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Biogeography Based Optimization Technique Applied to Multi-constraints Economic Load Dispatch Problems

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Applied to multi-constraints Economic load

dispatch problems

Provas Kumar Roy Sakti Prasad Ghoshal Siddhartha Sankar Thakur

NIT, Durgapur NIT, Durgapur NIT, Durgapur

M.G.Road, Gandhi M.G.Road, Gandhi M.G.Road, Gandhi

West Bengal, India-713209 West Bengal, India-713209 West Bengal, India-713209

.

Optimization (BBO) technique for solving constrained economic the chaotic behavior of individual ant and the intelligent

dispatch problems in power system. Many nonlinear

characteristics of generators, like valve point loading, ramp rate organization actions of ant colony. BFO is a bio-inspired

limits, prohibited zone, and multiple fuels cost functions are technique, developed by Ghoshal et al [9].

considered. Two Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) problems with BBO [11] has some common features with other population

different characteristics are applied and compared its solution based algorithms. Like GA, & PSO, BBO also shares

quality and computation efficiency to Genetic algorithm (GA), information amongst the solutions but BBO does not involve

Particle swarm optimization (PSO), and other optimization

techniques. The simulation results show that the proposed in reproduction like GA. While GA solutions are lost at the

algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods. end of each iteration, BBO maintains its set of solution from

one iteration to next like PSO. But PSO solutions do not

Keywords- Biogeography; Economic load dispatch; Genetic

algorithm; Particle swarm optimization; mutation; migration. change directly; first their velocities are changed then

positions (solutions) changes. However, BBO solutions are

I. INTRODUCTION changed directly via migration from other solutions.

In this paper BBO algorithm, which is totally new in power

Economic load dispatch (ELD) problem is one of the major system area is used to solve ELD problem.

issues of power system operation, planning, and control. Its

main objective is generation allocation to the power generators II. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM FORMULATION

so as to meet the total load demand at minimum operating cost A. Objective Function

while satisfying all equality and inequality constraints. Several The objective function of ELD is to minimize the generation

classical methods such as lambda iteration method (LIM), cost while satisfying all the equality and inequality constraints.

gradient methods etc. have been applied to solve economic n

load dispatch assuming monotonically increasing piecewise Minimize FC ( P ) = FC ( P ) i i (1)

linear cost function. But unfortunately, these methods are i =1

infeasible in practical systems because of nonlinear where , FCi(Pi) : fuel cost of generating unit I,

characteristics like ramp rate limits, discontinuous prohibited Pi : generating power of unit i,

operating zones, and non-smooth cost functions. Complex n :number of generating units,

constrained ELD problems are solved by many population subjected to the following constraints:

based optimization techniques in the recent years. Some of the n

i =1

i D + PL (2)

[1]-[2], simulated annealing [3], particle swarm optimization

(PSO) [4]-[7], chaotic ant swarm optimization (CASO) [8], where, PD: Total Demand,

and Bacteria foraging optimization (BFO)[9]. PL: Transmission loss which is given by

n n n

The GA method is usually faster than SA method because

GA has parallel search technique. Real coded Genetic

PL = Pi Bij Pj + B j 0 Pi + B00 (3)

i =1 j =1 i =1

algorithm (RGA) [10] with arithmetic crossover, mutation,

and elitism has been employed to solve the ELD problems where, B00, Bi0, Bij are loss coefficients.

more efficiently. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm b) Pi min Pi Pi max (4)

is highly robust yet remarkably simple to implement. Thus, it min max

where, Pi , Pi are minimum and maximum generation

is quite pertinent to apply the PSO, with more new limit of i-th unit.

modifications, to achieve better optimization and handle the

.

c) The power output of each unit is limited by ramp up/down set of candidate solution is evaluated using SIV. In BBO a

rate at each hour as given below: term HSI is used which is analogous to fitness function of

( )

Max Pi min , Pi 0 DRi Pi Min Pi max, Pi 0 + URi((5) ) other population-based techniques, to represent the quality of

0

each candidate solution set. High HSI solutions represent

where, P gi : previous operating point of unit i, better quality solution and low HSI solutions represent inferior

DRi , URi : downrate and uprate limits of unit i. solution in optimization problem.

The emigration and immigration rates of each solution are

d) Output generation of each unit must avoid operation in used to probabilistically share information between habitats.

prohibited zones. The operating zone of unit i may be

Using Habitat Modification Probability each solution is

described as follows:

min

modified based on other solutions. Immigration rate, of

Pi Pi Pi ,l1 each solution is used to probabilistically decide whether or not

Pi ,uj 1 Pi Pi ,l j , j = 2,3,....., ni (6) to modify each suitability index variable (SIV) in that solution.

u max

After selecting the SIV for modification, emigration rates,

P Pi Pi

i , ni of other solutions are used to probabilistically select which

where, ni : number of prohibited zone of unit i, solutions among the population set will migrate. The main

difference between recombination approach of evolutionary

Pi ,l j : lower generation limit of prohibited zone j of unit i, strategies (ES) and migration process of BBO is that in ES,

Pi ,uj 1 :upper generation limit of prohibited zone j-1 of unit i. global recombination process is used to create a completely

new solution, while in BBO, migration is used to bring

B. Cost Function

changes within the existing solutions. In order to prevent the

The cost function of ELD problem is defined as follows:

best solutions from being corrupted by the immigration

process, few elite solutions are kept in BBO algorithm.

a) Cost function of generating units without valve point effect

and multiple fuels is given by: B. Mutation

( )

n Due to some natural calamities or other events HSI of a

FC ( P) = ai Pi + bi Pi + ci

2

(7) natural habitat can change suddenly and it may deviate from

i =1 its equilibrium value. In BBO, this event is represented by the

where, ai, bi, ci :cost coefficients of i-th generator. mutation of SIV and species count probabilities are used to

determine mutation rates. The probability of each species

b) Cost function of generating units with valve point effect count can be calculated using the differential equation (9) [11]

and multiple fuels is given by: given below:

( s + s ) Ps + s +1 Ps +1 S =0

( (

ai1Pi 2 +bi1Pi +ci1 + di1sin ei1 Pi1min Pi1

)) fuel 1, Pi min Pi Pi1 Ps = (s + s ) Ps + s 1 Ps 1 + s +1 Ps +1 1 S S max 1 (9)

( (

ai2 Pi 2 +bi2 Pi +ci2 + di2 sin ei2 Pi2min Pi2

)) fuel 2, Pi min Pi Pi2 (s + s ) Ps + s 1 Ps 1 S = S max

FC (P ) =

i i

Where,

Ps : the probability of habitat contains exactly S species,

2

( ( min

aik Pi +bik Pi +cik + dik sin eik Pik Pik )) fuel k , Pi min Pi Pik

s , s : the immigration and emigration rate for habitat

(8)

where, contains S species.

dik, eik :the fuel cost coefficients of fuel type k of the ith Immigration rate ( s ) and emigration rate ( s ) can be

generating unit reflecting the valve point loading. evaluated by the equation (10) and (11) [11] given below:

S (10)

s = I 1

III. OVERVIEW OF BBO TECHNIQUE S max

has been developed based on the theory of Biogeography. s = (11)

S max

BBO concept is mainly based on Migration and Mutation. The

concept and mathematical formulation of Migration and Each population member has an associated probability, which

Mutation steps are given below: indicates the likelihood that it exists as a solution for a given

problem. If the probability of a given solution is very low then

A. Migration that solution is likely to mutate to some other solution.

This BBO algorithm [11] is similar to other population Similarly if the probability of some other solution is high then

based optimization techniques where population of candidate that solution has very little chance to mutate. Therefore, very

solutions is represented as vector of real numbers. Each real high HSI solutions and very low HSI solutions are equally

number in the array is considered as one SIV. Fitness of each improbable for mutation i.e. they have less chances to produce

more improved SIVs in the later stage. But medium HSI Each individual habitat within the total of H habitat represents

solutions have better chances to create much better solutions a candidate solution for solving the ELD problem. The i-th

after mutation operation. Mutation rate of each set of solution individual Hi can be defined as follows:

can be calculated in terms of species count probability using H i = SIV iq = [ SIV i1 , SIV i 2 ,...., SIV im ] (13)

the equation (12) [11]:

Where i = 1,2,..., S ; q = 1,2,...m

1 PS

m(s ) = mmax (12) iq

where, SIV is the power output of the q-th unit of the i-th

P

max individual.

where, m max : maximum mutation rate, Step4: Based on the HSI value elite habitats are identified.

Step5: Each non-elite habitat is modified by performing

m(s ) : the mutation rate for habitat contains S species, probabilistically migration operation and HSI of each

Pmax : maximum probability. modified set is recomputed. Feasibility of a problem solution

This mutation scheme tends to increase diversity among the is verified i.e. each SIV should satisfy equality and inequality

populations. Without this modification, the highly probable constraints of generator as mentioned in the specific problem.

solutions will tend to be more dominant in the population. Step6: Species count probability of each habitat is updated

This mutation approach makes both low and high HSI using (9). Mutation operation is performed on the non-elite

solutions likely to mutate, which gives a chance of improving habitat and HSI value of each new habitat is computed.

both types of solutions in comparison to their earlier values. Step7: Feasibility of a problem solution is verified.

Few elite solutions are kept in mutation process to save the Step8: Go to step (3) for the next iteration.

features of a solution, so if a solution becomes inferior after Step9:Stop iteration after a predefined number of iterations.

mutation process then previous solution (solution of that set V. BBO ALGORITHM APPLIED TO ELD

before mutation) can revert back to that place again if needed.

The proposed algorithm is implemented in two test systems

So, mutation operation is a high-risk process. It is normally

and its performance is compared to other optimization

applied to both poor and better solutions. Since medium

techniques like GA, PSO, Improved genetic algorithm with

quality solutions are in improving stage so it is better not to

multiplier updating (IGA_MU)[1], and conventional genetic

apply mutation on medium quality solutions.

algorithm with multiplier updating (CGA_MU) [1] that were

Here, mutation of a selected solution is performed simply

already tested and reported in earlier papers [1] and [7].

by replacing it with randomly generated new solution set.

Other than this any other mutation scheme, like mutation of

a) Test System I: In this example 10 generating units are

GA can also be implemented for BBO.

consider and both valve point loading & multiple fuels are

IV. BBO ALGORITHM APPLIED TO ELD incorporated in the cost function. The system data of [1] is

The algorithm of the proposed method is as enumerated employed on BBO and its performance is compared to

below. IGA_MU [1], & CGA_MU [1] and the comparative results &

Step1: Initialize the BBO parameters as follows: Habitat convergence characteristics are shown Table I and Figure 1

Modification Probability P

mod

=1; Mutation Probability = respectively for total load of 2700MW.

0.005, maximum immigration rate, I = 1, maximum

emigration rate E =1, step size for numerical TABLE I

GENERATION VALUES WITH DIFFERENT ALGORITHMS ( 10-UNIT SYSTEM)

integration, dt =1, no of iterations = 50, maximum species

count, S max , elitism parameter=2, number of SIVs of BBO

algorithm= number of Generating units, number of Habitats = Algorithms CGA_MU[1] IGA_MU[1] BBO

50. F Gen. F Gen. F Gen.

Unit No

Step2: The initial position of SIV of each habitat should be T (MW) T (MW) T MW)

selected randomly while satisfying different equality and 1 2 222.0108 2 219.1261 2 214.9648

inequality constraints of ELD problems. Several numbers of 2 1 211.6352 1 211.1645 1 209.5767

habitats depending upon the population size are being 3 1 283.9455 1 280.6572 1 334.1379

generated. Each habitat represents a potential solution to the 4 3 237.8052 3 238.4770 3 238.4381

given problem. 5 1 280.448 1 276.4179 1 271.3595

Step3: Calculate the HSI i.e. value of objective function for 6 3 236.033 3 240.4672 3 235.8519

each habitat of the population set for given emigration rate, , 7 1 292.0499 1 287.7399 1 280.3356

immigration rate, , and species, S . 8 3 241.9708 3 240.7614 3 237.1106

Here, in ELD problem HSIi represents the cost function of i-th 9 3 424.2011 3 429.3370 3 411.6339

iq

generation set (i.e. i-th habitat) in $/hr. SIV represents the 10 1 269.9005 1 275.8518 1 266.5909

value of power output of q-th generator of i-th habitat set Hi. Pd(MW) 2700

In this paper, each habitat is a vector with m generating units. TG(MW) 2700 2700 2700

TC($) 624.7193 624.5178 606.3455

Time(S) 7.25 26.17 22.6 TABLE II

GENERATION VALUES WITH DIFFERENT ALGORITHMS ( 10-UNIT SYSTEM)

520

510

Unit Generation(MW)

500

Pg1 447.4970 474.8066 447.0153

Pg2 173.3221 178.6363 173.5915

Cost ($/h)

Pg4 139.0594 134.2826 138.9568

480

Pg5 165.4761 151.9039 165.4418

Pg6 87.1280 74.1812 87.0997

TG(MW) 1276.01 1276.03 1275.4447

470

TC($/h) 15450 15459 15443

Loss (MW) 12.9584 13.0217 12.4447

460

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

No of iterations

REFERENCES

b) Test System II: In this example, 6 generating units with the [1] Chao-Lung Chiang, Improved Genetic algorithm for Power Economic

constraints of ramping rate limit and prohibited zones of units Dispatch of Units With Valve-Point Effects and Multiple Fuels , IEEE

are considered .System data of [7] is used. Simulation results transactions on power systems, Vol.20, No0.4, November 2005, page no.

1690-1699.

& convergence curve of BBO for 1263 MW load with 50 [2] D.C.walters, G.B. Sheble, Genetic algorithm solution of economic

iterations are shown in Table II and Figure 2 respectively. dispatch with valve point loading, IEEE transactions on power systems,

Results show that generation cost obtain from BBO is lowest 8 (August1993). 1325-1332.

[3] R. C. Eberhart, and Y. Shi, Particle swarm optimization: developments,

and thus verify that BBO has better quality of solution.

4

applications and resources, in Proc. 2001 Congress on evolutionary

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[4] S. L. Ho, Shiyou Yang, Guangzheng Ni, Edward W. C. Lo, and H. C.

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Wong, A particle swarm optimization-based method for multiobjective

design optimizations, IEEE Trans. Magnetics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1756-

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[5] Hongho Liu, and Ajith Abraham, Fuzzy adaptive turbulent particle

swarm optimization, in Proc. Fifth Int. IEEE Conf. Hybrid Intelligent

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1.546 [7] Zwe-Lee Gaing, Particle Swarm Optimization to solving the Economic

Dispatch Considering the Generator Constraints, IEEE transactions on

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[8] Jiejin Cai, Xiaoqian Ma, Lixiang Li, Yixian Yang, Haipeng Peng, and

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Xiangdong Wang, Chaotic ant swarm optimization to economic

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 dispatch, Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 77, pp.13731380, 2007.

No of iterations

[9] T.Yalcionoz, H.Altun, and M.Uzam, Economic dispatch solution using

Figure 2 Convergence characteristic of BBO (6 units system) a genetic algorithm based on arithmetic crossover, in Proc. IEEE Proto

Power Tech. Conf., Proto, Portugal, Sept. 2001.

[10] S.P.Ghoshal, A. Chatterjee, V.Mukherjee. Bio-inspired fuzzy logic

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[11] Dan Simon, Biogeography-Based Optimization, IEEE

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