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Facial expressions are contagious

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Jorrrnal of Psychophysiology 9 (1995) 203-211 O 1995 European Federation of Psychophysiology Socielies

FaciaI expressions are contagious

Lars-Olov Lundqvist and Ulf Dimberg
Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden

Date of acceptence: January 1 l , 1995

Keywords: Facial reaction, electromyography, ernotional contagion, facial expression, ernotional expe-

ABSTBACT The aim of the present study was to explore whether subiects exposed to stimuli of facial
expressions respond with specific facial muscle reaction patterns that correspond to specific emotional
experiences, and whether these response patterns are consistent with the ernotional contagion hypothesis.
Gender differences concerning susceptibility to emotional contagion were also examined. The facial EMG
from the M.zygomaticus major, the M. levator labii, the frontal M. lateralis, and the M. corrugator supercilii
muscle regions, as well as emotional experiences were recorded while male and female subiects were
exposed to pictures of faces expressing sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, as well as neutral
facial expressions. The results revealed that subiects to a certain extent both mirnicked and experienced
an emotion similar to that expressed by the stimulus persons. Even though some of the results in the present
study were inconsistent with the hypothesis that facial expressions are contagious, it was concluded that
facial expressions are one important channel for emotional contagion to occur. There were no overall
gender differences. Consistent with earlier research, however, females tended to respond with more intense
M.zygomaticus major activity to happy faces compared with males.

Since Adam Smith (175911976) there have ic EMG reaction patterns from the facial mus-
been several observations describing peoples' cles that are contracted when iorming an angry
tendency to imitate or mimic the facial and or happy facial expression, respectively (Dim-
bodily expressions of others' (e.g., Darwin, berg, 1982,1988 a, 1990a, 1991,1993; Dimberg
1872;Maraiion, 1950;McDougall, 1928;Ribot, & Christmanson, 1991; Dimberg & Lundqvist,
1897). These observations suggest that people 1990). It has further been found that subjects
can "catch" the emotions of others' in a social exposed to other facial expressions (e. g., faces
situation (Hatfield, Cacioppo, & Rapson, 1992; of surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust) also react
Hsee, Hatfield, Carlson, & Chemtob, 1990), with facial responses interpretable as mimick-
which recently has been conceptualized as the ing behavior (Lundqvist, in press). It is thus
phenomenon of emotional contagion. Emo- clear that results from facial EMG research
tional contagion is defined as "the tendency to support the hypothesis that facial expressions
automatically mimic and synchronize move- are contagious.
ments, expressions, postures, and vocalizations However, it has been debated whether facial
with those of another person and, consequent- mimicking behavior is accompanied by a cor-
ly, to converge emotionally" (Hatfield, et al., responding emotional experience (Hatfield et
1992,pp. 153-154). Thus, it is argued that emo- al., 1992) or if facial mimicry is purely a com-
tional contagion may operate through differ- municative act, independent of the responders
ent non-verbal channels, such as vocal sounds, emotional state (e. g., Bavelas, Black, Lemery,
bodily postures, and facial expressions. Results & Mullett, 1986, 1987; Kraut & Johnston,
consistent with the hypothesis that facial ex- 1979). If facial expressions are to be regarded
pressions are contagious have been demon- as contagious, it is important to demonstrate
strated by research using a facial electromyo- that the evoked facial reactions are accompa-
graphic (EMG) procedure. That is, subjects ex- nied by a corresponding emotional experience
posed to stimuli of angry and happy facial (Hatfield et al., 1992). One such study was per-
expressions were found to respond with specif- formed by Dimberg (1988 a), which showed

that the exposure to happy faces evoked not ger, and fear should evoke an increase in
only a congruent facial response, but also an M. corrugator supercilii activity. Even if the
increased experience of happiness. While that registration of the activity from the M. corru-
study supports the contagion hypothesis, it re- gator supercilii muscle region does not provide
mains to be explored whether the phenome- suficientinformation to differentiate between
non is also valid for other facial expressions. sad, angry, and fearful faces, different effects
Moreover, earlier research on facial EMG for the experience of emotion were expected.
and gender differences shows that females That is, the stimuli of faces expressing sadness,
tend to be more facially expressive when ex- anger, and fear were predicted to evoke an in-
posed to different stimuli (Dimberg, 1990b; crease in the experience of sadness, anger, and
Schwartz, Brown, & Ahern, 1980). Relevant fear, respectively. Finally, it was expected that
for the present context is the finding that fe- female subjects should respond with more pro-
males showed more pronounced facial EMG nounced facial EMG reactions and possibly
reactions when exposed to angry and happy fa- also with more intense emotional experience
cia1 expressions (Dimberg & Lundqvist, 1990). compared with males.
In particular, females reacted with more in-
tense M. zygomaticus major activity to happy Method
faces compared with males. Females are also
reported to show higher nonverbal receiving Subjects
ability compared with males (for reviews, see
Buck, 1984; Hall, 1978). Thus, it can be argued Fifty-six psychology students at Uppsala Uni-
that females may be more susceptible to emo- versity, 28 males and 28 females, with an aver-
tional contagion compared with males. age age of 26.4 years (SD f SA), were each paid
The main purpose of the present study was $10 to participate in the experiment.
to investigate whether the effect of contagion
holds for other facial expressions in addition to Apparatus and data scoring
happy faces (Dimberg, 1988a). A second pur- The subjects were tested individually in a
pose was to explore whether females are more sound-attenuated room. They were exposed to
sensitive to emotional contagion than males. slides of males and females displaying sadness,
Male and female subjects were thus exposed to anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, as we11
faces expressing sadness, anger, fear, Surprise, as displaying neutral facial expressions. The
disgust, happiness, as we11 as neutral faces, slides, which were selected from Ekman and
while their EMG activity from different facial Friesen's (1976) Pictures of facial affect, were
muscle regions was measured. The muscle re- projected onto a screen 1.5m in front of the
gions of the M. zygomaticus major (pulls the lip subject producing a picture of 30 x 45 cm. The
corner up and back), the M. levator labii supe- exposure time was set at 8 s and controlled by
rioris (raises the upper lip and widens the nos- an electronic timer that, together with the oth-
trils), the frontal M. lateralis (raises the brow), er equipment, was placed outside the sound-at-
and the M. corrugator supercilii (knits the tenuated room.
brow) were recorded (Fridlund & Cacioppo, Bipolar EMG recordings were made from
1986; Hjortsj, 1970). Furthermore, the emo- the left side of the subject's face with Beckman
tional experiences of sadness, anger, fear, dis- miniature surface AgIAgC1 electrodes (diam-
gust, surprise, and happiness were measured. eter 2 mm), filled with Beckman electrode
It was predicted that stimuli of happy faces paste. Before attaching the electrodes, the skin
should evoke an increase in M.zygomaticus was cleaned with alcohol dipped cotton-tips
major activity and an increase in the experi- and then rubbed with electrode paste to de-
ence of happiness. Furthermore, it was expect- crease inter-electrode impedance. All inter-
ed that stimuli of faces expressing disgust electrode impedance was reduced to less than
should elicit an increase in M. levator labii ac- 10kQ (Fridlund & Cacioppo, 1986).
tivity and an increase in the experience of dis- The electrodes were attached according to
gust, whereas stimuli of surprise faces should Fridlund and Cacioppo's (1986) Guidelines for
evoke an increase in frontal M. lateralis and an human electromyographic research. All elec-
increase in the experience of surprise. More- trode locations refer to electrode centers. The
over, stimuli of faces expressing sadness, an- M. zygomaticus major muscle activity was re-

corded by placing the electrodes 1cm apart on strong." The scores were summed for the three
an imaginary line from the corner of the mouth items that represented a given emotion, Scores
to the cheek-bone. The activity rom the for each emotion could vary between O and
M. levator labii muscle region was recorded by 300.
placing one electrode l cm lateral to the nostril
and the second electrode l cm superior to the Procedure
first. Thus, activity from both the M. levator
The subjects were told that the purpose of the
labii superioris alaeque nasi and the M. levator
experiment was to measure physiological reac-
labii superioris muscles was recorded. To de-
tions to facial stimuli. To reduce the subjects'
tect the activity from the rontal M. lateralis
attention to their facial muscles, they were told
muscle region, the electrodes were placed 1cm a cover-story that the electrodes were used to
apart on an imaginary vertical line 1cm lateral
measure sweat gland activity (e.g., Dimberg,
to the vertical line that traverses the pupil, with
1982,1990a). To mask the purpose of the emo-
the inferior electrode affixed I cm above the tional experience questionnaire, the subjects
eyebrow. Finally, the activity from the M. cor- were told that: "Since different subjects partic-
rugator supercilii muscle region was recorded ipate at different times they may also differ in
by placing the electrodes l cm apart, with one for instance tiredness and mood, and according
electrode attached directly above the brow on
to standardized experimental control proce-
an imaginary vertical line through the inner
dures, they are required to rate their mood on
border of the iris and the second electrode at different scales" (Dimberg, 1988a).
the border of the eyebrow head. Next the facial electrodes were attached and
The electrodes were connected to Coul- the subjects were placed in the sound-attenu-
bourn Hi Gain Amplifiers with low-pass filters ated room and told to pay attention to the pic-
set at 1000Hz and, to reduce low-frequency tures. Each subject was exposed to one slide of
noise determined by movement artifacts, high- each facial expression (sadness, anger, fear,
pass filters were set at 10Hz with a roll-off at surprise, disgust, happy, and neutral face) ex-
12dBloctave. A notch filter at 50Hz was in- pressed by different persons. Each subject saw
stalled to diminish interference from the elec- different combinations of stimulus persons dis-
tric mains. The raw EMG signals were ana- playing the different emotional expressions.
lyzed by Coulbourn contour following integra- Because of the emotional quality of the stimuli,
tors with the time constant set at .O2 s, and then the order of presentation was counterbalanced
digitized online at 100Hz per channel by a among subjects. Each slide was exposed during
Coulbourn 12 bit A/D converter and finally 8 s in six adjacent trials with an inter-trial inter-
stored on an IBM XT computer. All analyses val varying between 25 to 45 s. Immediately af-
were performed on arbitrary data units. The ter the sixth (last) presentation of each stimu-
data were scored as phasic responses; that is, lus type, subjects were asked to rate their emo-
as the change between the mean activity dur- tional experience on the DES questionnaire.
ing the stimulus presentation and the pre-stirn- At the end of the experiment, subjects were in-
ulus level. The pre-stimulus level was defined terviewed to see if the cover story had served
as the mean activity during the l-s period im-
its purpose. No subjects reported that they
mediately before stimulus onset.
were aware that their facial muscle activity had
The self-experience of emotion was mea-
been recorded or that the real purpose of the
sured by an abbreviated Swedish version of the
questionnaire was to measure their emotional
"Differential Emotions Scale" (DES) (Izard,
experience to the different stimuli.
Dougherty, Bloxom, & Kotsch, 1974). Ratings
were performed for the experience of sadness,
anger, fear, disgust, surprise, and happiness,
Design and statistical analysis
where each emotion was represented by three Before analysis, the facial EMG data were col-
, items (Izard et al., 1974). Thus, 18 items per lapsed over trials within each stimulus type.
i stimulus had to be completed. The subjects The rating data were first range corrected
(Lykken, Rose, Luther, & Maley, 1966) and
i: were requested to mark their responses on an-
I alog rating scales consisting of 100mm lines then square-root transformed (Kirk, 1968).
i with the labels "not at all" followed by "slight- The design was a 2 x 7 split-plot factorial
i ly," "moderately," "considerably," and "very (Kirk, 1968), with SEX OF SUBJECT (male vs. fe-

male) as the between subject factor and STIMU-

LUS (sad, angry, fearful, surprise, disgust, hap-
py, and neutral faces) as the within subject fac-
tor. The statistical analyses were separately
conducted on the facial EMG data and the
emotion experience data by MANOVAs with
Pillai-Bartlett V as test statistic (Olson, 1976).
The MANOVAs were followed up by separate 4.05
ANOVAs for each muscle and each rating di- SAD ANGRY FU\I(NL SURPRISED DISMEITm HAPPY NEUTRAL

mension. The Geisser-Greenhouse correction Figure 1 The mean M. zygomaticus major EMG response
for degrees of freedom was adopted to all to stimuli of facial expressions
ANOVAs (Kirk, 1968). Comparisons among
means were performed with Dunnett's t-test
(Kirk, 1968), by comparing the response to the
different stimuli to the response to the neutral

Results " 4.00 1 S M A N W FEARNL S ~ E O M S O U S T E D HAPPY NEWRAi

.. Facial EMG Figure 2 The mean M-levator labii EMG response to
stimuli of faciai expressions
The MANOVA on facial EMG data revealed
a significant effect of stimulus (V = .4086,
02 -
F(24,1296) = 6.14, P < 0.0001). This result indi-
cates that the stimuli evoked different facial t 0.15-
EMG response patterns. No significant effects =, -
4 0.1 -
of SEX OF SUB JE^ or interaction between SEX OF
SUBJECT and STIMULUS was obtained.The s ~ m u -
n o.os -
LUS effect was examined further by separate 0
ANOVAs on each facial muscle. As can be W O-

seen in Table 1,the STIMULUS effect was signif- 4-05 -


As shown in Figure 1, happy faces evoked F i p 3 The mean frontai M. lateralis EMG response to
the largest M. zygomaticus major EMG re- of facia' expressions
As revealed by Dunnett's t-test, happy faces ator labii muscle region (see Figure 2) revealed
were the only stimuli that evoked a signifkant- that faces expressing disgust evoked signifi-
ly larger M. zygomaticus major EMG response cantly larger EMG responses compared with
compared with neutral faces (see Table 2). neutral faces (see Table 2). Unexpectedly, and
Inspection of the responses from the M. lev- as shown in Figure 2 and Table 2, happy faces
also elicited significantly larger
Table 1 F-ratios for STMULUS effect on facial EMG data, responses than neutral faces.
The mean frontal M. lateralis
Facial muscles df MS F E
EMG response is given in Figure
M. zygomaticus major 6 .525833 7.92*** 3. Table 2 indicates that faces ex-
error 330 .O66395 .4973 pressing surpxise evoked signifi-
M. levator labii 6 .O80107 7.11***
error 330 .O11262 .7309
cantly larger responses than neu-
Frontal M. lateralis 6 287178 6.75*** tral faces.
error 330 .O42521 .5123 As shown in Figure 4, faces ex-
M. corrugator supercilii 6 .258439 10.23*** pressing sadness, anger, and fear
error 330 .O25254 .4517 evoked an increased M. corruga-
*** P < 0.001 tor supercilu EMG response.
Note. P-values are Geisser-Greenhouse corrected. However, as indicated by

Figure 4 The mean M.corrugator supercilii EMG re-

sp'onse to stimuli of facial expressions.

Dunnett's t-tests given in Table 2, only sad and

angry faces evoked significantly larger EMG
responses compared to neutral faces. Happy
faces evoked a significantly decreased M. cor-
rugator supercilii EMG response when com-
pared to neutral faces.
Thus, all stimuli, except faces expressing
fear, evoked facial EMG response patterns
that were significantly different from those
elicited by neutral faces in at least one facial

Emotional experience
The MANOVA on ratings of self-experienced
emotions revealed a significant effect of STIMU-
LUS (V = .5423, approximate F(36,1944) = 5.37,
P < 0.0001). This result indicates that the stim-
uli elicited different emotional experiences. No
significant main effect of SEX OF SUBJECT or in-
teraction between SEX OF SUBJECT and snMuLus
was revealed. Given these results, the STIMULUS
effect was subjected to ANOVAs on each rat-
ing dimension separately. As indicated in Table
3, all rating dimensions with the exception of
surprise showed a significant effect of STIMU-
The means of emotion experience ratings to
the different stimuli are given in Table 4.
Dunnett's t-test, given in Table 2, revealed
that all stimuli evoked a significantly increased
experience of the same emotion as expressed
by the stimulus persons; the only exception be-
ing the faces expressing surprise. That is, sad
faces evoked a signiicantly larger experience
of sadness than neutral faces, and angry faces
evoked a significantly larger experience of an-
ger compared with neutral faces. Furthermore,
fearful faces evoked a larger experience of fear
and facial expressions showing disgust elicited
a larger experjence of disgust than neutral fac-
208 L.-O. L U N D Q V I S T AND U . D I M B E R G

es. Finally, happy faces evoked an increased py faces. To more specifically cornpare the pre-
experience of happiness than neutral faces. sent EMG data with the results revealed from
As was further revealed by Dunnett's t-test the study by Dimberg and Lundqvist (1990), a
(see Table 2) stimuli of disgust, angry, and separate analysis of variance was performed on
fearful faces evoked additional emotional ex- the EMG data of the M. corrugator supercilii
periences. That is, angry faces evoked an in- and M. zygomaticus major muscle activities to
creased experience of fear and disgust; fearful stimuli of angry and happy facial expressions.
faces elicited an increased experience of dis- Although the present results were not as clear
gust, and facial expressions of disgust evoked as earlier findings, they do agree with the ear-
larger experience of anger. Sad faces elicited a lier results in some respects. That is, there was
decreased experience of happiness. a tendency for females to respond with more
intense-facialEMG activity to happy and angry
Gender difSerences in facial EMG faces. However, while there were no overall
As revealed by the MANOVA of the facial significant effects, an a priori t-test did reveal
EMG data, no significant main effect of SEX OF that females responded with more increased
SUBJECT or interaction effect of the SEX OF SUB- M. zygomaticus major activity to happy faces
JECT and STMULUS was obtained. However, as than males (t(54) = 1.85, P < .OS).
was mentioned in the introduction, earlier re-
search (Dimberg & Lundqvist, 1990) has
shown that females were more facially expres- Discussion
sive than males when they were exposed to an-
gry and happy faces while their M. corrugator The present findings demonstrate that differ-
supercilii and M. zygomaticus major muscle ac- ent stimuli of facial expressions of emotion
tivity was measured. This was particularly true spontaneously elicited different facial EMG
for the M. zygomaticus major response to hap- reactions, as we11 as different emotional expe-
Table 3 F-ratios for STIMULUS effect on ratings of emo- Consistent with the hypothesis of emotional
tional experience. contagion (Hatfield et al., 1992) and earlier re-
Rating dimensions df MS F E
search on facial EMG (Dimberg, 1982,1988a,
1990a, 1991,1993; Dimberg & Christmanson,
Sadness 6 1991; Dimberg & Lundqvist, 1990; Lundqvist,
error 330
Anger 6 in press; McHugo, Lanzetta, Sullivan,Masters,
error 330 & Englis, 1985), happy faces evoked a signifi-
Fear 6 cant increase in M. zygomaticus major muscle
error 330 activity, whereas angry faces evoked a signifi-
Surprise 6
error 330 cant increase in M. corrugator supercilii mus-
Disgust 6 cle activity. In the present study, however, the
error 330 ,1112 .g378 reactions from the M. corrugator supercilii
Happiness 6 .8196 7.18*** muscle to faces expressing fear did not reach
error 330 .l141
statistical sienificance. As further oredicted
*** P < 0.001 and consistent with earlier findings (Lund-
Note. P-values are Geisser-Greenhouse corrected. qvist, in press), sad faces evoked significantly
Table 4 Mean ratings* (0-1) of emotional experience to facial expressions.
Stimuli Emotional experience
Sadness Anger Fear Surprise Disgust Happiness
Sad .754 .393 .398 .413 .414
Angry .397 S82 .532 .371 .455
Fear .443 .382 .513 .453 .446
Surprise .329 .278 .315 .444 .239
Disgust .390 .488 .441 .356 .545
Happy .298 .283 .211 .299 .248
Neutral .441 .237 .335 .322 .249
* Ratings are range corrected and square root transformed

larger reactions rom the M. corrugator super- gious" emotions. This can be explained as an
cilii muscle region, and faces expressing sur- effect of emotional clustering and that pure
prise evoked significantly larger reactions from emotional states are difficult to induce in the
the frontal M. lateralis region. Moreover, faces laboratory (Polivy, 1981). It is also possible
expressing disgust evoked increased reactions that discrete emotions may not be experienced
in t h e M. levator labii muscle region. Finally, long enough to be reported separately, or that
consistent with earlier results for happy faces one emotion may trigger others (Izard, 1972,
(Dimberg, 1988a) and with the hypothesis of 1977). In this sense the obtained blended emo-
emotional contagion, stimuli of sad, angry, tional experiences in the present experiment
fearful, disgust, and happy facial expressions are not necessarily inconsistent with the hy-
evoked emotional experiences that were iden- pothesis of emotional contagion.
tical with the emotions expressed by the stirn- On the other hand, some of the present re-
ulus persons. Contrary to predicti~ns,no over- sults concerning facial EMG and self-experi-
ail gender differences in facial EMG or emo- ence of emotion may be explained in terms of
tional experience were found. Consistent with other processes working in parallel with emo-
earlier research (Dimberg & Lundqvist, 1990) tional contagion. For instance, earlier research
however, females tended to respond with larg- has demonstrated that facial EMG more gen-
er M. zygomaticus major EMG responses to eraliy reflects emotional activity (Cacioppo &
happy faces. Petty, 1981; Dimberg, 1990a; Schwartz, Fair,
In summary, the present results demonstrate Salt, Mandel, & Klerman, 1976). In particular,
that, to a certain extent, subjects both mim- it has been found that not only facial stimuli
icked and experienced the same emotion ex- but also other negative and positive stimuli,
pressed by the stimulus persons. So far the pre- such as pictures of snakes and flowers (Dim-
sent data support the hypothesis that facial ex- berg, 1986, 1990a; Dimberg & Thell, 1988),
pressions are contagious. and auditory stimuli (Dimberg, 1990b, 1990c)
There were also results from the present evoke facial reactions that reflect the emotion-
study that were inconsistent with the hypothesis al quality of the stimuli. Thus, one interpreta-
of emotional contagion. For instance, stimuli of tion of the present results may be that the facial
faces expressing surprise did not evoke an in- reactions to, for example, the angry faces do
creased experience of surprise emotion.The re- not reflect emotional contagion but rather a
sults also revealed response patterns that were negative emotional reaction,such as fear. This
not interpretable in terms of emotional conta- interpretation is further supported by the rat-
gion. For instance, happy faces evoked sig&- ing data, which show that subjects also experi-
cantly larger M. levator labii reactions. This was ence more fear after exposure to angry faces.
expected only for faces expressing disgust. This These results are consistent with the results
result, which was also foumd by Lundqvist (in from earlier studies in which subiects experi-
press), suggests cross-talk between the M. zygo- enced more fear after they were exposed t6 an-
maticus major and the M. levator labii muscles. gry faces (Dimberg, 1987, 1988a). This is fur-
This explanation is supported by the finding ther consistent with the hypothesis that human
that the activity from the two muscle regions subjects are biologically predisposed both to
correlated significantly (rxy= .67,P < .001), and react to and to associate angry faces with fear
is further emphasized by the finding that happy (Dimberg, 1983,1987,1988a, 1988b).
faces did not evoke an experience of disgust. It is interesting to note that the mere expo-
Furthermore, in addition to the experience sure of pictures of facial stimuli is sufficient to
of anger, angry faces evoked an increased ex- evoke responses interpretable as emotional
perience of disgust and, as found in earlier contagion. This may be taken as support for
studies (Dimberg, 1988a; McHugo et al., the proposition that emotional contagion can
1985), an increased experience of fear. More- occur automatically (Hatfield et al., 1992).The
over, faces expressing fear evoked an in- automatic charactrSofemotional responding
creased experience of disgust in addition to to facial stimuli is emphasized by the fact that
fear; faces expressing disgust evoked anger in subjects exposed to stimuli of facial expres-
addition to the experience of disgust. Thus, the sions respond with differentiated facial EMG
results indicate that subjects experienced other reactions as early as a few hundred ms of ex-
emotions in addition to the expected "conta- posure (Dimberg, 1991,1995).
210 L.-O. L U N D Q V I S T A N D U. D I M B E R G

It is important to note that even if major as- & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development
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an outcome of emotional contagion, the pre- Buck, R. (1980). Nonverbal behavior and the theory of
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derlying mechanisms that are involved in the sonality and Social Psychology, 38,811-824.
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stance, one interpretation of the present re- York: Guilford Press
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uli. Thereafter, these facial muscle activities, measures of extent and affectivity of information pro-
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sen (1990), who demonstrated that merely pos- Psychophysiology, 19,643-647.
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Upsaliensis, Abstracts of Uppsala dissertations from the
terpretation of the present results is that the faculty of social sciences, 29. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wik-
subjects first experienced the emotion similar sell.
to the stimuli to which they were exposed. Dimberg, U. (1986). Facial reactions to fear-relevant and
Their facial reactions then were an effect of the fear-irrelevant stimuli. Biological Psychology, 23, 153-
facial muscles functioning as an emotional 161.
readloutput system. Thus, it is not possible to Dimberg, U. (1987). Facial reactions, autonornic activity
decide whether the contagious effect in the and experienced emotion: A three component model of
present study is an outcome of mimicking be- emotional conditioning. Biological Psychology,24,105-
havior or if the effects initially are mediated by 122.
an experience of an emotion. Dimberg, U. (1988 a). Facial electromyography and the ex-
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Acknowledgments 277-282.
This study was supported by grants from the Dimberg, U. (1988 b). Facial expressions and emotional re-
actions: A psychobiologicalanalysis of human social be-
Swedish Council for Research in the Humani- havior. In H. L. Wagner (Ed.), Social psychophysiology
ties and Social Sciences. Three anonyrnous re- and emotion: Theory and clinical applications
viewers are thanked for their cornrnents on an (pp. 131-150). New York: John Wiley.
earlier version of this paper. Dimberg, U. (1990 a). Facial electromyography and emo-
tional reactions. Psychophysiology, 27,481-494.
Dimberg, U. (1990 b). Facial reactions to auditory stimuli:
Address correspondence to: sex differences Scandinavian Journal of Psychology,31,
Ulf Dimberg or Lars-Olov Lundqvist Dimberg, U. (1990~).Facial electromyographic reactions
Department of Psychology and autonomic activity to auditory stimuli. Biological
Psychology, 31,137-147.
Uppsala University
Box 1854 Dimberg, U. (1991). Emotional reactions to facial expres-
sions: A case of automatic responding? Psychophysiol-
S-751 48 Uppsala
ogy, 28, S19, (abstract).
Dimberg, U. (1995). Immediate facial reactions to emotion-
al facial expressions. Manuscript submitted for publica-
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