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M.Nielsen and I.Chuang
Quantum Computation and
Quantum Information
Cambridge University Press, 2000
Deutsch (1985)
Shor (1994)
Grover (1996)

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(P.Halian)
500

400
Nature
300 Science
Phys. Rev. Lett.
Phys. Rev.
200

100

0
19 94 995 996 997 998 999 000 001
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Im not happy with all the analyses that go


with just classical theory, because Nature
isnt classical, dammit, and if you want to
make a simulation of Nature, youd better
make it quantum mechanical, and by golly its a
wonderful problem!

Richard Feynman 1981



(H.Wiedman)
:
Gordon E. Moore
1965.
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18-24 .

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not :
X

X 0 = 1; X 1 = 0 .
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0 + 1 1 + 0
0 1
: X =
1 0

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/8
0 1 0 i 1 0 1 0
X= ; Y= i 0 ; Z = 0 1 T =
i /4
1 0 0 e

0 + 1 0 1 1 1 1
H 0 = ; H 1 = ; H =
2 2 2 1 1
Phase
P P P = Z
1 0
P 0 = 0 ; P 1 =i 1 P = P2 = Z
0 i
not
- c c
1 0 0 0
CNOT
0 1 0 0
- tc
0 0 0 1
U=X

t 0 0 1 0
U

1 0
Z=
0 1
Z

=
X H Z H

1 c1 c1

2 c2 c2

t t c1 c2

1:
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2:
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0


| |2 + | |2 = 1
0 1
""
All we do is draw little arrows on a piece of paper - that's all.
- Richard Feynman

| |2
+| |2
=1


= e Cos 0 + e Sin 1 = Cos 0 + e Sin 1
i i i

2 2 2 2

1 1
0 1
2 2

1
P (0) = P (1) =
2

1 and 2 3

: .

00 00 + 01 01 + 10 10 + 11 11
: P (x , y ) =| xy | 2

n : x { n
0,1}
x x

O (2 n ) .
Hilbert space is a big place - Carlton Caves
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N , ,
, C N [] . []
[]

. .. (1980)
4

: C C = C
2 2 4

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(RSA)
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~ 400 .
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: RSA-129
T.Hey and D. Ross

RSA-129


f : {0, 1} {0, 1}
: f - ?
f (0) f (1).

f () !

x x
f
z z f (x )


x x
Uf
z z f (x )

x
Uf
0 1
2
f (x ) = 0 :
x (0 1 ) x (0 1 )
f (x ) = 1 :
x (0 1 ) x (1 0 )= x (0 1 )

x (0 1 ) ( 1 )
f (x )
x (0 1 )
f (x )
x ( 1) x

0 H H
0 1
Uf
2


0 0 + 1
f (0) f (1)
( 1 ) 0 + ( 1 ) 1
( 1 )
f (0)
( 0 + 1 ) + ( 1 )
f (1)
(0 1 )
f (0) f (1) f (0) f (1)
= ( 1 )
+ ( 1 ) 0 + ( 1 )
( 1 ) 1

f - - 0 .
f - - 1 .

, f(x)
nand fanout
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U
n .
U controlled-not
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3.

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1997
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(P.Halian)
1. 2.

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state |0 state |1

laser laser

108 /






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