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2016 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

Identification of Ferroresonance Phenomena


using Wavelet Transforms
S. Poornima, Dr. C. Pugazhendhi Sugumaran
Research Scholar, Assistant Professor (Senior Grade)
High Voltage division, Anna University, High Voltage division,
Chennai, India Anna University Chennai, India
poojeyaani@gmail.com cpsugumar@gmail.com

Abstract- With the inclusion of advanced technologies in the solution converges rapidly for cases in power
power systems, the issues which are not considered in those engineering. This method may be applied to the solution
days are in need to be investigated. One of the issues that of time varying systems. It will be difficult to include
captured the consideration in both transmission and certain nonlinearities and in the present formulation,
distribution system is Ferroresonance (FR). Though the FR frequency dependent parameters cannot be modeled. If
mitigation was done in earlier days, the utilitys failure the wavelet circuit solution is used in conjunction with an
reports indicated its presence in higher magnitudes. This identification technique, the solution of the circuit using
paper studied the mitigations for potential transformer wavelets would be especially convenient. This allows
suggested by various papers using wavelet transforms. The estimating voltage and current waveforms throughout the
energy values proved the presence of FR created by energy circuit [3,9]. This property enables us to use MATLAB in
exchange between a grading capacitor and a voltage this paper for identifying the FR events by taking
transformer in a 500kV Gas Insulated Substation (GIS). The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT).
focus was given to primary voltage and flux of the voltage
transformer which may damage the equipment insulation.
The study results like to suggest that the addition of a II. BACKGROUND
nonlinear inductor provides good damping to FR
oscillations as well as reduces core saturation effects. A. Ferroresonance
Ferroresonance is a highly nonlinear complex
Keywords: Ferroresonance, voltage transformers, CWT,
energy
phenomena which may lead to dielectric and thermal
damages of system components. In case of linear
I. INTRODUCTION resonance, current and voltage are linearly related but
dependent on magnitude and frequency of the voltage,
Ferroresonance is an interesting switching initial flux, core loss and neutral resistor of the
phenomena that occurs mostly in distribution substations transformer. FR is characterized by a sudden jump of
but rarely in generation and transmission systems. The voltage or current from one state to another one [6].
phenomena was very well documented since 1930. The Stability concepts of FR were analyzed with bifurcation
systems which has saturable inductance possessed. diagrams [6]. Further FR study was done with ANN,
Equipments in series with capacitors are prone to FEM, etc. Experimental and simulation analysis were
ferroresonance. The magnitude of overvoltages and done in EHV substations [1,4]. Capacitor Voltage
harmonics induced by FR depends on initial conditions Transformer (CVT) was predominate source to FR and its
such as flux, voltage, switching instants, etc., A GIS failure reports implies the silent injuries of FR [5]. Digital
system proposed by Shoup. etal [7] was taken as study simulations of FR simulations were done in EMTP, ATP,
system. The authors investigated the FR events by Matlab, ANSYS, etc [2]. To come up with appropriate FR
various connections and disconnections of buses thereby control circuit, identification of FR is important. For
introduced switching instants. The FR simulations were online monitoring analysis, wavelet helps to do time
done in Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP) frequency domain analysis.
software. The wavelet analysis was done in Matlab. The
iterative wavelet method for system

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2016 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

B. Wavelet analysis The CWT is also continuous in terms of shifting during


computation. The analyzing wavelet is shifted smoothly
The application of wavelet transform has been an all over the full domain of the analyzed function. As the
exciting development for researchers of several different continuous wavelet transform is the sum over all time of
fields such as signal processing, image processing, the signal multiplied by scaled and shifted versions of the
communications, computer science, etc.,. It is a wavelet, this produces wavelet coefficients that are a
function of scale and position.
mathematical approach for geometric analogies and
Let f(t) be any square integral function. The CWT of f(t)
filtering concepts.
with respect to a wavelet (t) is defined as per equation
(2)
i. Theory
( , )= ( ) (2)
A wavelet is a small wave, having energy concentrated | |
in time gives a tool for the analysis of transient and time Where a determines the amount of time scaling, b decides
varying phenomena. It still has the oscillating wave like the time shifting and (t) calculates the energy
characteristic but also has the ability to allow signal.[3,9]
An input was taken and compared to a section at the
simultaneous time and frequency domain analysis with a
beginning of the original signal. Calculation of a number
flexible mathematical foundation. This is illustrated in the
C represents how closely correlated the wavelet is with
Fig.1 with the wave (sinusoid) oscillating with amplitude this section of the signal. The higher the coefficient C
and therefore, having finite energy and with the wavelet is, the more the similarity. More precisely, if the signal
having its finite energy concentrated around a point [9]. energy and the wavelet energy are equal to one, C may be
interpreted as a correlation coefficient. The results depend
on the shape of the original signal. The wavelet is shifted
to the right and above process will be repeated until the
whole signal get concealed [10].
The results of the CWT will be wavelet coefficients C,
interms of location and scale. Multiplying each
Fig.1. Wavelet Analysis
coefficient by an appropriate scaled and shifted wavelet
yields the basic wavelets of the original signal. The CWT
A wavelet is a function whose two versions of different plot indicates momentary changes which highlighting the
frequency are orthogonal to each other. Wavelet periodicity.
decomposition provides a way of analyzing a signal both
in time and frequency domains. If f is denoted as function C. Energy analysis
defined on the whole real line, then for a suitably chosen The frequency components provides energy bursts at the
mother wavelet function , f can be expanded as capacitor energizing and de-energizing instants. Thus, the
f f
low or high frequency components at any level could be
j
f (t ) w
j f k f
jk 2 2
< (2 j t  k ) (1) used for the identification of ferroresonance. A time
window technique was used to calculate the RMS value
of energy associated with the CWT coefficients using
Where, the functions (2 j t-k) are all orthogonal to each equation (3), as follows:
other. The coefficients wjk gives information about the
behavior of the function f concentrating on the effects = (3)
of scale around 2-j near time tx2-j. This wavelet
decomposition of a function is closely related to a similar where E1, E2, En denote the instantaneous values of
decomposition (the discrete wavelet transform, DWT) of energy.
a signal observed in discrete time. Frequency based Ferroresonance could generate continuous overvoltages
analysis is very common, but it is not ideally suitable for which is not similar with the temporary overvoltages
transient analysis as time information is lost. For non- during switching transients. This study examined the FR
stationary signals, wavelet analysis allows the use of long transients with respect to this property. The ratio between
time intervals where more precise low frequency the RMS values of cumulative energy from the CWT
information is required and shorter regions where high coefficients in two consecutive time windows was
frequency information is required [10]. calculated to verify the occurrence of ferroresonance [8].
The selection of shorter time windows might tangled with
ii. Continuous wavelet Transform (CWT) quasi-periodic or chaotic modes of ferroresonance. Thus,

978-1-5090-5240-0/16/$31.00 2016 IEEE 127


2016 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

the length of the time window was set at two cycles in two cycles of before and during FR events were used to
order to prevent wrong detections. calculate the energy values.

III. SYSTEM SIMULATION

In this analysis overvoltage was created due to the energy


transfer between circuit breaker grading capacitor from a) VT primary voltage without damping circuit
live gas insulated bus to deenergized VT connected
buses. The assumptions, simplification of the system and
calculations are done as per the paper [7]. Care was taken
in the study system such that thermal and voltage
insulation ratings of the VT were coordinated with the b) VT primary voltage with R=1ohm
expected overvoltages. The sustained low frequency
oscillations was considered for wavelet analysis as the
focus is on only equipment insulation.
c) VT primary voltage with 0.24pf burden

d) VT primary voltage with nonlinear inductor


Fig.4 VT primary voltages under different damping cases

Fig.3 EMTP model of study system The VT primary voltages and the VT flux under different
cases were shown in Fig.4 and Fig.5 respectively.
The case system shown in Fig.3 with equivalent grading
capacitance of 1950pF was simulated in EMTP software.
The CWT was applied to FR sustained oscillations using
Matlab. The CWT and its 3D plot shows the FR
oscillations without and with damping circuits. The a) VT flux without damping circuit
energy values were calculated to verify the presence of
FR oscillations using CWT coefficients.

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


b) VT flux with R=1ohm
The study system was simulated in EMTP without and
damping circuits. Damping circuit components were
considered as three cases like resistor, low and high
powerfactor burden and nonlinear inductor. Here the
nonlinear inductor damping circuit was given in the c) VT flux with 0.24pf burden
original paper [7]. As the nonlinear reactance plays major
role in FR event, the VT primary voltage and flux
oscillations were given the prior preference. The FR was
created at 0.2s and maintained till 0.4secs. The study
d) VT primary voltage with nonlinear inductor
system was examined with different connections of buses
due to energization and disconnections of the circuit. The Fig.5 VT fluxes under different damping cases
system with maximum number of connections was
chosen to analyze the maximum FR effect with wavelets. The CWT plots of VT primary voltages and flux were
The performance of damping circuits was clearly shown in Fig.6 and Fig.7 respectively. The CWT
examined though this study. coefficients were obtained for each signal using db1
The CWT having different wavelets such as db1, Coif5, wavelet.
Morl, Haar, Bior 1.1 were applied to the generated FR
oscillations. The Daubechies1 wavelet was chosen to
analyze as every wavelet gave approximately similar
results. The 3D graph of CWT coefficients showed the
instant variations of the signals. The CWT coefficients of

978-1-5090-5240-0/16/$31.00 2016 IEEE 128


2016 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

a) VT primary voltage without damping circuit a) VT flux without damping circuit

b) VT flux with R=1ohm


b) VT primary voltage with R=1ohm

c) VT flux with 0.24pf burden


c) VT primary voltage with 0.24pf burden

d) VT flux with nonlinear inductor


d) VT primary voltage with nonlinear inductor

Fig.4 CWT plots of VT primary voltages under different damping Fig.5 CWT plots of VT flux under different damping cases.
cases.
The energy values of voltages and fluxes also verified the
The continuous variations in FR oscillations were well presence of ferroresonance events. Table.1 and 2 shows the
understood by the colormap of the CWT coefficients. energy values of VT during the events.

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2016 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

V. CONCLUSION
Table.1 Energy values of VT primary voltage
Case Before FR During FR The ferroresonance study for a 500kV GIS substation was
Without 3.05e10 done using CWT analysis. The CWT coefficients of
damping before and during ferroresonance was used to identify its
R=1ohm 1.83e7 8.78e9 presence. If the energy value can be given as an input to
0.24pf 4.68e9 IEDs, the abnormal conditions will be sensed easily.
burden Accordingly the relay and then the circuit breaker can
Nonlinear 5.45e8 1.2e9 react. Though the utilities are happy with the pure resistor
burden as damping circuit, inclusion of a non resistive inductor in
the secondary of VT provides good damping to FR
Table.2 Energy values of VT flux
oscillations. The solution technique given by base paper
Case Before FR During FR
provided the better results among others. The cases
Without 5.69e4
damping discussed can provide solutions only to quasi periodic and
R=1ohm 967.41 1.587e5 fundamental FR modes. Still a damping circuit can be
well modelled to handle all modes of FR events.
0.24pf 5.81e4
burden REFERENCES
Nonlinear 4.09e3 1.655e8 [1] Janssens, N., Even, A., Denoel, H., Monfils, P.A., Determination of
burden the Risk of Ferroresonance in High Voltage Networks.
Experimental Verification on a 245 kV Voltage Transformer,
Sixth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, New
Case1: Without damping circuit, the primary voltage had Orleans, LA, USA, Aug. 28-Sept. 1, 1989.
20Hz periodic oscillations and not able to settle down. [2] Ferracci, P., Ferroresonance, Cahier Technique Schneider n o 190,
The primary flux got increased from 0.443Wb to 1.27Wb ECT90, March 1998.
[3] S, Mallet,W.L.Hwang, Singularity detection and processing with
due to ferroresonance. The flux waveform also had 20Hz wavelets, IEEE transactions on Information Theory, vol.38, n0.2,
unstable oscillations. The energy values of CWT pp.617-643, Mar-1992.
coefficients of VT primary voltage and flux proved the [4] David A Jacobson, Examples of Ferroresonance in a High Voltage
presence of FR. Power System., Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Vol.
2, 2003.
Case2: With R=1ohm, the primary voltage having [5] Ab. Halim Abdul Bakr, Cheng Hock Lim, Saad Mekhilef,
nonperiodic oscillations got suppressed by 22.1%. The Investigation of Transient Performance of Capacitor Voltage
VT primary voltage and flux oscillations had 7Hz and Transformer, First International Power and Energy Conference,
17Hz components. The fundamental flux got increased by Malaysia, November 28- 29, 2006.
[6] Hamid ramdanesh, Ferroresonance Elimination in 275kV
1.82times during FR. The energy values of CWT substation, Electrical and Electronic Engineering 2 (2), 54-59,
coefficients of VT primary voltage and flux proved the 2012.
presence of FR. [7] D. Shoup, J. Paserba, D.Sullivan, P. Bolin and R. Whiteside,
Case3: The relays and burden connected to the secondary Ferroresonance Analysis of a 500kV Gas Insulated Substation,
[8] Chun-Wei Huang, JyhCherng Gu, Ming-Ta Yang, Applying
of the VT varies from 0.2 to 0.4pf. With 0.24pf burden, Wavelet Transform to Ferroresonance Detection and Protection,
the primary voltage oscillations got suppressed by International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic
39.56%. The VT primary and flux had periodic and Communication Engineering Vol.8, No.7, 2014.
oscillations of 20Hz components. The fundamental flux [9] Jaideva C.Goswami, Andrew K.Chan, Fundamental of wavelets,
A Wiley-Interscience publication. 1999.
got increased by 1.92times during FR. The energy values [10] Raghuveer M.Rao, Ajit.Bopardikar,Wavelet transforms:
of CWT coefficients of VT primary voltage and flux Introduction to theory and applications, Pearson Education Asia
proved again the presence of FR. The results were better Pvt.Limited , Ed.II, 2001.
than case 2 having pure resistor.
Case4: With nonlinear inductance as proposed by Shoup
etal, the primary voltage oscillations got suppressed by VI. BIOGRAPHIES
73.69%. The VT primary and flux had periodic
oscillations and settled down after 8cycles. The S. Poornima received her Bachelor in Electrical &
Electronics Engineering from C. Abdul Hakeem
fundamental flux got increased by 1.79times during FR. College of Engineering, Vellore in 2003 and Master
The energy values of fundamental components itself was Degree in Power Systems engineering from
different from that of other cases. The energy values of Government College of Technology, Coimbatore in
CWT coefficients of VT primary voltage and flux proved 2005. She has 10 years of teaching experience in
engineering colleges. Currently she is a full time
the presence of FR. research scholar in Anna University, Chennai. Her
area of interest includes Electrical Machines, study of ferroresonance in
power systems.

978-1-5090-5240-0/16/$31.00 2016 IEEE 130


2016 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)

Dr. C. Pugazhendhi Sugumaran received the


B.E. degree in Electrical and Electronics
Engineering from Government college of
Engineering Tirunelveli, affiliated to
Manonmanium Sundaranar University in 1997
and M.E. degree in High-Voltage Engineering
from Anna University, Chennai in 2001. He was
awarded Ph.D. in Electrical and Electronics
Engineering from Anna University, Chennai in
2011. He has 18 years of teaching experience in
various Engineering Colleges. He has published 60 papers in various
International Journals, Conferences and Symposiums. He works as a
technical paper reviewer for various International Journals. His name
was also nominated for various awards. He is doing research in the
Applications of Nano technology in Electrical Engineering. His area of
interest includes Electromagnetic Interference, Nano Dielectrics, Nano
Motors, Nano Transformers, Nano Capacitors and Nano Electrical
Apparatus. He is the member of various Professional bodies like IEEE,
ISTE, ACEEE, IAENG, IACSIT, UACEE, IDES, IETE and SCIEI.
Presently, he is working as Assistant Professor in the Division of High
Voltage Engineering, Department of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering, Anna University, Chennai..

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