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ISBN 0 ( .) , , 2006
ISBN 5 -9 4 7 23 -01 4 -3 , , , 2006

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Business Review (January-February 1995), 20-31.

1 James A. F. Stoner and R. Edward Freeman, Management, 4lh ed. (Englewood


Cliffs, N.J.; Prentice-Hall, 1989).
2 Peter F. Dmcker, Management Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (New York:
Harper & Row, 1974).
3 Heath Row, Fearless in Philly (Company of Friends Column), Fast Company
(June 2001), 36.
4 Brenton Schlender, How Bill Gates Keeps the Magic Going, Fortune (June 18),
1990,82-89.
5 Diane Brady, Wanted; Eclectic Visionary with a Sense of Humor, BusinessWeek
(August 28, 2000), 143-144.
68 I.

6 Sue Shellenbarger, From Our Readers: The Bosses That Drove Me to Quit My
Job, The Wall StreetJournal (February 7, 2000), Bl.
7 Thomas A. Stewart, The Corporate Jungle Spawns a New Species. The Project
Manager, Fortune Ouly 10, 1995), 179-180.
8 Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row,
1973); Mintzbe?g, Rounding Out the Managers Job, Sloan Management Review
(Fall 1994), 11-26.
2Robert E. Kaplan, Trade Routes The Managers Network of Relationships,
Organizational Dynamics (Spring 1984), 37-52; Rosemary Stewart, The Nature
of Management A Problem for Management Education,Journal of Management
Studies 21 (1984), 323-330; John P. Kotter, What Effective General Managers
Really Do, Harvard Business Review (November-December 1982), 156-167;
Morgan W. McCall,Jr., Ann M. Morrison, Robert L. Hannan, Studies of Managerial
Work Results and Methods (Technical Report No. 9, Center for Creative Leader
ship, Greensboro, N. C., 1978).
10 Carol Saunders andfack WilliamJones, Temporal Sequences
in Information Acquisition for Decision Making: A Focus on Source and Medium,
Academy of Management Review 15 (1990,29-46); Kotter, What Effective General
Managers Really Do; Mintzberg, Managerial Work.
11 Mintzberg, Rounding Out the Managers Job.
12 TobyJ. Tetenbaum, Shifting Paradigms: From Newton to Chaos, Organizational
Dynamics (Spring 1998), 21-32.
13 . no James Stemgold, Power Crisis Abates, But It Hounds Gov. Davis, The
New York Times (October 5, 2001), A16.
14 John A. Byrne and Heather Timmons, Tough Times for a New CEO, BusinessWeek
(October 29, 2001), 64-70; Patrick McGeehan, Sailing into a Sea of Troubles,
The New York Times (October 5, 2001), Cl, C4.
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1 Thomas Petzinger, Jr., So Long Supply and Demand, The Wall Street Journal
Ganuary 1,2000), R31.
2 , . Jerry Useem, Entrepreneur
of the Century, Inc (20 Anniversary Issue, 1999), 159-174.
3 . no Ann Harrington, The Big Ideas, Fortune (November 22,1999), 152-154.
4 UPS, The AtlantaJournal and Constitution, April 26,1992, HI; Richard L. Daft,
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6 Mary Parker Follett, The New State: Group Organization: The Solution of Popular
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9 Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of Learning Organizations
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0 Alex Markels, The Wisdom of Chairman Ko, Fast Company (November 1999),
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11 Edward O. Welles, Mind Gains, Inc. (December 1999), 112-124.
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15 Thomas PetzingerJr., The New Pioneers: The Men and Women Who Are Trans
forming The Workplace and Marketplace (New York: Simon & Shuster, 1999),
91-93; Thomas PetzingerJr., In Search of the New World of Work Fast Company
(April 1999), 214-220; Peter Kate I, Bordering on Chaos, Wired Ouly 1997),
98-107; Oren Harari, The Concrete Intangibles, Management Review (May
1999), 30-33.

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Still Gold in Them That Pitts, Fortune (July 23, 2 0 0 1), 5 8 -7 0 ; David Woodruff with Ian Katz and Keith
Naughton, VW s Factory of the Future, BusinessWeek (O cto b er 7, 1 996), 5 2 -5 6 ; Diana Jean
Schemo, Is V W s N ew Plant Lean, or Just Mean? New York Times (N ovem ber 19, 1 996), D1;
Philip Siekman, Building Em B etter in Brazil, Fortune (S e p te m b e r 6, 1 999), 2 4 6 (c )-2 4 6 (v ); Oren
Harari The Logistics of S uccess, Management Review (June 1 9 9 9 ), 2 4 -2 6 ; and Gail Dutton,
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. 3.5.
: Daniel R. Denison and Aneil . Mishra, Toward a Theory of Organizational Culture
and Effectiveness, Organization Science 6, no 2. (March-April 1995): 204-223; RobertHooijberg
and Frank Petrock, On Cultural Change: Using the Competitive Values Framework to Help
Leaders Execute a Transformational Strategy, Human Resource Management 32, no. 1 (1993):
29-50; andR.E. Quinn, Beyond Rational Management: Mastering the Paradoxes and Competing
Demands of High Performance (San-Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998).

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25 , , , ,

.
. ,
?
: Richard Pascale, T he P arad o x of C o rp o ra te C u ltu re : R eco n cilin g O u rselv es
to S ocialization, California Management Review 27, no. 2, 1985; David A. Kolb, Joyce S. Osland,
Irwin M. Rubin, O rg a n iz a tio n a l B eh av io r: An E x p e rie n tia l A pproach, 6th ed. (E n g lew o o d
Cliffs, N .J.: P re n tic e -H a ll, 1995), 3 4 6 -3 4 7 .

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2001), 18.


1. , http.// www.ceuexjjress.cum -
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Gore: http://www.gore.com/corp/about/index.htm
J. D. Edwards: http://www.jdedwards.com; Company, Careers
LMI: http://www.lmi.org/Careers.htm
Motorola: http://www.motorolacareers.com/ufsd2/corporate.cfm
Mutual of Omaha: http://www.careerlink.org/emp/mut/corp.htm
Pella: http://www.pellacareers.com/culture/ ceo.asp
Sony: http://sel.newjobs.com/Corporate.html


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3 rd ed., N ew Y ork, W iley , 1987, 1 7 6 -1 7 7 .

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2 RichardL. Daft, Organization Theory and Design, 5l1ed. (St. Paul, Minn.: West, 1995).
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5 Joseph Weber with Andy Reinhardt and Peter Burrows, Racing Ahead at Nortel,
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. . . . . . .: , 2002. . 22-44.
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11 Melanie Warner, Confession of a Control Work, Fortune (September 4, 2000),
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Plans Swift Overhaul, The Wall StreetJournal (July 30, 1999), Al, A6.
4



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Mangusson, Meet Free Traders Worst Nightmare, BusinessWeek (March 20, 2000), 113-118;
Elisabeth Malkin, Backlash, BusinessWeek (April 24, 2000), 38-44; and Ron Fournier, AP White
House correspondent, Protests Overshadow Summit, The Johnson City Press (July 21, 2001 ), 1.

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145, D a vid H. Holt, Copyright 1998 by Harcourt, Inc.
.

1 David Kirkpatrick, One World For Better or Worse, Fortune (November 26,
2001), 74-75; . no Brian OKeefe, Global Brands, Fortune
(November 26, 2001), 102-110.
2 Joseph B. White, There Are No German or U.S. Companies, Only Successful Ones,
The Wall StreetJournal (May 7, 1998), Al.
3 Eric Matson, How Globalize Yourself, Fast Company (April-May, 1997), 133
139; Gunnar Beeth, M ulticultural Managers W anted, Management Review
(May 1997), 17-21.
4 Alan Charles Raul, World to America: Zip It eCompany Now (July 2001), 26-29
5 Geert Hofstede, The Interaction between National and Organizational Value
Systems, Journal of Management Studies 22 (1985), 647-657; Geert Hofstede,
The Cultural Relativity of the Quality of Life Concept, Academy of Management
Review 9 (1984), 389-398.
G Carol Hymowitz, Companies Go Global, But Many Managers Just Dont Travel
Well, The Wall StreetJournal (August 15, 2000), Bl.
7 Robert Frank, Big Boy Adventures in Thailand, The Wall StreetJournal (April 12,
2000), B1,B4.
8 How Revenues of the Top Ten Global Companies Compare with Some National
Economies, Fortune, July 27, 1992, 19.
9 Robert T. Moran and John R. Riesenberger, The Global Challenge (London:
McGraw-Hill, 1994), 260.
10 Patricia M. Carey, Culture Club, Working Woman, (July/August 1999), 71-72.
11 Jonathan Friedland and Louise Lee, The W all-M art Way Sometimes Gets Lost
in Transition Overseas, , The Wall StreetJournal (October 8, 1997), Al, A12.
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in M oral D e v elo p m en t a n d B ehavior: D ev elo p m en t an d C itizen sh ip B ehavior, B usiness Ethics
Q u arte rly 5, no.1, J a n u a ry 1995, 4 3 - 5 4 .
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th e T renches, C alifornia M a n a g e m e n t R e v ie w 37, no. 2, W inter 1995, 8 -2 8 ; S herry Baker, Ethical
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andJoseph Weber, W h en a Rival's Trade Secret Crosses Your Desk..., Business Week, M ay 20,
1991, 18.


1. . .

:
http:/ / www.nevada.edu/-pemellj/quiz,html
http://confessionline.com/quiz.asp
http://library.humboldt.edu/infoservices/OWLS/OWL8Test.htm
http://www.ethicsandbusiness.org/stylequiz.htm
http://www.ai.org/ethics/pubs/newsarticles/Quiz.html
2. .
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(September-October 1998), 24-42.

1 Carol Gillian, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Womens Develop


ment (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982).
2 Ed Garsten, GM Calls Fuel Cells Holy Grail, Associated Press (January 18,
2002), http\// www.yahoo.com.
3 R. E. Freeman,]. Pierce, and R. Dodd, Shades of Green: Ethics and the Environ
ment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).
4 Gwen Kinkead, In the Future, People Like Me Will Go to Jail, Fortune (May
24, 1999), 190-200; Charles Fishman, I Want to Pioneer the Company of the
Next Industrial Revolution, Fast Company (April-May 1998), 136-142; Thomas
Petzingerjr., Business Achieves Greatest Efficiency When at Its Greenest, The
Wall Street Journal (July 11, 1997), Bl; Catherine Amst, When Green Begets
Green, BusinessWeek (November 10, 1997), 98-106.
5 Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom (Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1962), 133; Milton Friedman and Rose Friedman, Free to Choose (New
York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979).
6 Saul W. Gellerman, Managing Ethics from the Top Down, Sloan Management
Review (Winter 1989), 73-79.
7 Setting the Standard, http-.// www.lockheedmartin.com/exeth/html/code/code.html,
7 2001 .
8 Helene Cooper, Rachel Zimmerman, Laurie McGinley, Patents Pending: AIDS
Epidemic Traps Drug Firms in a Vise: Treatment vs. Profits, The Wall Street
Journal (March 2, 2001), Al, A6.
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1. Yogen Fruz Worldwide 4722 1986 $25000
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: Lisa Benavides, Linking Up with a Chain, The Tennessean (April 6,1999), 1E.
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____________ _____________ _____


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288 III.

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tiv e n e s s a n d G lo b a liz a tio n , (S t. P a u l, M in n .: W e s t, 1 9 9 5 ) , 2 3 9 .
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8. 291


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292 III.


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294 III.

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298 III.

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Us
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C o m p e tito rs (N e w York: F ree Press, 1 9 8 0 ); a n d M ic h a e l E. P o rte r, S tra te g y an d th e In te rn e t ,
H a rv a rd B u sin ess R e v ie w (M a rc h , 2 0 0 1 ), 6 3 - 7 8 .
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Leaders Keep Their Edge, F ortu n e, February 6 , 1995, 8 8 -9 8 ; M ic h a e l A. Hitt, R. D u a n e Irelan d,
R o b e r tE . H o sk is so n , Strategic M anagem ent (St. Paul, Minn.: West, 1995), 1 0 0 -1 1 3 .


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304 III.

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2007 .
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Express Hilton Hotels. , Harleysville Group
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. ? Dell $361 ,
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306 III.

Enterprise Rent-A-Car
,
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8. 307

, ,
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, , Dell Hewlett-Packard.
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. 8 . 6 .
: R o b e r ta M a y n a rd , Striking the Right Match, N a tio n s B u s in e s s (M ay 1996), 1 8 -2 8 .
308 III.

- ,
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27% . Merck,
, , Johnson & Johnson,
DuPont AstraZeneca.

R . . -
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: J a y R. G albraith a n d R o b e r t . K azanjian, Strategy Implementation: Structure, Systems
and Process, 2d ed. (St. Paul, Minn.: W est 1986), 115.
310 III.

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314 III.

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1V1 DU1W1J UJ.l'iUCi 1U U 1 I t 1 D1 1WliJllUC 1 11\ i>l i i a n 1XI,
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.
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8. 315

. . , Graham Industries
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: Doug Wallace, When the Sharks are Circling, What Would You Do? Business
Ethics, vol. 1, September-October 1991, 42-44.

Starbucks Coffee
1987 . 9 ,
Starbucks Coffee .
, (
) ,
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- .
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. Starbucks Coffee 4600 , .
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.
,
. 200. 1999 . Starbucks
, 35 ( ).
Starbucks KarstadtQuelle.
, 2001 .
316 III.

.
2004 . 650 . Starbucks
, Interaction Restaurants.
Interaction 50 70 . Starbucks
, ,
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, Burger
King, Taco Bell, Wendys ( ) Blockbuster (
). . ,
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.
. 24- ,
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.
,
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.
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- ,
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2001 . Starbucks
1998 . ,
11 2001 .
. -
Starbucks. .

1. Starbucks?
. ?
2. . , ,
,
.
3. Starbucks .
.
?
: D oriJones Yang, The Starbucks Enterprise Shifts into Warp Speed, Business
Week (October 24,1994), 76; M ichael Treacy, You Need a Value Discipline But Which One?,
Fortune, (April 17, 1995), 195; Nelson D. Schwartz, Still Perking After All These Years,
8. 317

Fortune (M a y 24, 1999); Ken Belson, As S ta rb u c k s G row s, Ja p a n , Too, Is A w ash, The New
York Times ( O c to b e r 21, 2001), C3; B usiness: Coffee w ith Y our T ea? S ta rb u c k s in C h in a , The
Economist (O c to b e r 6, 2001), 62; S tarb u ck s in J o in t V en tu re w ith G erm an R etailer, The New
York Times (O c to b e r 5, 2001), C3; and Zena Olijnyk, L atte, S il V ous P lait? Canadian Business
(S eptem ber 3, 2001), 5 0 -5 2 .

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3 Joanne Lipman, Marketers Turn Sour on Global Sales Pitch Harvard Guru
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4 Betsy Morris, Can Michael Dell Escape The Box? Fortune (October 16, 2000),
93-110; and Stewart Deck, Fine Line, CIO (February 1, 2000), 88-92.
5 Cathy Olofson, No Place Like Home, Fast Company (July 2000), 328-329.
6 Nanette Byrnes, Old Stores, New Rivals, and Changing Trends Have Hammered
Toys 'R' Us, BusinessWeek (December 4, 2000), 128-140.
7 Mark Maremont and Paula Sawyer, How Gillette Is Honing Its Edge, Business
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Past, The Wall StreetJournal (January 21, 1998), Al, A 10.
9




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2001), 35-44.

1 Richard A. Melcher, Dusting Off the Britannica, BusinessWeek, (October 21),


1997,143,146; and Pui- Wing Tam, One for the History Books: The Tale of How
Britannica is Trying to Leap from the Old Economy Into the New One, The Wall
StreetJournal (December 11, 2000), R32.
2 John R. Emshwiller and MichaelJ. McCarthy, Coke's Soda Fountain for Offices
Fizzles, Dashing High Hopes, The Wall StreetJournal, June 14, 1993, Al, A6.
3 Anna Muoio, Decisions, Decisions, (Unit of One column), Fast Company (October
1998), 93-101.
4 Thomas M. Cook, SABRE Soars, OR/MS Today (June 1998), 26-35.
5 Herbert A. Simon, The New Science of Management Decision (New York: Harper
& Row, 1960), James G. March and Herbert A. Simon, Organizations (New
354 III.


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York: Wiley, 1958); Herbert A. Simon, Models of Man (New York: Wiley, 1957);
Herbert A. Simon, Administrative Behaviour, 2d ed. (New York: Free Press, 1957).
(i John Taylor, Project Fantasy: A Behind-the-Scenes Account of Disney's Desperate
Battle against the Raiders, Manhattan, November 1984.
7 Lisa A. Burke and Monica K. Miller, Taking the Mystery Out of Intuitive Decision
Making, Academy of Management Executive 13, no. 4 (1999), 91-99.
8 Bill Breen, What's Your Intuition? Fast Company (September 2000), 290-300.
9 Alden M. Hayashi, When to T rust Your Gut, Harvard Business Review (February
2001), 59-65.
10 Chris Smith, Chao, Baby, New York (October 18, 1993), 66-75; and Chao in
Charge, Cablevision (November 29, 1999), 24.
11 James W. Fredrickson,Effects of Decision Motive and Organizational Performance
Level on Strategic Decision Processes, Academy of ManagementJournal 28,1985,
821-843 ,James W. Fredrickson, The Comprehensiveness of Strategic Decision
Processes: Extension, Observations, Future Directions, Academy of Management
Journal 27,1984, AA5-A66;James W. Dean,Jr. and Mark P. Sharfman, Procedural
Rationality in the Strategic Decision-Making Process, Journal of Management
Studies 30, no. 4, July 1993.
12 C. Kepnerand B. Tregoe, The Rational Manager, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965.
13 Paul C. Nutt, Surprising But True: Half the Decisions in Organizations Fail,
Academy of Management Executive 13, no. 4 (1999), 75-90.
14 Jenny C. McCune, Making Lemonade, Management Review (June 1997),
49-53, 51.
15 V. H. Vroom and Arthur G.Jago, The New Leadership: Managing Participation in
Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1988).
16 R. H. G. Field, Test of the Vroom-Yetton Normative Model of Leadership,
Journal of Applied Psychology, October 1982,523-532; R. H. G. Field, A Critique
of the Vroom-Yetton Contingency Model of Leadership Behavior, Academy of
Management Review 4, 1979, 249-257.
17 Jennifer T. Ettling and Arthur G.Jago, Participation under Conditions of Conflict:
More on the Validity of the Vroom-Yetton Model, Journal of Management
Studies 25, 1988, 73-83: Madeline E. Heilman, Harvey A. Homstein,Jack H. Cage,
Judith K. Herschlag, Reactions to Prescribed Leader Behavior as a Function of
Role Perspective: The Case of the Vroom-Yetton Model, Journal of Applied
Psychology, February 1984, 50-60; Arthur G.Jago and Victor H. Vroom, Some
Differences in the Incidcncc and Evaluatiun uf Participative Leader Behavior,
Journal of Applied Psychology (December 1982), 776-783.
18 , Victor . Vroom, Leadership
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19 Michael V. Copeland, Mistakes Happen, Red Herring (May 2000), 346-354.
20 Joshua Klayman, Richard P. Larrick, and Chip Heath, Organizational Repairs,
Across the Board (February 2000), 26-31.
21 Ettling andJago, Participation under Conditions of Conflict.
9. 355

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Faster, Financial Times, November 23,2001, h ttp :/ /new s.ft.com ; Tim B urt a n d N ikki Tait, Ford
May Axe 20 precent of U.S. W hite Collar Staff, Financial Times, November 6, 2001, h ttp : //
news.ft.com ; Kathleen Kerwin andJoann Muller, Bill Ford Takes the Wheel, BusinessWeek Online,
November 1, 2001, http://www.businessweek.com', D a vid Ibison, New Ford Chief Edges Closer to
Truce with Bridgestone, Financial Times, November 1, 2001, http://new s.ft.com ; Tim Burt, Nasser
Says Ford Has the Strategy to Confound Critics, Financial Times, September 13, 2001, h ttp : //
news.ft.com ; J erry Flint, Ford: A Distracted Driver, Forbes.com, September 6, 2001, h tt p : / /
www.forbes.com; Tim Burt an d Nikki Tait, Getting Ford Around the Corner, F inancial Times,
July 30, 2001, http://n ew s.ft.com ;Jeff M oad, Ford Rebuilds IT Engine, ZD N etN ew s, January 28,
2001, h ttp ://w w w .zd n e t.co m ; A m ey Stone an d K athleen Kerwin, Can Nasser Get Ford's Stock
onto a Smoother Road? BusinessWeek Online , October 11,1999, http://w w w .businessw eek.com ;
Jac Nasser: In the Past, We Tried to Do Too Much, BusinessWeek Online, October 11,1999, h ttp ://
rmm.businessweek.com.
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1 Roger . Crockett, N ew Company Called Motorola, BusinessWeek (April 17,


2000), 86.
11. 429

2 Richard L. Daft, Organization Theory and Design, 5th ed., St. Paul, Minn.: W est,
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3 Lee Iacocca, William Novak, Iaccoca: An Autobiography, N ew York: Phantom
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4 William J. Altier, Task Forces: An Effective M anagement Tool, M anagement
Review, February 1987, 5 2 -5 7 .
5 Henry Mintzberg, The Structure of Organizations, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-
Hall, 1979.
0 J ef f reV A- Tannenbaum, W hy Are Companies Paying Close A ttention to This
T oilet Maker? (T he Front Lines column), The Wall Street Journal (A ugust 20,
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7 Richard Koonce, Reengineering the Travel Game, Government Executive (M ay
1995), 2 8 - 3 4 ,6 9 - 7 0 .
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of Change, Sloan Management Review (W inter 1997), 3 7 -5 4 .
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Management, CFO (M arch 1999), 5 8 -6 4 ; Alex Markels, The W isdom of Chair
man , Fast Company, (November 1999), 2 5 8 -2 7 6 .
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Fortune (M ay 1, 2000), 3 3 3 -3 3 4 .
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1 3 0 -1 3 4 .
12 Dorothy Leonard-Barton, The Factory as a Learning Laboratory, Sloan Manage
ment Review (Fall 1992), 2 3 -3 8 .
13 Michael E. Porter, C om petitive Strategy, New York: Free Press, 1980, 3 6 -4 6 .
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Looking a Lot M ore Like GM, The New York Times (A ugust 23, 2001), C l, CIO.
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lfi Robert Pool, In the Zero Luck Zone, Forbes ASAP (November 27, 2000), 85+.
17 .
18 Denise M. Rousseau, Robert A. Cooke, Technology and Structure: The Concrete,
Abstract, and A ctivity System s of Organizations, Journal of Management, 10
(1984), 3 4 5 -3 6 1 ; Charles Peirow, Framework for the Comparative A nalysis of
Organizations, American Sociological Review 32, 1967, 194-208.
19 Joan Woodward, Industrial Organizations: Theory and Practice, London: Oxford
U niversity Press, 1965 \Joan Woodward, Management and Technology, London:
Her M ajestys Stationery Office, 1958.
20 Woodward, Industrial Organizations, VI.
21 James Thompson, Organizations in Action, N ew York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.
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1 RichardL. Daft, Bureaucratic vs. Nonbureaucratic Structure in the Process


of Innovation and Change Perspectives in Organizational Sociology. Theory
and Research, ed. Samuel B. Bacharach, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1982,
129-166.
2 , . Andrew . Van de Ven,
Central Problems in the Management of Innovation, Management Science 32,
1986, 595.
3 Hands On: A Managers Notebook, Inc., January 1989, 106.
Harold L. Angle and Andrew H. Van de Ven, Suggestions for Managing the In
novation Journey in Research in the Management of Innovation: The Minnesota
Studies, ed. A. H. Van de Ven, H. L. Angle, Marshall Scott Poole (Cambridge,
Mass.: Ballinger/ Harper & Row, 1989).
5 Christopher K. Bart, New Venture Units: Use Them Wisely to Manage In
novation, Sloan Management Review, Summer 1988, 35-43.
462 IV.

6 Peter F. Drucker, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (New York: Harper & Row,
1985).
7 KurtLewin, Field Theory in Social Science: Selected Theoretical Papers (New
York: Harper & Brothers, 1951).
8 Paul C. Nutt, Tactics of Implementation, Academy of ManagementJournal 29,
1986, 230-261; RichardL. Daft andSelwyn Becker, Innovation in Organizations:
Innovation Adoption in School Organizations (New York; Elsevier, 1978); Richard
Beckhard,Organization Development: Strategies and Models, Reading, Mass.;
Addison-Wesley, 1969.
9 Richard L. Daft, Organization Theory and Design, 5th ed. (ST. Paul, Minn.:
West, 1995); Tom Bums and G. M. Stalker, The Management of Innovation,
(London: Tavistock Publications, 1961).
10 HaroldJ. Leavitt, Applied Organizational Change in Industry: Structural.
Technical, and Hunian Approaches in New Perspectives in Organization Re
search, ed. W. W. Cooper, H.J. Leavitt, M. W. Shelly //(New York: Wiley, 1964),
55-74.
11 Fariborz Damanpour, The Adoption of Technological, Administrative, and
Ancillary Innovations: Impact of Organizational Factors, Journal of Manage
ment 13,1987,675-688.
12 Kurt Lewin, Frontiers in Group Dynamics: Concepts, Method, and Reality in
Social Science, Human Relations 1, 1947, 5-41; Huse and Cummings, Orga
nization Development.
13




















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: Appropriate and Inappropriate Interview Questions, in George Bohlander, Scott Snell,


and Arthur Shermann, Managing Human Resources, 12th ed. (Cincinnati, Ohio: South-West
College Publishing, 2001), 207; and Guidelines to Lawful and Unlawful Preemployment Inquiries,
Appendix E, in Robert L. Mathis and John H. Jackson, Human Resource Management, 2nd ed.
(Cincinnati, Ohio: South-West College Publishing, 2002), 189-190.

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Review, July-August 1989, 38-42; Dr. Pierre Mornell, Zero Defect Hiring, Inc., (March 1998),
75-83; and M artha Peak, What Color is Your Bumbershoot? M anagem ent Review, October
1989, 63.


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Evaluation of Behaviorally Basing Rating Scales, Journal of Applied Psychology 57, 1973, 15-22;
Francine Alexander, Performance Appraisals, Small Business Reports, March 1989, 20-29.


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1996), 20-36.

1 Cynthia D. Fisher, Current and Recurrent Challenges in \. Journal of Manage


ment 15,1989,157-180.
2 DennisJ. Kravetz, The Human Resources Revolution, San Francisco, Calif,: Jossey-
Bass, 1989.
3 David E. Ripley, How to Determine Future Workforce Needs, Personnel
Journal, January 1995, 83-89.
4 J. W. Boudreau and S. /. Rynes. Role of Recruitment in Staffing Utility Analysis,
Journal of Applied Psychology 70, 1985, 354-366.
5 Bernard Keys and Joseph Wolfe, Management: Education and Development:
Current Issues and Emerging Trends Journal of Management 14,1988,205-229.
6 Richard I. Henderson, Compensation Management: Rewarding Performance,
4th ed. (Reston. Va.; Reston, 1985).
7 Exit Interviews: An Overlooked Information Source, Small Business Report,
July 1986, 52-55.
14























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C areer Center, and Jason McKay, African American Websites Are Hooking people Up in More
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1 Marilyn Loden and Judy . Rosener, Workforce America! (Homewood, 111,:


Business One Irwin, 1991).
2 Robert Doktor, Rosalie Tung, Mary Ann von Glinow, Future Directions for Manage
ment Theory Development, Academy of Management Review 16,1991,362-365;
Mary Munter, Cross-Cultural Communication for Managers, Business Horizons,
May-June 1993, 69-78.
3 Renee Blank and Sandra Slipp, The White Male: An Endangered Species?,
Management Review, September 1994,27-32; Michael S. Kimmel, What Do Men
Want?, Harvard Business Review, November-December 1993, 50-63; Sharon
Nelton, Nurturing Diversity, Nations Business, June 1995, 25-27.
4 J. Black and M. Mendenhall, Cross-Cultural Training Effectiveness: A Review
and a Theoretical Framework for Future Research, Academy of Management
Review 15, 1990, 113-136.
5 Sharon A. Lobel, Robert E. Quinn, Lynda St. Clair, Andrea Warfield, Love without
Sex: The Impact of Psychological Intimacy between Men and Women at Work,
Organizational Dynamics, Summer 1994, 5-16.
6 J. Kennedy and A. Everest., Put Diversity in Context, PersonnelJournal, Sep
tember 1991, 50-54.

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16,2001), http.//www.ford.com-, Ford Moving Closer to Settling SuitsWSJ, Reuters Limited
(November 16, 2001); Ed Garsten, Ford Announces Management Shuffle, Associated Press
(November 15,2001), http:// dailynews.yahoo.com-, August Cole, Ford Shuffles Another Round
of Execs, CBS MarketWatch.com (November 15, 2001), http://www.marketwatch.com-, Nasser's
Retirement Package Tied to Ford's Performance, Auto.com, (November 15, 2001), http://
xsmw.auto.com-, Exec Changes Help Ford with Basics, Automotive News (November 12, 2001),
http://www.autonews.com-,Nikki Tait, Lincoln Bears Brunt of Ford Restructuring, Financial Times
(November 11, 2001), http://news.ft.com; Tim Burt and Nikki Tait, Ford May Axe 20 Percent of
White Collar Staff, Financial Times (November 6, 2001), http://news.ft.com-,John Gallagher,
No Bonuses This Year for Ford's Top Bosses, Detroit Free Press (August 29, 2001), http:/ /
www.freep.com-, Tim Burt and Nikki Tait, Ford Refines Chain of Command in U.S., Financial
Times Ouly 16,2001), http://news.ft.com; TimBurt, Ford's White Knight Summoned to Aid of
U.S. in Distress, Financial Times Ouly 15, 2001), http://news.ft.com.
V

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of Management 15,1989, 251-289.
2 James M. Koutes and Barry Z. Posner, The Credibility Factor: What Followers
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3 Henry Mintzberg, Power in and around Organizations, (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:
Prentice-Hall, \983); Jeffrey Pfeffer, Power in Organizations (Marshfield,
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4 J. R. P. French,Jr., and B. Raven, The Bases of Social Power, in Group Dynamics,
ed. D. Cartw?ight and Alvin F. Zander ( Evanston, 111.: Row, Peterson. 1960), 607-623.
606 .

5 G. A. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.; Prentice-Hall,


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6 K. Lewin, Field Theory and Experiment in Social Psychology: Concepts and
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An Experimental Approach to the Study of Autocracy and Democracy: A Pre
liminary Note, Sociometry 1, 1938, 292-300; K. Lewin, R. Lippitt, R. K. White,
Patterns of Aggressive Behavior in Experimentally Created Social Climates,
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Years of the Ohio Slate University Leadership Studies, Journal of Management 5,
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ment, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 22, 1978, 375-403;/ow
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Sloan Management Review 32. no. 1, Fall 1990, 12-13.
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Jou rn al (July 5, 1990), B4; A m y D unkin , Now Salespeople Really Must Sell for Their Supper,
Business Week O uly 31, 1989), 50-52; a n d Teiry Pristin, Retailings Elite Keep the Armani
Moving off the Rack, The N ew York Times (December 22, 2001), D l.

1 David Silburt, Secrets of the Super Sellers, Canadian Business, January 1987,
54-59; Meet the Sawy Supersalesmen, Fortune, February 4,1985,56-62; Michael
Brody, Meet Todays Young American Worker, Fortune, November 11, 1985,
90-98; Tom Richman, Meet the Masters. They Could Sell You Anything..., Inc.,
March 1985, 79-86.
2 Abraham F. Maslow, Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review 50,
1943, 370-396.
3 Clayton Alderfer, Existence, Relatedness and Gi uwth, New York: Free Press, 1972.
4 Frederick Herzberg, One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employers, Harvard
Business Review, January-February 1968, 53-62.
5 David C. McClelland, Human Motivation, Glenview, 111.: Scott, Foresman, 1985.
6 J. Stacy Adams, Injustice in Social Exchange, in Advances in Experimental
Social Psychology, 2nd ed., ed. L. Berkowitz, (New York: Academic Press, 1965);
J. Stacy Adams, Toward an Understanding of Inequity, Journal of Abnormal
and Social Psychology, November 1963, 422-436.
7 VictorH. Vroom, Work and Motivation (New York: Wiley, 1964); B. S. Gorgo-
poulos, G. M. Mahoney, N. Jones, Path-Goal Approach to Productivity,
Journal of Applied Psychology 41, 1957, 345-353; E. E. Lawler III, Pay and Orga
nizational Effectiveness: A Psychological View, New York: McGraw Hill, 1981.
8 J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, Work Redesign, Reading Mass Addison
Wesley 1980;/. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham, Motivation through the
Design of Work: Test of a Theory, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance
16, 1976,250-279.
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1 Elizabeth B. Drew, Profile: Robert Strauss, The New Yorker, May 7,1979, 55-70.
2 Henry Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial W ork (New York: Harper &
Row, 1973).
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W inston, 1960), 24.
4 Robert H. Lengel and Richard L. Daft, The Selection of Communication Media
as an Executive Skill, Academy o f Management Executive 2, August 1988,225-232;
Richard L. D aft and Robert H. Lengel, Organizational Information Requirements,
Media Richness and Structural Design, Managerial Science 32, May 1986,554-572
5 Ford S. Worthy, How CEOs Manage Their Time, Fortune, January 18, 1988,
88-97.
G Albert Mehrabian, Silent Messages (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1971), Albert
Mehrabian, Communicating w ithout Words, Psychology Today, September
1968, 53-55.
7 GeraldM. Goldhaber, Organizational Communication, 4th ed. (Dubuque, Iowa:
Win. C. Brown, 1980, 189).
8 J. G. Miller, Living Systems: The Organization, Behavioral Science 17,1972,69.
9 Donald B. Simmons, The Nature of the Organizational Grapevine, Supervisory
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