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identification of ferroresonance

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3 просмотров6 страницidentification of ferroresonance

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using Wavelet Transforms

S. Poornima, Dr. C. Pugazhendhi Sugumaran

Research Scholar, Assistant Professor (Senior Grade)

High Voltage division, Anna University, High Voltage division,

Chennai, India Anna University Chennai, India

poojeyaani@gmail.com cpsugumar@gmail.com

Abstract- With the inclusion of advanced technologies in the solution converges rapidly for cases in power

power systems, the issues which are not considered in those engineering. This method may be applied to the solution

days are in need to be investigated. One of the issues that of time varying systems. It will be difficult to include

captured the consideration in both transmission and certain nonlinearities and in the present formulation,

distribution system is Ferroresonance (FR). Though the FR frequency dependent parameters cannot be modeled. If

mitigation was done in earlier days, the utilitys failure the wavelet circuit solution is used in conjunction with an

reports indicated its presence in higher magnitudes. This identification technique, the solution of the circuit using

paper studied the mitigations for potential transformer wavelets would be especially convenient. This allows

suggested by various papers using wavelet transforms. The estimating voltage and current waveforms throughout the

energy values proved the presence of FR created by energy circuit [3,9]. This property enables us to use MATLAB in

exchange between a grading capacitor and a voltage this paper for identifying the FR events by taking

transformer in a 500kV Gas Insulated Substation (GIS). The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT).

focus was given to primary voltage and flux of the voltage

transformer which may damage the equipment insulation.

The study results like to suggest that the addition of a II. BACKGROUND

nonlinear inductor provides good damping to FR

oscillations as well as reduces core saturation effects. A. Ferroresonance

Ferroresonance is a highly nonlinear complex

Keywords: Ferroresonance, voltage transformers, CWT,

energy

phenomena which may lead to dielectric and thermal

damages of system components. In case of linear

I. INTRODUCTION resonance, current and voltage are linearly related but

dependent on magnitude and frequency of the voltage,

Ferroresonance is an interesting switching initial flux, core loss and neutral resistor of the

phenomena that occurs mostly in distribution substations transformer. FR is characterized by a sudden jump of

but rarely in generation and transmission systems. The voltage or current from one state to another one [6].

phenomena was very well documented since 1930. The Stability concepts of FR were analyzed with bifurcation

systems which has saturable inductance possessed. diagrams [6]. Further FR study was done with ANN,

Equipments in series with capacitors are prone to FEM, etc. Experimental and simulation analysis were

ferroresonance. The magnitude of overvoltages and done in EHV substations [1,4]. Capacitor Voltage

harmonics induced by FR depends on initial conditions Transformer (CVT) was predominate source to FR and its

such as flux, voltage, switching instants, etc., A GIS failure reports implies the silent injuries of FR [5]. Digital

system proposed by Shoup. etal [7] was taken as study simulations of FR simulations were done in EMTP, ATP,

system. The authors investigated the FR events by Matlab, ANSYS, etc [2]. To come up with appropriate FR

various connections and disconnections of buses thereby control circuit, identification of FR is important. For

introduced switching instants. The FR simulations were online monitoring analysis, wavelet helps to do time

done in Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP) frequency domain analysis.

software. The wavelet analysis was done in Matlab. The

iterative wavelet method for system

2016 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

computation. The analyzing wavelet is shifted smoothly

The application of wavelet transform has been an all over the full domain of the analyzed function. As the

exciting development for researchers of several different continuous wavelet transform is the sum over all time of

fields such as signal processing, image processing, the signal multiplied by scaled and shifted versions of the

communications, computer science, etc.,. It is a wavelet, this produces wavelet coefficients that are a

function of scale and position.

mathematical approach for geometric analogies and

Let f(t) be any square integral function. The CWT of f(t)

filtering concepts.

with respect to a wavelet (t) is defined as per equation

(2)

i. Theory

( , )= ( ) (2)

A wavelet is a small wave, having energy concentrated | |

in time gives a tool for the analysis of transient and time Where a determines the amount of time scaling, b decides

varying phenomena. It still has the oscillating wave like the time shifting and (t) calculates the energy

characteristic but also has the ability to allow signal.[3,9]

An input was taken and compared to a section at the

simultaneous time and frequency domain analysis with a

beginning of the original signal. Calculation of a number

flexible mathematical foundation. This is illustrated in the

C represents how closely correlated the wavelet is with

Fig.1 with the wave (sinusoid) oscillating with amplitude this section of the signal. The higher the coefficient C

and therefore, having finite energy and with the wavelet is, the more the similarity. More precisely, if the signal

having its finite energy concentrated around a point [9]. energy and the wavelet energy are equal to one, C may be

interpreted as a correlation coefficient. The results depend

on the shape of the original signal. The wavelet is shifted

to the right and above process will be repeated until the

whole signal get concealed [10].

The results of the CWT will be wavelet coefficients C,

interms of location and scale. Multiplying each

Fig.1. Wavelet Analysis

coefficient by an appropriate scaled and shifted wavelet

yields the basic wavelets of the original signal. The CWT

A wavelet is a function whose two versions of different plot indicates momentary changes which highlighting the

frequency are orthogonal to each other. Wavelet periodicity.

decomposition provides a way of analyzing a signal both

in time and frequency domains. If f is denoted as function C. Energy analysis

defined on the whole real line, then for a suitably chosen The frequency components provides energy bursts at the

mother wavelet function , f can be expanded as capacitor energizing and de-energizing instants. Thus, the

f f

low or high frequency components at any level could be

j

f (t ) w

j f k f

jk 2 2

< (2 j t k ) (1) used for the identification of ferroresonance. A time

window technique was used to calculate the RMS value

of energy associated with the CWT coefficients using

Where, the functions (2 j t-k) are all orthogonal to each equation (3), as follows:

other. The coefficients wjk gives information about the

behavior of the function f concentrating on the effects = (3)

of scale around 2-j near time tx2-j. This wavelet

decomposition of a function is closely related to a similar where E1, E2, En denote the instantaneous values of

decomposition (the discrete wavelet transform, DWT) of energy.

a signal observed in discrete time. Frequency based Ferroresonance could generate continuous overvoltages

analysis is very common, but it is not ideally suitable for which is not similar with the temporary overvoltages

transient analysis as time information is lost. For non- during switching transients. This study examined the FR

stationary signals, wavelet analysis allows the use of long transients with respect to this property. The ratio between

time intervals where more precise low frequency the RMS values of cumulative energy from the CWT

information is required and shorter regions where high coefficients in two consecutive time windows was

frequency information is required [10]. calculated to verify the occurrence of ferroresonance [8].

The selection of shorter time windows might tangled with

ii. Continuous wavelet Transform (CWT) quasi-periodic or chaotic modes of ferroresonance. Thus,

2016 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

the length of the time window was set at two cycles in two cycles of before and during FR events were used to

order to prevent wrong detections. calculate the energy values.

transfer between circuit breaker grading capacitor from a) VT primary voltage without damping circuit

live gas insulated bus to deenergized VT connected

buses. The assumptions, simplification of the system and

calculations are done as per the paper [7]. Care was taken

in the study system such that thermal and voltage

insulation ratings of the VT were coordinated with the b) VT primary voltage with R=1ohm

expected overvoltages. The sustained low frequency

oscillations was considered for wavelet analysis as the

focus is on only equipment insulation.

c) VT primary voltage with 0.24pf burden

Fig.4 VT primary voltages under different damping cases

Fig.3 EMTP model of study system The VT primary voltages and the VT flux under different

cases were shown in Fig.4 and Fig.5 respectively.

The case system shown in Fig.3 with equivalent grading

capacitance of 1950pF was simulated in EMTP software.

The CWT was applied to FR sustained oscillations using

Matlab. The CWT and its 3D plot shows the FR

oscillations without and with damping circuits. The a) VT flux without damping circuit

energy values were calculated to verify the presence of

FR oscillations using CWT coefficients.

b) VT flux with R=1ohm

The study system was simulated in EMTP without and

damping circuits. Damping circuit components were

considered as three cases like resistor, low and high

powerfactor burden and nonlinear inductor. Here the

nonlinear inductor damping circuit was given in the c) VT flux with 0.24pf burden

original paper [7]. As the nonlinear reactance plays major

role in FR event, the VT primary voltage and flux

oscillations were given the prior preference. The FR was

created at 0.2s and maintained till 0.4secs. The study

d) VT primary voltage with nonlinear inductor

system was examined with different connections of buses

due to energization and disconnections of the circuit. The Fig.5 VT fluxes under different damping cases

system with maximum number of connections was

chosen to analyze the maximum FR effect with wavelets. The CWT plots of VT primary voltages and flux were

The performance of damping circuits was clearly shown in Fig.6 and Fig.7 respectively. The CWT

examined though this study. coefficients were obtained for each signal using db1

The CWT having different wavelets such as db1, Coif5, wavelet.

Morl, Haar, Bior 1.1 were applied to the generated FR

oscillations. The Daubechies1 wavelet was chosen to

analyze as every wavelet gave approximately similar

results. The 3D graph of CWT coefficients showed the

instant variations of the signals. The CWT coefficients of

2016 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

b) VT primary voltage with R=1ohm

c) VT primary voltage with 0.24pf burden

d) VT primary voltage with nonlinear inductor

Fig.4 CWT plots of VT primary voltages under different damping Fig.5 CWT plots of VT flux under different damping cases.

cases.

The energy values of voltages and fluxes also verified the

The continuous variations in FR oscillations were well presence of ferroresonance events. Table.1 and 2 shows the

understood by the colormap of the CWT coefficients. energy values of VT during the events.

2016 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

V. CONCLUSION

Table.1 Energy values of VT primary voltage

Case Before FR During FR The ferroresonance study for a 500kV GIS substation was

Without 3.05e10 done using CWT analysis. The CWT coefficients of

damping before and during ferroresonance was used to identify its

R=1ohm 1.83e7 8.78e9 presence. If the energy value can be given as an input to

0.24pf 4.68e9 IEDs, the abnormal conditions will be sensed easily.

burden Accordingly the relay and then the circuit breaker can

Nonlinear 5.45e8 1.2e9 react. Though the utilities are happy with the pure resistor

burden as damping circuit, inclusion of a non resistive inductor in

the secondary of VT provides good damping to FR

Table.2 Energy values of VT flux

oscillations. The solution technique given by base paper

Case Before FR During FR

provided the better results among others. The cases

Without 5.69e4

damping discussed can provide solutions only to quasi periodic and

R=1ohm 967.41 1.587e5 fundamental FR modes. Still a damping circuit can be

well modelled to handle all modes of FR events.

0.24pf 5.81e4

burden REFERENCES

Nonlinear 4.09e3 1.655e8 [1] Janssens, N., Even, A., Denoel, H., Monfils, P.A., Determination of

burden the Risk of Ferroresonance in High Voltage Networks.

Experimental Verification on a 245 kV Voltage Transformer,

Sixth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, New

Case1: Without damping circuit, the primary voltage had Orleans, LA, USA, Aug. 28-Sept. 1, 1989.

20Hz periodic oscillations and not able to settle down. [2] Ferracci, P., Ferroresonance, Cahier Technique Schneider n o 190,

The primary flux got increased from 0.443Wb to 1.27Wb ECT90, March 1998.

[3] S, Mallet,W.L.Hwang, Singularity detection and processing with

due to ferroresonance. The flux waveform also had 20Hz wavelets, IEEE transactions on Information Theory, vol.38, n0.2,

unstable oscillations. The energy values of CWT pp.617-643, Mar-1992.

coefficients of VT primary voltage and flux proved the [4] David A Jacobson, Examples of Ferroresonance in a High Voltage

presence of FR. Power System., Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Vol.

2, 2003.

Case2: With R=1ohm, the primary voltage having [5] Ab. Halim Abdul Bakr, Cheng Hock Lim, Saad Mekhilef,

nonperiodic oscillations got suppressed by 22.1%. The Investigation of Transient Performance of Capacitor Voltage

VT primary voltage and flux oscillations had 7Hz and Transformer, First International Power and Energy Conference,

17Hz components. The fundamental flux got increased by Malaysia, November 28- 29, 2006.

[6] Hamid ramdanesh, Ferroresonance Elimination in 275kV

1.82times during FR. The energy values of CWT substation, Electrical and Electronic Engineering 2 (2), 54-59,

coefficients of VT primary voltage and flux proved the 2012.

presence of FR. [7] D. Shoup, J. Paserba, D.Sullivan, P. Bolin and R. Whiteside,

Case3: The relays and burden connected to the secondary Ferroresonance Analysis of a 500kV Gas Insulated Substation,

[8] Chun-Wei Huang, JyhCherng Gu, Ming-Ta Yang, Applying

of the VT varies from 0.2 to 0.4pf. With 0.24pf burden, Wavelet Transform to Ferroresonance Detection and Protection,

the primary voltage oscillations got suppressed by International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic

39.56%. The VT primary and flux had periodic and Communication Engineering Vol.8, No.7, 2014.

oscillations of 20Hz components. The fundamental flux [9] Jaideva C.Goswami, Andrew K.Chan, Fundamental of wavelets,

A Wiley-Interscience publication. 1999.

got increased by 1.92times during FR. The energy values [10] Raghuveer M.Rao, Ajit.Bopardikar,Wavelet transforms:

of CWT coefficients of VT primary voltage and flux Introduction to theory and applications, Pearson Education Asia

proved again the presence of FR. The results were better Pvt.Limited , Ed.II, 2001.

than case 2 having pure resistor.

Case4: With nonlinear inductance as proposed by Shoup

etal, the primary voltage oscillations got suppressed by VI. BIOGRAPHIES

73.69%. The VT primary and flux had periodic

oscillations and settled down after 8cycles. The S. Poornima received her Bachelor in Electrical &

Electronics Engineering from C. Abdul Hakeem

fundamental flux got increased by 1.79times during FR. College of Engineering, Vellore in 2003 and Master

The energy values of fundamental components itself was Degree in Power Systems engineering from

different from that of other cases. The energy values of Government College of Technology, Coimbatore in

CWT coefficients of VT primary voltage and flux proved 2005. She has 10 years of teaching experience in

engineering colleges. Currently she is a full time

the presence of FR. research scholar in Anna University, Chennai. Her

area of interest includes Electrical Machines, study of ferroresonance in

power systems.

2016 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

B.E. degree in Electrical and Electronics

Engineering from Government college of

Engineering Tirunelveli, affiliated to

Manonmanium Sundaranar University in 1997

and M.E. degree in High-Voltage Engineering

from Anna University, Chennai in 2001. He was

awarded Ph.D. in Electrical and Electronics

Engineering from Anna University, Chennai in

2011. He has 18 years of teaching experience in

various Engineering Colleges. He has published 60 papers in various

International Journals, Conferences and Symposiums. He works as a

technical paper reviewer for various International Journals. His name

was also nominated for various awards. He is doing research in the

Applications of Nano technology in Electrical Engineering. His area of

interest includes Electromagnetic Interference, Nano Dielectrics, Nano

Motors, Nano Transformers, Nano Capacitors and Nano Electrical

Apparatus. He is the member of various Professional bodies like IEEE,

ISTE, ACEEE, IAENG, IACSIT, UACEE, IDES, IETE and SCIEI.

Presently, he is working as Assistant Professor in the Division of High

Voltage Engineering, Department of Electrical and Electronics

Engineering, Anna University, Chennai..