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ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

ASSESSMENT ON AWARENESS OF AND VIEWS ABOUT SOLID WASTE


MANAGEMENT AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN GURAGE ZONE,
WOLKITE TOWN,ETHIOPIA.

BY
Hairu Ahmedin

ATHESIS SUBMITED TO COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, DEPARTEMENT OF


GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIROMENTAL EDUCATION IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT
OF THE REQUIRMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN
ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

AUGUST, 2013

ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA


ASSESSMENT ON AWARENESS OF AND VIEWS ABOUT SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN GURAGE ZONE,
WOLKITE TOWN,ETHIOPIA.

BY
Hairu Ahmedin

ADVISOR

Aklilu Dalelo (PhD)

AUGUST, 2013

ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA


ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

ASSESSMENT ON AWARENESS OF AND VIEWS ABOUT SOLID WASTE


MANAGEMENT AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN GURAGE ZONE,
WOLKITE TOWN, ETHIOPIA

BY:
HAIRU AHMEDIN

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

APPROVED BY THE BOARD OF EXAMINERS SIGNATURE


__________________________________ ________ ------------------

DEPARTMENTS CHAIRMAN
__________________________________________ -------------------

ADVISOR
__ ________________________________________ -------------------

INTERNAL EXAMINER

------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------------

AUGUST, 2013
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and foremost, I wish to express my deepest gratitude for my advisor


Dr.Aklilu Dalelo, for his critical evaluation of the thesis drafts and immediate feedback
with valuable comments. I gratefully acknowledge the Wolkite Polytechnic management
especially, Ato Biru Migora, Dean of the college, for his idea, support and the
commitment he showed and all staffs for their courageous moral encouragement in due
course of my study and conducting research. I also extend my gratitude to all friends,
particularly for Ato Yosef Cheru, public health specialist, for his encouragement and
provision of constructive comments as well as his contribution to make my work fruitful. In
addition, I am forever indebted to my family, especially to my wife, Habiba Abdulrehim, for
her dedication and continuous moral support. Finally, I would like to thank all those who
helped me during data collection and especially appreciate W/t. Atbianesh Abebe and
W/t Muntha Abdela for their committed support in writing and compiling the thesis.

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Table of Content

Content Page

CHAPTER ONE

1. Introduction1

1.1. Background.....1

1.2 Statement of the Problem.4

1.3 Objectives of the Study5

1.3.1 General Objectives5

13.2 Specific Objectives.5

1.4 Variables...5

1.5 Research Questions..6

1.6 Significance of the Study and Rationale for Selecting Research Area....6

1.7 Delimitation of the Study.7

1.8 Organization of the thesis.........................................................................................7

CHAPTER TWO

2. Review of Related Literature.8

2.1. Solid Waste Management8

2.1.1. Conceptual Issues.8

2.2 Issues of Solid Waste Management..9

2.3 Municipal Solid Waste Management in Ethiopia...10

2.4 Environmental Problems in Ethiopia.13

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2.5 Urban Environmental Problems in Ethiopia...13

2.6 Environmental Awareness and Solid Waste Management.14

2.7 The Role of Education in Solving Environmental Problems....15

2.8Students' Awareness of and Views about Environmental Issues17

2.9 Research Findings on Students Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes...18

2.10Students' Source of Environmental Knowledge19

2.11Factors That Determine Students' Environmental Knowledge and Attitude21

2.11.1 School Curricular Background..21

2.11.2 Gender...22

2.11.3 Residential Area or RuralUrban Background...22

2.11.4 Age/Grade Level.22

CHAPTER THREE

3. Research Design and Methodology..24

3.1 Materials and Methods...24

3.2. Sources and Nature of Data...26

3.2.1 Primary Sources of Data.26

3.2.2 Secondary Sources of Data..26

3.3. Sampling Population and Sampling Techniques...26

3.3.1 Participants of the Study.27

3.4 Data Collecting Instruments...28

3.5 Methods of Data Analysis..29

CHAPTER FOUR

4. Presentation, Data Analysis and Interpretation30

4.1 Students' Awareness of and Views about Issues related to Solid Waste
Management...............................30

4.1.1 Awareness about issues related to solid waste management........................30

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4.1.2. Sources of Solid Waste..32

4.1.3 The Effect Solid Waste .............34

4.1.4. Solutions to Minimize and Control problems of Solid Waste...35

4.1.5. Municipal Data Analysis37

4.1.6. Health Unit Data Analysis.............38

4.2.Students' Views about Solid Waste Disposal.39

4.3. Analysis of Data on Environmental Problems..44

4.4 Views about Source of Solid Waste...48

4.5Students' Views about Solid Waste Storage and composting....51

4.6 Students' Environmental Knowledge Sources.............54

CHAPTER FIVE

5. Conclusion and Recommendations..60

5.1 Conclusion.60

5.2 Recommendations.....61

REFERENCES

ANNEXES

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List of Tables: Page

Table 1: Percentage of Uncollected Solid Waste in Major Towns of Ethiopia in the

year 2009-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------11

Table 2: Demographic Characteristics of Study Participants by Sample size, Residence,

Sex and Grade level in Gurage Zone, Wolikite Town, 2013-------------------28

Table 3: Awareness Test score, Achievements of grade 9 and 10 Students about Issues
related to Solid Waste Management in Gurage Zone Wolkite town 2013---------31

Table 4: Sources of Solid Waste listed by grade 9 and 10 in Gurage Zone Wolkite Town,
2013-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33

Table 5: Sources of Solid Waste based on Type and Magnitude in Gurage Zone Wolkite
Town,2013------------------------------------------------------------------------------------34

Table 6: Students Awareness about Consequence of Solid Waste-------------------------------35

Table 7: Measures against Solid Waste problems as expected by Students--------------------36

Table 8a: Test of Students View Significance Difference on Solid Waste Disposal------------41

Table 8b: Students Views About Solid Waste Disposal-----------------------------------------42

Table 9a: Students Views About Environmental Problems----------------------------------------46

Table 9b:Taste of Students View Significance Difference on Environmental Problem-----48

Table 10: Students Views about Sources of Solid Waste----------------------------------------49

Table 11:Students' Views about Solid Waste Storage and Composting-----------------------52

Table 12: Students Source of Environmental Knowledge---------------------------------------54

Table 13: Students Source of Environmental Knowledge based on Grade level------------57

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LIST OF ACCRONYMS

AG Agree

ALITT A Little

DIS.AG Disagree

E.C Ethiopian Calendar

EPA Environment Protection Authority

ESDP Education Sector Development Plan

GDP Gross Domestic Product

KIS Key Informants

KMS Kilometers

MOH Ministry of Health

NAA Not At All

NAAEE North American Association for Environmental Education

NGOS Non-Governmental Organizations

QUI.B Quit A Bit

SNNPR Southern Nations Nationalities People Region

ST.AG Strongly Agree

ST.DIS.AG Strongly Disagree

SW Solid Waste

SWM Solid Waste Management

TV Television

Un Undecided

UNCED United Nations Center of Education for Development

UNCS United Nations Center for Settlement

UNEP United Nations Environment Program

UNESCO United Nations Education, Science and Culture Organizatio

V.MUCH Very Much

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ABSTRACT

This study is aimed at the overall assessment of students awareness of and views about solid
waste management in Gurage Zone, Wolkite town. Besides this, the study had also specific
objectives such as assessment of awareness and views about issues related to the problems of
solid waste, views of students about solid waste source, collection, storage , transportation,
disposal, composting and identifying students' major sources of environmental knowledge.
In order to accomplish these objectives of the study, the researcher used both primary and
secondary data sources. The primary data was gathered through questionnaire, interviews
and field observations. Whereas secondary data was collected from printed and unprinted
materials and online searches. The analysis of the data was carried out using both qualitative
and quantitative techniques.

The findings of this study revealed that, the present awareness level of the students in the
study area is not constructive enough to generalize that, they have awareness about
environmental issues related to solid waste management. This is because, considerable
percentage of students, i.e. 46% of grade 9 and 36.4% of grade 10 scored below the average
and only 20.5 percent of the students scored maximum on the awareness test. With regard to
students views about solid waste management, students of all groups, male and female, grade
9 and grade 10 as well as rural and urban students generally have favorable views and scored
average of 2.6 on the scale running from one to five and there is no significant difference
among the different groups. But on the students' environmental knowledge source
assessment, the result obtained indicated that, the students use more electronic media like
Television and Radio as sources of environmental knowledge than the various education level
systems including primary and secondary education and printed materials like books,
journals, magazines etc. As a result, the study concluded that, the students' awareness about
solid waste management is not satisfactory. On the other hand, their attitude is favorable and
students use electronic media more than the various education system they passed through.
Generally, there is no significant difference among the students in terms of awareness and
views on issues related to solid waste management.

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CHAPTER ONE

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background

The rapid rate of uncontrolled and unplanned urbanization and high rate of population growth
in the developing nations and Africa brought environmental degradation. Indeed, one of the
most pressing concerns of urbanization in the cities and towns of developing world especially
in Africa has been the problem of solid, liquid and toxic waste management. Solid waste
collection services are inadequate or non existence in most developing cities and towns
where most of solid waste generation within urban centers is left uncontrolled. It accumulates
on streets, open spaces between houses and rivers, which is causing serious health
problems(Tchobanglous,Theisen and Samuel,1993,p.66).

Increasing amount of solid waste is being generated as a result of rapid rate of urbanization
and economic growth. This in turn presents greater difficulties for waste disposal. The
problem is more acute in developing countries, where the pace of urbanization is faster.
when the rate of urbanization gets out of control and in addition to low environmental
awareness, it poses a big challenge to governance, institute capabilities become inadequate
and ineffective, and there occurs poor sanitation and waste management and with these, the
problems of urbanization are compounded(Lemma,2007,p.45).

Solid waste management is one of the critical concerns, facing the developing countries
because of the social, economic and environmental implications once not properly managed.
Studies show that only 30 50% of the waste generated in developing countries is collected
and managed properly. The rest either burned or left to decompose in open space or dumped
in unregulated landfills, which is environmental damaging(Dawit and Alebel,2003,p.11).

There is a serious gap in awareness creation in Africa as the process of waste management is
considered expensive with no immediate returns. No local authority has adequate budgetary
provision to support awareness raising. Waste management is still ranked low in comparison
with other competing national development needs. There is generally, a good level of
knowledge and awareness on the risk and impacts of waste among different institutions ,
probably due to good literacy levels. However, this may not be true with the general public

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and there is lack of awareness on how hazardous waste is treated and disposed,unwillingness
and ability by residents to meet the waste management requirements there by resulting in
indiscriminate disposal of waste in the environment (Patrick,John,Jane,Idan,David,Saad and
Rene,2009,p.32).

Developing awareness and understanding about how the environment is working is believed
to range a sense of responsibility for its protection and concern. It is also considered as
effective vehicle to persuade human being to adopt rational attitudes towards the natural
environment and to avoid unwise exploitation and misuse of natural environment. To this
end, all nations are incorporating the theme of environment education and sustainable
development in to their education system. It is through education that environmental
knowledge, skill and attitude of human beings can be changed and the concern and care for
the environment is raised (UNESCO,1991).

Since,1970s the nations of the world have started considerations and integrations of
environmental issues in their educational system and endeavors. As a result, both developed
and developing countries of the world tend to emphasize on the creation of environmentally
literate society so as to sustain life on this planet as well as to sustain the development too
(Fekede,2005,p.41).

The new vision of education for sustainable future places education at the heart of the quest
to solve the problems that are threatening our future and education is seen not only as an end
in itself but also, hoped to serve as the most powerful instruments for bringing about the
changes required to achieve sustainable development. Environmental education has a crucial
role to play in building an encouraging social context for sustainable development and in
empowering citizens to support business and policy makers to hasten the transition to
sustainability (UNEP,2008 and Aklilu,2012,p.11-12).

Ethiopian education has tried to incorporate environment education and sustainable


development themes in the school curriculum. Environment education changes the behavior
of students by making them more knowledgeable about the environment and its associated
problems and issues. If learners are more knowledgeable, they will in turn become more
aware of the environment and its problems and thus be more motivated to act towards the
environment in more responsible ways(Fekede,2005,p.44).Therefore, teaching
environmental education is not only teaching of facts and concepts about the environment,
but also it includes developing appropriate life skill in the environment and develop value,

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attitude and concern for the environment and the main goal of environmental education is
more than mastery of facts and concepts about the environment but it includes developing
skills and mainly creation of concerns and action for the environment(UNECSO,1991).

So in light with these points, this study is focused on the assessment of overall students
awareness of and views about the problems of solid waste management and the possible
solutions to combat the problem. Although the process of solid waste management
encompasses a number of mechanisms, this study is mainly devoted on assessing students
awareness on solid waste management and views about solid waste sources, collection,
storage, transportation, disposal and composting in Southern Nations, Nationalities and
Peoples Region, Gurage Zone, Wolkite Town.

Wolkite is found at the main road between Addis Ababa and Jimma at a distance of
135kms South- West of Addis Ababa. It belongs to the Southern Nations, Nationalities and
people Region(SNNPR). Wolkite is the capital of Gurage zone and it also serves as a center
for two rural administrative Woredas, namely Abeshige and Kebena woredas. The
geographic location of the town is approximately 8o33Latitude and 37 o59longitude E'.
The average elevation of the town is about 1870m above sea level. According to the
population and housing census of 2007, the population of the town is 28,856(15,068 male
and 13,788 female). According to Wolkite municipality sources, the current population of
the town is estimated to be 43,000, due to the inclusion of Guburie as the part of the town
and annual population growth rate estimated of 2.89 percent(Tesfamichael,2008,p.3).

Wolkite town is divided into three sub-cities (Kifle-ketemas), namely Bekur Kefle-Ketema,
Addis Kifle-Ketema and Guburie Kifle-Ketema. Regarding housing, most of the houses
have corrugated iron roofs, but some poor households at the periphery of the town have
chap roofs. Wolkite has a gross area of 1,132 hectar of land out of which 740 hectars
(65.4%) is developed and the remaining 392 hectare ( 34.6%) of the land is not developed.
The developed part of the land includes the land that has been used for settlement,
commercial purpose, industry areas, construction of different social and economic
institutions. The settlement density is estimated to be 4000p/km2 which account for 48percent
of the total housing stock(Zewde,2009,p.6).

According to the Municipal interview results, the town has 26.18km paved,22km labor based
and 25.18km graded roads . Most of the roads are of low standard. In terms of social service
delivery, there are two governmental(one health center and one health post) and 8 private

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health institutions are available to provide health service to the community. One referral
hospital is under construction by Gurage Development Association. There are 856, hotels ,
restaurants and business centers and 8 primary, 2 Junior, 2 secondary and 1 preparatory
schools. In terms of higher educational and training institutions, there are one technical
vocational and training polytechnic College and one University.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In adequate dry waste management has resulted in the accumulation of waste on open lands,
in drains and in the living areas of many people, causing a nuisance and foul-smelling pools,
environmental pollutions through leaches from (water and soil pollutions) and burning of
waste (air pollution), clogging of drains, and the possible spread of disease : unattended piles
of waste are a breeding place for insects and rats. This situation is believed to rest in poor
environmental condition and an ever present risk of epidemics, which in turn present a
formidable threat to health and production(Zebenay,2010,p.27).

The seriousness of environmental depletion in Ethiopia witnesses as that the relationship


between natural environment and people are unfriendly. Thus it seems high time to take
urgent actions by redressing people life style. People can experience sustainable development
by acquiring appropriate environment knowledge, knowhow, skills and capacities
(Atlabachew,2007,p.15).

Putting into consideration the above mentioned facts and other related environmental
problems, Ethiopian education and training policy provides due regard to the environment.
The general objective of the policy is to bring up citizens who can take care of and utilize
resources wisely Hence schools as centers of formal education, have the responsibility of
preparing students for the struggle against environmental degradation. They can implement
such responsibilities by promoting a deeper understanding of the environment and
environmental problems and then by encouraging their students to demonstrate
environmental concern and willingness(Aklilu,2001and Debebe,2009,p.3).

Moreover, students knowledge and views about environmental issues /problems/ obviously
can be a great reflection of the behavioral change of the community about issues related to
environmental pro-active and management. So to bring a behavioral change on a given
community issues /problems/ related to solid waste management, assessing awareness and
views of students contributes a lot because, at least of every household could have a single

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representation in the school. In line with this, the very heart of this study is assessment of
students awareness of and views about the problems of solid waste management in SNNPR,
Gurage Zone, Wolkite Town administration. The selected variables are students awareness
of issues related to solid waste management and views about solid waste sources, collection,
storage, transportation, disposal and composition. It depends on sex, grade level and rural-
urban background of two randomly selected secondary schools, i.e. Goro Comprehensive
preparatory school and Guburie secondary school which are found in Wolkite town.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.3.1 General Objectives

The overall objective of this study is assessment of students awareness and views about
problems of solid waste management in Gurage Zone, Wolkite Town administration.

13.2 Specific Objectives

The more specific objectives of this study are:-

1. To assess students awareness of and views about issues related to the problems of
solid waste management;
2. To assess students views about solid waste sources, collection, storage,
transportation, disposal and composting;
3. To investigate students major sources of knowledge about the whole environment
and problems of solid waste management; and
4. To identify factors determining students awareness of and views about solid waste
management.

1.4 Variables

In this study five variables (two dependent and three independent) were identified for testing.
These are:-

Dependent

Level of awareness about issues related to the problems of Solid waste


management.
Views about solid waste sources, collection, storage, transportation, disposal and
composting.

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Independent

Sex of students (male/female)


Grade level of students (9 and 10)
Students residential background (rural/urban)

1.5 Research Questions

1. What are the students awareness level and views about issues related to the
problems of solid waste management?
2. What is the students view about solid waste sources, collection, storage,
transportation, disposal and composition and possible solutions of solid waste
management?
3. What are their major sources of information about the environment in general
and issues /problems/ related to solid waste management in particular?
4. What are the factors that affect students awareness of and views about the
environment and problems of solid waste management?
5. Is there any disparity in terms of (male and female, grade level and urban-
rural ) regarding awareness level and attitude of students on issues related to
solid waste management?

1.6 Significance of the Study and Rationale for Selecting Research Area

Unintegrated management of solid waste is a growing issue that has caused environmental
degradation in urban Ethiopia. Identifying the main factors that result in poor management of
solid waste may help to address the problems through mainly by creating public awareness
about the cause and effects of unwise solid waste management on environment in general and
health related problems in particular.

Schools are the very short route to get the general public since every household at least can
be represented in the school by a single student. Therefore, this study which, assessed
students awareness of and views about crucial problems of solid waste management in
Ethiopia in general and at the study area in particular is hoped to be a valuable source of
information that may be considered by any organization, which aims to have an interest in
making schools more productive to address such environmental problems. The study also
could help for decision makers to identify problems and seek solutions for issues of solid
waste management and will serve as source document for other researchers in the area.

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Wolkite town administration is selected to conduct this study for the following main reasons.
First, it is one of the urban centers where, there is uncontrolled urban expansion and problems
of solid waste management are clearly observed. Secondly, no research is conducted on solid
waste management of the town at the grassroots level.

1.7 Delimitation of the Study

Wolkite town is one of the Gurage zone towns and it is the capital of the Zone. Taking in to
account constraints of resources ,the study is confined in to two secondary schools of Wolkite
town. The researcher interested to study grade nine and ten students (male and female) of
both schools, namely, Goro comprehensive secondary preparatory and Guburie secondary
schools. Regarding target population, it was delimited to sample students that were taken
from both schools.

1.8 Organization of the Study

This paper is organized into five chapters. The first chapter deals with the introduction part of
the study. The second chapter of the paper contains review of related literature obtained from
various published and unpublished reference materials. Chapter three of the study describes
the research design and methodology and fourth chapter deals with result and discussion,
which present analysis and interpretation of data about Students' awareness and views about
Solid Waste management and Environmental knowledge sources of the Students. The last
part of this paper is chapter five, which deals with conclusions and recommendations.
Bibliography ad appendices are also attached at the end of the paper.

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CHAPTER TWO

2. Review of Related Literature

2.1. Solid Waste Management

2.1.1. Conceptual Issues

Most of the times the word waste is used interchangeably with refuse for clear
understanding, it is important to differentiate the two words. When waste is disposed of in
the same container and mixed together, causing unpleasant odor and pollution and making it
impossible to reuse it is known as refuse'. On the other hand, when the disposed objects are
handled properly they can have value and are known as waste(Momoh and
Oladebeye,2010,p.94).

Solid Waste management can be classified in to five main stages. These stages are also
referred to as the functional elements of solid waste management. These functional elements
are on site handling, storage and processing, collection, transfer and transport, resource
recovery and processing and disposal ( MoH,2011,P.174).

The scope of solid waste management encompasses planning management systems, waste
generation processes and organizations, procedures and facilities for waste handling.
Developing strategies comprise specific objectives and measures in these areas. They need to
consider the specific interests, roles and responsibilities and numerous actors including
households, community based organizations and other service users, local and national
government authorities and non governmental organizations. As a result, effective solid
waste management depends upon an appropriate distribution of responsibilities between
national, provincial and local governments(Peter,1996,p.10). To keep the household and
environment clean and to reduce health problems, solid waste should be disposed properly.
Untreated refuse degrades both the quality of the environment and the quality of life in the
community and it also provides a breeding ground for disease causing vectors such as
mosquitoes, flies and rats(Abdulwahid,2011,p.44). Solid waste generated by household may
contain organic waste(for example from the kitchen and gardens), recyclable waste(for
example, plastics, paper, cans, etc), non recyclable waste and household hazardous waste (for
example, batteries, some oils, etc(UNEP,2009,P.10).

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The integrated solid waste management can be affected by different factors in urban centers.
For instance, the environmental context of solid waste management is influenced by the size
and structure of settlement and the character and urgency of waste management needs. In
urban areas the physical characteristics of settlements including such factors as awareness
level in waste handling, density, width and condition of roads topography need to be
considered when selecting and designing waste collection procedures and equipments such as
containers and vehicles(Peter,1996,p.26).

2.2 Issues of Solid Waste Management

Waste generation is expected to increase significantly as a result of industrialization,


urbanization and population growth and this will further aggravate the currently existing
capacity constraints in waste management among which the single largest implementation
challenge remains to create sufficient capacity for environmentally sound management
including appropriate recovery and recycling of various waste in Africa
(Patrik,et.al,2009,p.39). The municipal solid waste management, its first goal is to protect
the health of the population, particularly among that of low-income groups and its other
goals include promotion of environmental quality and sustainability, support of economic
productivity and employment generation(Karl, Peter and Jurg,1996,p.9). According to
World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (2009), a significant proportion of
urban population of the continent has poor access to refuse collection for proper solid waste
management. Poorly managed waste presents a health risk to communities. This is
primarily because untreated waste and waste that remains uncollected or improperly
disposed of can be a source of contaminants and breeding site for disease causing vectors
and such waste contribute to diarrhea, vector born disease and the contamination of
drinking water and other water resources(Abdulwahid,2011,p.45).

Peter(1996,p.11), forwarded that, the function of municipal solid waste management system
is influenced by the waste handling patterns and underlying attitude of urban population
and these factors themselves, conditioned by the peoples social and cultural context
and programs to discriminate knowledge and skills or improve behavior patterns and
attitudes regarding solid waste management, must be based on sound understanding of
the social and cultural characteristics of the urban dwellers.

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2.3 Municipal Solid Waste Management in Ethiopia

Solid waste management is becoming a major public health and environmental concern in
urban areas of Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, like developing countries, increase of solid waste
generation is resulted from rapid urbanization and population booming and the average
solid waste generation rate is about 0.221kg per person per day and it is also estimated
that only 2% of the population received solid waste collection services(Zebenay,2010,p.39).

One of the poorest environmental performances in Ethiopia pertains to the management of


all types of waste and the country lacks any disposal or destruction facility, sanitary
landfills, and incineration. For instance, in Addis Ababa hazardous solid wastes totally
untreated, may be put into the citys municipal dump when properly disposed of, or remain
un dealt with in the general environment and the situation in Addis Ababa is now being
repeated in the fast developing urban centers throughout the country (UNCED,2002,p.26).

Similarly, the current condition of municipal solid waste management service in different
towns of Ethiopia also becoming a challenge for municipalities . For instance, according
to Degnet(2003,p.49), study of solid waste management practices of 15 regional towns
of Ethiopia, a controlled solid waste disposal system was practiced in only two of them.
In addition, a study conducted by Gebrie(2009,p.27), revealed percentage of solid waste,
which are left and uncontrolled and disposed anywhere without giving due attention
regarding their consequences. This shows that only small proportion of the urban dwellers
are served and a large quantity of solid waste left uncollected. See table1 on next page.

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Table 1; Percentage of Uncollected Solid Waste in Major Towns of Ethiopia in the
Year 2009

Town Percentage of uncollected solid waste

Jijiga 82

Hawassa 75

Dessie 70

Dire dawa 63

Jimma 63

Harar 53

Mekelle 52

Addis Ababa 32

Source: Solomon Cheru,2011.

In cities and towns of Ethiopia, domestic and industrial effluents are released into water
ways with minimal or no treatment, threatening both human and animal health as well
as aquatic life and the proportion of the urban population covered by sanitation service in
the country is very small. For instance, more than 29% of the residents of Addis Ababa
lack any kind of sanitary service, even the simplest latrine and this is the situation in all
other Urban areas in the country(UNCED,2002,p.27). A study conducted by
Hunachew(2011,p.1054), stated that, the growing concern of health and environmental
risks in the landfill area are now becoming more serious as different incompatible land
uses are surrounding the site and in countries like Ethiopia, where there is a general lack
of awareness of the risk associated with long serving open solid waste sites.

Ranges of skills are required, in order to meet the demands of the rapidly evolving solid
waste area and a better understanding of integrated waste management with a particular
emphasis on the top level of the integrated waste management hierarchy and strategic
thinking and planning, public involvement strategies improved group problem solving at
all levels(Jejaw,2008,p.9). Similarly, a study conducted by Peter(1996,p.10), forwarded

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that, effective solid waste management depends upon an appropriate distribution of
responsibilities between national, provincial and local governments and capacity-building
measures for solid waste management should give primary attention to strategic planning,
but discrepancies often exist between all municipal solid waste management job
requirements and the actual staff qualifications, training and human resource development
are thus important components.

In Ethiopia management of waste is given thorough coverage in the environmental policy


and the draft pollution control proclamation has articles expressed on the management
of hazardous and all types of municipal waste but the major constraints in all waste
management is the low priority that urban administrations give to waste management
services and no municipal waste disposal systems worthy of the name exist in the
country. In addition, the poor state of solid waste disposal sites are causing a number of
other environmental problems affecting both human health and the environment, water
pollution both ground and surface waters from leached materials is bound to be rife as
both the composition of the disposed waste and the lack of control of leached materials
due to the absence of proper drainage design of the dump make this
possible(UNCED,2002,p.28).

There are some human health risk associated with solid waste handling and disposal. The
study by ( Abdulwahid, 2011,p.44, UNCS, 1994, and Abebe ,1999), revealed that, over 80
percent of the cities and towns of developing countries do not possess an adequate and
meaningful refuse management and all Ethiopian towns solid waste management
problems are more acute and wide spread. The problems can be classified into four main
categories. These are:

A. Presence of human fecal matter


B. Presence of potentially hazardous industrial waste
C. The decomposition of solids into constituent chemicals which contaminate air
and water system
D. The air pollution caused by consistently burning dumps and methane release

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2.4 Environmental Problems in Ethiopia

It has been pointed out in the environmental policy of Ethiopia that, effective environmental
management is dependent on the development of appropriate polices and laws, incorporation
of environmental concerns into sustainable economic development planning, coordination
and integration, capacity building in terms of man power and equipment with regard to
management, conservation and sustainable utilization of the environment(Gedion,2003,p.20).
The study conducted by(Alebel and Dawit,2006,p.29), showed that, the urban environmental
problems such as solid waste, liquid effluent pollution turn to be serious handles to
environmental wellbeing and goods and services are returned after use into the
environment as waste and emissions, which instigate various forms of environmental
problems like resource depletion, poor quality of life and deterioration of water.

All Ethiopian towns and small rural villages in transition to township lack basic services
and proper planning and only 17 percent of all Ethiopians have access to potable water
and sanitation service and a large percentage of all urban centers are slums making the
urban environment difficult or unsustainable for habitation of the majority of urban
dwellers(Gedion,2003,p.14).

2.5 Urban Environmental Problems in Ethiopia

Rapid growth of urban population and solid waste management are some of the main
challenging problems for developing countries and the waste disposal habit of the
community causes the deterioration of the environment(Puttam,2011,p.8). As a result,
since Ethiopia is one of the developing countries, the urban areas have problem of solid
waste management, which has its own negative impact on the environment. For
instance, the study conducted by Solomon (2011, p.18) on assessment of Dessie town,
revealed that improper and insufficient solid waste management is causing serious
environmental and sanitary problems. Similarly, the study conducted by Tadesse(2004,p.3)
and(Negatu,Rajan and Bizunesh,2011,p.180) on assessment of solids waste management of
Addis Ababa city discussed that, from the solid waste generated per day only 65 percent is
collected as municipal waste and the remaining 35 percent of the waste is disposed off
through informal means except smaller percentage going to incineration and dumped on
open sites, drainage, channels, rivers and valleys as well as on the streets. A simple
observation around riverbank indicates large percentage of the uncontrolled waste goes to
the rivers. Similarly, Negatu,et.al(2011,p.181), forwarded that uncollected garbage is a

13
serious environmental hazard for all urban centers of the country, especially in urban
areas where the roads within the town or city are not accessible for collection by
municipality and these cause bad smells and attract various disease vectors and pests
resulting in low aesthetic quality of the towns.

2.6 Environmental Awareness and Solid Waste Management

Waste generation is expected to increase significantly as a result of industrialization,


urbanization and modernization of agriculture in Africa and this will further aggravate
the currently existing capacity limitation in municipal waste
management(Patrik,et.al,2009,p.120 ). But the study by Sujatha(2012,p.6) suggested that,
environmental problems like solid waste disposal begin with people as the cause and end
with the people as victims, although development is necessary for man, it should be
sustainable. Hence, growing awareness among the people is decisive to maintain ecological
balance for future generation.

Indiscriminate dumping of household solid waste on the streets, rivers and drainages
causes environmental degradation and safe, efficient and effective methods of solid waste
management has to be put into practice using community participation by shaping the
awareness and attitude of the people in the community appear to be crucial for solid
waste management(Momoh,et.al,2010,p.93).

Peter(1996,P.10), in his study suggested that , waste generation patterns are determined by
peoples attitude as well as their socio-economic characteristics and attitudes towards waste
may be positively influenced by awareness building campaign and educational measures.

The concept of attitude and associated relationship with human behavior has been a
topic of interest among researchers for years and attitude towards concept can be defined
as an individual or group of individuals, general feeling of favorableness or un favorableness
for that concept(Ayodeji,2010,p.202).

A study conducted by Amsallu(2012,p.12),forwarded that educating or creating awareness


for people about the impacts of unwise solid waste management increases the willingness
of the community to cooperate in integrated solid waste management schemes in the urban
areas and awareness will make the households to internalize the problem and feel it as a
threat for their livelihood and their children.

To provide individuals, groups and societies with opportunities to be actively involved in


exercising their skills of environmental citizenship and be actively involved on all levels
14
of waste management and in working towards sustainable development environmental
awareness creation through environmental education plays a significant role and building
public awareness is a critical step towards ensuring solid waste management in
environmentally responsible ways and effective waste management is a continuing process
of public education, discussion, implementation and evaluation
(David,CoxeandWeld,1996,p.9).

Raising public awareness not only for the importance of healthy environment, but also on the
mechanisms of controlling generation of waste at the source and alternative disposal
mechanisms and share of responsibilities between the general public, local and traditional
institutions, business communities, non government and governmental institutions through
regular campaign, education and training programs of neighborhoods, health institutions and
educating women should be given highest priority since in the Ethiopian society,
cleanness of the family, housing units and immediate surroundings is responsibility of
the women(Tadesse,2004,p.68).

2.7 The Role of Education in Solving Environmental Problems

Education and awareness in areas of pollution control and waste management is becoming
increasingly important from global perspective of resource management. Puttam(2011,p.8) in
his study stressed that the education programs builds on the knowledge, values, skills,
experiences and determination of human capacity needed to work on solving waste
management issues at an individual and community level and the cause-effect relationship
between human activity and the environment must often be learned through education
process.

Community based education as widely accepted as a norm in social construction to form


better community institutions and active participation in local initiatives. Agenda 21,chapter
36 states, "Education including informal education, public awareness and training, should be
recognized as a process by which human beings and societies can reach their maximum
potential and it is vital for promoting sustainable development and improving the capacity of
people to address environment and development issues and environmental education
essentially involves many areas of study, from natural sciences to history and
philosophy(UNCED,2004,p.8).

According to UNEP(2004) environmental education has played a critical role in creating a


supportive social context to ensure sustainable development and in empowering citizens to

15
encourage business and policy makers to facilitate the transition to
sustainability(Aklilu,2012,p.12). Similarly, Demel(2003,p.32) expressing the state and the
cause of environmental problems, has stressed on education as a major solution to the
problem that are related with environment pollution and he suggested creating awareness and
commitment how the environment with all its constitutes work as well as the limitations.

The problem of waste management has arisen recently in developing countries where there is
little history of implementing formal and informal community environmental education,
awareness program and the initiation of such education program is essential to rapidly
educate the public and facilitate community waste management behavior. Such program is
important for the public not only in increasing their environmental awareness, but also their
environmental skills, attitudes and behavior as well(Momoh,et.al, 2010, P.94). This shows
that environmental education, whether it is formal or nonformal, is decisive instrument to
solve environmental problems and to ensure sustainable development.

The complex and multi faceted nature of environmental problems inevitably demand suitably
organized educational system to affect the behavior of stakeholders, who are acting on the
environment and offering environmental education at all levels of the system can affect all
bodies with no natural and social boundaries so that they should be responsible to the
conservation of the environment in which they live in. Filho (1993), in his study forwarded
these facts as follows:

Education to prepare people young and old to assume a more responsive and
responsible attitude towards the environment to equip policy makers and planners
with the knowledge to make informed decisions, and to provide managers and
professionals with the skill to implement sound environmental strategies, can clearly
make a significant contribution towards redressing the failure and neglect of the
past(Debebe, 2009,p.45).

According to Kifle(1995), sustainable development is unachievable without environmental


education. In Ethiopia so as to inculcate environmental education in the countries educational
system, the recently promulgated federal environmental policy has also underlined the role of
education and one of its cross sectoral objectives included to provide education, training and
awareness and understanding of the need for sustainable use and management of the natural,
human made and cultural resources and the environment(EPA,199b and Aklilu,1998,p.42).
From the discussions, one can easily understand that, environmental education can pave the

16
way for understanding environmental problem and so indicates the measures to be taken to
solve it. In so doing education in general and environment education in particular contributes
to environmental development and sustainability.

2.8 Students Awareness of and Views about Environmental Issues

A study conducted on Malaysia university students shows that, students awareness about the
environmental problems and solutions can be increased through education. The particular
skills and knowledge gained from environmental education would help in changing students
behavior towards the environment and students with some knowledge and skills on
environmental education are more motivated to take part in environmental protection
activities, plans and sharing new information from their activities with families, other adults,
and community probably will have the same positive implications on solid waste
management practices (Asmawati,Norba'yah and Fatimah,2012,p.103).

Knowledge about the environment has been widely regarded as factor that can influence
views on issues related to natural resource management and environmental protection and
many researchers have, for instance reported a substantial correlation between students
knowledge of environmental issues and their attitudes towards the environment. Thus, the
researchers argued that, a good background in environmental knowledge could eventually
lead to the development of positive attitudes towards the environment (Aklilu,1998,p.44).

The introduction or integration of waste management concepts and themes through


environmental education and school curriculum at all level could improve the students
understanding of waste management and environmental education in the school should
provide opportunities for students and teachers to engage in actively towards achieving a
more sustainable environment (Ayodeji,2010,p.211). Similarly, according to NAAEE (2001),
environment as a tool for achieving broader educational goals, while environmental
education focuses on building a base of environmental knowledge, skills and attitudes to be
applied to solve environmental problems and this education brings positive effects like
improved motivation, skills, lifelong learning, career preparation and attitudes of respect and
responsibility. Using course curriculum to engage students in waste awareness activities such
as calculating the amount of waste created in their household will not only educate the
students but also involve the household members in raising their awareness and engaging
education activities provide a platform on which students begin to exercise the knowledge
needed to improve the environment(Jonathan,2005,p.8).

17
2.9 Research Findings on Students Environmental Knowledge and Attitude

A study conducted on Ogun state secondary schools in Nigeria, on students understanding


and practice of waste management found that, waste management is a serious environmental
problem in Ogun state secondary school and students are aware of the problem, but their
waste management practices depicted a negative practice. Here, we can understand that,
differences were observed in students knowledge and practice of waste management
(Ayodeji,2010,p.210). Similarly, another study that assessed the Nigerian students
knowledge, attitudes and practices showed results that could be equally or more
disappointing to environmentalists. Students in the senior classes in the selected secondary
schools of the study area showed remarkably low knowledge of the concepts involved. Out
of a maximum possible score of 60,males obtained a mean score of 13.0,while females scored
12.2(Akillu,1998, p.44,Mansary and Ajiboye,1997).

A research assessment that took place on Malaysia university student stated that, despite the
high status of awareness expressed by 64 percent of the student concerning solid waste
management, it is not consistent with their attitude and perception. The result of the study
showed that more than half of the students (65.9%) have negative attitudes towards solid
waste management(Asmawati,et.al,2012,p.106).

According to the study conducted by Fufa (1998), on the extent to which senior secondary
school students in east Wolega zone, spreading information concerning environmental issues
and concerns in their surrounding communities, found that students efforts to propagate
information was very little. But, the same study revealed that, Students of grade eleven were
found to have sufficient awareness about basic environmental issues and favorable attitudes
towards conservation of nature. This indicate that, a disparity between awareness, attitude
and action(Akilu,2012,p.51).

A study which investigated secondary school students environmental awareness in India


indicated that, there are significant differences on students level of environmental
knowledge. The study also showed that there is a significant difference between students in
environmental awareness across and within two groups with regard to their gender
(Shobeiri,Omidvar andPrahallada,2007,p.87). Aklilu,(2006,p.40), investigated and forwarded
that, most primary and secondary Schools findings on students knowledge about and attitude
towards certain environmental issues indicated that students in general have poor,very
general and uncritical knowledge and attitude that cannot be taken as promising.

18
On the other hand, a research conducted in some selected Ethiopian secondary schools
showed that, students were familiar to environmental issues(Aklilu,1998,p.56). An
assessment conducted on students level of knowledge about environmental issues and
policies in Ethiopia, at Kotebe College of teachers education and S,Marys college indicated
that, college students encompass low level of knowledge, i.e. more than half of the study
participants did not know the existence of environment policies in Ethiopia and about 70%
of the students did not understand that, problem solving solutions for environmental issues
are included in the countrys constitution(Aklilu,2012,p.81-82).

2.10 Students' Source of Environmental Knowledge

The cause and effect relationship between human activity and the environment has to be
learned through educational process and the major contribution of education is preparing
future farmers, administrators, planners, political leaders, etc in such a way that, they make
conscious and responsible decisions concerning the use of environmental resources and the
argument that can be raised is that, it is the responsibility of the present generation to educate
the presidents, ministers, decision makers and industrial managers of year 2030, who are
about to start or are already sitting in primary school today not only to make them educated
but also environmentally knowledgeable (Aklilu,1998,p.42).

Modern societies, both developed and developing, need environmental education in its formal
and informal aspects and the best way to create awareness and to educate the students, is to
include environmental education in the school educational system. A study, conducted on
Malaysia national university students suggested that, students, who participated at learning
practice of environmental responsible behaviors showed a good and encouraging results on
waste management practice(Asmawati,et.al,2012,p.107).

The environmental awareness creation program for all stakeholders done by environmental
council of Zambia through daily mail, the post, news paper, Zambia national broadcasting
corporation and several others has resulted in high level of awareness among journalist in
these media house by the type of articles captured by the environmental council of
Zambia(Patrick,et.al,2009,p.26).

Many studies conducted in the previous two decades on sociodemographic variable and
environmental perception have helped in understanding peoples' views and thinking about the
environment and they have attempted to predict environmental awareness and attitudes of
people based on their sociodemographic characteristics. For instance, they reported that age,

19
education and gender have shown strong and consistent relations with environmental
information perception(Ayodeji,2010,p.204).

In countries where access to environmental information sources limited, schools play a


relatively more important role in environmental information distribution and in countries of
the third world, where the majority of the population live in rural areas and have limited
opportunity of information and where most of environmental problems exist, rural schools
and community based environmental education stand for an important strategy for mitigating
environmental problems and improving environmental futures(Akiliu,2008,pp.199-211).
Similarly, indigenous knowledge using can be one mechanism of environmental awareness
creation and information dissemination. Studies on indigenous knowledge suggest that,
indigenous knowledge can be important because of two basic reasons. First and for most,
integrating indigenous knowledge with modern development projects can contribute to local
empowerment and development, increasing selfsufficiency and strengthening self
determination, gives legitimacy and credibility in the eyes of local people and outsiders on
the environment and secondly, indigenous people can provide valuable input about the local
environment and how to effectively manage natural resource sustainably(Yilkal,2007,p.27).

Knowledge and views about environmental issues can be obtained from various information
sources other than formal education. Environment education comparative assessment study in
different countries has, in fact, indicated that most of students environmental knowledge
comes from outside school. For instance, a survey conducted in three countries (Australia,
England and Israel), showed that mass media, Radio, Television and the press were found to
be the most essential source of students information on environmental issues followed by
education in school(Aklilu,2007,p.201).

. 2.11 Factors That Determine Students Environmental Knowledge and Attitude

There are different factors, which are identified as affecting students knowledge of and
attitude towards issues related to environmental conservation and natural resource use and
management. These include sex, class (grade) level and age of students, curricular focus and
teaching strategy, source of information and place of
residence(Ayodeji,2010,p.201,Aklilu,2006).

2.11.1 School Curricular Background

The introduction or integration of environmental concepts and themes in school curriculum


in all levels is not only improving students understanding of the environmental issues, but

20
also change their attitude and practice on environment related problems and environmental
education in the school should provide opportunities for students and teachers to engage in
actions and behavior that impact positively towards achieving a more sustainable
environment(Ayodeji,2010,p.211).

Environmental education nowadays is included in some way in most of the educational


curricula, but teachers are not qualified to teach it and the pedagogical approach and the
teacher's interest in environmental issues seem to affect the students learning process of
environmental education(Asamawati,2012,p.108).

The promotion of citizenship education, often for adults as well as school children, is
typically identified as the primary responsibility of schooling and a continuing assumption is
that the success of the formal education system is essentially defined by its ability to prepare
individuals to be citizens i.e., to function effectively in todays and tomorrows society.
Studies suggest that as little as one course in environmental literacy produce more
environmental responsible behavior(Debeb,2009,p.39).

In Ethiopia, the addition of environment education and protection in the school curricula,
mainly on science subjects is given a due consideration by policy makers and education
sector development plan (ESDPIV) so as to make it possible for a considerable share of
students to be introduced to the significance of environmental issues to sustainable
development (Aklilu,2012,P.33). But there are environmental education related problems, for
instance only minor effort made to incorporate environment education in to secondary school
curricula and so, such environmental education could not have strength to break in the strong
iron fences surrounding the discipline- oriented curricula(Aklilu,2007,p.94).

2.11.2 Gender

Gender is a variable that has received consistent attention among environmental researches
and the studies found that women were significantly more likely than men to be concerned
with environmental problems and females have been consistently shown to have higher
environmentally conscious attitudes than men(Ayodeji,2010,p.203). Another study,
conducted on women, suggested that interestingly, in most of the south Asian countries
women play an important role in many community based environmental organization and
they are responsible for housekeeping and its immediate environment clean. Women have
their hand in the municipal solid waste management from household management to

21
administrative works. They have shown active participation in various municipal solid waste
management concerns including educational activities and workshops besides playing an
important role in their own community(Visanathan,and Ulrich,2006,p.9).

2.11.3 Residential Area or RuralUrban Background

The diverse background of young people today, reflect their perception of environmental
problems based on their knowledge about environmental issues and their experience with in
the environment in everyday life and research conducted on the perception of environmental
issues like air pollution, water pollution, waste disposal etc between rural and urban students,
rural students were found to be statistically more perceptive of environmental issues than
urban students regardless of difference in the issues measured, geographic setting, and
amount of educational background(Aklilu, 2007,p.200).

2.11.4 Age/Grade Level

Studies found that, there are a strong and significant age or grade difference in ideas and
perception about environmental problems. For instance, some researchers conducted on
assessment of factors influencing environmental values in Junior and Senior high school
students, revealed that, students of higher grades (10th,11th and 12th) had a higher
preference to the theoretical value than those of lower grade levels (7 th,8th and 9th)
leading to an argument that students of higher grade levels perceive answers to the
environmental dilemma in more abstract levels and on the other hand, students of lower
grade levels had a higher preference for aesthetic value, because they are more concerned
with the external appearance of the environment(Aklilu,2007,p.199).

Significance differences found between students of different grade levels in their


awareness and view about natural resource use, management and famine in Ethiopia.
The difference was observed between students of three levels, i.e., Junior, Senior and
Teachers Trainings institutes, students at the senior schools have a better awareness than
those at junior and trainees of teacher training institute performed much better, when
compared with the other groups. Hence, awareness and views tended to increase with
increase in the level of education(Debebe ,2009,p.22,Aklilu,2001).

22
CHAPTER THREE

3. Research Design and Methodology

The very focus of this study is assessment of students awareness of and view about issues
related to solid waste management. This study used both quantitative and qualitative research
approaches. The design applied for this mixed approach study was cross-sectional, since the
study relied on existing variations and data collection was at one point in time. According to
Creswell(2003) each of the paradigms, which is qualitative and quantitative approaches have
their own limitations. As a result, one can be benefited from using these approaches in mixed
way.

In this study three groups are identified. The first group sex(male and female), the second
group residential background(rural and urban) and the third group grade level(grade 9 and
grade 10) that is identified because of the reason students, who are in both grades completed
primary education, which might help to compare awareness level of students.

3.1 Materials and Methods


Study Area: Wolkite town is located about 155 Kms south west of Addis Ababa. It belongs
to the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region and it is capital of Gurage Zone.
The geographical location of the town is approximately 8 33' latitude and 37 59' longitude E.
The average elevation of the town is about 1870m above sea level. According to 2007
population census, the total population of wolkite is about 43000 with (M 22,360 and F
20,640). In the town there are three sub-cities, (a government administration unit of about
15,000 people). The population is multi-ethnic, the Gurage constituting the majority. Most of
dwelling and other houses in the town have corrugated iron roofs, but some poor households
at the periphery of the town have that Chap roofs. It spread over a gross area of 1,132 hectars
of land, of which 740 hectars(65.4percent) is developed and the remaining392
hectars(34.6percent) is not developed or used for house building purpose. The settlement
pattern of the population is about 4000 people per square kilo/ meter(Zewude,2009,p.17).

23
Study Design: A cross-sectional school based survey on students awareness and view
about solid waste management in Wolkite town was conducted during the months of
March-April 2013.
Study Population: The study population comprised of grade 9 and 10 students in Goro and
Gubrie high schools in SNNPR, Gurage zone, Wolkite town. During the study year, there
were a total of 3502 students, who have been enrolled within the two high schools with male
to female ratio of 1.5:1.
Sampling Method: Both high school students were included as study population. The
number of the students based on residential area are found from students registration offices.
The sample size was determined based the general principle that for sufficiently large
population it is permissible to take 5% of the target population to be drawn as sample size.
For improved representativeness we have taken 10% of the study population to determine the
sample size.

Thus the calculated sample size was 351. This calculated sample size was divided into two
categories; based on the proportion of students with regards to their residential area (for urban
(69.5% =244) and rural (30.5% =107) and their grade level 9th grade (53.8% =189) and 10th
grade (46.2% =162). Further the allotted number of the sample size was divided for total
number of classes using the predetermined proportion of the students. To obtain a sample size
of 20 from each class, the arrangement of their seat on the data collection day were used as

24
sampling frame, thereby every other student from each row included in the study until the
required sample size met.

Data Collection Tool: The questionnaire, which is consisted of four sections: section one;
socio-demographic characteristics of the study groups, section two as well as section three
contain awareness and attitudinal scale measuring questions. Section four dealt with assessing
students source of environmental knowledge as well.

The first of the two sections of data collection instrument used for this paper had a list
containing the general information, namely; school name, age, sex, grade level and place of
residence and six awareness assessing environmental problem questions that were considered
among others the most serious in Ethiopia in general and in Wolkite town in particular. The
respondents were then requested to list down the problems in order of significance for each of
the questions and these parts were generalized in to three during analysis, because of the
conceptual similarities of the questions.

In the third section of the questionnaire, there were the scales developed to measure among
others, attitudes towards the views about environmental problems in general and solid waste
management in particular. Out of 36 scale measuring statements, some of them in the scale
were worded in such a way that agreement to the statements would mean favorable attitude
towards the wise management of solid waste and on the other hand for other questions
disagreement to the statements would mean favorable attitude about solid waste management.

The fourth section of the data collection instrument contained statements that investigate the
students source of knowledge regarding the subject matter of the study. Five possible
sources of environmental knowledge which have been believed to be relevant for the study
area were listed and the students were requested to select appropriate answers from the given
options.

Data Collection: Data were collected using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire by


volunteer college teachers trained for this purpose. In addition to school youths, face-to-face
structured interviews with Wolkite municipality administrators (2) and Health unit
Environmental sanitation official (1) were conducted. These key informants (KIs) were
chosen based on their proximity and associated responsibility to the towns solid waste
management. The information from the KIs was also used to feed the document review with
up to date information. And thus, it was assumed that they would be the best source of

25
information particularly in terms of drawing out lessons and gaps in effective SWM. Data
were entered into a micro-computer using the SPSS evaluative version 15.0.

3.2. Sources and Nature of Data

In this study, primary and secondary methods of data gathering were used to address the
formulated objectives.

3.2.1 Primary Sources of Data

Primary data was collected from sample students of grade nine and ten, who are learning at
two schools that are found in Guraghe zone, Wolkite town administration. Structured survey
questionnaires were used to obtain information from selected samples of students. The
contents of the questionnaire was include the students demographic information and issues
related to solid waste management and their views about sources, collection, storage,
transportation, disposal and composting of solid waste. In addition, it included their source
of knowledge about the environment in general and solid waste management in particular.

3.2.2 Secondary Sources of Data

Secondary information was gathered from library books, journals, thesis and online searches
about issues related to the problems of solid waste management and to establish a conceptual
and theoretical background of the study. In addition, different documents on solid waste
management in Ethiopia in general and in Gurage zone, Wolkite town administration in
particular were used from regional and local government offices especially, offices like
Wolkite town administration, municipality, Gurage zone towns development offices,
environmental protection authority and ministry of education were helpful sources of
secondary data.

3.3. Sampling Population and Sampling Techniques

The selection of sampling techniques for the study was based on the representativeness and
resourcefulness of the sample.

In order to select appropriate sample of participant for the study, the frame of sampling or
population of all data served should be defined. Therefore, in this study the target
populations were grade 9 and 10 students of Guburie and Goro comprehensive secondary
and preparatory schools. Stratified simple random sampling and purposive sampling
techniques were used to collect a wide range of and in depth information for the study from
the selected students.

26
From three secondary schools in Wolkite town, namely Goro, Gubrie and Wolkite, by using
purposive sampling since Wolkite secondary school is new and recently started, two schools
selected. Stratified random sampling (listed according to sex differences), to select male and
female representatives for both grades and purposive sampling method and techniques were
also used for each group to identify sample students from rural and urban residential
background of the selected sample population.

3.3.1 Participants of the Study

This study as already stated, involved two secondary schools, that are found in Wolkite
town,namely Goro and Guburie .The research participants were students of the two schools,
who have urban and rural background female, male, grade nine and ten students.

Table 2: Target population and sample population

Sample Schools
Area of Study Grade Goro Guburie
Population Sample Population Sample
Wolkite town M F T M F T M F T M F T
Total population 9 700 569 1269 400 222 622
10 690 472 1162 313 136 449
Rural students 9 200 120 312 19 11 30 150 87 237 14 8 22
Urban students 9 500 449 949 51 45 96 250 135 385 26 15 41
Rural students 10 270 162 432 25 15 40 98 37 135 10 5 15
Urban students 10 420 310 730 45 32 77 215 99 314 21 9 30
Source: Field Survey of the two schools on March 2013.

From the total of 700 grade nine male students of Goro secondary school, ten percent (70)
students were selected. From the total of 569 female students of the same school ten percent
(56)female students were selected. The same technique was also applied to Guburie
secondary school of grade nine students i.e 40 male and 23 female students were selected
from the total of 400 and 222 male and female students respectively. Similarly from the total
of 690 male and 472 female grade ten students of Goro school, 70 male and 47 female
students were selected by using the same technique. At the same time, by applying the same
technique 31 male and 14 female grade ten students of Guburie school were selected from

27
the total of 313 and 136 male and female students respectively. Generally,from the total of
3502 target population ( students of grade 9 and 10 who are registered in the two schools in
2013) based on the above mentioned sampling methods i.e. simple stratified random
sampling, 351 students were selected as a sample of this study (210 male and 141 female)
students.

3.4 Data Collecting Instruments

The study employed both qualitative and quantitative research approach in order to
investigate important aspects of solid waste management. Therefore, the researcher used
data collection instruments such as questionnaire, interview and direct personal observation.
Direct personal observations involved visiting of solid waste dumping sites, and some
commercial areas and hotels. Interview was conducted for town beautification unit of
Wolkite municipality,urban health unit. The questionnaire was used to collect data from
the sample students. Moreover, two types of instruments were developed to assess students
awareness of and views about issues related to solid waste management. These are
awareness test and attitudinal scale. Both instruments were constructed on the bases of
extensive review of literature that was made so far.

Awareness Test

Students awareness of issues related to solid waste management was measured through
students response to items in the test like

* Their sources of environmental knowledge,

* Problems of solid waste management, and

* Appropriate measures to solve solid waste management

Attitude Scale

Students' views about issues related to the problem of solid waste management was
measured through their response to "attitude statements" The statements were drawn from
the following:

Importance of integrated solid waste management,


The present (current ) solid waste source, collection, storage, transportation,
disposal and composting mechanisms.

28
Measures to be taken to improve the current solid waste management, and
Ethical issues related to solid waste handling and management.

3.5 Methods of Data Analysis

The collected data was computed and analyzed using SPSS and numerical values and
percentage was used to summarize the calculated results. The difference between group
of students (boys and girls, grade level and urban/rural background) in their awareness
was analyzed and significance of the difference was tested using students T-test for
attitudinal data. Table values and the results were summarized using thematic analysis and
percentage.

29
CHAPTER FOUR

4. Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

4.1 Students' Awareness of and Views about Issues related to Solid Waste
Management

4.1.1 Awareness about issues related to solid waste management

Awareness about a given issue has been recognized as one of the major determinants that
shape the view, attitude, and practice of a community. A positive correlation between
students' level of awareness about issues related to environment and their attitude has been
supported by various literatures. Now a day's environmental problems in general and
mishandling of solid wastes in particular are among the leading causes for ill-health and
impediments for national development. It has been taken for granted that recognizing the
existing problems is the background for effective planning, resource mobilization and
introduction of feasible interventions. Thus, this study describes the source, associated effect,
and possible solutions to minimize unwanted effect of SW in view of study subjects.

In the awareness test instrument, requiring students to provide four sources, cause-effects,
possible strategies to minimize and control the problems of solid waste answers. Each of the
correct answer was given one point and the response provided by the students corrected out
of six for the three clustered questions.

For questions, introduced to assess the level of awareness and associated attitudes of
secondary school students about solid waste, out of 351 students, out of six, the average level
of awareness was found to be 3.7 for grade nine students while it was 4.0 among grade ten
students with 18.2 % and 23.7 % of grade nine and grade ten students respectively, having
maximum possible score while 4.5 % and 2.3% of the respective grade students showed the
least score (0 out of 6). For both grades the number of students who showed the maximum
level of awareness were found to be 72 out of 351 students, which is about 20.5 %.

With further analysis; considering a score of 4 out of 6 as an optimum level of awareness, the
findings showed that, 46 % of the grade nine and 36.4% of the grade ten students found to
achieve below the optimum level. Thus, based on the above preliminary analysis we can

30
conclude that among students involved in this study, those students selected from grade ten
showed a better awareness about issues associated with solid waste than grade nine students
(63.5% versus 54%). The detailed results of this section are indicated in table 3 below.

Table 3. Awareness Test Score: Achievements of Grade 9 and 10 Students about Issues
related to Solid Waste Management in Gurage Zone Wolkite Town, 2013.

Source: Field Survey of Study Area

Grade No of Performance (Score in %, (no of students) and average for each grades)
Level students
6 5 4 4 3 2 1 0 3 Average

Grade 9 189 18. 16. 19.5 54 22.4 15 4 4.5 46 3.7


2 4 (37) (102) (42) (28) (8) (9) (87)
(34) (31)

Grade 162 23. 20. 20 63.5 18.2 13.6 2.3 2.3 36.4 4.0
10 7 5 (32) (103) (29) (22) (4) (4) (59)
(38) (33)

Total 351 20. 17. 19.7 58.4 19.9 14.2 3.4 3.7 41.6 3.84
5 9 (205) (146)

4.1.2. Sources of Solid Waste

In developing solid waste management programs, it is important to identify the sources,


characteristics, and quantities of solid waste. This study focuses on assessing students
awareness with regards to identifying the local sources of solid waste.

As indicated on page 34, in table 5, more than half (56.4%) of the study participants indicated
commercial related activities as the major sources for solid waste generation in the study
area. This section, has fundamental importance in determining the types of collection service,
the types of collection vehicles to be used, the type of processing facilities, and the disposal
method to be used.

31
Sources of solid wastes in a community are, in general, related to commercial related
activities. Among five different sources of SW listed by 351 students, 274(78.1%) and 218
(62.1%) of students mentioned 'Chat' trading and household activities, respectively, as the
major sources for SW generation. The remaining sources include, road side mobile multiple
goods trading mentioned by 209(60%) students, while indoor business establishments such
as hotels, shops and others were mentioned by 188(53.6%) of students. Travelers who transit
to various regions of the country through the town also indicated by 164(47%) of the
students. It is worthwhile to note the fact that, the above depicted numbers and percentages
do not sum up to the grand total since each student listed more than one source for a question
raised in this regard.

32
Table 4. Sources of Solid Waste listed by Grade 9 and 10 in Gurage Zone Wolkite Town,
2013.

Grade 9 Grade 10 Total Percent

Source of
No % No %
the total

Chat trade 143 75.7 131 80.9 274 78.1

Household waste 115 61 103 64 218 62.1

Different fruit remnants from 111 59 98 60.4 209 60


roadside markets and juice
houses

Hotel waste 99 52.4 89 55 188 53.6

Plastic bags 97 51.3 84 52 181 52

Passengers generating wastes 85 45 79 49 164 47


like tissue paper & use and
throw materials

Plastic bottles 72 38 68 42 140 40

Waste from market areas 63 33.3 59 36.4 122 35

Source: Field Survey Results

Besides listing possible sources for SW, the students were requested to indicate which source
among they have listed, do they think is the leading one. Less than a quarter (22 %) of the
total students referred residential source as the first contributor, whereas a source from 'khat'
trading by19.6%, road side mobile multiple goods trading by14.8%, indoor business
establishments by13.4%, governmental institutions by12.3%, weekly based open-air markets
by8.5% of the total students expressed as prime contributors. 5.4% of the total students
pointed their finger towards passengers for leading sources of SW.
33
Although describing the quantity of solid waste generated by the above mentioned sources is
not the scope of this study, the qualitative data of this study generally showed that of the total
sources mentioned by students, 56.4% can be categorized as commercial, and the remaining
43.6% of the total collectively considered to be generated from residential, institutional and
other sources.
Table 5 Sources of solid waste based on type and magnitude in Gurage Zone Wolkite town,
2013.

Commercial sources 198 (56.4%) Non-commercial 153 (43.6%)


sources
Chat trading 69 (34.8%) Residential 77 (50.3%)
Road side multiple goods 52 (26.2%) Governmental 57 (37.3%)
trading institutions
Settled business 47 (23.6%) Travelers 19 (12.4%)
establishments
Other open-air markets 30(15.4%)

Source: Field Survey Result

4.1.3.The Effect of Solid Waste

The students were requested to mention four significant effects or consequences that solid
waste caused in the town and they listed more than seven major consequences of solid waste.
The majority of the students answered that 82 % bad smell, 81 % health problems like
common cold, typhoid, trachoma, diaharhea, malaria etc. 78 % affect the towns beauty and
75 % close drainage ditches were considered the four most important effects caused by solid
waste. In addition, breeding place for harmful insects, air pollution and water pollution were
also listed by more than half of the students as the four major effects and these account 71, 69
and 56 percent respectively. About 11%of the students answered increase in health treatment
expenditure as effect, while 4.8 students mentioned the economic impact when employees
and other productive manpower become absent from their work and production. Table 6,on
the next page shows consequences of solid waste.

34
Table 6 Students' Awareness about Consequence of Solid Waste

Consequence Grade 9 % Grade 10 % Total Total


no 189 no 162 no 351 %

Bad smell 146 77.2 142 88 288 82

Health problems like 143 75.7 140 86 283 81


common cold, typhoid,
trachoma, malaria, diarrhea
etc

Affect the town's beauty 138 73 135 83 273 78

Close drainage 133 70 129 80 262 75

Breeding place for harmful 126 67 123 76 249 71


insects

Air pollution 118 62 120 74 238 69

Water pollution 97 51 101 62 198 56

Lack of comfort in 46 24 37 23 83 24
residence areas

Increase health expenditure 20 10.5 18 11 38 11

Other 5 2.6 12 7.4 17 4.8

Source: Field Survey

4.1.4. Solutions to Minimize and Control problems of Solid Waste

Students response on the solution of solid waste problems mainly focused on handling the
problem at household level and municipality duties of creating awareness to the public on
wise handling of solid waste. The following table 7, summarized different solution factors as
fallows.

35
Table 7. Measures against Solid Waste Problems as Expected by Students

Proposed solutions Grade 9 % Grade 10 % Total Total


no 189 no 162 no 351 %

Well digging & burying 153 81 141 87 294 84

Burning of solid waste 147 78 139 86 286 81

Creating awareness on 137 72 128 79 265 75


wise handling of solid
waste

Employing waste 110 58 98 61 208 59


collecting workers at
kebele level

Continuous municipality 84 44 61 38 145 41


supervision on solid waste
handling

Taking legal measure 59 31 45 27 102 29

Prepare waste transport 30 16 21 13 51 16


vehicle

Use for fertilizer compost 9 5 11 7 20 5.7

Re use 2 1.05 6 3.7 8 2.3

Source: Field Survey

As shown in table7,well digging and burying solid waste was listed as the most important
solution by 84 % of the students and 81 % of them proposed burning of solid waste as
preferable solution. About threefourth of the respondents mentioned public awareness
creation as important solution to alleviate solid waste management problems. 59% of the
respondents answered that employing waste collecting workers at the kebele level help to
solve the problem. About 41 and 29 percent of the students forwarded continuous
municipality supervision and household solid waste handling and taking legal measures on

36
illegal waste dumpers respectively. Preparing waste transportation vehicle to solve solid
waste problem was proposed as a solution by16% of respondents. Using solid waste as
fertilizer after composting and re-use of waste are answered only by 5.7% and 2.3.% of the
respondents as a solution. These last two solutions, even though, proposed by few students,
are important for the sustainable solid waste management. But, the other solutions, that are
proposed to solve solid waste management problem seem to be traditional and this shows the
students awareness limitation on sustainable solid waste management. For instance, more
than half, i.e.69% of the students answered that solid waste can cause air pollution, but on
solution part 81 % the students provided burning solid waste as a solution to solve waste
management problem, which is directly polluting the air.

4.1.5. Municipal Data Analysis

The municipality of Wolkite town interviewed thirteen solid waste management related
questions. Concerning the municipalitys objectives on solid waste management during
interview, it forwarded that keeping the town neat and comfortable to its dwellers is the
primary objective. There is urban cleanness, beauty and parking service department in the
municipalitys organizational structure, which is directly accountable for the towns
cleanness. In addition, the municipality explained that, it is involving few micro enterprises
on solid waste management and their number is two, in the two sub-cities (kifle ketemas) of
the town, which constituted only 20 members.

With regard to the presence of waste storage containers, the municipality responded that, the
town has no waste storage containers, but there are four places that are serving as waste
collecting area and fenced by sheet metal and the municipality is using donkey drown carts
for transporting solid waste.

Concerning the presence of a river that crosses the town, the Municipality answered that,
there is a river that passes through the town and regarding the controlling mechanism that
dwellers not to dump solid waste in it, the municipality confirmed that the people do not
throw waste in it. But as the researcher observed that, the household waste that is dumped
openly everywhere enters the river by flood and it is exposed for pollution.

During the interview the municipality mentioned about the sources of solid waste and its
related problems. According to it, one of the factors that aggravate solid waste related
sanitation problem in the town is the absence of well organized solid waste collection and

37
disposal system. The main sources of solid waste in the town include household organic
waste 74% and commercial waste 26%. The total collection and transportation of solid waste
is estimated 8.6% by the municipal, 15.7% by small and micro enterprises, 15.71% by
unorganized individuals that use sacks to collect solid waste and transport using human
shoulder to waste collection site and 69.97% is disposed by households on open space,
ditches, and road sides .

As the municipality responded, it is working on awareness creation for the community about
the wise management of solid waste. The absence of any tradition of solid waste composting
further aggravated the unwise management of solid waste

Concerning the municipal solid waste open dump, it forwarded that currently it is using open
dump site, which harms the environment i.e. polluting the river Wabe, which is the tributary
of Gibe river.

Regarding the organizational strength and financial efficiency, the municipality is not well
organized so as to manage the solid waste and keep the town clean. As a result, concerning
the future plan to minimize the problem, it forwarded participating stakeholders and fund
raising to fulfill the necessary tools, equipments and vehicle so as to manage the solid waste
in sustainable manner.

4.1.6. Health Unit Data Analysis

About thirteen solid waste management related questions were administered for interview to
the town's health unit, so as to understand concerning solid waste management that the unit is
conducting.

Regarding the objective of the health unit on solid waste management, the unit responded
that, its main objective is dealt with awareness creation about solid waste, how to minimize
waste generation, proper disposal and reuse. As the main source of solid waste, the unit
mentioned organic and inorganic type of waste mainly khat, fruits and vegetable remnant
and different kinds of plastics.

The health unit answered about the type of diseases in dry and rainy seasons during the
interview that, there are no much diseases experienced in dry season. But in rainy season
malaria, different diarrhea disease, typhoid and common cold are the main diseases, which
solid waste is considered as part of their causes and the unit has the experience of supervising

38
solid waste dumping site using checklist. The unit agreed that, the current waste dumping
site causes pollution because it is not proper site for solid waste dumping.

Concerning the organizational structure, the unit has one health center and five offices run by
health extension workers and these bodies create awareness about solid waste proper disposal
and management. As a result open defection and poor solid waste disposal are showing
improvement through time.

As the health unit forwarded during the interview, awareness creation about solid waste
disposal to increase knowledge, attitude and practice at individual household and institutional
level is their future plan and objective of the focus area. In addition, the unit explained that, it
will strengthen the current legal measures, i.e. taking legal actions on institutions, who are not
fulfilling standard sanitation to deliver public services. But the health unit explained during
the interview that, the unavailability of waste transporting vehicle and shortage of finance
will be the main constraints for the wise management of solid waste in the town and as a
solution the unit forwarded that the government, mainly Gurage Zone Health Office and
Wolkite City Administration have to allocate enough budget and the unit will try to organize
fund raising programme.

4.2. Students' Views about Solid Waste Disposal

This study tried to present views reflecting the two sides of debate underlying solid waste
disposal. The researcher tried to identify the views of male and female students about solid
waste disposal and compared the percentage obtained from the data analyzed to differentiate
between different groups.

4.2.1. Views about Collective Responsibility for Solid Waste Disposal

Majority of students agreed that solid waste management is multi-sectorial activity that starts
from individuals who generate it. In this regards, 83.8 % male and 80 % female students
supported the view that anybody who generates solid waste should be responsible for safe
disposal and maintaining clean environment for next generation.

The study findings also showed that, the participation of key actors such as health unit, non-
governmental organizations and private sectors on solid waste management were insufficient.

39
This is revealed as only 24.7% of male and 32.1 % of female respondents agreed to the view
that Wolkite town health unit supervises and controls solid waste management periodically.

Significant difference has been seen between the two groups; as female students tend to agree
than males, towards the view solid waste disposal is the exclusive responsibility of the
Wolkite town municipality (p = 0.048). Hence, male students had been found to have a view
that affirms the need of integrated efforts.

Despite the fact that study participants showed variable stand on top of the degree of
community participation on solid waste management as only 43.6% male and 45.7% female
students supported the view that "in Wolkite town community participation on solid waste
management is insignificant when compared with the other sectors like road constriction,
education etc". A considerable percentage of both groups i.e. 25.2% male and 26.4%
female respondents did not support the same view. On the other hand 31% male and 27.9%
of female students are unable to decide on the same view. This could indicate that students of
both groups have inadequate view about comparing community participation in different
social and economic sectors of the town with solid waste management.

4.2.2. Views about the Role of Municipality on Solid Waste Disposal

While effectiveness of solid waste management depends on the meaningful participation of


individuals, communities and government institutions, and NGOs. The municipality is the
frontline actor in planning, organizing, monitoring, and implementing the overall Solid Waste
management. This study also tried to evaluate the view of students about the role of the local
municipality in terms of awareness creation, social mobilization, and organizational capacity.

Accordingly, of 351 students, only 106 (30.2%) supported the view that the Wolkite town
municipality is well organized to execute its responsibility. In addition, half of male and
41.4% female respondents agreed with the view that Wolikite town municipality could be
blamed for not inviting any private or non-governmental organizations to involve on solid
waste management, only 17.5% male and 23.6% female respondents did not agree with the
same view. While about 32.2% male and 35% female respondents are unable to decide. This
might be due to shortage of information about municipality solid waste management.

40
On the other hand, significant difference has been observed between the two groups
regarding the opinion that "the Wolkite town municipality does not have controlling
mechanism to protect the public against those who are dumping solid waste everywhere" with
female students showing favorable view than males (p = 0.042). While with no statistical
difference between the two groups, 78.6% of the students agreed with the view that the
existing method(Donkey pulling trolley) being used by the municipality for solid waste
transportation could not cover the whole town.

Thus, the preliminary assessment of this study showed that, the local municipality had
limitations in terms of awareness creation, social mobilization, and organizational capacity
and, through the tools having scales running from 1 to 5 (the smallest score being the most
favorable). The overall view of the study participants has been found to be favorable towards
safe disposal of Solid Waste (mean score = 2.6). The details have been presented in tables 8a
and8b,below and in the following page.
Table 8a.Test of Significance Difference on Students' Views about Solid Waste Disposal
Sex Grade level Residential place
Variables
M F 9th 10th Urban Rural
Mean 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.7
Statistical Values SD 1.1 1.2 1.12 1.04 1.12 1.2
Sig 0.31 0.25 0.21
Source: Field Survey

41
Table. 8b. Students' Views About Solid Waste Disposal

I II III IV V
Statements I+II IV+V Total
Sex SA Ag UN Dis Ag St.Dis Ag
M 12(5.7) 15(7.1) 9(4.3) 110(52.1) 65(30.8) 27(12.8) 175(82.9) 211(100)
Solid waste management is the
only duty of municipality
F 13(9.3) 14(10.0) 11(7.9) 65(46.4) 37(26.4) 27(19.3) 102(72.8) 140(100)

Wolkite town health unit M 21(10.0) 31(14.7) 67(31.8) 46(21.8) 46(21.8) 52(24.7) 92(43.6) 211(100)
supervises and controls solid waste
management periodically F 22(15.7) 23(16.4) 38(27.1) 25(17.9) 32(22.9) 45(32.1) 57(40.8) 140(100)

Anybody who generates solid


M 94(44.5) 83(39.3) 20(9.5) 9(4.3) 5(2.4) 177(83.8) 14(6.7) 211(100)
waste should consider the right of
others and next generation to get
safe and clean environment F 72(51.4) 40(28.6) 14(10.0) 5(3.6) 9(6.4) 112(80.0) 14(10.0) 140(100)
The main problem of the unwise
management of solid waste is ever M 76(36.0) 91(43.1) 19(9.0) 14(6.6) 11(5.2) 162(79.1) 25(11.8) 211(100)
increasing and expanding
economic activities like hotels, F 61(36.6) 44(31.4) 16(11.4) 9(6.4) 10(7.1) 105(68.0) 19(13.5) 140(100)
'chat' trading etc in Wolkite town
In Wolkite town community
participation on solid waste M 38(18.0) 54(25.6) 66(31.) 36(17.1) 17(8.1) 92(43.6) 53(25.2) 211(100)
management is insignificant when
compared with the other sectors
like road construction, education F 29(20.7) 35(25.0) 39(27.9) 20(14.3) 17(12.1) 64(45.7) 37(26.4) 140(100)
etc...

42
Wolkite town municipality can be
M 39(18) 67(31.7) 68(32.2) 19(9.0) 18(8.5) 106(50.2) 27(17.5) 211(100)
blamed for not inviting any private
or NGOS to involve on solid waste
management F 21(15) 37(26.4) 49(35.0) 21(15.0) 12(8.6) 58(41.4) 33(23.6) 140(100)
Wolkite town municipality do not
have the controlling mechanism to M 62(29) 61(28.9) 40(19.0) 25(11.8) 23(10.9) 123(58.3) 48(22.7) 211(100)
control those, who are dumping sold
waste filled with sacks everywhere
along the road and near residential F 58(41) 29(20.7) 31(22.1) 12(7.9) 10(7.1) 87(62.1) 22(15.7) 140(100)
areas
The use of traditional donkey pulling
trolley for solid waste M 63(29.) 78(37.0) 32(15.2) 21(10.0) 17(8.1) 141(66.9) 38(18.1) 211(100)
transportation, cold not cover the
whole town with in short period of
time and resulted in insignificant F 58(41.) 29(20.7) 31(22.1) 12(8.6) 10(7.1) 87(62.1) 22(15.7) 140(100)
solid waste management
Wolkite town municipality is well M 20(9.5) 41(19.4) 57(27.0) 49(23.2) 44(20.7) 61(28.9) 93(43.9) 211(100)
organized to efficiently perform
solid waste management of the town F 17(12.) 28(20.0) 46(32.9) 22(15.7) 27(19.3) 45(32.1) 49 (35.0) 140(100)
Wolkite town municipality is
M 22(10.) 39(18.5) 50(23.7) 48(22.7) 52(24.6) 61(28.9) 100(47.3) 211(100)
creating public awareness on its
clean and beautification plans
periodically F 20(14.) 29(20.7) 34(24.3) 27(19.3) 30(21.4) 49(35.0) 57(40.7) 140(100)

Source: Field Survey

43
4.3. Analysis of Data on Environmental problems

In this section of the study, view of students regarding environmental problems in Ethiopia
generally, and in the study area specifically has been assessed.

About 68 % of the study participants (69 % and 67.3% from grade nine and ten, respectively)
agreed that lack of integrated and sustainable solid waste management system is a common
problem of Ethiopian towns, while nearly one out of three students, were found either to
disagree or failed to decided to the same view. No statistical difference has been seen for this
disparity of view with the three major variables of this study; Sex, Grade level and
Residence, as p value is greater than 0.05(see table, 9b,on page 48).

On the other hand, 82% of grade nine and 95% of grade ten students found to have
unfavorable stand to a view in Ethiopia one should not worry about solid waste, since our
main goals are growth and development. From this point of view, it seems that majority of
the study participants have unified outlook to the fact that environmental issues should be the
integral part of Nations growth and development plan.

Meanwhile, around 59 % and 75 % of grade nine and ten students respectively, showed
disagreement to a view Wolkite town does not have solid waste management problems. In
this case, more variability in view has been seen among grade nine students than grade ten as
one fourth of the earlier groups have fallen to a category of undecided while only 15 % of
the later ones have been found in the same category. Despite this dispersion, the observed
difference is not statistically significant (p = 0.1).

Interestingly, majority of the study participants from both grade levels showed favorable
view towards collective responsibility to SWM in their residence area; by revealing
promising view to be part of the program, than blaming someone else. This is evidenced by
their agreement to views It is not fair to make Wolkite town municipality accountable for the
unwise management of solid waste management, and We have the responsibility to inform
our parents about the wise management of solid waste.

Health related impact of Solid Waste as well as the possible contribution of science and
technology to effective management and utilization of Solid Waste also acknowledged by the
study participants.

44
About 84% of grade nine and 90% of grade ten students found to realize that unwise handling
and management of solid waste could harm human health and 65.6% and 72.6% of students
of respective grade levels appeared to have favorable accord to a view Science and
Technology can overcome any environmental problems.

Findings of this study regarding effectiveness of awareness creation activities that have been
provided by Health Extension Workers (HEWs) and at school level yield unreliable
information.

For instance, out of 351 students, only 46% of the students showed favorable view for the
statement; awareness creation activities by the HEWs on wise handling and management of
solid waste is not bringing desired improvement in the town whereas, about 30% of them
showed unfavorable view while the remaining 24% of the students failed to decide.

Meanwhile, a view Education being offered at your School could not help to improve solid
waste management of Wolkite town found to be unfavorable view by 52% of the study
participants while 29% of the students showed favorable view and 19% of them remained
undecided.

As significant proportion of study participants (54% and 48% respectively) did not disagree
to the above mentioned views, it seems difficult to understand the view of the study
participants clearly. Thus, we prefer to recommend supplementation of other studies that
bridge this gap.

The detailed information about views of study participants about environmental problems and
associated issues; as analyzed by grade level and test of significance of difference for sex,
grade level and residential place have been presented in the following pages in table 9a and
9b.

45
Table 9a. Students' Views About Environmental Problems

Statements Grade I II III IV V Total I+II IV+V


level
SA AG UN DIS AG ST.DIS
AG
Lack of integrated and sustainable 9th 62 68 34 11 14 189(100) 130 25
solid waste management system is a (68.8) (13.2)
common problem of Ethiopian 10th 49 60 35 10 8 162(100) 109 18
towns (67.3) (11.1)
In Ethiopia one should not worry 9th 7 (3.7) 15 (7.9) 12 (6.3) 65 90 (47.6) 189 (100) 22 155 (82)
about solid waste since our main (34.4) (11.6)
goals are growth and development 10th 2 (1.2) 2 (1.2) 4 (2.5) 74 80 (49.4) 162 (100) 4 (2.4) 154
(45.7) (95.1)
It is not fair to make Wolkite town 68 76 144 29
9th 16 (8.5) 18 (9.5) 11 (5.8) 189 (100)
municipality accountable for the (36.0) (40.2) (76.2) (15.3)
unwise management of solid waste 48 80 19 128 27
10th 7 (4.5) 8 (4.9) 162 (100)
management (29.6) (49.2) (11.7) (78.8) (16.6)
The unwise handling and 120 38 158 22
9th 9 (4.8) 7 (3.7) 15 (7.9) 189 (100)
management of solid waste harms (63.5) (20.0) (83.5) (11.6)
human health 95 50 145
10th 6 (3.7) 3 (1.9) 8 (4.9) 162 (100) 11(6.8)
(58.6) (30.9) (89.5)
Science and Technology can 9th 54 70 29 (15.3) 17 (9.0) 19 (10.1) 189 (100) 124 36
overcome any environmental (28.6) (37.0) (65.6) (19.1)
problems 10th 48 70 23 (14.2) 14 (8.6) 7 (4.3) 118 21
162 (100)
(29.6) (43.2) (72.6) (12.9)
We have the responsibility to tell our 123 36 159
9th 17 (9.0) 4 (2.1) 9 (4.8) 189 (100) 13 (6.9)
parents about the wise management (65.1) (19.0) (84.1)
of solid waste 10th 90 60 6 (3.7) 5 (3.1) 1 (0.6) 162 (100) 150 6 (3.7)
46
(55.6) (37.0) (92.6)
Awareness creation activities by the 26 44 30 70 63
9th 56 (29.6) 33 (17.5) 189 (100)
HEWs on wise handling and (13.8) (23.3) (15.9) (37.1) (33.4)
management of solid waste is not
26 65 21 91 42
bringing desired improvement in the 10th 29 (17.9) 21 (13.0) 162 (100)
(16.0) (40.1) (13.0) (56.1) (26.0)
town
Wolkite Town does not have solid 11 21 62 32 111
9th 46 (24.3) 49 (25.9) 189 (100)
waste management problems (5.8) (11.1) (32.8) (16.9) (58.7)
60 16 122
10th 3 (1.9) 13 (8.0) 24 (14.8) 62 (38.3) 162 (100)
(37.0) (9.9) (75.3)
Education being offered at your 9th 17 32 38 (20.1) 50 52 (27.5) 49 102 (54)
189 (100)
School could not help to improve (9.0) (16.9) (26.5) (25.9)
solid waste management of Wolkite 19 34 49 53 80
10th 29 (17.9) 31 (19.1) 162 (100)
town (11.7) (21.0) (30.2) (32.7) (49.3)

Source: Field Survey

47
Test of Significance of Difference on Environmental Problems among the Students' View

This study showed the Level of difference on environmental problems among the Students. The details of
gender, grade level and residential place-based differences in environmental problems are presented in the
following table.

Table 9b:Test of Students' View Significant Difference on Environmental Problems

Sex Grade Level Residence


Male Female 9th 10th Urban Rural
al values Mean 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.6
Statistic

SD 1.35 1.13 1.60 1.05 1.24 1.18


Sig. 0.48 0.1 0.21

Source: Field Survey Data Result

4.4. Views about Source of Solid Waste

One of the focus of this study was investigation of students' view about sources of solid waste. 244 urban and 107 rural resident students were
requested to answer 5 items about source of solid waste. Table 12 on the next page shows the analysis of the response of both group.

48
Table 10. Students' Views about Sources of Solid Waste

Residential I II III IV V
No Statements I+II IV+V
place SA Ag UN Dis Ag St.Dis Ag Total
The high traffic that
passes through the town Urban 42(17.2) 93(38.1) 58(23.8) 35(14.3) 16(6.1) 135(55.3) 51(20.4) 244(100)
to different parts of the
country is one source of
1. solid waste in Wolkite
town Rural 18(16.8) 21(19.6) 35(32.7) 10(9.3) 23(21.5) 39(36.4) 33(30.8) 107(100)

The increase in solid


waste accumulation in Urban 51(20.9) 95(38.9) 32(13.1) 35(14.3) 31(12.7) 146(59.8) 66(27.0) 244(100)
Wolkite town is the result
2. of population growth
Rural 22(20.6) 30(28.0) 23(21.5) 15(14.0) 17(15.9) 52(48.6) 32(29.9) 107(100)
Solid waste generation of
3. a given country is a direct Urban 66(27.6) 75(30.7) 37(15.2) 43(17.6) 23(9.4) 141(58.3) 66(27.0) 244(100)
reflection of the
economic status and
quality of life in that
country Rural 24(22.4) 34(31.8) 27(25.2) 11(10.3) 11(10.3) 58(54.2) 22(20.6) 107(100)

In Wolkite town high


income groups generate Urban 60(24.6) 82(33.6) 41(16.8) 39(16.0) 22(9.0) 142(58.2) 61(25.0) 244(100)
more solid waste than
4. low income groups 21(19.6) 22(20.6) 36(33.6) 10(9.3) 18(16.8) 43(40.2) 28(26.1) 107(100)
Rural
Countries that have
5. higher per-capita GDP Urban 36(14.8) 56(23.0) 85(34.8) 41(16.8) 26(10.7) 92(37.8) 67(27.5) 244(100)
obviously will have lower
generation of solid waste
25(23.4) 13(12.1) 42(39.3) 21(19.6) 6(5.6) 38(35.5) 27(25.2) 107(100)
Rural

49
To the view that "the high traffic that passes through the town to different parts of the country
is one source of solid waste in Wolkite town" 55.3% urban and 36.4% rural student
respondents agreed, while 20.4% urban and 30.8%rural students did not agree for the same
view. In addition, 23.8% urban and 32.7% rural respondents are unable to decide whether the
high traffic is source of solid waste or not. The researcher observed some view difference
between the two groups.

About 59.8% urban and 48.6% rural students supported the view that the increases in solid
waste accumulation in Wolkite town is the result of population growth and 27% urban and
29.9% rural students did not support such a view. It was expected high percentage of
supportive views for the question because population growth on one way or the other can
contribute for solid waste accumulation and environmental degradation. 13.1% urban and
21.5% rural students are unable to agree or disagree on the relation between population
growth and waste accumulation. More than half of the respondents from both groups i.e.
58.3% urban and 54.2% rural students agreed with the view that solid waste generation of a
given country is a direct reflection of the economic status and quality of life in that country.
But 27% urban and 20.6% rural students did not agree with this view and 15.2% urban and
25.2% rural student respondents unable to decide.

About 58.2% urban and 40.2% rural residence based students supported the view that in
Wolkite town high income groups generate more solid waste than low income groups and
25% urban and 26.1% rural based students did not agree with the same view but 16.8% urban
and considerable percentage i.e. 33.6% rural students are unable to decide whether high
income groups generate more solid waste than low-income groups .

The view that countries that have higher per capita GDP (Gross Domestic Product) obviously
will have lower generation of solid waste has gained 37.8% urban and 35.5% rural students
support and 27.5% urban and 25.2% rural student respondents did not support the view
suddenly 34.8% urban and 39.3% rural students are unable to decide about this view.

Generally, both groups of the students have favorable attitude towards solid waste sources
and on average scored 2.7 on the scale running from one to five, while rural students scored
2.8 and urban students score 2.6 on the same scale and there is no significant difference
statistically between the group.

50
4.5.Students'Views about Solid Waste Store and Composting

The study also focused on researching students view about solid waste storage and
composting. 211male and 140 female students were asked to answer 5 items of view and all
of the questions were responded. Table 11,on the next page, shows the analysis of the data.

51
Table 11. Students' View about Solid Waste Storage and Composting

I II III IV V
No Statements Sex I+II IV+V Total
SA Ag UN Dis. Ag St.Dis Ag
1. Solid waste can be used as
source of energy generation M 31(14.7) 62(29.4) 65(30.8) 26(12.3) 27(12.8) 93(44.1) 53(25.1) 211(100)

F 31(22.1) 31(22.1) 42(30.0) 19(13.6) 17(12.2) 62(44.2) 36(25.8) 140(100)


2. Solid waste can be used as
fertilizer after its M 53(25.1) 84(39.8) 41(19.4) 15(7.1) 18(8.5) 137(64.9) 33(15.6) 211(100)
decomposition in Wolkite
town. F 48(34.3) 50(35.7) 17(12.1) 13(9.3) 12(8.6) 98(70.0) 25(17.9) 140(100)
3. One should not blame Wolkite
town dwellers for their unwise M 46(21.8) 45(21.3) 38(18.0) 46(21.8) 36(17.1) 91(43.1) 82(38.9) 211(100)
disposal of solid waste, since
there are no waste storage F 27(19.3) 32(22.9) 20(14.3) 24(17.1) 37(26.4) 59(42.2) 61(43.5) 140(100)
areas in the town
4. The urban agricultural unit of
M 45(21.3) 73(34.6) 50(23.7) 28(13.3) 15(7.1) 118(55.9) 43(20.4) 211(100)
Wolkite town is not trying to
change solid waste into
F 33(23.6) 37(26.4) 46(32.9) 15(10.7) 9(6.4) 70(50.1) 24(17.1) 140(100)
compost
5. In Wolkite town dwellers store
their household solid waste M 54(25.6) 67(31.8) 43(20.4) 14(6.6) 33(15.6) 121(57.4) 47(22.2) 211(100)
using sacks because of lack of
waste storage containers F 53(37.9) 44(31.4) 21(15.0) 10(7.1) 12(8.6) 97(69.3) 22(15.7) 140(100)
Source: Field Survey

52
The view that solid waste can be used as source of energy generation favored by 44.1% male and
44.2% female respondents, while 25.1% male and 25.8% female respondents did not support this
view. About 30.8% male and 30% female respondents were unable to decide whether solid waste
serve as energy generation or not. In fact, nowadays solid waste serves as energy generation
using different technologies.

About 64.9% male and 70% female student respondents agreed to the view that solid waste can
be used as fertilizer after its decomposition in Wolkite town and 15.6% male and 17.9% female
respondents did not agree to this view. In this case in general terms the agreement of majority of
the students of both groups is correct but their view about using solid waste as a fertilizer in the
study area is not well observed, because the interview results with the urban Municipality and
Health unit of the town did not show such experience.

Almost nearly the same percentage i.e. 43.15 male and 42.1% female respondents supported the
view that one should not blame Wolkite town dwellers for their unwise disposal of solid waste,
since there are no waste storage containers and areas in the town. But considerable percentage
i.e. 38.9% male and 43.5% female respondents disagree with this view. The remaining 18.8%
male and 14.3% females were undecided about the view.

The view that the urban agricultural unit of Wolkite town is not trying to change solid waste in to
compost is supported by 55.9% male and 50.1 female respondents while 20.4% male and 17.1
female respondents disagreed with the same view. But about 23.7% male and 32.95 female
respondents are unable to express their view and remained undecided.

About 57.4% male and 69.3% female respondents agreed with the view that in Wolkite town
dwellers store their household solid waste using sacks because of lack of waste storage
containers. But 22.2% male and 15.7% female respondents did not agree with this view. 20.45%
male and 15% female respondents remained undecided.

On the whole, both groups of students showed favorable attitude towards solid waste storage and
composting. They scored average of 2.6 on the scale running from one to five, while males
scored 2.6 and females scored 2.5 on the same scale and there is statistically no significant
difference between the group.

53
4.6. Students' Environmental knowledge Source

This study tried to identify the source of students environmental knowledge. Five items that were
considered to be possible sources of knowledge about solid waste in the environment are
administered to each item as source of environmental knowledge four scale measuring options
i.e., 1. (not at all ) (NAA), 2. ALitt (Little) 3. QuiB (quit. bit) and 4. V. much( very much) were
being used. The students' source of environmental knowledge is analyzed as followed.

Table 12. Students' Source of Environmental Knowledge

I II III IV
No Statements Sex Total
NAA ALITT Qui. B V. Much
61 61 38 211
Various school education M 51 (24.0)
(29.0) (29.0) (18.0) (100)
1. systems (primary and
40 140
secondary ) F 30(21.4) 37(26.4) 33(23.6)
(28.6) (100)
2. 38 64
M 44 (20.9) 65(30.8) 211(100)
Electronic media (TV, Radio (18.1) (30.3)
etc ..) 32 40 140
F 17(12.1) 51(36.4)
(22.9) (28.6) (100)
3. 57 55
M 44 (21.0) 55 (26) 211(100)
Printed materials (Books , (27.0) (26.0)
news papers magazines etc .. ) 30 47
F 20(14.3) 43(30.7) 140(100)
(21.4) (33.6)
4. 29 (13.8) 56 62 64 211(100)
M
(26.5) (29.4) (30.3)
Parent and friends
21(15.0) 23 35 (25.0 61(43.3) 140
F
(16.4) (100)
5. 71 (33.6) 33 56 51 211
M
(15.7) (26.5) (24.2) (100)
Self experience
33(23.6) 31 38 38(27.1) 140(100)
F
(22.2) (27.1)

54
Source: Field Survey

NAA = Not at all A litt = A little Qui. B = Quite a bit V. much. very much

As shown in table 12, 211 male and 140 female students responded for the items, that measure
the source and level of their environmental knowledge. For item 1, i.e. various school education
systems (primary and secondary) education as a source of environmental knowledge only 18% of
males responded that various school education systems provide knowledge very much for them
and 23.6% of males consider various education systems could not provide environmental
knowledge for them and responded not at all response. Various education systems serve as
source of knowledge for majority of male respondents on a little and quite bit manner which is
29% percent each that means the knowledge that they gain from education system is not
satisfactory. For the same item female student responded that 23.6% various education systems
provide knowledge very much, while 21.4% of students responded various education systems
not at all provide environmental knowledge for them. Like that of male students majority of
females, 26.4 and 28.6% responded a little and quite a bit respectively. But when compared with
their male counterparts female students better understand their environment using the knowledge
that they gained at various school education system.

Item 2 on previous page in table12, shows that electronic media (TV, Radio, etc..) serve as
source of environmental knowledge for 20.9% of male respondents and 12.1% of females
electronic media not at all provide environmental knowledge for them. In addition, 18.1% and
30.8% of male respondents answered a little and very much electronic media can be source of
environmental knowledge. But for the same item majority of female respondents, i.e. 36.4%
responded that, electronic media (TV, Radio ,etc) were serve for them very much as source of
environmental knowledge and only 12.1% of them responded electron media not at all provide
knowledge for them, while 22.9 and 28.6% of females responded a little and quite a bit
could be source of environmental knowledge. When, we compare male and female students on
using electronic media as a source of environmental knowledge female students showed better
performance.

Concerning item3, in table 12, printed materials (books, news papers ,magazines etc) as a
source of environmental knowledge, 21% of males responded printed materials not at all could

55
be source of knowledge, while 26.2% t of male students responded printed materials very much
can be source of environmental knowledge. But majority of males respondents i.e. 26.2 and
26.7% responded a little and quite a bit respectively. Only 14.2% of female respondents
consider not at all printed materials could be source of environmental knowledge, but 31.2% of
them accept printed materials can be very much source of knowledge. Like that of their male
counter parts majority of female respondents i.e., 21.3 and 33.3% answered "a little and quite
a bit respectively for printed materials as source of environmental knowledge. But female
students better use printed materials as a source of environmental knowledge than that of male.

Item 4, table 12, Indicates using parents and friends as a source of environmental knowledge and
30.5% of male respondents answered very much and 13.8% only answered not at all. But still
majority of male responders 26.7 and 29% responded A little and quite a bit" parents and
friends can be a source of environmental knowledge. About 43.3% of female students responded
that parents and friends can be source of knowledge, while 15.6% of them answered not at all
parents and friends can be source of environmental knowledge.

About 16.3% and 24.8% females responded a little and quite a bit that parents and friends
could be source of environmental knowledge. In this case, even though there is some degree of
difference on considering parents and friends as a source of environmental knowledge between
the two sex, the majority of male respondent and female considered parents and friends as a
source of environmental knowledge i.e. 30.5%males and 43.3% females.

Concerning item 5, in table 12, using self experience as source of environmental knowledge
33.8% of male students answered that their self experience not at all could be source of
knowledge, while 24.3% of them answered very much. But 15.2 and 26.7% responded a
little and quite a bit on using self experience as source of environmental knowledge. But
female students responded that 24.1% self experience not at all be source of knowledge while
27% of them consider very much Self experience could be source of knowledge, but 22 and
27% almost half of them responded a little and quite a bit respectively. When both sex
compared on using self experience as source of environmental knowledge, female students better
use and consider self experience as source of environmental knowledge. The researcher believe
this is because most of the time females in general have close relationship with the environment
and develop different experiences concerning the environment than males.

56
4.6.1:Students' Sources of Environmental Knowledge based on grade level

189 grade 9 and 162 grade 10 students totally 351 respondents answered five items that were
possibly provide students source of environmental knowledge. The following table 13 show the
analysis of the result.

Table 13. Students' source of Environmental Knowledge based on Grade level

No Grade NAA ALITT Qui. B V. Much Total


Statements
level
1. Various Education systems 9th 47 56 (30.0) 49 37(19.5) 189(100)
(primary and secondary) (24.9) (25.8)
10th 33(20.4) 43 (26.5) 52 34(21.1) 162(100)
(32.1)
2. Electronic media (TV, 9th 35 41 (21.7) 55 58(30.7) 189(100)
Radio etc ) (18.5) (29.1)
10th 26(16.0) 29 (17.9) 49 58(35.8) 162(100)
(30.2)
3. Printed materials (Books, 9th 34(17.9) 50(26.4) 58 52(27.5) 189(100)
newspapers magazines (30.7)
etc ) 10th 31 34 (20.9) 45 52(32.9) 162(100)
(19.1) (27.7)
4. Parents and friends 9th 26 44 (23.2) 49 72(38.0) 189(100)
(13.7) (25.9)
10th 27(16.6) 35(21.6) 47(29.0) 53(32.7) 162(100)
5. Self experience 9th 41 38 (20.1) 58 52(27.5) 189(100)
(21.6) (30.7)
10th 36(22.2) 35(21.6) 43(26.5) 48(29.6) 162(100)
Source: Field Survey

- NAA= not at all - ALITT= a little - QUI.B= quite bit -V. MUCH= very much

57
Only 19.5% of grade 9 and 21.1% of grade 10 students support that various education systems
provide for them knowledge about their environment. This indicates that the environmental
education that included in the various school education system has a limitation on achieving its
desired goals. Majority of the students in both grades considered that various education systems
could provide a little or quite bite knowledge of environment. For instance as shown in table 13,
30% of grade 9 and 26.5% of grade 10 students agreed that, the education system provide a little
knowledge, while 25.8% of grade 9 and 32.1% of grade 10 students supported that, it could
provide quite bit knowledge about the environment. The rest, 24.9% of grade9 and 20.4 % of
grade10 students considered various education system not at all provide environmental
knowledge for them.

Concerning using electric medias like television, radio etc considerable percentage of students
from both grades i.e.30.7% of grade 9 and 35.8% of grade 10 students supported that media
could be very much sources of environmental knowledge, while 29.1% of grad 9 and 30.2% of
grade 10 students considered media could provide quite bit environmental knowledge. About
18.5% of grade 9 and16.0% of grad 10 students considered that media not all uses as source of
environmental knowledge.

It is obvious that printed materials like books, newspapers, magazines etc serve as source of
different kinds of knowledge. About 27.5% of grade 9 and 32.9% of grade 10 students agreed
that printed materials could serve very much as source of environmental knowledge, while
17.9% of grade 9and 19.1% of grade 10 students considered printed materials not at all could be
their source of environmental knowledge. This shows that, even though environmental issues are
included in the school curricula of the country's various education systems, there is a problem on
its implementation. For instance students of grade 9 and 10 as shown in the table considered
printed materials like books and others could not provide environmental knowledge in
satisfactory manner for them. But in reality Printed materials in general and books in particular
can provide environmental knowledge for anybody, who read them mainly for student.

About 38 % of grade 9 and 32.7% of grade 10 students agreed that parents and friends could be
very much source of environmental knowledge and 13.7% of grade 9 and 16.6% of grade 10
students considered that parents and friends not at all could be source of environmental
knowledge. In this case grade 9 students showed greater performance on using parents and

58
friends as a source of knowledge when compared with grade 10 students 23.2% of grade 9 and
21.6% of grade 10 students accept that parents and friends could be a little source of
environmental knowledge and about 25.9% of grade 9and 29.0% of grade 10 students considered
parents and friends quite bit source of environmental knowledge.

Concerning using self experience as a source of environmental knowledge about 27.5% of


grade9 and 29.6% of grade 10 students agreed that it is very much source of knowledge for them
about the environment. But 22.6% of grade 9 and about 22.2% of grade 10 students did not
support using self experience as a source of environmental knowledge.

In general, with regard to source of environmental knowledge of students, without any


difference among various sex, residential area and grade level(grade 9 and 10) did not show
encouraging views on using various education systems(primary and secondary) as source of
environmental knowledge for them. They gave more positive views for electronic media like
Television, Radio etc than using education and printed materials like books, magazine,
newspapers etc so as to get environmental knowledge. They scored average of 2.5 for various
education system,2.9 for using electronic media and 2.7 for using printed materials including
books on the scale running from one to four, where scoring one is lowest and scoring 4 is highest
achievement. The students Seem to have better views on using their parents and friends as
source of environmental knowledge and scored 2.8 average on the same scale.

59
CHAPTER FIVE

5. Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1.Conclusion

On the whole, environmental education, that is being delivered in the study area with the
integration of other subjects is weaker on achieving its desired goal of awareness creation among
the students. On the awareness level measuring questions, which are related with solid waste
sources, cause-effects and possible strategies to minimize the effect, only 20.5 percent of the
students achieved maximum score and the remaining students scored 3.8 and below, being
maximum score is 6. So, the findings of this study indicated that, environmental education being
delivered created shallow knowledge among the students. On awareness level, though
statistically not significant, slight difference has been seen between grade 9 and 10 students and
each on average scored 3.7 and 4.0 out of 6 respectively.

Even though, environmental education , that is included in the school curricula expected to be
preferable source of environmental knowledge for the students, the results of this study showed
that, the reality on the ground is different from expectations. The majority of the students
without any difference, did not show encouraging views on using school education as source of
knowledge rather the students tended towards electronic media like Television, Radio, parents
and friends and printed materials like books, magazines as source of environmental knowledge.

Generally, the students without any significant difference among their various grade level, sex
and their residential background , have expressed their favorable attitude towards solid waste
disposal, solid waste related environmental problems and solid waste storage and composting.
They scored 2.6 average on the scale running from one to five, where scoring one is the highest
achievement and scoring five is the lowest.

60
5.2. Recommendations

A noticeable gap is observed among students of different groups on their level of awareness of
and views about environmental issues in general and solid waste management in particular. It is
known that environmental education is included in the different subjects of the country's
education system. But as this study showed, the students are not considering the education
system in general and environment education in particular as source of knowledge about the
environment for them. As a result this study recommended that:

- The educators, who are offering environmental education in common with their major
subjects have to get capacity building in relation to environmental education delivery and
other related issues periodically so as to improve its quality in order to create substantial
awareness among the students.
- The methodology of environmental education delivery should include practical teaching
and learning about the environment which enable the students to observe their
surrounding environment and understand about it.
- There should be continual supervision of environmental education implementation and
the attainment of the desired goals by Zonal and Regional education Bureaus and
Ministry of Education.
- There has to be continuous revision of environmental education teaching and learning
materials in line with the dynamics of the environment and have to be provided to
schools on time and properly.
- In the long term environmental education should be delivered as an independent subject
at all levels of educational system by trained professional teachers.
- Environmental education delivery from secondary to university level should include
technology in its curriculum, teaching and learning materials so as to get information
about technological advancement and its consequent impact on the environment.
- Formation of environmental forum from grassroots level to Ministry of Education and
involving private sectors and NGOs on the environmental conservation and awareness
creation.
- In the case of Wolkite town there should planned and integrated public awareness
creation on sustainable solid waste management.

61
- By organizing enterprises and using Briquette technology have to start changing solid
waste in to charcoal and contribute for protection of deforestation.
- Organization and strengthening of pro-environmental clubs in schools have to get due
attention and encouraging students to actively participate.

62
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Annex1

A. Questionnaire to be completed by students of grade nine and ten

Dear students:-

This questionnaire is meant to gather information for a study on aspect of environmental


education. I hope that the research out comes contribute to the betterment of environment
education in Ethiopian schools.

Please note that the response you give will not have any negative impact on you as a
student or your school.

Further more, you do not need to write your name on the questionnaire. What is needed is
the response you give to the issues raised. Just feel free and write only what you think is correct.

Part one

Please give the required information either in written or by putting an () mark on the
appropriate space.

Note:-

1. All issues in the questionnaire (including those addressed in the masculine terms) apply
equally to male and female students.
2. You may raise your hands up and ask for clarification for any ambiguity.
3. There is no time limit.
A. write appropriate information on the space provided below.
1. Name of the school ____________________________
2. Your age _____________________
3. Your sex, male __ female ____
4. Your grade level, grade nine ______ ten ____
5. Your place of residence. Urban ______ rural ______

Parte two :-

Please give your response to the following inquiries as you can.

1. What do you think the main sources of solid waste in wolkite town. Please write only five of
such sources which you think are most series ones in order of importance.
1st ____________________________
2nd ___________________________
3rd ___________________________
4th ___________________________
5th ___________________________
2. Would you please mention some of the consequences that, the above solid wastes, you
mentioned caused? Write only four of the consequences that you think are most significant
ones in order of importance.
1st ____________________________
2nd ___________________________

3rd ___________________________

4th ___________________________

3. Please mention only four of the possible mechanisims to minimize or control the problems of
solid waste management. Write only four of the solutions that you think are the most
important once in order of significance.
1st ____________________________
2nd ___________________________
3rd ___________________________
4th ___________________________
4. What problems do you think results from the unwise management of solid waste on the
towns environment. Please write only three of such problems which you think are the most
serious once in order importance.
1st ____________________________
2nd ___________________________
3rd ___________________________
5. Where do your families and surrounding neighbors dispose their household waste? Please
write only four of the possible disposal mechanisms.
1. ___________________________
2. ___________________________
3. _________________________

4.__________________________

6. What solutions do you propose to minimize the unwise disposal of solid waste and to keep the
environment clean?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Part three :-

Please read each of the following statements very carefully and decide whether you.
Strongly agree Agree disagree or strongly disagree. If you can not agree or disagree, then
mark undecided. Put an ( ) mark in the appropriate box to indicate your opinion.
Note
One statement can have an() mark only once.
No Statement Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Disagree
1. Solid waste management is the only duty of municipality
2. In Ethiopia one should not be worried about solid wastes, since our
main goal is growth and development.
3. Wolkite town do not have solid waste management problem and it is
neat and comfortable for its residents.
4. It is not faire to make Wolkite town municipality accountable for the
unwise management of solid waste
5. The unwise handling and management of solid waste harms human
health.
6. The high traffic that passes through the town to different parts of the
country is one source of solid waste in Wolkite town
7. The increase in solid waste accumulation in Wolkite town is the
result of population growth
8. One of the major environmental and economic problems facing
Ethiopia to day is emanate from unsustainable management of solid
waste.
9. Solid waste can be used as source of energy generation
10. Solid waste can be used as fertilizer after its decomposition in
Wolkite town
11. Wolkite town health unit supervises and controls solid waste
management periodically.
12. We have the responsibility to inform our parents about the wise
management of solid waste.
13. Awareness creation for the towns dwellers by heath extension
workers on wise handling and management of solid waste is not
bringing desired improvement.
14. One should not blame Wolkite town dwellers for their unwise
disposal of solid waste, since there are no waste storage areas in the
town.
15. Education being offered at your school could not
help to improve solid waste management of Wolkite
town.
16. Wolkite town municipality is well organized to
efficiently perform solid waste management of the
town
17. Wolkite town municipality is creating public
awareness on its clean and beautification plans
periodically
18. Solid waste generation of a given country is a direct
reflection of the economic status and quality of life
in the country
19. Any body, who generates solid waste should consider
the right of others and next generation to get safe and
clean environment.
20. In Wolkite town high income groups generate more
solid waste than low income groups.
21. The main problem of the unwise management of
solid waste is ever increasing and expanding
economic activities like hotel, chat trading etc
22. In Wolkite town community participation on solid
waste management is insignificant when compared
with the other sectors like road construction,
education etc ..,
23. Dumping solid wastes in the center of the town and
open areas contributes for air pollution.
24. The current municipal waste damping site of Wolkite
town can cause water pollution and other
environmental degradation
25. One of the major problems facing Ethiopian today, is
unsustainable solid waste management
26. Wolkite town municipality could be blamed for not
inviting any private or NGOs to involve on solid
waste management

27. Wolkite town municipality do not have the


controlling mechanisms to control those who are
dumping solid waste filled with sacks everywhere
along the road and near residential areas
28. Counters that have higher per- capita GDP
obviously will have correspondingly lower
generation of solid waste
29. Integrated solid waste management is a common
problem if Ethiopian towns
30. The urban agricultural unit of Wolkite town is not
trying to change solid waste in to compost.
31. In Wolkite town dwellers store their house hold solid
waste using sacks, because of lack of waste storage
containers.
32. The use of traditional donkey pulling trolley for
solid waste transportation could not cover the whole
town with in short period of time and results in
insignificant solid waste management.
33. The worlds population is approaching the limit the
earth can not support
34. If humans continues affecting the environment on
their present course, we will soon experience major
ecological catastrophe
35. Science and technology can overcome any
environmental problems.
36. The balance of nature is strong enough to cope with
the impacts of humans.
Sources of environmental issues information

Thick the following possible sources of information to what degree these different sources
help you more about environmental issues and problems using the following key

1. not at all 2. A little 3. quite a bit 4.very much .

No Sources of information 1 2 3 4
1 Various school education system
(primary and secondary).
2 Electronic media (T,. Radio, Etc)
3 Printed materials (books, news papers,
megazines.etc)
4 Parents and friends
5 Self experiences.
Annex2

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Annex 3

Addis Ababa University

College Of Education

Department of Geography and Environmental Education

Name of The Student:- Hairu Ahmedin

Title of project:- Assessment of students awareness of and view about solid waste
management in SNNPR. Gurage Zone, Wolkite Town

Check list for interview of Wolkite municipality on solid waste management


April, 2013

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to assess the status of municipal solid waste management
practices in Gurage Zone Wolkite Town. The results of this assessment will help to identify
problems and constraints that need to be tackled by various actors in the town. Therefore, I
kindly request you /your organization/ to give the appropriate and the right information about
the municipal solid waste management of your organization.

PART ONE

General information about the organization

1. Name of the organization ____________________


1.1.Address of the organization
City __________________
Sub city _______________
Kebele ________________
Local name of the area_____________
E mail ________________________
Website ( if any) _________________
1.2.Name of the respondent person ___________
His /her responsibility in the organization __________________
2. What is the objective (s) of your organization concerning to solid waste management
in the town ?
3. Is there municipality service for managing the municipal solid waste?
Yes __________________ No _______________

If yes, specify the department _________________


4. Are there micro enterprises organized in the town for collecting solid waste?
Yes ______ No _____
If yes, please list names of MSE and there numbers.

Name of MSE male female total

A. ______________ ______ _____ ______


B. _______________ ______ _____ ______
C. _______________ ______ _____ ______
D. _______________ ______ _____ ______
5. Is there containers that serve for collecting and storing solid waste?

Yes _______ No ________

If yes, how many containers of solid found in the town?


If No, how the solid waste that generates from the dwellers is collected and stored?
6. What means the municipal use to transport wastes to dumping site?
Hand pushed carts ________________
Horse drawn carts ________________
Others specify ___________________
7. What actions does the municipality take on individuals who improperly dispose
waste?________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
8. Is there a river crossing the town? Yes _________ No ________
If yes, is there any controlling mechanism that people not to dump in it?____________
9. What types of solid wastes are common in dry season
In rainy season ________________
10. Does the municipality practiced to create awareness about solid waste and its positive
and negative impacts to the community?
11. Is there a trend of composting wastes in the town? Yes _______ No _____

If yes, what type of wastes?

12. Does the municipal use open dump as a disposal method?

Yes _________________ No

12.1. What type of waste does the municipal dump?

13. Do you think existing financially, technical, material and manpower support for the
control of management of solid waste of the town satisfactory ? Yes ________ No ____

If No, in your opinion what must be done to improve solid waste management of the town?

Thank you
Annex4

Addis Ababa University

College Of Education

Department of Geography and Environmental Education

Name of The Student:- Hairu Ahmedin

Title of project:- Assessment of students Awareness of and view about solid waste
Management in SNNPR, Gurage Zone, Wolkite Town

Check list for interview of Wolkite Health unit on Solid waste management

April, 2013

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to assess solid waste management practice in Gurage
Zone, Wolkte town. The results of this assessment will help to identify problems and
constraints that need to be tackled by various actors in the Town. Therefore, I kindly request
you /your organization/ to give the appropriate and the right information about the municipal
solid waste management of your organization.

Part one

1. Name of the organization ______________________


1.1.Address of the organization:-
- City _____________________
- Sub city ________________
- Kebele ___________________
- Local name _______________
- E maile _________________
- Web site (if any) ___________
1.2. Name of the res pendent person
- His /her responsibility in the organization
2. What is the objective /S/ of your organization concerning to solid waste management
of wolkite Town?
3. What are the main sources and types of Solid waste in the Town?

4. Is there any experience of supervising municipal solid waste dumping site?


Yes ______________________ No _________________________
- If your answer is yes, on what time interval?
5. What are the main types of diseases that occur due to unwise management of solid
west?
In dry season _________________________
In rainy season _______________________
6. Do you have follow up mechanisms of hotels on their solid waste disposal?
Yes ______________________ No _________________________
If yes how _________________
If no why __________________
7. Do you have any mechanisms to check and follow up the municipal solid waste
dumping site?
Yes ______________________ No _________________________
- If yes, do the dumping site couldnt cause any environmental pollution?

8. How many health centers and health pasts are there in the town?
Health centers ____________________________________
Health posts _____________________________________
9. Do the health workers and health extension workers teach the dwellers about proper
solid waste management
Yes ______________________ No _________________________
- If yes, what are the improvements achieved?
10. what is your future plan and adjective as a health unit to bring wise solid waste
management in wolkite Town?

11. What are a legal measures that you are taking on those, who are illegally dispose
their solid waste every where?
12. Do you think that the existing financial, technical, material and man power available
in your organization enable you to make the Towns sanitation satisfactory?
Yes _________________________ No __________________

If No, in your opinion what must be done to improve solid waste management and
sanitation of the town?

13. Do you have community awareness creation plans and programmes on solid waste
management?
Yes _________________________ No __________________
If yes, at what level?
At the town level ________________________________
At sub city level _________________________________
At kebele level __________________________________

At village level ________________________________


Declaration

The thesis is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any University and
that all sources of materials used for the thesis have been duly acknowledged.

Hairu Ahmedin

Signature___________

Date_______________

I confirm that this thesis has been submitted with my approval as University advisor.

Aklilu Dalelo(Ph.D)

Signature___________

Date_______________