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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Fuel properties, engine performance and emission characteristic of common


biodiesels as a renewable and sustainable source of fuel
M.I. Arbab n, H.H. Masjuki, M. Varman, M.A. Kalam, S. Imtenan, H. Sajjad
Centre for Energy Sciences, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

a r t i c l e i n f o abstract

Article history: The energy security concern has been established as an alarming issue in context of petro diplomacy now-
Received 15 August 2012 a-days. Global warming with rapid changes in climate, increase in price and depletion in reserve of fossil
Received in revised form fuel are leading scientists to work toward alternative fuel. Biodiesel could be an answer for the alternative
22 January 2013
fuel, which is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and less polluting. This paper is comprised of fuel
Accepted 23 January 2013
Available online 28 February 2013
properties, engine performance and emission characteristics of commonly used different vegetable
(jatropha, palm, coconut, cottonseed, sunower, soybean and canola/rapeseed) based biodiesel derived
Keywords: from experimental results at different conditions performed worldwide. It can introduce a potential
Energy guideline to improve engine performance and emission characteristics using different biodiesels and their
Biodiesel
blends as well. This paper provides a comparative baseline to make an easy comparison among the
Fuel properties
biodiesels in respect of fuel properties, engine performance and emission characteristics.
Performance
Emission & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Renewable energy

Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2. Fuel properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2.1. Kinetic viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2.2. Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
2.3. Cetane number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
2.4. Caloric value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
2.5. Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
3. Engine performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
3.1. Jatropha biodiesel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
3.2. Palm biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
3.3. Coconut biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
3.4. Cottonseed biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
3.5. Sunower biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
3.6. Soybean biodiesel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
3.7. Canola or rapeseed biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4. Engine emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.1. Jatropha biodiesel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.2. Palm biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.3. Coconut biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.4. Cottonseed biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.5. Sunower biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.6. Soybean biodiesel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.7. Canola or rapeseed biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
5. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Acknowledgment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

n
Corresponding author. Tel.: 60 1 63580809; fax: 60 3 79675317.
E-mail address: arbab128@yahoo.com (M.I. Arbab).

1364-0321/$ - see front matter & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.01.046
134 M.I. Arbab et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147

1. Introduction brake power and torque than ordinary diesel. On the other hand,
biodiesel and its blends improve emission characteristics with
The world is moving towards an energy crisis because of the exception in case of NOx [52,6166]. However, many researchers
depleting reserve of fossil fuels. In addition, the rapid rise in the also found relatively lower NOx emission using biodiesel and their
use of fossil fuel is favoring this depletion. Besides, increasing blends [6774].
fossil fuel price, emission of greenhouse gases and the security In this study, peer reviewed articles of highly rated journals of
and diversity of energy are tending the scientists to turn their seven commonly used biodiesels (jatropha, palm, coconut, cotton-
attention to nd out alternative sources of fuel. Biodiesel is one of seed, sunower, soybean and canola/rapeseed) have been reviewed.
the best sources of alternative fuel [1]. It is renewable and clean This report focuses on comparison fuel properties, engine perfor-
fuel for diesel engines [2,3]. It is also called environment friendly mance and emission characteristics of seven biodiesels in a single
as it is nontoxic, biodegradable, safer to breathe and emits less platform. Each of them is discussed elaborately in different sections.
greenhouse gases [3]. Finally different research results are presented in tabular form in
Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel for internal combustion order to have an easy comparison among them.
engines, is dened as a mixture of mono-alkyl esters of long
chain fatty acids (FAME) derived from a renewable lipid feed-
stock, such as vegetable oil or animal fat. Biodiesel typically
comprises alkyl fatty acid (chain length C14C22) esters of 2. Fuel properties
short-chain alcohols, primarily, methanol or ethanol [3,4]. Bio-
diesel is the best candidate for diesel fuels in diesel engines. Density, viscosity, heating value, ash point, acid value, pour
Production of biodiesel is not a modern invention. The rst diesel point, cetane number, etc. are considered as the most important
engine developed by Rudolf Diesel in 1900, was run with ground- properties of a fuel for its application in engine. These properties
nut oil [5]. In 1912, Rudolf Diesel also stated that in future the indicate the quality of the fuel. Engine performance and emission
vegetable oils would be an important fuel like petroleum [6]. are also directly related to these. There are different types of
The awareness about environment is making Rudolf Diesels standard like ASTM, EN, ISO, etc. to dene the limit of each of the
prediction true today [5]. fuel properties. Among them ASTM is the most widely followed
Vegetable oils are being used as alternative fuel for more than standard. To meet the standard engine performance and emission,
100 years after the invention of diesel engine [7]. Depending upon the value of the fuel properties must be in the range. In this
environmental condition, the sources of biodiesel vary from regard study of fuel properties are the most important part to use
country to country like soybean for North America, sunower any liquid as fuel. Now-a-days, blending is widely being used to
and rapeseed for Europe, palm for Southeast Asia, coconut for improve biodiesel fuel properties. Sometimes biodiesel from two
tropic and sub-tropic area etc. [8]. However, crude vegetable oils or more feedstock are blended to improve the properties. Use of
are inferior as fuel in terms of viscosity, heating value, freezing more feedstocks can easily improve fuel properties rather than
point, etc. Different chemical treatment like transesterication two because most of the important fuel properties like density,
can improve the fuel properties [9,10]. The transesteried vege- kinematic viscosity, oxidation stability, ash point, caloric value
table oils are widely being used at present. and cetane number vary linearly in case of multiple fuel blends
Diesel engine has got popularity for its higher thermal ef- [7579]. The most widely used vegetable based biodiesel fuel
ciency as well as high power to weight ratio. Therefore, it is being properties are discussed. Table 1 contains fuel properties of seven
widely used in automobiles, power generation and industrial discussed vegetable based biodiesels.
sectors. The diesel power vehicles have about one-third share of
total vehicle sold in Europe and USA [11]. However, more
stringent emission regulations imposed by the authorities limit 2.1. Kinetic viscosity
its use. Thus, cleaner emission property of biodiesel gives hope for
its wide use in diesel engine. It can be used directly in the existing Fuel ow, spray and atomization characteristics are directly
diesel engines without any modication [12,13]. A lot of research governed by the kinetic viscosity of the fuel. Higher viscosity
efforts have been given on production of biodiesel as well as increases fuel pump power consumption and causes poor spray
engine performance and emission characterization [1423]. Most and atomization [76,110,111] and also increases fuel consump-
of them found relatively poor fuel property of vegetable oils and tion [41]. In these respects, lower viscosity is desired.
their biodiesels. The brake power and the brake torque of the From Table 1 most of the biodiesels have higher viscosity than
engine using crude vegetable oil and their biodiesel were rela- OD (ordinary diesel). But viscosity of palm and coconut based
tively lower than that of ordinary petroleum diesel [2437]. biodiesel are comparable to OD. Therefore, palm and coconut
But in some cases the brake thermal efciency was higher biodiesel can give improved atomization and lead to better
[24,33,3860]. Again biodiesel blends sometimes gave better combustion than others.

Table 1
Fuel properties of ordinary diesel and common vegetable based biodiesel [3,33,3841,4347,49,51,5360,77,80109].

Properties Kinetic viscosity 40 1C (cSt) Density (kg/m3) Cetane number Caloric value (MJ/kg) Flash point (1C)

ASTM limit 1.96 47 minimum 130 1C minimum


Diesel 2.55.7 816840 4555 4245.9 5098
Jatropha 3.75.8 864880 4655 38.542 163238
Palm 2.954.92 843890 4965 38.7340.39 135259
Coconut 2.614.1 844930 5160 3538.1 112241.5
Cottonseed 44.9 874885 51.255 40.3242.73 70110
Sunower 4.55.9 877882 4952 39.740.56 85178
Soybean 4.084.97 884896 4053 38.3139.76 69144
Canola or rapeseed 4.24.5 837886 4952.9 36.5540.5 94183
M.I. Arbab et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147 135

2.2. Density descriptor. It is related to ignition delay time, i.e., the time elapsed
between injection of the fuel and onset of ignition. A shorter
Density and viscosity are directly proportional to each other. ignition delay corresponds to a higher CN and vice versa. Higher
Higher density increases energy concentration of fuel [112] and CN is desired for CI engine fuel.
minimizes fuel leakage. It also inuences the fuel atomization Though most of the biodiesels have higher CN than that of OD
efciency [76]. But higher density causes higher viscosity which (Table 1), among them, palm and coconut biodiesel usually have
in return gives poor combustion and effects engine performance higher CN than other biodiesels. In this respect, these two
and emission. biodiesels are better than others.
From Table 1, density of biodiesel is usually higher than OD. But
sometimes palm, coconut and canola or rapeseed biodiesel have a
2.4. Caloric value
density close to OD which can make them superior to others.

The caloric value of a fuel is dened as the amount of heat


2.3. Cetane number released during combustion when a unit quantity of the fuel is
burnt. Higher caloric value for fuel is desired because it facil-
Cetane number (CN) is a prime indicator of the quality of fuel itates the heat release during combustion and improves engine
used in compression ignition (CI) engines. It is a dimensionless performance [39,92,113,114].

Table 2
Different experimental engine performance results using jatropha biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Result Reference

Power/torque Efciency BSFC

3-Cylinder, WC, CI Full throttle at different engine speeds


Increased for 20% to 50% Higher than OD and [88]
engine, D: 3.44 l, blend, for 100% blend increased with the blend
CR:18:1, RS: increment of power observed ratio but decreased as the
2200 rpm for 2000 rpm and higher speed engine speed increased
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Constant speed (1500 rpm and 2000 rpm) Increased by 0.2%3.5% for For 1500 rpm, the average [40]
DI, CR: 1:17, D: at different power 1500 rpm, increased by increment 9.3%; for
815 cm3, RP: 0.1%6.7% for 2000 rpm 2000 rpm, the average
8.82 kW, RS: increment 6.8%
2000 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Speed: 1500 rpm IA: 231 bTDC IP: 160 kg/ Efciency decreased as [84]
CR: 1:17.5 D: cm2, different brake powers, different blend ratio increased
661.45 cm3 RP: blends (20%, 40%, 60% and 100%)
5.2 kW RS: Speed: 1500 rpm IP: 160 kg/cm2. Different IT 23o bTDC gives highest
1500 rpm brake powers. Different IT (211251 bTDC) efciency and higher than
for 20% blend OD at high load
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Different brake power for different blends 25% blend give Increases with increase of [46]
RP: 8bhp RS: (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) at constant comparable efciency and blend ratio
1500 rpm speed 100% blend gives
maximum 7% decrease of
efciency
1-Cylinder, AC, DI, Different speeds (3200 rpm, 2500 rpm, Lower than OD Higher than OD [116]
CR: 1:18, D: 1800 rpm), different torques (5 Nm,
395 cm3 RP: 10 Nm and 15 Nm) and different injection
5.59 kW, timings (340, 345, 350)
RS:3600 rpm
1-Cylinder, AC, At different loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% Lower than OD and Higher than OD and [117]
CR: 1:17.5, D: and 100%) and different blends (5%, 10%, decreased with increase of increase with blend ratio
947.87 cm3 20%, 30% and 100%) blend ratio
RP: 7.4 kW,
RS: 1500 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, DI, At different speeds (10002400 rpm) and Torque decreased from 2.65 to Lower than OD and up to Higher than OD and up to [118]
WC CR: 1:18.5, D: different blends (10%, 20%, 50% and 100%) 4.75% with the increase of 50% blend, it increased and 50% blend, it decreased and
1.007 L RP: 19 blend ratio then remain almost then remain almost
PS, RS: 2400 rpm constant constant
4-Cylinder, 4S, TC, Full throttle at different speeds and also Normally decreased but Almost same as OD Always higher than OD [119]
CR: 1:18.5, D: optimized injection parameters to optimized injection increased
2609 cm3 RP: compensate power deterioration than OD
84.5 kW, RS:
3800 rpm
1-Cylinder, DI, At different loads (25%, 50%, 75% and Up to 80% blend, efciency Lower than OD for 20% [120]
CR: 1:16.5 RP: 100%) and different blends (20%, 40%, 50%, was higher than OD, 20% blend, 100% blend gave
5 HP, RS: 60%, 800% and 100%) blend gave maximum higher OD, almost same as
1500 rpm 36.9% efciency OD for the other blends
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Full load, different blends (5%, 10%, 15%, Maximum at 220 bar, [121]
NA, DI, CR: 20%, 25% and 100%), different injection minimum at 240 bar,
1:17.5, D: pressure (180, 200, 220 and 240 bar), maximum at 32 deg,
661 cm3 RP: different IT (22, 27 and 32 deg) minimum at 22 deg
7 HP, RS:
1500 rpm

4S four stroke, WCwater cooled, AC air cooled, NA naturally aspirated, DI direct injection, CR compression ratio, D displacement volume, RP rated power,
RS rated speed, TC turbo charged, IT injection timing, deg degree.
136 M.I. Arbab et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147

Usually biodiesels have lower caloric value than that of OD. 2.5. Flash point
But cottonseed biodiesel has got the caloric value very
close to OD and higher than other biodiesels. Jatropha, Flash point is one of the most important properties of fuel. It
palm and soybean biodiesel also have comparable caloric value. indicates the minimum ignition temperature of the fuel. Higher
So, these biodiesel can give better engine performance than other ash point makes fuel safer for handling and storage and prevent
biodiesels. unexpected ignition of fuel during combustion.

Table 3
Different experimental engine performance results using palm biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Result Reference

Power/torque Efciency BSFC

6-Cylinder, 4S, WC, NA, Full load and constant speed Decreased by 2.5% Decreased by 0.48% Increased by 7.5% [33]
DI, CR: 1:15.9, D: (1500 rpm)
991 cm3 RP: 81 kW,
RS: 2600 rpm
4-Cylinder, 4S, WC, NA, Full load at different speeds Decreased as the biodiesel Increased as the biodiesel [124]
IDI, CR: 1:21.47, D: and different blends (5%, percentage increased percentage increased
449.77 cm3 RP: 20%, 50% and 100%)
38.8 kW, RS: 4250 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, AC, NA, Constant speed (1800 rpm) Average about 1% Pure PME has about 10% [44]
DI, CR: 1:18, D: 634 cm3 with different loadings lower for 50% blend increment and 50% blend of 20
RP: 5.4 kW, RS: and 2% lower for 100% 35% increased with increase of
1800 rpm blend blend ratio
4-Cylinder, 4S, NA, IDI, Different engine speed at full 10% blend gave almost same as Maximum about 8% Maximum about 11% increased [89]
WC CR: 21.47:1 RP: load and different blends OD and maximum about 7% decreased with with increase of blend ratio
38.8 kW, RS: 4250 rpm (10%, 30%, 40%, 60%, 80% decreased with increase of increase of blend ratio
and 100%) blend ratio
6-Cylinder, 4S, DI, WC, Full load at different speeds 45% reduced 910% increased [45]
NA CR: 15.9:1 RP:
81 kW, RP: 2600 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, Constant speed and different OD at 15% EGR and OD at 15% EGR and biodiesel at [125]
NA CR: 16.5:1 RP: percentages of EGR (0% and biodiesel at 0% EGR 0% EGR gave almost the same
3.5 kW, RS: 1500 rpm 15%) gave almost the same
1-Cylinder, 4S,DI, NA, AC Different loads, speeds and Higher than OD and increased [126]
RP: 4.6 kW, RS: blends (50% and 100%) with increase of blend ratio
3500 rpm CR: 22:1,
D: 347 cm3
1-Cylinder, 4S, DI, NA,WC Constant speed (1500 rpm), Lower than OD and Higher than OD and increased [127]
CR: 17.5:1 RP:5.2 kW, different load and different decreased with with increase of biodiesel
RS: 1500 rpm D: blends (25%, 50%, 75% and increase of blend ratio concentration
662 cm3 100%)
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, Constant speed (2000 rpm) Almost same as OD Average about 16% increased [42,43,122,123]
NA D:1.007 L, CR:16.3:1 and different loads (0%, 25,
RP: 11.77 kW RS: 50, 75 and 100%)
2200 RPM

IDI indirect injection.

Table 4
Different experimental engine performance results using coconut biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Result Reference

Power/torque Efciency BSFC

1-Cylinder, 4S, FAC, DI, Full load, constant speed (3000 rpm) and Lower than OD and Lower than OD and [130]
CR: 1:19.9, D: 211 cm3 different fuel blends decrease with decrease with increase of
increase of blend blend ratio
ratio
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, Different loads (15%, 30%, 45%, 60%, 75%, 90% Same for full load and Higher than OD and [131]
CR: 1:17.5 D: 661 cm3 RP: and 100%) and different blends (20%, 40%, 60%, higher than OD for part increased with increase
5.2 kW RS: 1500 rpm 80% and 100%) load of blend ratio
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, Fixed speed (2000 rpm), different loads (0%, Almost same as OD Higher than OD [42,43]
CR: 1:16.3, D: 1007 cm3 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%)
RP: 11.77 kW RS:
2200 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, AC, DI, NA, Full throttle at different speeds (1200 About 5% less power Almost same Increased by 27% [129]
CR: 1:18.8, D: 367 cm3 3600 rpm)
RP: 2.8 kW, RS: 3600 rpm
4-Cylinder, DI, CR: 1:19.5, Different speeds (1500, 2000 and 2300 rpm), Slightly increased for 5% Almost same for 5% [128]
D: 1.7 L RP: 66 kW RS: different BMEP (1, 2.6, 2, 4.2 bar) and different blend and slightly blend and about 4%
4200 rpm percentages of EGR (1132%) decreased for 20% blend increased for 20% blend

FAC forced air cooled.


M.I. Arbab et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147 137

Most of the biodiesel have got higher ash point than that of performance. However, in some cases, irregular change of power
OD. ASTM standard recommends minimum ash point of a [88,115] and efciency [115] were observed. It may be because,
biofuel to be 130 1C. Therefore, it is obvious that jatropha and the engines were not modied for biodiesel used and the amounts
palm biodiesels are better than others in this regard. of fuel injected at different load conditions were not properly
tuned.

3. Engine performance 3.1. Jatropha biodiesel

To use biodiesel as a fuel, the rst consideration is its Most of the experimental results have shown that jatropha
economic aspect. If the crude oil is not widely available, it cannot biodiesel and its blends yield higher thermal efciency at higher
be used as engine fuel. Engine performance is the next parameter fuel consumption [38,40,46,8385]. Its blends often produce more
which indicates whether a fuel is economical or not. Brake power, brake power than petroleum diesel [88]. However, in some cases,
brake specic fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal ef- lower efciency [38,46] was also found.
ciency are the performance indicators for engines. Not only fuel Table 2 shows different experimental results of engine perfor-
properties but also fuel injection pressure and timing, air-fuel mance using jatropha biodiesel. In most of the cases, lower
mixture, amount of injected fuel, fuel spray pattern etc. affect caloric value of jatropha biodiesel results in lower power-
engine performances. Usually engine brake power, brake torque torque (25%) and thermal efciency at higher BSFC (610%).
and BSFC are tested against load or speed. Engine performance But complete combustion characteristic of jatropha biodiesel
parameters for different biodiesel and their blends are discussed sometimes give higher power-torque and thermal efciency
here. (0.26%).
Articles reviewed here reveal that biodiesel generally gives
lower power, torque and thermal efciency at higher fuel con- 3.2. Palm biodiesel
sumption than that of OD. Usually caloric value of biodiesel is
lower than OD, thus, use of pure biodiesel or its blends as fuel Palm biodiesel usually gives lower power, torque and thermal
reduces heat release during combustion and decreases engine efciency at higher fuel consumption [33,45,89]. But in some

Table 5
Different experimental engine performance results using cottonseed biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Result Reference

Power/torque Efciency BSFC

1-Cylinder, 4S, AC, DI, CR: Different speeds (1250, 1500, 1750, Decrease with increase of blend ratio but Increase with [24]
1:18, D: 406 cm3 RP: 10 2000, 2250 and 2500 rpm) and different 5% blend gave higher torque the increase of
HP, RS: 3600 rpm blends (5%, 20%, 50%, 75% and 100%) blend ratio
1-Cylinder, 4S, AC, DI, Different speeds (3100, 2800, 2500, Slightly lower Slightly higher [48]
CR: 1:18, D: 395 cm3 2200, 1900, 1600 and 1300 rpm) and than OD
RP: 6.2 kW, RS: 75% blend
3600 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, NA, DI, CR: Different speed and preheated biodiesel 90 1C preheated gave minimum average Higher than OD and [115]
1:18 D: 395 cm3 RS: at different temperatures (30, 60, 90 and reduction (1.92%), 120 1C preheated gave increased with the
3600 rpm 120 1C) maximum average reduction (7.59%) increase of preheating
6-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, TC, Two different speeds (1200 and Almost same as OD Increased [49,50]
CR: 1:18, D: 5958 cm3 1500 rpm), different loads (20%, 40% and with increase
RP: 177 kW, RS: 60%) and different fuel blends of blend ratio
2600 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, Constant speed (1500 rpm) and different Maximum decreased Increased by [132]
CR: 1:18, D: 661 cm3 loadings by about 2% about 37%

Table 6
Different experimental engine performance results using sunower biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Result Reference

Power/torque Efciency BSFC

4-Cylinder, 4S, DI, WC RP:55 kW RS: Full load and variable speeds Maximum about 10% lower 25% higher [135]
4500 rpm CR:21.5:1
1-Cylinder,4S CR:17.5:1 RP: 4.4 kW Constant 1500 rpm speed with different loadings (20%, 40%, Almost [136]
RS: 1500 rpm 60% and 80%) and different blends (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and same as
100%) predicted
1-Cylinder, 4S, NA, AC, DI CR: 17.5:1, Constant 1500 rpm speed with different loads 25% 612% [134]
D: 0.661 L RP: 4.4 kW, RS: increased increased
1500 rpm
4-Cylinder, 4S, TC, IDI, CI, WC CR: 17.5% blend, 15003000 rpm speed and different loads Slightly higher Slightly Slightly [52]
21.5:1, D: 1753 cm3 RP: 55 kW, RS: (50%, 75% and 100%) higher higher
4500 rpm
6-Cylinder,4 S,TC CR: 15:1, D: 9.6 L Full load, different speed and different blends (5% and 30%) Slightly higher for 5% blend. Almost [97]
RP:180 kW, RS: 2200 rpm About 23% lower for 30% same
blend
138 M.I. Arbab et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147

cases, it gave higher thermal efciency and lower fuel consump- efciency at higher fuel consumption (37%). However, preheated
tion than petroleum diesel [44]. fuel sometimes gives higher thermal efciency because of good
Table 3 contains engine performance results extracted from atomization and better combustion.
different experiments at different conditions. Most of the cases
use of palm biodiesel increases the fuel consumption by 716% 3.5. Sunower biodiesel
and produces relatively lower power-torque (27%) and thermal
efciency (0.52%). However, in some cases thermal efciency Sunower based biofuel can be considered as a good alter-
was almost same as OD [42,43,122,123]. native fuel regarding thermal efciency [47,52,133] but fuel
consumption is increased [47,51,52,133]. However, power and
3.3. Coconut biodiesel torque characteristics depend on blend ratio and testing condi-
tions [52,97].
Engine performance test using coconut biodiesel usually gives Different experimental results at different conditions using
lower brake power, brake thermal efciency at higher fuel sunower biodiesel are represented in Table 6. Sunower biodie-
consumption [42,43,128130]. But some of the experimental sel is inferior to OD regarding engine performance for higher fuel
results also gave higher thermal efciency [128,131]. consumption (212%) and lower power-torque generation
Table 4 represents different experimental results of engine (210%). However, presence of this biodiesel in blends sometimes
performance using coconut biodiesel. It shows that, in most increases thermal efciency (25%) [134].
of the cases coconut biodiesel gives lower power at higher BSFC
(27%) though the thermal efciency is higher or almost the same 3.6. Soybean biodiesel
as OD. It may be because of the lower caloric value of coconut
biodiesel [52]. Higher fuel consumption is very common for using soybean
biodiesel [54,55,58,60]. Power and torque behavior is usually
3.4. Cottonseed biodiesel inferior [54,55,104] though sometimes higher brake power [58]
and efciency [55] were found.
Cottonseed biodiesel gives poor result in engine performance Table 7 represents different experimental results of engine
test like lower power, torque and efciency but higher fuel performance test at different conditions. From the tables 515%
consumption [24,4850]. However, sometimes under some spe- blends of soybean biodiesel sometimes give higher thermal
cic conditions it gives higher efciency [50,115]. efciency and higher power with lower fuel consumption than
Table 5 represents different experimental engine performance that of OD. However, in most of the cases, power decreases
results using cottonseed biodiesel. Because of lower caloric and fuel consumption increases as the biodiesel concentration
value, most of the cases it gives lower power, torque and thermal increased.

Table 7
Different experimental engine performance results using soybean biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Result Reference

Power/torque Efciency BSFC

4-Cylinder, 4S, NA, DI, Full load, different blends (5%, 20%, Reduction from 2.35 to Increased with increase of blend Increased with increase of [55]
CR: 16.8:1, D:3.14 L 50% and 100%) 5% ratio blend ratio
RS:2400 rpm
4-Cylinder, 4S, NA, DI, Full load, different speed and Lower than OD and with Higher than OD and with [54]
D: 3.14 L RS: different injection pressures increase of injection increment of injection
2400 rpm, RP: pressure power pressure BSFC increased
46 kW decreased
6-Cylinder, 4S, DI, TC At full load, different speed and Increased up to 1.15% for 20% blend gave the maximum 10% blend gave maximum [98]
D: 4.2 L, CR: 17.8:1 different blends (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% 10% blend and for higher 4.10% increment of efciency and 1.73% reduction and then
RS: 2400 rpm, RP: 25% and 30%) blends decreased up to then decreased with increase of increased with increase of
46 kW 4.75% blend ratio blend ratio
1-Cylinder, NA, At full load and different engine Almost same as OD About 10% higher than OD [104]
4S,WC, DI, CR: speeds
16.5:1 D: 0.996 L
RP:11.03 kW,
RS:2000 rpm
4-Cylinder, D: Different load and different blends Increased with the increase [60]
3922 cm3 RS: (5%, 20%, 35%, 50% and 85%) of blend ratio
2400 rpm, RP:
46 kW
1-Cylinder, NA, 4S, Different load and different blends 1518% higher than OD and [137]
CR: 17:1, D: 1.84 L (20%, 50% and 100%) increased with increase of
blend ration
2-Cylinder, DI, CR: Different speed and different blends Lower than OD and Higher than OD and increase with Higher than OD and [138]
18:1, D: 1272 cm3 (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) decrease with the increase of blend ratio increase with increase of
RS:3000 rpm increase of blend ratio blend ratio
6-Cylinder, 4S, DI Different percentage of EGR (38%, Increased with increase of [139]
CR: 17.3:1 D: 2.7 L 43%, 49% and 54%) and different EGR and retard of IT
injection timing (  4 to 4 ATDC)
4-Cylinder, DI, CR: Different speed (1500, 2000 and About 2% increased for 5% blend About 1.5% decreased for 5% [128]
1:19.5 D: 1.7 L RP: 2300 rpm), different BMEP (1, 2.6, 2, About 1% decreased for 20% blend blend About 3% increased
66 kW RS: 4.2 bar) and different percentage of for 20% blend
4200 rpm EGR (1132%)
M.I. Arbab et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147 139

Table 8
Different experimental engine performance results using canola or rapeseed biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Result Reference

Power/torque Efciency BSFC

4-Cylinder, 4S, NA, Full load, different speed, NA and About 10% reduced for NA About 13% increased for NA About 68% increased for NA [57]
DI, WC, D: 3.14 L, TC condition and about 16% condition and about 56% condition and about 46%
CR:16.8:1 RS: increased for TC condition increased for TC condition reduced for TC condition
2400 rpm, RP: compare to OD at NA compare to OD at NA compare to OD at NA
51 kW
4-Cylinder, 4S, TC, Constant speed and different load Almost same 1315% increased [140]
DI, D:1.91 L,
CR:18.45:1 RS:
4000 rpm, RP:
77 kW
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Fixed speed (2000 rpm), different Almost same 1217% increased [42]
DI, CR: 1:16.3, D: loads (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%)
1007 cm3 RP:
11.77 kW, RS:
2200 rpm
4-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Different speed (1400, 1600, 1800, 10% blend gave the maximum 10% blend gave the lowest [100]
DI, NA D: 4.75 L 2000 and 2200 rpm) and different and about 1% higher than OD. and lower than OD. For 100%
CR:16:1 RP: 59 kW blends (5%, 10%, 20 and 35%) For 100% blend, maximum blend, maximum about 10
about 12% reduced 15% increased
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Constant speed (2000 rpm) and Almost same [122]
DI, NA D:1.007 L different loads (0%, 25, 50, 75 and
CR:16.3 RP: 100%)
11.77 kW, RS:
2200 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, NA, Constant speed, constant load, Lower and decreased about 1 Slightly higher and increased [59]
DI, D: 0.773 L different blends (20%, 50% and 2% with increase of blend ratio with increase of blend ratio
CR:15.5:1 100%) and different percentages of and EGR percentage and EGR percentage
RP:8.6 kW RS: EGR (0%, 10% and 20%)
2500RPM
4-Cylinder, 4S, NA, Full load, different speeds and Lower than OD and with Higher than OD and with [54]
DI, D: 3.14 L RP: different injection pressures increase of injection pressure increment of injection
46 kW, RS: power decreased pressure BSFC increased
2400 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Constant speed (2000 rpm), 2.33.5% increased [141]
NA, CR: 20:1, D: different loads (40%, 60% and 80%)
450 cm3 RS: and 30% blend
4500 rpm, RP:
8 kW
1-Cylinder, 4S, NA, Full load and different biodiesel 2% decreased 26% increased [105]
DI, CR: 17.8:1, D:
857 cm3 RS:
2400 rpm, RP:
12.5 kW

3.7. Canola or rapeseed biodiesel environmental impacts [142]. This paper also illustrates the
emission characteristic of different biodiesel and their blends.
Generally lower brake power and torque at higher fuel con- Usually presence of additional oxygen in biodiesel gives complete
sumption is very common for canola or rapeseed based biodiesel combustion of fuel and reduces CO, HC and smoke emission but
[54,56,57,59]. However, it often provides higher thermal ef- increases NOx. Sometimes irregularities were observed in case
ciency [53,57]. of change of emission [40]. The unmodied fuel injection system
From Table 8, it is clear that use of canola or rapeseed biodiesel of the engine may be the reason of the irregularity. The fuel
increase fuel consumption up to 26% and engine output power injection system, specially designed for denite biodiesel may
lowers up to 10%. However, turbocharging increased brake power resolve this issue.
up to 16% and change in thermal efciency varied up to 6%.
4.1. Jatropha biodiesel

4. Engine emission The emission characteristic for jatropha biodiesel highly


depends on engine operation condition and blend ratio. Though
Now-a-days, people are much more concerned about environ- some of the experimental results gave lower emission of CO, HC,
ment. Besides, the governments are introducing strict emission NOx and smoke [40,46,88,116], higher emission was also observed
regulation for automobiles. For this reason; a commercial fuel has [38,46,83,84,88,116].
to meet the emission standards. Thus the study of engine emis- Table 9 gives an overview of emission using jatropha biodiesel.
sion has got much more importance at present. In the modern Most of the time, jatropha biodiesel and its blend reduce CO, HC
world, engine performance as well as emission is taken into and smoke emission and increase NOx. But in some cases reduc-
consideration for the fuel selection. In this respect, biodiesel is tion of NOx was observed because of the lower heating value of
considered as a good alternative of fossil fuel as it creates less jatropha biodiesel.
140 M.I. Arbab et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147

Table 9
Different experimental engine emission results using jatropha biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Emission Reference

CO HC NOx Smoke

3-Cylinder, WC, Full throttle at different engine Higher than ordinary diesel but Lower than OD but Always higher than Reduced with [88]
CI engine, D: speed reduced with increase of blend increased with the OD the increase of
3.44 L, ratio increase of blend blend ratio and
CR:18:1 RS: ratio engine speed
2200 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, Constant speed (1500 rpm and Lower than OD at high loads; Lower than OD and Lower at low load and [40]
WC,DI, CI 2000 rpm) at different power almost the same as OD at low decreased more at speed higher at high
engine, CR: load. higher speed load
1:17, D:
815 cm3 RP:
8.82 kW, RS:
2000 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4 S, Speed: 1500 rpm IA: 23o bTDC IP: Higher than OD and Lower than OD [84]
WC, CR: 160 kg/cm2. Different brake increase with the only for 20%
1:17.5 D: powers. Different blends (20%, 40%, increase of blending blend
2645.81 cm3 60% and 100%). ratio
RP: 5.2 kW Speed: 1500 rpm IP: 160 kg/cm2. 211 bTDC gives the 231 bTDC gives
RS: 1500 rpm Different brake powers. Different IA lowest the lowest
(210250 bTDC) for 20% blend
1-Cylinder, 4S, Different brake powers for different Higher than OD but at pick load Lower than OD and Higher than OD and Always lower [46]
WC, RP: blends (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) at lower emission observed decreased with increased with blend than OD
8 bhp RS: constant speed increase of blend ratio
1500 rpm ratio
1-Cylinder, AC, Different speeds (3200 rpm, Lower than OD Lower than OD Higher than OD Lower than OD [116]
DI, CR: 1:18 2500 rpm, 1800 rpm), different
D: 395 cm3 torques (5 Nm, 10 Nm and 15 Nm)
RP: 5.59 kW and different injection timings
RS:3600 rpm (340, 345, 350)
1-Cylinder, AC, At different loads (0%, 20%, 40%, Lower than OD and decrease with Lower than OD and Higher than OD and Lower than OD [117]
CR: 1:17.5 D: 60%, 80% and 100%) and different increase of blend ratio decrease with increased with the and decrease
947.87 cm3 blends (5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and increase of blend increase of blend with increase of
RP: 7.4 kW 100%) ratio ratio blend ratio
RS: 1500 rpm
4-Cylinder, 4S, Different loads (10%, 25%, 50% and Higher than OD at lower load and Lower than OD and Higher than OD and Lower than OD [143]
TC, DI D: 3.3 l 75%) and different blending ratios increased with blending ratio. At decreased with the increased with the and decreased
RP: 79 kW (5%, 10%, 20%, 50% and 100%) at higher load, emission was lower increase of load and increase of load and with the
RS: 3200 rpm constant speed (2000 rpm) than OD and decreased with the blending ratio blending ratio increase of
increase of blend ratio blending ratio
1-Cylinder, 4S, At different speeds (1000 Reduced from 6.51 to 12.32% Lower than OD and Increased from 3.29 Reduced from [118]
DI, WC CR: 2400 rpm) and different blends with the increase of blend ratio decreased from 14.91 to 10.75% 36.91 to 86.06%
1:18.5 D: (10%, 20%, 50% and 100%) to 27.53% with the with the
1.007 L RP: increase of blend increase of
19 PS, RS: ratio blend ratio
2400 rpm
4-Cylinder, 4S, Full throttle at different speed and Reduces by 1040% but Always lower than Normally reduced by Always lower [119]
TC, CR: also optimized injection optimized injection increased OD and maximum 510% but optimized than OD and
1:18.5, D: parameters to compensate power emission reduction was 40% injection increased maximum
2609 cm3 RP: deterioration for normal injection emission reduction was
84.5 kW, RS: 80% for normal
3800 rpm injection
1-Cylinder, DI, At different loads (25%, 50%, 75% Lower than OD Lower than OD Lower than OD [120]
CR: 1:16.5 RP: and 100%) and different blends
5 HP, RS: (20%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 800% and
1500 rpm 100%)
1-Cylinder, 4S, Full load, different blends (5%, 10%, Lower than OD, Higher than OD, [121]
WC, NA, DI, 15%, 20%, 25% and 100%), different Maximum at 240 bar, Maximum at 240 bar,
CR: 1:17.5 D: injection pressures (180, 200, 220 Minimum at 220 bar, Minimum at 180 bar,
661 cm3 RP: and 240 bar), different injection Maximum at 22 deg, Maximum at 32 deg,
7 HP, RS: timings (22, 27 and 32 deg) Minimum at 32 deg Minimum at 22 deg
1500 rpm

4.2. Palm biodiesel increase NOx up to 70%. The reduction range of CO is up to about
87%, HC is about 46% and smoke is 70%.
Lower emission was expected for palm based biodiesel and
many experimental results gave the expected emission character- 4.3. Coconut biodiesel
istics [33,39,44,45,89,91,124]. But in some cases higher emission
were also found [33,39,44,45,89,91,124]. Coconut biodiesel gives very much promising emission char-
Table 10 shows that in most of the cases palm biodiesel and its acteristics. It usually gives lower CO, HC, smoke and NOx emission
blends reduce emission of CO, HC and smoke in a large scale but [42,43,128131].
M.I. Arbab et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147 141

Table 10
Different experimental engine emission results using palm biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Emission Reference

CO HC NOx Smoke

6-Cylinder, 4S, WC, NA, Full load and constant speed Decreased by 86.89% Decreased by Increased by 22.13% Decreased by 67.65% [33]
DI, CR: 1:15.9, D: (1500 rpm) 14.29%
991 cm3 RP: 81 kW,
RS: 2600 rpm
4-Cylinder, 4S, WC, NA, Full load at different speeds Decreased as the Decreased as the Increased as the Decreased as the [124]
IDI, CR: 1:21.47, D: and different blends (5%, 20%, biodiesel percentage biodiesel percentage biodiesel percentage biodiesel percentage
449.77 cm3 RP: 50% and 100%) increased increased increased increased
38.8 kW, RS: 4250 rpm
4-Cylinder, 4S, NA, IDI, Different engine speeds at Maximum about 60% About 35% About 70% increased as Maximum about 45% [89]
WC CR: 21.47:1 RP: full load and different blends decreased with decreased with blend ratio increased decreased with increase
38.8 kW, RS: 4250 rpm (10%, 30%, 40%, 60%, 80% and increase of blend increase of blend 10% blend gave almost of blend ratio
100%) ratio ratio same
6-Cylinder, 4S, DI, WC, Full load at different speeds Maximum about 84% Maximum about Maximum about 20% Maximum about 70% [45]
NA CR: 15.9:1 RP: decreased 22% decreased increased decreased
81 kW, RP: 2600 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, Constant speed and different 3045% reduced 3760% reduced [125]
NA CR: 16.5:1 RP: percentages of EGR (0% and
3.5 kW, RS: 1500 rpm 15%)
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, Fixed speed (2000 rpm), About 1015% About 3546% Slightly decreased at Maximum about 6% [43]
CR: 1:16.3, D: different loads (0%, 25%, 50%, reduced reduced full load reduced
1007 cm3 RP: 75% and 100%)
11.77 kW, RS:
2200 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, Fixed speed (2000 rpm), Average about 15 Average about 30% Slightly reduced About 2034% reduced [42]
CR: 1:16.3, D: different loads (0%, 25%, 50%, 25% decreased decreased
1007 cm3 RP: 75% and 100%)
11.77 kW, RS:
2200 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S,DI, NA, AC Different loads, speed and Lower than OD and 26% lower 5% reduced 66.7% reduced [126]
RP: 4.6 kW, RS: blends (50% and 100%) decreased with
3500 rpm CR: 22:1, D: increase of blend
347 cm3 ratio
1-Cylinder, 4S, DI, NA, Constant speed (1500 rpm), Lower than OD and 25% blend gave 25% blend showed 25% blend gave about [127]
WC CR: 17.5:1, D: different loads and different maximum about 56% about 3040% slight higher 100% 2030% higher. Higher
662 cm3 RP: 5.2 kW, blends (25%, 50%, 75% and decreased for 100% higher blends blend showed lower blends reduced about
RS: 1500 rpm 100%) blend reduced about 45% 3045%
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, Constant speed (2000 rpm) Almost same to OD Almost same to OD, 24% decreased at higher Almost same to OD, [122]
NA D:1.007 L, CR:16.3 and different loads (0%, 25, slight higher at loads slight lower at higher
RP: 11.77 kW, RS: 50, 75 and 100%) lower loads load
2200 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, DI, WC Constant speed (2000 rpm) Slightly higher than Almost same as OD About 1520% lower Almost same [122]
CR: 23.1:1 RP: and different loads (0%, 25, OD
5.88 kW, RS: 2200 rpm 50, 75 and 100%)
1-Cylinder, 4 S, DI, WC D: Constant speed (2000 rpm) About 1020% Almost same as OD About 13% reduced [123]
1007 cm3, CR: 16.3:1 and different loads higher
RP: 11.77 kW,
RS:2200 rpm

Table 11 represents emission characteristics of coconut bio- CO, HC and smoke emission. Sometimes it reduces NOx emission
diesel received from different experimental results. It shows that as lower caloric value leads to lower combustion temperature.
coconut biodiesel reduces emission including NOx. The additional The maximum reduction range of CO, HC, smoke and NOx are 40%,
oxygen of coconut biodiesel leads to complete combustion and 60%, 50% and 10%.
reduces CO, HC and smoke. Again lower caloric value leads to
lower combustion temperature and reduce NOx. The maximum
reduction rate of CO is about 40%, HC is about 60%, smoke is about 4.5. Sunower biodiesel
40% and NOx is about 10%.
The emissions of sunower based biodiesel are also affected by
4.4. Cottonseed biodiesel engine operating conditions and blend ratios. Many researcher
found lower emission characteristic [47,51,52,94,133] though
The emission behavior of cottonseed based biodiesel mainly many experimental results showed higher emission of CO and
depends on engine operating conditions. Some of the experimental NOx [47,51,52,94,133].
results showed lower emission of CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and smoke Experimental results of sunower biodiesel and its blends are
[24,48,94,115,132]. However, some conditions also showed higher represented in Table 13. It gives an overview of emission
emissions [24,49,50,94,115]. characteristics of sunower biodiesel. The reduction of CO, HC
Emission characteristics from different experimental results and smoke are approximately 65%, 60% and 25%, respectively.
using cottonseed biodiesel and its blends are represented in Again a maximum of 115% increment of NOx emission was
Table 12. Most of the cases, use of cottonseed biodiesel reduce observed.
142 M.I. Arbab et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147

Table 11
Different experimental engine emission results using coconut biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Emission Reference

CO HC NOx Smoke

1-Cylinder, 4S, FAC, DI, Full load, constant speed (3000 rpm) and Lower than OD and Lower than OD and Lower than OD and [130]
CR: 1:19.9 D: 211 cm3 different fuel blends decreased with the decreased with the decreased with the
increase of blend increase of blend increase of blend
ratio ratio ratio
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, Different loads (15%, 30%, 45%, 60%, 75%, Lower than OD and Almost Lower than OD and [131]
CR: 1:17.5 D: 661 cm3 90% and 100%) and different blends 20% blend gave the similar to decreased with the
RP: 5.2 kW, RS: (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%) lowest OD increase of blend
1500 rpm ratio
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, Fixed speed (2000 rpm), different loads 3040% lower About 40% lower Slightly 210% lower [42]
CR: 1:16.3 D: 1007 cm3 (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) lower
RP: 11.77 kW, RS:
2200 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, AC, DI, Full throttle at different speeds 1520% less 5060% less 10% less 2040% less [129]
NA, CR: 1:18.8 D: (12003600 rpm)
367 cm3 RP: 2.8 kW,
RS: 3600 rpm
4-Cylinder, DI, CR: 1:19.5 Different speeds (1500, 2000 and About 9% less About 10% less Almost [128]
D: 1.7 L RP: 66 kW, RS: 2300 rpm), different BMEP (1, 2.6, 2, same
4200 rpm 4.2 bar) and different percentages of EGR
(1132%)
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, DI, Fixed speed (2000 rpm), different loads 3040% lower About 40% lower Slightly 210% lower [43]
CR: 1:16.3 D: 1007 cm3 (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) lower
RP: 11.77 kW, RS:
2200 rpm

Table 12
Different experimental engine emission results using cottonseed biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Emission Reference

CO HC NOx Smoke

1-Cylinder, 4S, AC, Different speeds (1250, 1500, Decreased as the blend ratio Only 5% blend gave Lower blend (lower [24]
DI, CR: 1:18 D: 1750, 2000, 2250 and 2500 rpm) increased, at lower speed, higher emission and it than 50%) decreased
406 cm3 RP: 10 and different blends (5%, 20%, more change was observed decreased with the emission but increased
HP, RS: 3600 rpm 50%, 75% and 100%) at lower speed increase of blend ratio at higher blend
1-Cylinder, 4S, AC, Different speeds (3100, 2800, About 37% reduced About 60% About 10% reduced About 50% reduced [48]
DI, CR: 1:18 D: 2500, 2200, 1900, 1600 and reduced
395 cm3 RP: 1300 rpm) and 75% blend
6.2 kW, RS:
3600 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, NA, Different speeds and preheated About 40% average reduction Average increment about [115]
DI, CR: 1:18 D: biodiesel at different 25%
395 cm3 RS: temperatures (30, 60, 90 and
3600 rpm 120 oC)
6-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Two different speeds (1200 and Lower, decreased with Higher, Higher, increased with [49,50,94]
DI, TC, CR: 1:18, D: 1500 rpm), different loads (20%, increase of blend ratio increased increase of blend ratio
5958 cm3 RP: 40% and 60%) and different fuel with increase
177 kW, RS: blend of blend ratio
2600 rpm
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Constant speed (1500 rpm) and Decreased by 1216% Decreased by Decreased by 1015% [132]
DI, CR: 1:18, D: different loading 2535%
661 cm3

4.6. Soybean biodiesel 4.7. Canola or rapeseed biodiesel

The emission characteristics of soybean biodiesel depend on Engine emission test results using canola or rapeseed based
engine operating condition. Though many tests showed lower biodiesel most of the cases give lower emission than that of
emission of CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and smoke [54,55,58,60,104], some ordinary diesel [53,54,56,59,101,102,105]. However, for some
researchers reported higher emissions [54,55,58,60]. specic engine operating conditions, it also showed higher emis-
The emission characteristics of soybean biodiesel from sion [53,54,56,59,101,102].
Table 14 show that use of soybean biodiesel and it blends reduce Table 15 shows different experimental results regarding emis-
emission of CO, HC and smoke by 40%, 25% and 74% respectively sion characteristic of canola or rapeseed biodiesel and blends.
and increase NOx emission up to 15%. The average reduction of CO, HC and smoke emission using this
M.I. Arbab et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147 143

Table 13
Different experimental engine emission results using sunower biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Emission Reference

CO HC NOx Smoke

4-Cylinder, 4S, DI, WC Full load and variable speed Slight lower than OD Almost [135]
RP:55 kW, RS: same as OD
4500 rpm CR:21.5:1
1-Cylinder, 4S CR:17.5:1 Constant 1500 rpm speed with different About 10 About 20% lower than [136]
RP: 4.4 kW RS: loadings (20%, 40%, 60% and 80%) and 15% lower predicted
1500 rpm different blends (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and than
100%) predicted
1-Cylinder, 4S, NA, AC, Constant 1500 rpm speed with different Reduced about 1065% 2060% About 80115% [134]
DI CR: 17.5:1, D: loads reduced increased
0.661 L RP: 4.4 kW,
RS: 1500 rpm
4-Cylinder, 4S, TC, IDI, 17.5% blend is used, 15003000 rpm At 50% load almost same At 50% load almost [52]
CI, WC CR: 21.5:1, D: speed range and different loads (50%, at higher load and lower same to OD. At higher
1753 cm3 RP: 55 kW, 75% and 100%) speed CO emission was load and speed 36%
RS: 4500 rpm higher increased
6-Cylinder, 4S, CI, DI, Different loads (20%, 40% and 60%) and About 410% increased About 1025% [94]
WC, TC CR: 18:1, D: different blends (10% and 20%) with increase of blend decreased with
5958 cm3 RP:177 kW, ratio increase of blend
RS: 2600 rpm ratio
6-Cylinder, 4S, TC CR: Full load, different speeds and different Lower than OD and Slight increased with [97]
15:1, D: 9.6 L blends (5% and 30%) decreased as blend ratio increase of blend ratio
RP:180 kW, RS: and speed increased
2200 rpm

Table 14
Different experimental engine emission results using soybean biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Emission Reference

CO HC NOx Smoke

4-Cylinder, 4S, NA, Full load, different blends (5%, 20%, Decreased 339% Decreased with
Increased 4.515.5% [55]
DI, CR: 16.8:1, 50% and 100%) with increasing of with increase ofincreasing of blend
D:3.14 L blend ratio blend ratio ratio Maximum
RS:2400 rpm reduction 74%
4-Cylinder, 4S, NA, Full load, different speeds and Lower than OD and Higher than OD and Lower than OD and [54]
DI, D: 3.14 L RS: different injection pressures with increasing speed with increasing speed with increasing speed
2400 rpm, RP: and injection and injection and injection pressure
46KW pressure it reduced pressure increased it reduced
1-Cylinder, NA, At full load and different engine Average 40% reduced Average 25% reduced Average 5% reduced Average 50% reduced [104]
4S,WC, DI, CR: speed
16.5:1, D: 0.996 L
RP:11.03 kW,
RS:2000 rpm
1-Cylinder, NA, 4S, 85% of full load, different blends Lower than OD and Lower than OD and Lower than OD and [58]
AC, DI D: 0.211 L (20%, 50%, 75% and 100%) 50% blend gave the decreases with decreases with
RP: 2.0KW, lowest increase of blend increase of blend
RS:3600 rpm ratio ratio
4-Cylinder, D: Different loads and different blends Lower than OD and 50% blend gave the [60]
3922 cm3 RS: (5%, 20%, 35%, 50% and 85%) reduced with increase lowest and lower
2400 rpm, RP: of blend ratio than OD, increased
46 kW for other blends
1-Cylinder, NA, 4 S, Different loads and different blends Lower than OD and 79% higher than OD Lower than OD and [137]
CR: 17:1 D: 1.84 L (20%, 50% and 100%) reduced with increase and increase with reduction rate
of power increase of blend increased with increase
ration and load of blend ratio and load
2-Cylinder, DI, CR: Different speeds and different Decreased with [138]
18:1, D: 1272 cm3 blends (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) increasing of blend
RS:3000 rpm ratio
6-Cylinder, 4 S, DI Different percentages of EGR (38%, Decreased with [139]
CR: 17.3:1 D: 2.7 L 43%, 49% and 54%) and different increase of EGR and
injection timings ( 4 to 4 ATDC) retard of IT
4-Cylinder, DI, CR: Different speeds (1500, 2000 and Slightly higher and Slightly lower for 5% [128]
1:19.5, D: 1.7 L RP: 2300 rpm), different BMEP (1, 2.6, increased with blend blend About 10%
66 kW, RS: 2, 4.2 bar) and different ratio increased for 20%
4200 rpm percentages of EGR (1132%) blend
144 M.I. Arbab et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147

Table 15
Different experimental engine emission results using canola or rapeseed biodiesel compared to OD.

Engine Test condition Emission Reference

CO HC NOx Smoke

4-Cylinder, 4S, NA, Full load, different speeds, NA and About 78% reduced for About 1719% increased [57]
DI, WC, D: 3.14 L, TC NA and about 4045% for NA and about 3337%
CR:16.8:1 RS: reduced for TC compare increased for TC compare
2400 rpm, RP: to OD at NA to OD at NA
51 kW
4-Cylinder, 4S, TC, Constant speed and different load Slightly lower than OD 1015% higher than OD [140]
DI, D:1.91 L,
CR:18.45:1 RS:
4000 rpm, RP:
77 kW
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Fixed speed (2000 rpm), different 1020% increased 3036% reduced Maximum about 5% Maximum about 25% [42]
DI, CR: 1:16.3, D: loads (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) increased increased
1007 cm3 RP:
11.77 kW, RS:
2200 rpm
4-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Different speeds (1400, 1600, 3050% lower than OD 1070% reduced 10% blend gave about 1 At lower load about [100]
DI, NA D: 4.75 L, 1800, 2000 and 2200 rpm) and and decreased with as blend ratio 3% lower and 100% blend 310% lower but at
CR:16:1 RP: different blends (5%, 10%, 20% increase of blend ratio increased gave maximum 10% higher load about
59 kW and 35%) higher than OD 1520% higher
1-Cylinder, 4S, WC, Constant speed (2000 rpm) and 2025% higher 1320% higher About 20% reduced at About 5% reduced [122,123]
DI, NA D:1.007 L, different loads (0%, 25, 50, 75 and low load (below 50%) and
CR:16.3 RP: 100%) about 10% increased at
11.77 kW, RS: full load
2200rom
1-Cylinder, 4S, NA, Constant speed, constant load, About 1560% lower About 1550% About 1845% higher [59]
DI, D: 0.773 L, different blends (20%, 50% and than OD and increased lower than OD and than OD and decreased
CR:15.5:1 100%) and different percentages of with increase of EGR increased with with increase of EGR
RP:8.6 kW, RS: EGR (0%, 10% and 20%) increase of EGR
2500 rpm
4-Cylinder, 4S, NA, Full load, different speeds and Lower than OD and Higher than OD and with Lower than OD and [54]
DI, D: 3.14 L RS: different injection pressures with increasing speed increasing speed and with increasing speed
2400 rpm, RP: and injection pressure it injection pressure and injection
46 kW reduced increased pressure, it reduced
1-Cylinder, 4S, AC, German agricultural ve-mode Maximum about 20% Maximum about Almost same [144]
DI, D: 290 cm3 RS: cycle with different blends (20%, increased with increase 50% decreased
3000 rpm, RP: 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%) of blend ratio with increase of
4.2 kW blend ratio
1-Cylinder, 4 S, WC, Constant speed (2000 rpm), 2025% reduced 716% reduced 715% increased [141]
NA, CR: 20:1, D: different loads (40%, 60% and 80%)
450 cm3 RS: and 30% blend
4500 rpm, RP:
8 kW
1-Cylinder, 4S, NA, Full load and different biodiesel About 3035% reduced About 1520% 68% reduced [105]
DI, CR: 17.8:1, D: reduced
857 cm3 RS:
2400 rpm, RP:
12.5 kW

biodiesel or its blends are 60%, 70% and 10% respectively. Again viscosity, coconut and rapeseed biodiesel are better for
maximum about 45% increment of NOx emission is reported. density; palm and coconut biodiesel are better for cetane
number; jatropha, palm and soybean biodiesel have better
caloric value and jatropha and palm biodiesel are good
5. Conclusion for their high ash point. So the optimum blends of coconut
palm biodiesel or coconutpalmjatropha biodiesel or
Diesel engines are still fuel-efcient driving power plant for palmrapeseedjatropha biodiesel can give better fuel prop-
automotive applications because of their superior fuel economy erties than individual biodiesel.
relative to spark ignition engines of comparable capacity. However,  Biodiesel and its blends increase fuel consumption and
the increase price of diesel fuels, stringent emission regulations and reduce brake power and torque because of lower caloric
foreseeable depletion of petroleum reserves force scientists to look for value. But blends with low percentage of biodiesel (20% or
alternative source of energy which can meet future human demand. less) sometime reduces fuel consumption and gives higher
From this review it can be concluded that biodiesel can be a brake power because of complete combustion. However,
promising source of future fuel which is renewable and sustainable. biodiesel having higher caloric value and lower viscosity
The following conclusions are drawn as a summary of the is more suitable for engine performance improvement. In
review of seven selected biodiesels: this respect, jatropha biodiesel is found better than other
biodiesels discussed in this paper.
 It is obvious that the use of biodiesel usually reduces CO, HC
 Individual biodiesel is inferior to OD regarding fuel proper- and smoke emission for the complete combustion character-
ties. Coconut and palm biodiesel are better for kinetic istic, though it increases NOx. But the use of coconut
M.I. Arbab et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (2013) 133147 145

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