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Based on the data and observation, the alum dosage increased in the beakers from
number 1 to 6, which is from 0 to 5ml and the jar 0 ml is act as control. For this water sample,
as the dose of coagulant increased the residual turbidity improved. The addition of excess
coagulant may reduce turbidity beyond what is required but also could lead to the production
of more sludge which would require disposal.
When coagulant is added into the water, it helps to promote coagulation. The coagulant
encourages colloidal material in the water to join into small aggregates or flocs (microfloc).
Coagulant neutralizes the electrical charges of particles in the water which causes the
particles to clump together. Properly formed floc will settle out of water quickly in the
sedimentation basin, removing most of the water's turbidity. Hence impurities can be easily
removed. Thus, from the data, the colour of water decreases from 380 to 332 Pt0 as the
volume of alum increases.
After analysing the data, from the graph the optimum dosage for coagulant is 40mg/l, which
is the lowest turbidity 7.47 NTU, with pH value 6.54. However, it is important to note that
turbidity was not reduced with the increasing amounts of alum dose because the coagulant
added more particles to water to be treated at the lower doses.

On the other hand, the strong acid behaviour of the alum addition causes the pH value
decreased and demised alkalinity. Which from the data given, the value of final pH is
decreasing from 7.15 to 6.37? It is because the change in pH in the water being treated
depended on the coagulant dosage. Therefore, it can conclude that the higher alum dosage,
the lower the pH value, which means that the alkalinity may be decreased.


From the experiment, it can be concluded that the optimum alum dosage which will result in
the lowest turbidity is 40mg/l, with a turbidity of 7.47. Next, it was also shown from the
experiment that the pH and colour value will be lower when the alum dosage is higher. Since
the optimum alum dosage has been determined, it can be concluded that the experiment is a