 4 (on simplification)
Now, the relation in question becomes 11. (a) : Rearranging the two equations, we have
2x + 5y + 5z = 6 2sin a 9 sin d = 6 sin b 7 sin c
and in any , we know that xy + yz + zx = 1. and 2 cos a + 9 cos d = 6 cos b 7 cos c
Now, eliminating (x) from these two equations, Squaring and adding both the equations, we have
we have 5y2 + 5z2 + 8yz 6y 6z + 2 = 0 85 + 36 cos (a + d) = 85 + 84 cos (b + c)
i.e., (3y 1)2 + (3z 1)2 = 4(y z)2
cos (a + d ) 84 7
or, 5a2 + 5 2 + 8a = 0 [where 3y 1 = a, i.e., = =
3z 1 = ] cos (b + c) 36 3
a = 0 = for real solutions. 12. (c): The given equation can be rewritten as,
1 4 (sin x cos y)2 + (sin y cos z)2 + (sin z cos x)2 = 0
i.e., y = z = and so, x =
3 3 i.e., sin x = cos y
i.e., isosceles triangle. 13. (d) : Equating the two values and simplifying,
9. (d) : Let max. {A, B} = A then A.T.Q, A C = 30 we have
and using the identity (1 sin A)(1 sin B) (1 sin C) = 0
A B C
r = 4 R sin . sin . sin i.e., sin A = 1 or sin B = 1 or sin C = 1
2 2 2 i.e., ABC is right angled triangle.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 75


14. (d) : Using cosine rule, we have Since A, r are fixed, s is min. when cot ( A / 2)
a2 + 2bc cos A = b2 + c2 is min.
And using sine rule, here, we have i.e., cot (B/2) + cot (C/2) is min.
sin2 B + sin2 C = sin2 A + 2 sin B sin C cos A cos ( A / 2)
Now comparing this with equation given in i.e., is min.
sin (B / 2) sin (C / 2)
question, we have, sin2 A = 1 i.e., A = 90
or, sin (B/2) . sin (C/2) is max.
15. (a) : In any triangle, we have
1 B C A
A B C A B C s i.e., cos sin is max.
cot + cot + cot = cot . cot . cot = 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 r
B C
So, the given relation in question becomes, i.e., cos = 1 for max. i.e., B = C.
2
C
2 2 2
A B
(62 + 32 + 22 ) cot + 2 cot + 3 cot \ ABC is an isosceles with B= C = 75.
2 2 2
2
18. (b) : A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 = 2 ,
A B C
= 6 cot + 6 cot + 6 cot A1 A2 A3 A4
2 2 2 So, + + + =
2 2 2 2
i.e., Equality in Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Now, f (x) = sin x is a concave function.
cot ( A / 2) 2 cot (B / 2) 3 cot (C / 2) A A A A
So, sin 1 + sin 2 + sin 3 + sin 4 is
So, = = 2 2 2 2
6 3 2 max.
7 7 A A A A
i.e., cot ( A / 2) = 7, cot (B / 2) =
and cot (C / 2) = When 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = each =
4 9 2 2 2 2 4
7 56 126 [Result of Jensen's inequality]
sin A = , sin B = , sin C =
25 65 130 So, required max. value is 4 sin ( /4) = 2 2 .
i.e., Sides of the triangle are 26, 80 and 90. 19. (b) : Use the identity
2
16. (c): Using the two identities, we have (b tan c tan )
= (a2 + b2 + c2)(tan2 a + tan2 + tan2 )
n sin nx cos (n + 1) x
S1 = cos (2mx ) = (a tan a + b tan + c tan )2
m=1 sin x We have, RHS 0
n sin nx sin (n + 1) x ( a2 ) ( tan2 ) k 2 0
and S2 = sin (2mx ) =
k2
m=1
2
sin x
(
i.e., tan2 )
min
= 2
a
sin nx
S12 + S22 = 20. (b) : Let E = |sin x + cos x + tan x + sec x + cosec x
sinx + cot x|
Putting a = sin x, b = cos x, c = a + b
But S12 + S22 = (cos 2x + cos 4x + ... + cos nx)2
We have on simplification, the given expression
+ (sin 2x + sin 4x + ... + sin nx)2
= n + 2 (cos 2k x cos 2l x + sin 2kx sin 2lx ) 2 2
E= c+ = c 1+ +1
1l<kn c 1 c 1

i.e., S12 + S22 = n+ cos 2(k l )x where c [ 2 , 2 ]


1 l < k n
2
i.e., =n Using AM GM on (c 1) and , we have
c 1
s
17. (d) : In any triangle, we have cot ( A / 2) =
r Emin = | 2 2 + 1 | i.e., 2 2 1
So, perimeter 2s = 2r . cot ( A / 2)

76 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


10 BEST
PROBLE
MS

Math Archives, as the title itself suggests, is a collection of various challenging problems related to the topics of IIT-JEE Syllabus. This section
is basically aimed at providing an extra insight and knowledge to the candidates preparing for IIT-JEE. In every issue of MT, challenging
problems are offered with detailed solution. The readers comments and suggestions regarding the problems and solutions offered are
always welcome.

1. The sum of all the non-real roots of (a) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement-2
(x2 + x 2) (x2 + x 3) = 12 is is a correct explanation for Statement-1.
(a) 1 (b) 1 (b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement-2
(c) 6 (d) 2 is not correct explanation for Statement-1.
(c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false.
2. Statement-1 : The equation sinx + xcosx = 0 has at
(d) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true.
least one root in the interval (0, ).
Statement-2 : Between any two roots of f(x) = 0, there n
1
exists atleast one root of f (x) = 0.
6. tan1 2r 2 =
r =1
(a) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement-2 n
is a correct explanation for Statement-1. (a) tan1n (b) tan 1
n +1
(b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement-2 n n +1
(c) tan 1 (d) tan 1
is not correct explanation for Statement-1.
n+2 n + 2
(c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false.
(d) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true. 7. The statement p (q p) is equivalent to
(a) p (p q) (b) p (p q)
3. If LCM of p, q is r2t4s2, where r, s, t are prime (c) p (p q) (d) p (p q)
numbers and p, q are positive integers . Then the number
8. The remainder left out when 82n (62)2n + 1 is
of ordered pairs (p, q) is
divisible by 9 (where n N)
(a) 252 (b) 254
(a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 7 (d) 8
(c) 225 (d) 224
9. Consider all functions that can be defined from the
4. Let f(x) = max{x, x3} x R the set of points where
set A = {1, 2, 3} to the set B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. A function
f(x) is not differentiable is
f(x) is selected at random from these functions. The
(a) {1, 1} (b) {1, 0}
probability that, selected function satisfies f(i) f(j) for
(c) {0, 1} (d) {1, 0, 1} i < j, is equal to
5. Statement-1: The sum of the first 30 terms of the 6 12
(a) (b)
sequence 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 22, 29, 37, 46 ... is 4520. 25 25
Statement-2: The successive differences of the terms of 2
(c) (d) none of these
the sequence form an A.P. 5
B y : Prof. Shyam Bhushan, D i r e c t o r , N a r a ya n a I I T A ca d e m y , Ja m sh e d p u r . Mo b . : 0 9 3 3 4 8 7 0 0 2 1

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 77


5. (d) : a2 a1 = 1, a3 a2 = 2, a4 a3 = 3, ...
10. [cot x]dx = an = 1 +
n (n 1) n2 n + 2
=
0
2 2
(where [] denotes the greatest integer function)
1 30 31 61 30 31
(a)

(b) 1 (c) 1 (d)
\ Sum =

+ 2 30 = 4525
2 2 2 6 2
SOLUTIONS
6. (b) :
1
=
2
=
(2r + 1) (2r 1)
1. (b) : Put x2 + x = y then, we have y2 5y 6 = 0
(y 6) (y + 1) = 0
2r 2
4r 2
(
1 + 4r 2 1 )
x2 + x 6 = 0 or x2 + x + 1= 0 Sum = (tan1(2r + 1) tan1 (2r 1))
x = 3, 2 or x = , 2
n
Sum of non-real roots = + 2 = 1 = tan1(2n + 1) tan1(1) = tan 1
n + 1
2. (c) : Take f(x) = xsinx, which is continuous in
[0, ] and differentiable in (0, ). Also f(0) = f( ) = 0 7. (b) : p (q p) ~ p (q p)
By Rolles theorem, there exists at least one root of ~ p (~ q p) p (p q)
f (x) = 0 xcosx + sinx = 0 8. (b) : (1 + 63)n (63 1)2n +1

3. (c) : No. of ordered pairs Remainder is 2.


= (2(2) + 1)(2(4) + 1)(2(2) + 1) 9. (d) : Total Function = 53
= 5 9 5 = 225

10. (d) : Let = [cot x]dx = [cot( x)]dx
0 0

1 if x z
4. (d) :  +  = (1)dx [x] + [x] =
1 0 1 0 0 if x z

=
2

78 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 79
1. a1 , ... , ak, ak + 1, ..., an are positive numbers (k < n). where A is the arithmetic mean and H is the
Suppose that the values of ak + 1, ...., an are fixed. harmonic mean of ak + 1 , ..., an.
How should one choose the values of a1,...., an in To prove this, we will be forgiven if we change
a notation : let xi = ai , i = 1, 2, ..., k and br = ak + r ,
order to minimize i ? r = 1, ..., m with k + m = n and denote the given
i , j ,i j a j
rational function F(x1, ..., xk).
2. Let m be a positive integer. Define the sequence Then we have F(x1, ..., xk) = X + Y + B, where
a0 , a1 , a2, .... by a0 = 0, a1 = m and an + 1 = m2an an 1 x xj
X= i + ,
for n = 1, 2, 3, .... . Prove that an ordered pair (a, b) 1i < j k x j x i
of non-negative integers, with a b, gives a solution
x b
to the equation Y= i + r ,
1i k 1r m b r xi
a2 + b2
= m2 b
B= r + s .
b
ab + 1
1r < s m b s b r
if and only if (a, b) is of the form (an , an + 1) for Note that B is fixed and Y can be improved to
some n 0. 1 1
Y = x i + b i x
3. In a ABC, C = 2 B. P is a point in the b
1i k 1r m r 1r m i
interior of ABC satisfying that AP = AC and m mA
= x i +
PB = PC. Show that AP trisects A. i H x i
4. Determine all the possible values of the sum of the where A is the arithmetic mean and H is the
digits of the perfect squares. harmonic mean of the br .
5. ABCD is a convex quadrilateral and O is the
Now we recall that the simple function x +
intersection of its diagonals. Let L, M, N be the x
(with a, , x all positive) assumes its minimum
mid-points of DB, BC, CA respectively. Suppose

that AL, OM, DN are concurrent. Show that when x = ; that is x = / . Thus each
x
either AD BC or [ABCD] = 2[OBC]. of the terms in Y (and so Y itself ) assumes its
SOLUTIONS minimum when we choose, for i = 1, 2, ..., k,
mA
1. To minimize the given rational function, choose xi = = AH , as asserted.
(m / H)
1/2
But there is more. It is also known that each
a k +1 + ... + a n term in X, (and so X itself) assumes its minimum
ai = = (A H)1/2 , i = 1, 2, ...,k when xi = xj, with 1 i < j k. Thus choosing all
1 + ... + 1
a k +1 an x i = AH minimizes both X and Y and, since B

80 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17


is fixed, minimizes F(x1, ..., xk) as claimed. We have
2. Let us first prove by induction that x 2 + (m2 x x1 )2
= m2
2
an2 + an2+1 x(m x x1 ) + 1
= m2 for all n 0.
an an +1 + 1 x2 + m4x2 2m2x x1 + x12 = m4x2 m2x x1 + m2
a2 + a12 0 + m2 x2 + x12 = m2(x x1 + 1)
Proof : Base case (n = 0) : 0 = = m2 .
a0 a1 + 1 0 +1
x 2 + x12
Now, let us assume that it is true for n = k, k 0. = m2 ....(2)
x x1 + 1
ak2 + ak2+1 If x1 = 0, then x2 = m2. Hence x = m and
Then, = m2
ak ak +1 + 1 (x1, x) = (0, m) = (a0, a1). But y = m2x x1 = a2,
ak2 + ak2+1 = m2 ak ak +1 + m2 so (x, y) = (a1, a2).
Thus suppose x1 > 0.
ak2+1 + m4 ak2+1 2m2 ak ak +1 + ak2 Let us now show that x1 < x.
= m2 + m4a2k + 1 m2 ak . ak + 1 Proof by contradiction: Assume x1 x.
Then m 2 x y x, since y = m 2 x x 1 , and
a2k + 1 + (m2ak + 1 ak)2 = m2 + m2ak + 1(m2ak + 1 ak)
x2 + y2
ak2+1 + ak2+ 2 = m2 + m2 ak +1 ak + 2 x y x , since (x, y) is a solution to
xy + 1
ak2 +1 + ak2 + 2
Therefore, = m2 , proving the a2 + b2
ak +1 ak + 2 + 1 = m2 .
ab + 1
induction. Hence (a n , a n+1 ) is a solution to
So x3 + xy2 x2y + xy2 + x + y.
a2 + b2 Hence x3 x2y + x + y, which is a contradiction
= m2 for all n 0.
ab + 1 since y x > 0.
a2 + b2 With the same proof that y m 2 x, we have
Now, consider the equation = m2 and suppose x m2x1. So the substitution x = m2x1 x2 with
ab + 1
(a, b) = (x, y) is a solution with 0 x y. Then x2 0 is valid.
Substituting x = m 2 x 1 x 2 into (2) gives
x2 + y2
= m2 ...(1) x12 + x22
xy + 1 = m2 .
x1 x2 + 1
If x = 0 then it is easily seen that y = m, so
(x, y) = (a0, a1). Since we are given x 0, suppose If x2 0, then we continue with the substitution
now that x > 0. x 2j + x 2j +1
Let us show that y m2x. xi = m2x xi + 2 (*) until we get = m2
i +1 x j x j +1 + 1
Proof by contradiction : Assume that y > m2x. Then
y = m2x + k where k 1. and xj + 1 = 0. (The sequence xi is decreasing, non-
Substituting into (1) we get negative and integer.)
So, if xj + 1 = 0, then x2j = m2 so xj = m and
x 2 + (m2 x + k )2
= m2 (xj + 1, xj) = (0, m) = (a0, a1).
2
( x )(m x + k ) + 1
Then (xj, xj 1) = (a1, a2) since xj 1 = m2xj xj + 1
x2 + m4x2 + 2m2xk + k2 = m4x2 + m2kx + m2 (from (*)).
(x2 + k2) + m2(kx 1) = 0. Continuing, we have (x1, x) = (an 1, an) for some
N o w, m 2 ( k x 1 ) 0 s i n c e k x 1 a n d n. Then (x, y) = (an, an + 1).
x2 + k2 x2 + 1 1 so (x2 + k2) + m2(kx 1) 0.
a2 + b2
Thus we have a contradiction, so y m2x if x > 0. Hence = m2 has solutions (a, b) if and
Now substitute y = m2x x1, where 0 x1 < m2x, ab + 1
into (1). only if (a, b) = (an, an + 1) for some n.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 81


3. Let PAC and BAP be 2a and respectively. The sum of the digits is 9m, giving all the values
Then, since C = 2 B, we deduce from greater than or equal to 9 congruent to 0 mod 9
A + B + C = 180 that (10m 2)2 = 102m 4 10m + 4
2a + + 3B = 180. ...(1) = 9 9 ... 9 6 0 ... 0 4, m 1 .
The angles at the base of the A  
m1 m1
isosceles triangle PAC are a
each 90 a. Also BPC is P
a The sum of the digits is 9m + 1, which gives all
isosceles, having base angles values greater than or equal to 10 congruent to
C (90 a) = 2B + a 90, B C 1 mod 9.
and so BPA = 180 ( PBA + BAP) (10m 3)2 = 102m 6 10m + 9
= 180 [B (2B + a 90) + 180 2a 3B]
= 9 9 ... 9 4 0 ... 0 9, m 1.
= 4B + 3a 90  
As usual, let a, b and c denote the lengths of the m1 m1
sides BC, AC and AB. By the Law of Cosines, The sum of the digits is 9m + 4, which takes every
applied to BPA, where PA = b and PB = PC value greater than or equal to 13 which is congru-
= 2b sin a, ent to 4 mod 9
c2 = b2 + (2b sin a)2 2b2b sin acos (4B + 3a (10m 5)2 = 102m 10m+1 + 25
90), = 9 ... 9 0 0 ... 0 2 5 .
so that  
c2 = b2 [1 + 4 sin2 a 4 sina sin(4B + 3a)] ...(2) m1 m1
We now use the fact that C = 2 B is equivalent The sum of the digits is 9(m 1) + 7 = 9m 2,
to the condition c2 = b(b + a).
from which we get every value greater than or
Since a = 2 PC cos(2B + a 90) equal to 7 congruent to 7 mod 9.
= 4b sin a sin (2B + a), we have We have taken care of all the integers apart
c2 = b2 [1 + 4 sin a sin(2B + a)] ...(3) from 0, 1, 4, which are the sums of the digits of
Therefore, from (2) and (3), we get 02, 12 and 22 respectively.
b2 [1 + 4 sin2 a 4 sin a sin (4B + 3a)]
= b2 [1 + 4 sin a sin (2B + a)], 5. Let O be the origin of a coordinate system where
which simplifies to A, B, C, D are represented by (a, 0), (0, b), (c, 0),
sin a sin (4B + 3a) = sin (2B + a). (0, d) with a, b positive and c, d negative. Thus L
Since sin a sin (4B + 3a) = 2 cos(2B + 2a) is the point

(0, (b +2 d) ), M is ( 2c , b2 ), N is ( (a 2+ c) , 0) and
sin(2B + a), this equation may be rewritten as
sin(2B + a). [1 + 2 cos (2B + 2a)] = 0
Since, from (1), 2B + a < 180, we must have
1 + 2 cos(2B + 2a) = 0, giving cos(2B + 2a) = 1/2; AL : (b + d)x + 2ay a(b + d) = 0
that is, OM : bx cy = 0
2B + 2a = 120 ...(4) DN : 2dx + (a + c) y d(a + c) = 0.
Since, again from (1), 2B + 2a < 180 These lines are concurrent if and only if
Finally, we may eliminate B between (1) and (4) b c 0
to obtain a = . The result follows.
b + d 2a a(b + d ) = 0 .
4. The squares can only be 0, 1, 4 or 7 mod 9.
Thus the sum of the digits of a perfect square cannot 2d a + c d(a + c)
be 2, 3, 5, 6 or 8 mod 9, since the number itself This equation reduces (after some manipulation)
would then be 2, 3, 5, 6 or 8 mod 9.
to (ab cd) [(a c) (b d) + 2bc] = 0.
We shall show that the sum of the digits of a
Consequently, either
perfect square can take every value of the form
0, 1, 4 or 7 mod 9. (a) ab = cd, in which case AD BC, or
(10m 1)2 = 102m 2 10m + 1
= 9 9 ... 9 8 0 ... 0 1, m 1 .
1 1
(
(b) (a c )(b d )sin = 2 bc sin
2 2 )
  (where a = AOB), in which case [ABCD] = 2 [OBC].
m1 m1

82 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17
VIT Engineering Entrance Exam
(VITEEE-2017) Results
VITEEE - 2017 TOP 10 RANK HOLDERS

RANK 1 RANK 2 RANK 3 RANK 4 RANK 5


AASHISH WAIKAR DIVYANSH TRIPATHI DIVYANSHU MANDOWARA ABHISHEK RAO BHANUTEJA BOLISETTI

RANK 6 RANK 7 RANK 8 RANK 9 RANK 10


HRITWIK SINGHAI PRATHEEK D SOUZA AVVARI SAI S S V PATEL MANAN SHOURYA AGGARWAL
REBELLO BHARADWAJ BRIJESH

AASHISH WAIKAR, a student of BHAVAN VIDYALAYA PANCHKULA, rank : SHOURYA AGGARWAL (Hans Raj Model School, Delhi).
Madhya Pradesh has secured the first rank in the VIT Engineering Dr. G. Viswanathan said that admissions would be only on merit,
Entrance Examination (VITEEE)-2017 which was held from April 5th to based on the marks obtained by the candidates in the VITEEE. The
16 in 119 selected cities across India, as well as Dubai, Kuwait and results have been released through the www.vit.ac.in.
Muscat. The entrance exam was held for admission to the various
Counselling for candidates, who obtained ranks upto 8,000 was held
B.Tech programmes offered by VIT University at its Vellore, Chennai,
on May 10 and counseling for ranks 8001 to 14,000 was held on May
Bhopal & Amaravati (AP).
11 while for those who secured ranks from 14001 to 20000 was held
Releasing the results, VIT Chancellor Dr.G.Viswanathan said that a on May 12. The counselling was held simultaneously in the Vellore,
record 2,23,081 candidates had registered for the VITEEE-2017. Chennai, Bhopal and Amaravati (AP).
The other rank holders among the top 10 are 2nd rank: DIVYANSH Under the G V School Development Programme central and
TRIPATHI (Prabhat Sr Sec Public School, Uttar Pradesh), 3rd rank: State board toppers would be given 100 percent fee waiver for all
DIVYANSHU MANDOWARA (Arcadia Academy Co-Educational English the four years. Candidates with ranks upto 50 would be given a
Medium Senior Secondary School, Rajasthan), 4th rank: ABHISHEK RAO 75% tuition fee waiver, Rank 51 to 100 would be given a 50% tuition
(Remal Public School, Uttar Pradesh), 5th rank : BHANUTEJA BOLISETTI fee waiver and Rank 101 to 1000 would be given a 25 % tuition fee
(Sri Chaitanaya Narayana Jr College, Telengana), 6th rank: HRITWIK waiver.
SINGHAI (Little Kingdom Senior Secondary School, Madhya Pradesh),
Each one boy and one girl secured top ranks in Plus2 at district
7th rank: PRATHEEK D SOUZA REBELLO (Mushtifund Aryaan Higher
level from state board schools who also appeared for VIT Engineering
Secondary School, GOA), 8th rank : AVVARI SAI S S V BHARADWAJ
Entrance Examination will be given 100% fee concession and free
(Sri Chaitanya Junior Kalasala, Telengana), 9th rank: PATEL MANAN
boarding and lodging in the hostels of VIT under STARS scheme.
BRIJESH (Shree Swaminarayan Secondary School, Gujarat) and 10th

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 83


Y U ASK Ans. The given equation implies, (4f (1) 3) x2 +
(4f (1) 3) x + f (2) = 0 is satisfied by 3 roots a, b, c
3 3
It is an identity \ f (1) = , f (1) = , f (2) = 0

WE ANSWER
4 4
1
If f (a) = a x2 + x + , then = 0, a = , = 1
2 2 4
x
f (x) = + 1 = 4 x
Do you have a question that you just cant get answered? 4 4
Use the vast expertise of our MTG team to get to the bottom The maximum point, V = (0, 1) ; A( 2, 0). Taking
B = (2t, 1 t2)
of the question. From the serious to the silly, the controversial
1 t
to the trivial, the team will tackle the questions, easy and tough. AVB = . = 1 t = 4 \ B = (8, 15)
2 2 2
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in this Equation of AB is 3x + 2y + 6 = 0
column each month. 8
4 x 2 + 3( x + 2 )
The area required is dx = 41.67
2
4 2
1. For r = 0, 1, ........., 10, let Ar, Br, Cr denote respectively,
the coefficients of xr in the expansion of (1 + x)10, 3. Let ABC be an equilateral triangle inscribed in the
10 circle x2 + y2 = a2. Suppose perpendiculars from A,
(1 + x)20, (1 + x)30. Then Ar (B10Br C10 Ar) = 2 y2
r =1
(Ram Krishan, West Bengal) B, C to the major axis meet the ellipse x + =1
a 2 b2
Ans. (1 + x)10
= A0 + A1x + A2x2 + ........... + A10x10 (a > b) respectively at P, Q, R so that P, Q, R lie on the
(x + 1)20 = B0x20 + B1x19 + B2x18 + ............+ B20. same side of the major axis as A, B, C respectively.
Considering the coefficient of x20 in the product, we get Prove that the normals to the ellipse at P, Q, R are
A0B0 + A1B1 + A2B2 + .......... + A10 B10 = coefficient of concurrent. (Priyanshu Sharma, Bihar)
x20 in the expansion of (1 + x)10(x + 1)20 = (1 + x)30 Ans. A, B, C are the vertices of an equilateral triangle.
A (a cos , a sin ),
which is C20

10 B a cos + 2 , a sin + 2 ,
\ Ar Br = C20 = C10 3 3

C a cos + 4 , a sin + 4
r=0
2 2 2 2 3 3
n n n n 2n Hence, P (a cos , b sin ),
But + + + ........ + =
0 1 2 n n
Q a cos + 2 , b sin + 2 ,
3 3
2 20
\ A02 + A12 + A22 + .............. + An = = B10
R a cos + 4 , b sin + 4
10 3 3
10 10 The normals to the ellipse at P, Q, R are respectively,
Ar 2 = B10 . Now, Ar ( B10 Br C10 Ar ) 2 2
r=0 r =1 L1 ax sin by cos a b sin 2 = 0;
2
10 10 2 2
= B10 Ar Br C10 Ar 2 L2 ax sin + 2 by cos + 2 a b
r =1 r =1
3 3 2
4
= B10 (C10 1) C10 (B10 1) = C10 B10. sin2 + 2 = 0; L3 ax sin +
3 3
4 a2 4 a 1 3a 2 + 3a 2 2
f ( 1) by cos + 4 a b sin 2( + 4 ) = 0
3 2 3
2. If 4b2 4b 1 f (1) = 3b2 + 3b , f (x) is a

Since, sin + sin + 2
+ sin + 4 =0
4 c 2 4 c 1 f (2 ) 3c 2 + 3c 3 3

quadratic function and its maximum value occurs at cos + cos + 2 + cos + 4 = 0
a point V. A is a point of intersection of y = f (x) with 3 3
4
x-axis and point B is such that the chord AB subtends sin 2 + sin 2 + 2 + sin 2 + 3 = 0
a right angle at V. Find the area enclosed by y = f (x) 3
and the chord AB. (Suresh Prasad, Jharkhand) Hence L1, L2, L3 are concurrent.
84 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17
6. (b, c) : f (x) = loge [ x3 + x 6 + 1]
3 6
\ f (x)= loge [ x + x + 1]
SOLUTION SET-173 \ f (x) + f (x) = loge1 = 0
1. (c) : Anil Balu Probability f (x) = f (x)
R, R R, R 1/33
Hence f(x) is an odd function.
B, B B, B 1/33 \ (b) is correct.
R, B R, B 10/33 1 2 6x 5
2 10 12 4 Again, f (x) = 3 x +
\ Required probability = + = = x 3 + x 6 + 1 2 x 6 + 1
33 33 33 11
2. (b) : Let (h, k) be the mid point of the chord of 1 x6 + 1 + x3 3x 2
= 3x 2 = >0
circle x2 + y2 = a2, then the equation of the chord be S1 = T x3 + x6 + 1 x 6 + 1 x6 + 1
xh + yk a2 = h2 + k2 a2
\ f (x) is an increasing function, so (c) is correct.
h2 + k2 = xh + yk
h2 + k2 = ah + bk (As it passes through(a, b)) 7. (b) : DBC = a BD = 20, EBD = a
x2 + y2 = ax + by (By changing the locus of By sine rule for EBD, we get
h, k x, y) sin 3 sin B
=
/2 /2
20 8
dx sec6 x 5
3. (b) : Let I = I= dx 3 4 sin 2 =
0 cos6 x + sin6 x 0 1 + tan6 x 2
1 3
sin 2 = , cos 2 = . A
3 2
/2
(1 + tan2 x )3

8 4 E 8 D 20 C
I= 1 + tan6 x
dx
8. (d) : AE + 28 = AB cot a and AE + 8 = AB cot 2a
0
/2
1 + tan6 x + 3 tan2 x (1 + tan2 x ) On subtracting, we get 20 = AB (cot a cot 2a)
I= 1 + tan6 x
dx 9
0 \ AB = 20 sin 2a = 20 1 =5 7
/2
3 tan2 x sec2 x dx 16
I= 1+ 1 + (tan3 x )2 \ AE + 8 = AB cot 2 = 5 7
3
= 15 AE = 7.
0 7
Put tan3 x = t dt = 3tan2x sec2x dx 9. (8) : a + b + c = 0 a, b, c are the roots of

/2
dt x3 + qx + r = 0 ...(i)
I = dx + 2
= + tan
1
(t ) = + =
0 0 1 + t 2 0 2 2 ab = q, abc = r, a + b + c = 0
24 a3 = 3abc \ abc = 1, r = 1, a2 = 2q
4. (d) : Consider Cr =
r From (i), we get a5 + q a3 + r a2 = 0 10 + 3q + 2q = 0
(1 x) = C0 C1x + C2x2 .....+ C16x16 + .....
24 q = 2
(1 x)1 = 1 + x + x2 + .....+ x16 + ..... From (i), x3 2x 1 = 0.
Considering the coefficient of x16 in the product of \ a3 2 a = 0 a4 = 2 a2 + a
these two, a4 = 2(2q) + 0 = (4) 2) = 8.
C0 C1 + C2 .....+ C16 = coeff. of x16 in (1 x)23 10. (b) : P. 232 = 1 mod 53, 2322 = 1 mod 53,
23 23 2323 = 23 mod 53 = 30 mod 53
= =
16 7 Q. X = x + 2, Y = y + 1, Z = z, U = u 1
5. (a) : Let the A.P.s. be a, a + a, a + 2a,... and X+Y+Z+U=5
b, b + , b + 2 ,... 8
\ Number of solutions = = 56
ab = a1b1 = 120, (a + a)(b + ) = a2b2 = 143, 3
(a + 2a)(b + 2 ) = a3b3 = 154 5!
R. Coefficient of x2y in (1 + x + 2y)5 is .2 = 60
ab = 120, a + ba = 29, a = 6 2! 2!
10 (11 r )
\ a8b8 = (a + 7a)(b + 7 ) = ab + 7(a + ba) + 49a S. r = 1 + 2 + ... + 10 = 55 .
= 120 + 7 29 49 6 = 29 r=1 r

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17 85


86 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JUNE 17