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TS.

Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Chng 1

TNG QUAN THNG TIN DI NG

1.1. GII THIU CHUNG

1.1.1. Cc ch c trnh by trong chng

Qu trnh pht trin cc h thng thng tin di ng t 1G n 3G v l trnh


pht trin ln 4G
Cc kin trc cu cc h thng thng tin di ng 2G, 3G v 4G
Cc vn ni mng thng tin di ng trn c s IP: nh a ch, truyn
tunnel v MIP
Phn chia vng a l trong cc mng thng tin di ng

1.1.2. Hng dn
Hc k cc t liu c trnh by trong chng
Tham kho thm [5],[6].

1.1.3. Mc ch chng

Hiu tng quan cc h thng thng tin di ng ca cc th h khc nhau t


1G n 4G
Hiu c cc kin trc mng 2G , 3G v 4G
Hiu cc vn chnh trong ni mng thng tin di ng trn c s IP
Hiu c cch phn chia vng a l trong cc mng thng tin di ng.

1.2. QU TRNH PHT TRIN THNG TIN DI NG

Cc cng ngh TTD c chia thnh ba th h: th nht, th hai, th ba


v th t c vit tt l 1G, 2G, 3G v 4G.
Cc h thng 1G m bo truyn dn tng t da trn FDM vi kt ni
mng li da trn TDM. Th d v 1G l AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone
System: h thng in thoi di ng tin tin) c s dng trn ton nc M v
NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone System: h thng in thoi di ng Bc u).
Thng thng cc cng ngh 1G c trin khai ti mt nc hoc nhm cc

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

nc, khng c tiu chun ha bi cc c quan tiu chun quc t v khng c


nh dnh cho s dng quc t.
Khc vi 1G, cc cng ngh 2G c thit k trin khai quc t. Thit
k 2G nhn mnh hn ln tnh tng thch, kh nng chuyn mng phc tp v s
dng truyn dn ting s ha trn v tuyn. Tnh nng cui cng chnh l yu cu
i vi 2G. Cc th d in hnh v cc h thng 2G l: GSM (Global System for
Mobile Communications: thng tin di ng ton cu) v cdmaOne (da trn tiu
chun TIA IS95).
C th coi mt h thng TTD l 3G nu n p ng mt s cc yu cu
c ITU ra:
Hot ng trong mt trong s cc tn s c n nh cho cc dch v 3G
Phi cung cp dy cc dch v s liu mi cho ngi s dng bao gm c a
phng tin, c lp vi cng ngh giao din v tuyn
Phi h tr truyn dn s liu di ng ti 144 kbps cho cc ngi s dng di
ng tc cao v truyn dn s liu ln n 2Mbps (t nht l l thuyt) cho cc
ngi s dng c nh hoc di ng tc thp
Phi cung cp cc dch v s liu gi (cc dch v khng da trn kt ni CS
n mng s liu m da trn dch v mang da trn gi bm sinh)
Phi m bo tnh c lp ca mng li vi giao din v tuyn
Mt s h thng 2G ang tin ha n t nht mt phn cc yu cu trn.
iu ny dn n mt hu qu khng mong mun: lm sai lch thut ng "cc th
h". Chng hn GSM vi h tr s liu knh c phn loi nh h thng 2G
thun ty. Khi tng cng thm GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), n tr nn
ph hp vi nhiu tiu chun 3G. Dn n n khng hn l 2G cng nh 3G m l
loi "gia cc th h", v th h thng GSM c tng cng GPRS hin nay c
gi l h thng 2,5G, trong khi thc t vn thuc loi 2G, t nht l t phng din
cng ngh truyn dn v tuyn.
Qu trnh nghin cu pht trin UMTS ln 3G pht trin v tin dn n 4G
l vic a ra cng ngh HSPA (High Speed Packet Access: a truy nhp gi tc
cao) v LTE (Long term Evolution: pht trin di hn) cho phn v tuyn v
SAE (System Architecture Evolution: pht trin kin trc h thng) cho phn
mng.
Hnh 1.1 tng kt cc vn trnh by trn bng cch minh ha cc h
thng TTD chnh v qu trnh pht trin ca chng t th h 1 ln th h 3 v
hnh 1.2 cho thy l trnh pht trin ln th h 4.

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

3G
1G 2G 2,5G ETSI UMTS/W-CDMA
GSM+ WCDMA/HSPA
NMT GSM
GPRS
TD-SCDMA
TDMA TDMA
TACS
(IS-136) IS136+GPRS
WCDMA/TDD
cdmaOne EDGE/
AMPS WCDMA/FDD
(IS95-A) GPRS
CDMA
CDPD EDGE tng cng/GPRS
(IS95-B)
PDC/
PDC-P cdma20003x(5MHz)

cdma20001x(1,25MHz)

cdma20001xEV-DO

cdma20001xEV-DV

ARIB WCDMA (Nht)

1989 1995 2001 2003 2004+


1985

K hiu:
AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone Service , TACS: Total Access Communication
System
NMT: Nodic Mobile Telephone, PDC: Personal Digital Cellular: h thng t ong
s cc nhn.
PDC-P: PDC-Packet, GSM: Global System for Mobile Telecommunications
CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data, GPRS: General Radio Packet Service
EDGE: Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution, WCDMA: Wideband Code
Division Multiple Access
HSPA: High Speed Paket Access, UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications
System
cdma20001xEV-DO: cdma20001xEvolution-Data Only (Optimized),
cdma20001xEV-DV: cdma20001xEvolution-Data and Voice
FDD: Frequency Division Duplex. TDD: Time Division Duplex
Hnh 1.1. Qu trnh pht trin cc h thng thng tin di ng t th h 1 (1G)
ln th h 3 (3G).

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Kh nng di ng

1985 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Thi gian

HSPA
LTE/UMB
GSM
1xEVDO IMT-Advanced
Cao cdmaOne
Trin khai E3G 4G
3G + LTE

2G 3G
1G
Trung bnh

WCDMA
AMPS cdma20001x
WiMAX/ IEEE
TACS 802.16e

Thp WIFI/
IEEE802.11
Tc s liu

<10kbps <200kbps 300kbps- 10Mbps <100Mbps 100Mbps-1Gbps

K hiu:
E3G: Enhanced 3G: 3G tng cng; LTE: Long Term Evolution: Pht trin di
hn
UMB: Ultrra Mobile Band: Bng siu rng, WiFi: Wireless Fidelity: H thng
khng dy tin cy; WiMAX: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access:
Kh nng tng hp ton cu i vi truy nhp vi ba; IEEE: Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers: Hc vin k thut in v in t.
Hnh 1.2. L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng ln 4G

1.3. KIN TRC CHUNG CA MT H THNG THNG TIN DI NG

Mng thng tin di ng (TTD) lc u s l mng ch c chuyn mch


knh, sau l mng kt hp gia cc vng chuyn mch gi (PS) v chuyn
mch knh (CS) truyn s liu gi v ting. Cc trung tm chuyn mch gi s
l cc chuyn mch s dng cng ngh ATM. Trn ng pht trin n mng
ton IP, chuyn mch knh s dn c thay th bng chuyn mch gi. Cc dch
v k c s liu ln thi gian thc (nh ting v video) cui cng s c truyn
trn cng mt mi trng IP bng cc chuyn mch gi. Hnh 1.3 di y cho
thy th d v mt kin trc tng qut ca TTD kt hp c CS v PS trong mng
li.

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u cui s
iu khin dch Thng tin
v tin tin
liu v tr
Interrnet
Thit b
RAN SMS
Server
Mng bo hiu
BTS/ BSC/
nt B RNC Intranet

Thit b cng
Chc nng Chc nng
dch v CS dch v CS
Chc nng Chc nng
dch v PS Dch v PS
PSTN/PLMN
Thit b chuyn Thit b chuyn
u cui ting mch ni ht mch cng
Nt kt hp dch v CS v dch v
PS

RAN: Radio Access Network: mng truy nhp v tuyn


BTS: Base Transceiver Station: trm thu pht gc
BSC: Base Station Controller: b iu khin trm gc
RNC: Rado Network Controller: b iu khin trm gc
CS: Circuit Switch: chuyn mch knh
PS: Packet Switch: chuyn mch gi
SMS: Short Message Servive: dch v nhn tin
Server: my ch
PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network: mng in thoi chuyn mch cng
cng
PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network: mang di ng cng cng mt t
Hnh 1.3. Kin trc tng qut ca mt mng di ng kt hp c CS v PS

Cc min chuyn mch knh (CS) v chuyn mch gi (PS) c th hin


bng mt nhm cc n v chc nng lgic: trong thc hin thc t cc min chc
nng ny c t vo cc thit b v cc nt vt l. Chng hn c th thc hin
chc nng chuyn mch knh CS (MSC/GMSC) v chc nng chuyn mch gi
(SGSN/GGSN) trong mt nt duy nht c mt h thng tch hp cho php
chuyn mch v truyn dn cc kiu phng tin khc nhau: t lu lng ting
n lu lng s liu dung lng ln.
3G UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System: H thng thng
tin di ng ton cu) c th s dng hai kiu RAN. Kiu th nht s dng cng
ngh a truy nhp WCDMA (Wide Band Code Devision Multiple Acces: a truy
nhp phn chia theo m bng rng) c gi l UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial
Radio Network: mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t ca UMTS). Kiu th hai s
dng cng ngh a truy nhp TDMA c gi l GERAN (GSM EDGE Radio
Access Network: mng truy nhp v tuyn da trn cng ngh EDGE ca GSM).

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Ti liu ch xt cp n cng ngh duy nht trong UMTS c gi l 3G


WCDMA UMTS.

1.4. CHUYN MCH KNH (CS), CHUYN MCH GI (PS), DCH V


CHUYN MCH KNH V DCH V CHUYN MCH GI.

H thng thng tin di ng c th cung cp cc dch v chuyn mch knh


nh ting, video v cc dch v chuyn mch gi ch yu truy nhp internet.
Chuyn mch knh (CS: Circuit Switch) l s chuyn mch trong
thit b chuyn mch thc hin cc cuc truyn tin bng cch thit lp kt ni
chim mt ti nguyn mng nht nh trong ton b cuc truyn tin. Kt ni ny l
tm thi, lin tc v dnh ring. Tm thi v n ch c duy tr trong thi gian
cuc gi. Lin tc v n c cung cp lin tc mt ti nguyn nht nh (bng
thng hay dung lng v cng sut) trong sut thi gian cuc gi. Dnh ring v
kt ni ny v ti nguyn ch dnh ring cho cuc gi ny. Thit b chuyn mch
s dng cho CS trong cc tng i ca TTD 2G thc hin chuyn mch knh
trn trn c s ghp knh theo thi gian trong mi knh c tc 64 kbps v v
th ph hp cho vic truyn cc ng dng lm vic ti tc c nh 64 kbps
(chng hn ting c m ho PCM).
Chuyn mch gi (PS: Packet Switch) l s chuyn mch thc hin
phn chia s liu ca mt kt ni thnh cc gi c di nht nh v chuyn
mch cc gi ny theo thng tin v ni nhn c gn vi tng gi v PS ti
nguyn mng ch b chim dng khi c gi cn truyn. Chuyn mch gi cho php
nhm tt c cc s liu ca nhiu kt ni khc nhau ph thuc vo ni dung, kiu
hay cu trc s liu thnh cc gi c kch thc ph hp v truyn chng trn mt
knh chia s. Vic nhm cc s liu cn truyn c thc hin bng ghp knh
thng k vi n nh ti nguyn ng. Cc cng ngh s dng cho chuyn mach
gi c th l Frame Relay, ATM hoc IP.
Hnh 1.4. cho thy cu trc ca CS v PS.

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a) Chuyn mch knh (CS)


Chuyn mch Chuyn mch

b) Chuyn mch gi (PS)


R outer R outer

B nh B nh

Hnh 1.4. Chuyn mch knh (CS) v chuyn mch gi (PS).

Dch v chuyn mch knh (CS Service) l dch v trong mi u cui


c cp pht mt knh ring v n ton quyn s dng ti nguyn ca knh ny
trong thi gian cuc gi tuy nhin phi tr tin cho ton b thi gian ny d c
truyn tin hay khng. Dch v chuyn mch knh c th c thc hin trn
chuyn mch knh (CS) hoc chuyn mch gi (PS). Thng thng dch v ny
c p dng cho cc dch v thi gian thc (thoi).
Dch v chuyn mch gi (PS Service) l dch v trong nhiu u cui
cng chia s mt knh v mi u cui ch chim dng ti nguyn ca knh ny
khi c thng tin cn truyn v n ch phi tr tin theo lng tin c truyn trn
knh. Dch v chuyn mch gi ch c th c thc hin trn chuyn mch gi
(PS). Dch v ny rt rt ph hp cho cc dch v phi thi gian thc (truyn s
liu), tuy nhin nh s pht trin ca cng ngh dch v ny cng c p dng
cho cc dch v thi gian thc (VoIP).
Chuyn mch gi c th thc hin trn c s ATM hoc IP.
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode: ch truyn d b) l cng ngh
thc hin phn chia thng tin cn pht thnh cc t bo 53 byte truyn dn v
chuyn mch. Mt t bo ATM gm 5 byte tiu (c cha thng tin nh tuyn)
v 48 byte ti tin (cha s liu ca ngi s dng). Thit b chuyn mch ATM
cho php chuyn mch nhanh trn c s chuyn mch phn cng tham chun theo
thng tin nh tuyn tiu m khng thc hin pht hin li trong tng t bo.
Thng tin nh tuyn trong tiu gm: ng dn o (VP) v knh o (VC).

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iu khin kt ni bng VC (tng ng vi knh ca ngi s dng) v VP (l


mt b cc VC) cho php khai thc v qun l c kh nng m rng v c linh
hot cao. Thng thng VP c thit lp trn c s s liu ca h thng ti thi
im xy dng mng.Vic s dng ATM trong mng li cho ta nhiu ci li: c
th qun l lu lng kt hp vi RAN, cho php thc hin cc chc nng CS v
PS trong cng mt kin trc v thc hin khai thc cng nh iu khin cht
lng lin kt.
Chuyn mch hay Router IP (Internet Protocol) cng l mt cng ngh
thc hin phn chia thng tin pht thnh cc gi c gi l ti tin (Payload). Sau
mi gi c gn mt tiu cha cc thng tin a ch cn thit cho chuyn
mch. Trong thng tin di ng do v tr ca u cui di ng thay i nn cn phi
c thm tiu b sung nh tuyn theo v tr hin thi ca my di ng. Qu
trnh nh tuyn ny c gi l truyn ng hm (Tunnel). C hai c ch
thc hin iu ny: MIP (Mobile IP: IP di ng) v GTP (GPRS Tunnel Protocol:
giao thc ng hm GPRS). Tunnel l mt ng truyn m ti u vo ca n
gi IP c ng bao vo mt tiu mang a ch ni nhn (trong trng hp
ny l a ch hin thi ca my di ng) v ti u ra gi IP c tho bao bng
cch loi b tiu bc ngoi (hnh 1.5).

Gi IP
Header1 Payload Header2 Header1 Payload

ng bao Tho bao


Header2 Header1 Payload
Header1 Payload
Tunnel
Gi IP
Header1: Tiu gi IP u tunnel Cui tunnel
Header2: Tiu ng bao mang a ch hin thi ca my di ng
Payload: Ti tin

Hnh 1.5. ng bao v tho bao cho gi IP trong qu trnh truyn tunnel

Hnh 1.6 cho thy qu trnh nh tuyn tunnel (chuyn mch tunnel) trong
h thng 3G UMTS t tng i gi cng (GGSN) cho mt my di ng (UE) khi
n chuyn t vng phc v ca mt tng i gi ni ht (SGSN1) ny sang mt
vng phc v ca mt tng i gi ni ht khc (SGSN2) thng qua giao thc
GTP.

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S liu ca ngi S liu ca ngi


s dng (cc gi IP) s dng (cc gi IP)
Mng thng tin di Mng thng tin di
Kt ni logic ng (CN) ng (CN) Kt ni logic
(truyn tunnel) GGSN GGSN (truyn tunnel)
S liu ca S liu ca
ngi s dng Thay i v tr ngi s dng
(cc gi IP) (cc gi IP)
Tiu truyn
Thit lp li kt Tiu truyn
tunnel
ni logic tunnel

SGSN2 SGSN1 SGSN2


SGSN1

Vng UE chuyn n

Hnh 1.6. Thit lp kt ni tunnel trong chuyn mch tunnel

V 3G WCDMA UMTS c pht trin t nhng nm 1999 khi m ATM


l cng ngh chuyn mch gi cn ng tr nn cc tiu chun cng c xy dng
trn cng ngh ny. Tuy nhin hin nay v tng lai mng vin thng s c xy
dng trn c s internet v th cc chuyn mch gi s l chuyn mch hoc router
IP.

1.5. KIN TRC GSM

GSM l mng thng tin di ng s u tin c xy dng trn phng


php a truy nhp TDMA. Mt h thng GSM c t chc thnh ba phn t
chnh: MS, h thng con trm gc (BSS: base station subsystem) v h thng con
chuyn mch (SS: switching subsystem ) nh trn hnh 1.7.

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Trm di ng H thng con trm gc H thng con chuyn mch


(MS) (BSS) (SS)
Um Abis A
VLR HLR AuC EIR

SIM BTS
BSC Mng bo
hiu s 7
BTS
BSS PTSN
MSC GMSC ISDN
ME BTS
INTERNET
SMS-GMSC
BSC SMS-IWMSC
BTS SS
BSS

Hnh 1.7. Kin trc mng GSM

MS cha u cui di ng vi SIM card. SIM l mt thit b an ninh cha


tt c cc thng tin cn thit v cc gii thut nhn thc thu bao cho mng.
nhn thc thu bao cho mng, SIM cha mt my vi tnh gm CPU v ba kiu
nh. ROM c lp trnh cha h iu hnh, chng trnh cho ng dng GSM v
cc gii thut an ninh A3 v A8. RAM c s dng thc hin cc gii thut v
nh m cho truyn dn s liu. Cc s liu nhy cm nh Ki (kha b mt), IMSI
(international mobile station identity: s nhn dng thu bao di ng), cc s
quay, cc bn tin ngn, thng tin v mng v v thu bao nh TMSI (temporary
mobile station identity: s nhn dng thu bao tm thi), LAI (location area
identity: nhn dng vng nh v) c lu trong b nh ROM xa c bng
in v kh lp trnh (EEPROM).
SMS-GMSC l cng vo GSM PLMN truyn SM. SMS-GMSC hi
HLR xc nh v tr thu bao. SMS-IWMSC l MSC ni n SM-SC. N
chuyn SM t MS khi xng trong GSM PLMN n SM-SC. Chc nng SMS-
IWMSC c th c t cng vi SMS-GMSC trong cng mt MSC. Cc tn
nhn (SM: Short Message) t MS c gi n SMS-IWMSC, sau c MSC
nh tuyn n SMS-C.

H thng con trm gc (BSS) bao gm mt s trm thu pht gc (BTS:


base transceiver station: trm thu pht gc) v mt b iu khin trm gc (BSC:
base station controller). BTS iu khin lu lng v tuyn gia MS v chnh n
thng qua giao din v tuyn Um.
H thng con mng cha trung tm chuyn mch cc dch v di ng
(MSC: mobile switching center) thc hin tt c cc ng dng cn thit nh
tuyn cuc gi n hoc t cc ngi s dng v cc mng in thai khc nhau

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nh: ISDN, PSTN hoc mng Internet. HLR (home location register: b ghi nh
v thng tr) mang tt c cc thng tin v thu bao trong vng ca GMSC
(gateway MSC: MSC cng) tng ng. VLR (visitor location register: b ghi nh
v tm tr) cha cc chi tit tm thi v MS lm khch ti MSC hin thi. N
cng cha TMSI. Trung tm nhn thc (AuC: authentication center) c t ti
HLR v l mt trong nhng ni pht i cc thng s an ninh quan trng nht v n
m bo tt c cc thng s cn thit cho nhn thc v mt m ha gia MS v
BTS. TMSI cho php t chi mt k xu tm cch ly trm thng tin v cc ti
nguyn c ngi s dng s dng v khng cho k xu theo di v tr ngi s
dng. Mc ch ca EIR (equipment identity register: b ghi nhn dng thit b) l
ghi li nhn dng s my ca thit b di ng chng mt cp my. Ni mt
cch khc EIR cha cc s seri my ca tt c cc my di ng v nh du du s
my b mt hoc b n cp m h thng s khng cho php. Cc ngi s dng s
c nhn dng l en (khng hp l) trng (hp l ) hay xm (b nghi ng).

1.6. KIN TRC GPRS

GPRS s dng li mng truy nhp v tuyn ca GSM truyn s liu gi


bng cch ghp nhiu khe thi gian vo mt knh truyn. Kin trc ca GPRS
c cho trn hnh 1.8.

MSC/ SMS-GMSC HLR/


EIR
VLR SMS-IWMSC AuC

Gf Gs Gd Gr Gc

Um Gb
Gn Gi Internet
TE MT BSS SGSN GGSN

Gp

Mng li
SGSN

Hnh 1.8. Kin trc GPRS

MS gm thit b u cui (TE:Terminal Equipment) (my tnh PC cm tay


chng hn) v u cui di ng (MT). MS c th hot ng trong ba ch ph
thuc vo kh nng ca mng v my di ng.

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Ch A, c th x l ng thi c khai thc chuyn mch knh ln chuyn


mch gi
Ch B, cho php MS hoc ch PS hoc ch CS nhng khng
ng thi c hai ch . Khi MS pht cc gi, nu kt ni CS c yu cu
th truyn dn PS t ng c t vo ch treo
Ch C, cho php MS thc hin mi ln mt dch v. Nu MS ch h tr lu
lng PS (GPRS) th n hot ng ch C.

Trong BSS, BTS x l c lu lng CS v PS. N chuyn s liu PS n


SGSN v CS n MSC. Ngoi cc tnh nng GSM, HLR cng c s dng
xc nh xem thu bao GPRS c a ch IP tnh hay ng v im truy nhp no s
dng ni n mng ngoi.
i vi GPRS, cc thng tin v thu bao c trao i gia HLR vi SGSN.
Ngoi ra mt thc th logic c a vo qun l cc chc nng RLC/MAC
(Radio Link Contrrol/MAC: Medium Access Control: iu khin lin kt v
tuyn/ iu khin truy nhp mi trng) c gi l PCU (Packet Contrrol Unit:
khi iu khin gi). Phn t ny trong BSC.
SGSN x l lu lng cc gi IP n v t MS ng nhp vo vng
phc v ca n v n cng m bo nh tuyn gi nhn c v gi i t n.
GGSN m bo kt ni vi cc mng chuyn mch gi bn ngoi nh
Internet hay cc mng ring khc. Nt kt ni vi mng ng trc GPRS da
trn IP. N cng chuyn i tt c cc gi IP v c s dng trong qu trnh nhn
thc v trong cc th tc mt m ha..
AuC hot ng ging nh mng GSM. C th l n cha thng tin nhn
dng cc ngi c php s dung mng GPRS v v th ngn chn vic s s
dng tri php mng.

3GUMTS c xy dng theo ba pht hnh chnh c gi l R3, R4, R5.


Trong mng li R3 v R4 bao gm hai min: min CS (Circuit Switch: chuyn
mch knh) v min PS (Packet Switch: chuyn mch gi). Vic kt hp ny ph
hp cho giai on u khi PS cha p ng tt cc dch v thi gian thc nh
thoi v hnh nh. Khi ny min CS s m nhimcc dc v thai cn s liu
c truyn trn min PS. R4 pht trin hn R3 ch min CS chuyn sang
chuyn mch mm v th ton b mng truyn ti gia cc nt chuyn mch u
trn IP. Mng truy nhp ca UMTS c th l TDMA hoc CDMA. Trong chng
ny ta ch xt mng truy nhp CDMA cho UMTS.
Di y ta xt ba kin trc 3GUMTS ni trn.

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.7. KIN TRC 3G WCDMA UMTS R3

UMTS R3 h tr c kt ni chuyn mch knh ln chuyn mch gi: n


384 Mbps trong min CS v 2Mbps trong min PS. Cc kt ni tc cao ny
m bo cung cp mt tp cc dich v mi cho ngi s dng di ng ging nh
trong cc mng in thoi c nh v Internet. Cc dch v ny gm: in thoi c
hnh (Hi ngh video), m thanh cht lng cao (CD) v tc truyn cao ti u
cui. Mt tnh nng khc cng c a ra cng vi GPRS l "lun lun kt ni"
n Internet. UMTS cng cung cp thng tin v tr tt hn v v th h tr tt hn
cc dch v da trn v tr.
Mt mng UMTS bao gm ba phn: thit b di ng (UE: User
Equipment), mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t UMTS (UTRAN: UMTS
Terrestrrial Radio Network), mng li (CN: Core Network) (xem hnh 1.9). UE
bao gm ba thit b: thit b u cui, thit b di ng v module nhn dng thu
bao UMTS (USIM: UMTS Subsscriber Identity Module). UTRAN gm cc h
thng mng v tuyn (RNS: Radio Network System) v mi RNS bao gm RNC
(Radio Network Controller: b iu khin mng v tuyn) v cc BTS ni vi n.
Mng li CN bao gm min chuyn mch knh, chuyn mch gi v HE (Home
Environment: Mi trng nh). HE bao gm cc c s d liu: AuC
(Authentication Center: Trung tm nhn thc), HLR (Home Location Register: B
ghi nh v thng tr) v EIR (Equipment Identity Register: B ghi nhn dng
thit b).

UE Uu UTRAN Iu CN

Iub
Min CS PSTN
E ISDN
TE Nt B RNC MSC/VLR GMSC

F D C
R Nt B
Iur
EIR HE HLR/AuC
ME
Cu Nt B Gf Gc
Gr
Internet
USIM Nt B RNC SGSN GGSN
Gn Min PS Gi

Hnh 1.9. Kin trc UMTS

21
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.7.1. Thit b ngi s dng

UE (User Equipment: thit b ngi s dng) l u cui mng UMTS ca


ngi s dng. C th ni y l phn h thng c nhiu thit b nht v s pht
trin ca n s nh hng ln ln cc ng dng v cc dch v kh dng. Gi
thnh gim nhanh chng s to iu kin cho ngi s dng mua thit b ca
UMTS. iu ny t c nh tiu chun ha giao din v tuyn v ci t mi tr
tu ti cc card thng minh.

1.7.1.1. Cc u cui

V my u cui by gi khng ch n thun dnh cho in thoi m cn


cung cp cc dch v s liu mi, nn tn cu n c chuyn thnh u cui. Cc
nh sn xut chnh a ra rt nhiu u cui da trn cc khi nim mi, nhng
trong thc t ch mt s t l c a vo sn xut. Mc d cc u cui d kin
khc nhau v kch thc v thit k, tt c chng u c mn hnh ln v t phm
hn so vi 2G. L do chnh l tng cng s dng u cui cho nhiu dch v
s liu hn v v th u cui tr thnh t hp cu my thoi di ng, modem v
my tnh bn tay.
u cui h tr hai giao din. Giao din Uu nh ngha lin kt v tuyn
(giao din WCDMA). N m nhim ton b kt ni vt l vi mng UMTS. Giao
din th hai l giao din Cu gia UMTS IC card (UICC) v u cui. Giao din
ny tun theo tiu chun cho cc card thng minh.
Mc d cc nh sn xut u cui c rt nhiu tng v thit b, h phi
tun theo mt tp ti thiu cc nh ngha tiu chun cc ngi s dng bng
cc u cui khc nhau c th truy nhp n mt s cc chc nng c s theo
cng mt cch.
Cc tiu chun ny gm:
Bn phm (cc phm vt l hay cc phm o trn mn hnh)
ng k mt khu mi
Thay i m PIN
Gii chn PIN/PIN2
Trnh by IMEI
iu khin cuc gi

Cc phn cn li cu giao din s dnh ring cho nh thit k v ngi s dng


s chn cho mnh u cui da trn hai tiu chun (nu xu th 2G cn ko di) l
thit k v giao din. Giao din l kt hp ca kch c v thng tin do mn hnh
cung cp (mn hnh nt chm), cc phm v menu.

22
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.7.1.2. UICC

UMTS IC card l mt card thng minh. iu m ta quan tm n n l


dung lng nh v tc b x l do n cung cp. ng dng USIM chy trn
UICC.

1.7.1.3. USIM

Trong h thng GSM, SIM card lu gi thng tin c nhn (ng k thu
bao) ci cng trn card. iu ny thay i trong UMTS, Modul nhn dng thu
bao UMTS c ci nh mt ng dng trn UICC. iu ny cho php lu nhiu
ng dng hn v nhiu ch k (kha) in t hn cng vi USIM cho cc mc
ch khc (cc m truy nhp giao dch ngn hng an ninh). Ngoi ra c th c
nhiu USIM trn cng mt UICC h tr truy nhp n nhiu mng.
USIM cha cc hm v s liu cn nhn dng v nhn thc thu bao
trong mng UMTS. N c th lu c bn sao h s ca thu bao.
Ngi s dng phi t mnh nhn thc i vi USIM bng cch nhp m
PIN. iu ny m bo rng ch ngi s dng ch thc mi c truy nhp
mng UMTS. Mng s ch cung cp cc dch v cho ngi no s dng u cui
da trn nhn dng USIM c ng k.

1.7.2. Mng truy nhp v tuyn UMTS

UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network: Mng truy nhp v


tuyn mt t UMTS) l lin kt gia ngi s dng v CN. N gm cc phn t
m bo cc cuc truyn thng UMTS trn v tuyn v iu khin chng.
UTRAN c nh ngha gia hai giao din. Giao din Iu gia UTRAN v
CN, gm hai phn: IuPS cho min chuyn mch gi v IuCS cho min chuyn
mch knh; giao din Uu gia UTRAN v thit b ngi s dng. Gia hai giao
din ny l hai nt, RNC v nt B.

1.7.2.1. RNC

RNC (Radio Network Controller) chu trch nhim cho mt hay nhiu trm
gc v iu khin cc ti nguyn ca chng. y cng chnh l im truy nhp
dch v m UTRAN cung cp cho CN. N c ni n CN bng hai kt ni, mt
cho min chuyn mch gi (n GPRS) v mt n min chuyn mch knh
(MSC).

23
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Mt nhim v quan trng na ca RNC l bo v s b mt v ton vn.


Sau th tc nhn thc v tha thun kha, cc kho bo mt v ton vn c t
vo RNC. Sau cc kha ny c s dng bi cc hm an ninh f8 v f9.
RNC c nhiu chc nng logic ty thuc v vic n phc v nt no. Ngi
s dng c kt ni vo mt RNC phc v (SRNC: Serving RNC). Khi ngi s
dng chuyn vng n mt RNC khc nhng vn kt ni vi RNC c, mt RNC
tri (DRNC: Drift RNC) s cung cp ti nguyn v tuyn cho ngi s dng,
nhng RNC phc v vn qun l kt ni ca ngi s dng n CN. Chc nng
cui cng ca RNC l RNC iu khin (CRNC: Control RNC). Mi nt B c mt
RNC iu khin chu trch nhim cho cc ti nguyn v tuyn ca n.

1.7.2.2. Nt B

Trong UMTS trm gc c gi l nt B v nhim v ca n l thc hin


kt ni v tuyn vt l gia u cui vi n. N nhn tn hiu trn giao din Iub t
RNC v chuyn n vo tn hiu v tuyn trn giao din Uu. N cng thc hin
mt s thao tc qun l ti nguyn v tuyn c s nh "iu khin cng sut vng
trong". Tnh nng ny phng nga vn gn xa; ngha l nu tt c cc u
cui u pht cng mt cng sut, th cc u cui gn nt B nht s che lp tn
hiu t cc u cui xa. Nt B kim tra cng sut thu t cc u cui khc
nhau v thng bo cho chng gim cng sut hoc tng cng sut sao cho nt B
lun thu c cng sut nh nhau t tt c cc u cui.

1.7.3. Mng li

Mng li (CN) c chia thnh ba phn, min PS, min CS v HE. Min
PS m bo cc dch v s liu cho ngi s dng bng cc kt ni n Internet v
cc mng s liu khc v min CS m bo cc dch v in thai n cc mng
khc bng cc kt ni TDM. Cc nt B trong CN c kt ni vi nhau bng
ng trc ca nh khai thc, thng s dng cc cng ngh mng tc cao nh
ATM v IP. Mng ng trc trong min CS s dng TDM cn trong min PS s
dng IP.

1.7.3.1. SGSN

SGSN (SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node: nt h tr GPRS phc v) l


nt chnh ca min chuyn mch gi. N ni n UTRAN thng qua giao din
IuPS v n GGSN thng quan giao din Gn. SGSN chu trch nhim cho tt c
kt ni PS ca tt c cc thu bao. N lu hai kiu d liu thu bao: thng tin
ng k thu bao v thng tin v tr thu bao.

24
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

S liu thu bao lu trong SGSN gm:


IMSI (International Mobile Subsscriber Identity: s nhn dng thu bao di
ng quc t)
Cc nhn dng tm thi (P-TMSI: Packet- Temporary Mobile Subsscriber
Identity: s nhn dng thu bao di ng tm thi gi)
Cc a ch PDP (Packet Data Protocol: Giao thc s liu gi)

S liu v tr lu trn SGSN:


Vng nh tuyn thu bao (RA: Routing Area)
S VLR
Cc a ch GGSN ca tng GGSN c kt ni tch cc

1.7.3.2. GGSN

GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node: Nt h tr GPRS cng) l mt


SGSN kt ni vi cc mng s liu khc. Tt c cc cuc truyn thng s liu t
thu bao n cc mng ngoi u qua GGSN. Cng nh SGSN, n lu c hai kiu
s liu: thng tin thu bao v thng tin v tr.

S liu thu bao lu trong GGSN:


IMSI
Cc a ch PDP

S liu v tr lu trong GGSN:


a ch SGSN hin thu bao ang ni n

GGSN ni n Internet thng qua giao din Gi v n BG thng qua Gp.

1.7.3.3. BG

BG (Border Gatway: Cng bin gii) l mt cng gia min PS ca PLMN


vi cc mng khc. Chc nng cu nt ny ging nh tng la ca Internet:
m bo mng an ninh chng li cc tn cng bn ngoi.

1.7.3.4. VLR

VLR (Visitor Locatoin Register: b ghi nh v tm tr) l bn sao cu HLR


cho mng phc v (SN: Serving Network). D liu thu bao cn thit cung cp

25
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

cc dch v thu bao c copy t HLR v lu y. C MSC v SGSN u c


VLR ni vi chng.

S liu sau y c lu trong VLR:


IMSI
MSISDN
TMSI (nu c)
LA hin thi ca thu bao
MSC/SGSN hin thi m thu bao ni n

Ngoi ra VLR c th lu gi thng v cc dch v m thu bao c cung


cp.
C SGSN v MSC u c thc hin trn cng mt nt vt l vi VLR v th
c gi l VLR/SGSN v VLR/MSC.

1.7.3.5. MSC

MSC thc hin cc kt ni CS gia u cui v mng. N thc hin cc


chc nng bo hiu v chuyn mch cho cc thu bao trong vng qun l ca
mnh. Chc nng ca MSC trong UMTS ging chc nng MSC trong GSM,
nhng n c nhiu kh nng hn. Cc kt ni CS c thc hin trn giao din
CS gia UTRAN v MSC. Cc MSC c ni n cc mng ngoi qua GMSC.

1.7.3.6. GMSC

GMSC c th l mt trong s cc MSC. GMSC chu trch nhim thc hin


cc chc nng nh tuyn n vng c MS. Khi mng ngoi tm cch kt ni n
PLMN cu mt nh khai thc, GMSC nhn yu cu thit lp kt ni v hi HLR
v MSC hin thi qun l MS.

1.7.3.7. Mi trng nh

Mi trng nh (HE: Home Environment) lu cc h s thu bao cu hng


khai thc. N cng cung cp cho cc mng phc v (SN: Serving Network) cc
thng tin v thu bao v v cc cn thit nhn thc ngi s dng v tnh
cc cho cc dch v cung cp. Trong phn ny ta s lit k cc dch v c cung
cp v cc dch v b cm.

Thanh ghi nh v thng tr (HLR)

26
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

HLR l mt c s d liu c nhim v qun l cc thu bao di ng. Mt


mng di ng c th cha nhiu HLR ty thuc vo s lng thu bao, dung
lng ca tng HLR v t chc bn trong mng.
C s d liu ny cha IMSI (International Mobile Subsscribern Identity:
s nhn dng thu bao di ng), t nht mt MSISDN (Mobile Station ISDN: s
thu bao cso trong danh b in thai) v t nht mt a ch PDP(Packet Data
Protocol: Giao thc s liu gi). C IMSI v MSISDN c th s dng lm kho
truy nhp n cc thng tin c lu khc. nh tuyn v tnh cc cc cuc
gi, HLR cn lu gi thng tin v SGSN v VLR no hin ang chu trch nhim
thu bao. Cc dch v khc nh chuyn hng cuc gi, tc s liu v th thoi
cng c trong danh sch cng vi cc hn ch dch v nh cc hn ch chuyn
mng.
HLR v AuC l hai nt mng logic, nhng thng c thc hin trong
cng mt nt vt l. HLR lu gi mi thng tin v ngi s dng v ng k thu
bao. Nh: thng tin tnh cc, cc dch v no c cung cp v cc dch v no
b t chi v thng tin chuyn hng cuc gi. Nhng thng tin quan trong nht l
hin VLR v SGSN no ang ph trch ngi s dng.

Trung tm nhn thc (AuC)

AUC (Authentication Center) lu gi ton b s liu cn thit nhn thc,


mt m ha v bo v s ton vn thng tin cho ngi s dng. N lin kt vi
HLR v c thc hin cng vi HLR trong cng mt nt vt l. Tuy nhin cn
m bo rng AuC ch cung cp thng tin v cc vect nhn thc (AV:
Authetication Vector) cho HLR.
AuC lu gi kha b mt chia s K cho tng thu bao cng vi tt c cc
hm to kha t f0 n f5. N to ra cc AV, c trong thi gian thc khi
SGSN/VLR yu cu hay khi ti x l thp, ln cc AV d tr.

B ghi nhn thc thit b (EIR)

EIR (Equipment Identity Register) chu trch nhim lu cc s nhn dng


thit b di ng quc t (IMEI: International Mobile Equipment Identity). y l
s nhn dng duy nht cho thit b u cui. C s d liu ny c chia thnh ba
danh mc: danh mc trng, xm v en. Danh mc trng cha cc s IMEI c
php truy nhp mng. Danh mc xm cha IMEI ca cc u cui ang b theo
di cn danh mc en cha cc s IMEI cu cc u cui b cm truy nhp mng.
Khi mt u cui c thng bo l b mt cp, IMEI ca n s b t vo danh
mc en v th n b cm truy nhp mng. Danh mc ny cng c th c s

27
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

dng cm cc seri my c bit khng c truy nhp mng khi chng khng
hot ng theo tiu chun.

1.7.4. Cc mng ngoi

Cc mng ngoi khng phi l b phn ca h thng UMTS, nhng chng


cn thit m bo truyn thng gia cc nh khai thc. Cc mng ngoi c th
l cc mng in thoi nh: PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network: mng di ng
mt t cng cng), PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network: Mng in thoi
chuyn mch cng cng), ISDN hay cc mng s liu nh Internet. Min PS kt
ni n cc mng s liu cn min CS ni n cc mng in thoi.

1.7.5. Cc giao din

Vai tr cc cc nt khc nhau cu mng ch c nh ngha thng qua cc


giao din khc nhau. Cc giao din ny c nh nghi cht ch cc nh sn
xut c th kt ni cc phn cng khc nhau ca h.

1.7.5.1. Uu

Giao din Uu l WCDMA, giao din v tuyn c nh ngha cho UMTS.


Giao din ny nm gia nt B v u cui.

1.7.5.2. Iu

Giao din Iu kt ni CN v UTRAN. N gm ba phn, IuPS cho min


chuyn mch gi, IuCS cho min chuyn mch knh v IuBC cho min qung b.
CN c th kt ni n nhiu UTRAN cho c giao din IuCS v IuPS. Nhng mt
UTRAN ch c th kt ni n mt im truy nhp CN.

1.8. KIN TRC 3G WCDMA UMTS R4.

Hnh 1.10 cho thy kin trc c s ca 3G UMTS R4. S khc nhau c bn
gia R3 v R4 l ch khi ny mng li l mng phn b v chuyn mch mm.
Thay cho vic c cc MSC chuyn mch knh truyn thng nh kin trc trc,
kin trc chuyn mch phn b v chuyn mch mm c a vo.
V cn bn, MSC c chia thnh MSC server v cng cc phng tin
(MGW: Media Gateway). MSC cha tt c cc phn mm iu khin cuc gi,
qun l di ng c mt MSC tiu chun. Tuy nhin n khng cha ma trn

28
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

chuyn mch. Ma trn chuyn mch nm trong MGW c MSC Server iu


khin v c th t xa MSC Server.

Hnh 1.10. Kin trc mng phn b ca pht hnh 3GPP Release 4

Bo hiu iu khin cc cuc gi chuyn mch knh c thc hin gia


RNC v MSC Server. ng truyn cho cc cuc gi chuyn mch knh c
thc hin gia RNC v MGW. Thng thng MGW nhn cc cuc gi t RNC v
nh tuyn cc cuc gi ny n ni nhn trn cc ng trc gi. Trong nhiu
trng hp ng trc gi s dng Giao thc truyn ti thi gian thc (RTP: Real
Time Transport Protocol) trn Giao thc Internet (IP). T hnh 1.5 ta thy lu
lng s liu gi t RNC i qua SGSN v t SGSN n GGSN trn mng ng
trc IP. C s liu v ting u c th s dng truyn ti IP bn trong mng li.
y l mng truyn tai hon ton IP.
Ti ni m mt cuc gi cn chuyn n mt mng khc, PSTN chng hn,
s c mt cng cc phng tin khc (MGW) c iu khin bi MSC Server
cng (GMSC server). MGW ny s chuyn ting thoi c ng gi thnh PCM
tiu chun a n PSTN. Nh vy chuyn i m ch cn thc hin ti im
ny. th d, ta gi thit rng nu ting giao din v tuyn c truyn ti tc
12,2 kbps, th tc ny ch phi chuyn vo 64 kbps MGW giao tip vi

29
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

PSTN. Truyn ti kiu ny cho php tit kim ng k rng bng tn nht l
khi cc MGW cch xa nhau.
Giao thc iu khin gia MSC Server hoc GMSC Server vi MGW l
giao thc ITU H.248. Giao thc ny c ITU v IETF cng tc pht trin. N c
tn l iu khin cng cc phng tin (MEGACO: Media Gateway Control).
Giao thc iu khin cuc gi gia MSC Server v GMSC Server c th l mt
giao thc iu khin cuc gi bt k. 3GPP ngh s dng (khng bt buc) giao
thc iu khin cuc gi c lp vt mang (BICC: Bearer Independent Call
Control) c xy dng trn c s khuyn ngh Q.1902 ca ITU.
Trong nhiu trng hp MSC Server h tr c cc chc nng ca GMSC
Server. Ngoi ra MGW c kh nng giao din vi c RAN v PSTN. Khi ny cuc
gi n hoc t PSTN c th chuyn ni ht, nh vy c th tit kim ng k u
t.
lm th d ta xt trng hp khi mt RNC c t ti thnh ph A v
c iu khin bi mt MSC t ti thnh ph B. Gi s thu bao thnh ph A
thc hin cuc gi ni ht. Nu khng c cu trc phn b, cuc gi cn chuyn t
thnh ph A n thnh ph B (ni c MSC) u ni vi thu bao PSTN ti
chnh thnh ph A. Vi cu trc phn b, cuc gi c th c iu khin ti
MSC Server thnh ph B nhng ng truyn cc phng tin thc t c th
vn thnh ph A, nh vy gim ng k yu cu truyn dn v gi thnh khai
thc mng.
T hnh 1.10 ta cng thy rng HLR cng c th c gi l Server thu bao
ti nh (HSS: Home Subscriber Server). HSS v HLR c chc nng tng ng,
ngai tr giao din vi HSS l giao din trn c s truyn ti gi (IP chng hn)
trong khi HLR s dng giao din trn c s bo hiu s 7. Ngoi ra cn c cc
giao din (khng c trn hnh v) gia SGSN vi HLR/HSS v gia GGSN vi
HLR/HSS.
Rt nhiu giao thc c s dng bn trong mng li l cc giao thc trn c
s gi s dng hoc IP hoc ATM. Tuy nhin mng phi giao din vi cc mng
truyn thng qua vic s dng cc cng cc phng tin. Ngoi ra mng cng phi
giao din vi cc mng SS7 tiu chun. Giao din ny c thc hin thng qua
cng SS7 (SS7 GW). y l cng m mt pha n h tr truyn ti bn tin SS7
trn ng truyn ti SS7 tiu chun, pha kia n truyn ti cc bn tin ng dng
SS7 trn mng gi ( IP chng hn). Cc thc th nh MSC Server, GMSC Server
v HSS lin lc vi cng SS7 bng cch s dng cc giao thc truyn ti c
thit k c bit mang cc bn tin SS7 mng IP. B giao thc ny c gi l
Sigtran.

30
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.9. KIN TRC 3G WCDMA UMTS R5

Bc pht trin tip theo ca UMTS l a ra kin trc mng a phng


tin IP (hnh 1.11). Bc pht trin ny th hin s thay i ton b m hnh cuc
gi. y c ting v s liu c x l ging nhau trn ton b ng truyn t
u cui ca ngi s dng n ni nhn cui cng. C th coi kin trc ny l s
hi t ton din ca ting v s liu.
CSCF
R-SGW SS7
Sniffer Server
monitoring/analysis

Chc nng iu khin Chc nng iu khin


trng thi cuc gi mi trng
(CSCF) (MGCF)
Cx

Mg
Sniffer Server
monitoring/analysis

RNC Cx
HSS/ T-SGW
HLR
Mr
SS7
Iur Sniffer Server
monitoring/analysis

Node B Gr
MRF Mc
Iub Gi

Iu Gn Gi
Sniffer Server
monitoring/analysis

PCM PSTN
Iub MGW
RNC
Node B SGSN GGSN

Gi Internet

Hnh 1.11. Kin trc mng a phng tin IP ca 3GPP

T hnh 1.11 ta thy ting v s liu khng cn cc giao din cch bit; ch
c mt giao din Iu duy nht mang tt c phng tin. Trong mng li giao din
ny kt cui ti SGSN v khng c MGW ring.
Ta cng thy c mt s phn t mng mi nh: Chc nng iu khin trng
thi kt ni (CSCF: Connection State Control Function), Chc nng ti nguyn a
phng tin (MRF: Multimedia Resource Function), chc nng iu khin cng
cc phng tin (MGCF: Media Gateway Control Function), Cng bo hiu
truyn ti (T-SGW: Transport Signalling Gateway) v Cng bo hiu chuyn
mng (R-SGW: Roaming Signalling Gateway).
Mt nt quan trng ca kin trc ton IP l thit b ca ngi s dng c
tng cng rt nhiu. Nhiu phn mm c ci t UE. Trong thc t, UE h
tr giao thc khi u phin (SIP: Session Initiation Protocol). UE tr thnh mt

31
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

tc nhn ca ngi s dng SIP. Nh vy, UE c kh nng iu khin cc dch v


ln hn trc rt nhiu.
CSCF qun l vic thit lp , duy tr v gii phng cc phin a phng tin
n v t ngi s dng. N bao gm cc chc nng nh: phin dch v nh
tuyn. CSCF hot ng nh mt i din Server /h tch vin.
SGSN v GGSN l cc phin bn tng cng ca cc nt c s dng
GPRS v UMTS R3 v R4. im khc nhau duy nht l ch cc nt ny khng
ch h tr dch v s liu gi m c dch v chuyn mch knh (ting chng hn).
V th cn h tr cc kh nng cht lng dch v (QoS) hoc bn trong SGSN v
GGSN hoc t nht cc Router kt ni trc tip vi chng.
Chc nng ti nguyn a phng tin (MRF) l chc nng lp cu hi nghi
c s dng h tr cc tnh nng nh t chc cuc gi nhiu pha v dch v
hi ngh .
Cng bo hiu truyn ti (T-SGW) l mt cng bo hiu SS7 m bo
tng tc SS7 vi cc mng tiu chun ngoi nh PSTN. T-SGW h tr cc giao
thc Sigtran. Cng bo hiu chuyn mng (R-SGW) l mt nt m bo tng tc
bo hiu vi cc mng di ng hin c s dng SS7 tiu chun. Trong nhiu
trng hp T-SGW v R-SGW cng tn ti trn cng mt nn tng.
MGW thc hin tng tc vi cc mng ngoi mc ng truyn a
phng tin. MGW kin trc mng ca UMTS R5 c chc nng ging nh
R4. MGW c iu khin bi Chc nng cng iu khin cc phng tin
(MGCF). Giao thc iu khin gia cc thc th ny l ITU-T H.248.
MGCF cng lin lc vi CSCF. Giao thc c chn cho giao din ny l
SIP.
Cn lu rng pht hnh cu trc ton IP ca R5 l mt tng cng ca
mng R3 hoc R4. N a thm vo mt vng mi trong mng l vng a
phng tin IP (IM: IP Multimedia). Vng mi ny cho php mang c ting v s
liu trn IP trn ton tuyn ni n my cm tay. Vng ny s dng vng chuyn
mch gi PS cho mc ch truyn ti: s dng SGSN, GGSN, Gn, Gi ... l cc nt
v giao din thuc vng PS.

1.10. KIN TRC CDMA2000

Mng gi ca cdma2000 l mng kt hp vi mng chuyn mch knh


cdma2000 s dng bo hiu IS-41. Mng IP bao gm PCF (Packet Control
Function: Chc nng iu khin gi), PDSN (Packet Data Serving Node: Nt phc
v s liu gi), HA v cc server AAA (Authentication, Authorization and
Account: Nhn thc, trao quyn v thanh ton). i vi dch v IP n gin
(Simple IP), vic ngi s dng chuyn t vng phc v ca mt PDSN ny sang

32
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

vng phc v ca mt PDSN khc s dn n s thay i phin s liu v a ch


IP mi s c n nh bi PDSN mi. i vi dch v MIP (Mobile IP), phin s
liu c th ko di trn nhiu PDSN chng no ngi s dng vn duy tr cc rng
buc di ng ti HA v cha ht thi hn hiu lc ca ng k (hoc ti ng k)
(a ch IP ny vn khng i).
Kin trc ca cdma 2000 c cho hnh 1.12. Kin trc 1.12 c trnh
by cho trng hp MIP. i vi dch v IP n gin, kin trc trn hnh 1.12 s
khng c HA v FA..

Giao din
MS v tuyn RAN Mng cung cp dch v truy nhp khch
Abis A1/A2 E
TE BTS PCF (giao din A)
MSC/VLR GMSC
A8/A9
PTSN
R BTS BSC F D c

EIR HLR/AuC
ME A3/A7

BTS BSC
Ur Ui HA
A8/A9 Pi
UIM BTS PCF PDSN/FA Internet

AAA nh
A10/A11
(Giao din R-P)
RN: Radio Network= Mng v tuyn RADIUS/
R-P: Radio Packet= gi v tuyn AAA mi
AAA khch DIAMETER
gii

Hnh 1.12. Kin trc ca cdma 2000

1.10.1. MS

MS thc hin c dch v CS ln MIP. i vi MIP MS phi:

H tr PPP
C th hot ng nh mt MIP MN, h tr h lnh FA v NAI
Tng tc vi RAN v mng li nhn c cc ti nguyn mng cho vic
trao i gi
Ghi nh trng thi ca cc ti nguyn v tuyn (tch cc, ch, ng)

33
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.10.2. Mng truy nhp v tuyn RAN

Mng truy nhp v tuyn RAN gm cc BTS v cc BSC. BTS iu


khin lu lng v tuyn gia MS v chnh n thng qua giao din v tuyn.
Nhiu BTS v c th ni n mt BSC. T hp cc BTS cng vi mt BSC m
chng ni n c go l BSS (Base station Subsystem: h thng con trm gc).
Cc BSS cho php truy nhp c dch v CS v PS. h tr truy nhp dchv PS,
BSS c thm khi chc iu khin gi: PCF (Packet Control Function: Chc nng
iu khin gi). Khi cc gi c gi n mt MS, nhng cha th ni n MS,
PCF nh m cc gi ny v yu cu RAN tm gi MS. N cng thu thp v gi
thng tin thanh ton n PDSN. PCF ni BSC vi PDSN thc hin chuyn
giao. Trong tiu chun tng tc (IOS: Inter-Operability Standards) 3GPP2
A.S00001, PCF ni n BSC thng qua giao din m A8/A9. Thng thng trong
cc sn phm thng mi, PCF c thc hin nh l mt b phn ca BSC vi
giao din ring.
Cdma2000 BSC c qun l ti nguyn v tuyn (RRM: Radio Resource
Management), qun l di ng (MM: Mobility Management) v cc kt ni n
MSC. N m bo truyn cc gi s liu khng qua codec ting.
Ngoi cc nhim v h tr dch v CS thng thng, RAN cn h tr cc dch
v PS sau:
Chuyn i tham kho nhn dng client di ng vo mt nhn dng lin kt
duy nht thng tin vi PDSN
Nhn thc MS cho php truy nhp dch v
Qun l kt ni lp vt l n client di ng
Duy tr trng thi cho php kt ni i vi dch v gi gia mng truy nhp v
tuyn v MS
Nh m cc gi n t PDSN, khi cc ti nguyn v tuyn cha c hoc
cha h tr dng gi t PDSN
Chuyn tip cc gi gia MS v PDSN

1.10.3. Mng nh cung cp dch truy nhp khch

Mng nh cung cp dch v truy nhp khch bao gm cc phn t mng li


thc hin nhim v chuyn mch knh nh: MSC/VLR v cc phn t mng li
thc chuyn mch gi nh: PDSN. MSC s dng IS-41 MSC v c ni n
BSC thng qua giao din A1 (cho bo hiu) v giao din A2 (cho lu lng).
MSC thc hin cc chc nng chuyn mch thoi v cc chc nng di ng ca h
thng. PDSN thc hin cc chc nng chuyn mch gi v cc chc nng di ng
ca h thng. PDSN ni n PCF thng qua cc giao din m A8/A9. Ngoi ra

34
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

h tr dch v PS mng ny c cha mt AAA server a phng lm nhim v


nhn thc.
VLR cha cc chi tit tm thi v MS lm khch ti MSC hin thi. N
cng cha TMSI.

1.10.3.1. HLR/AuC

HLR mang tt c cc thng tin v thu bao trong vng ca GMSC tng
ng.
Trung tm nhn thc (AuC) c t ti HLR v l mt trong nhng ni
pht i thng s an ninh quan trng nht v n m bo tt c cc thng s cn
thit cho nhn thc v mt m ha gia MS v BTS.

Nh m cc gi khi ti nguyn v tuyn cha c hoc khng h tr


dng gi n mng

1.10.3.2. Cc server AAA nh, khch v mi gii

Cc dch v nhn thc, trao quyn v thanh ton (AAA: Authentication,


Authorization and Account) c th c m bo bi giao thc RADIUS (Remote
Authentication Dial-in Uer Service: Dch v ngi s dng quay s nhn thc t
xa) hoc giao thc DIAMETER. Lc u mng cdma2000 chn giao thc
RADIUS, nn giao thc ny c s dng rng ri. Trong chng ny ta ch xt
cc dch v AAA s dng RADIUS.
Cc AAA Server m bo chuyn vng. AAA server t trong mng IP nh
c gi l AAA server nh. AAA server trong mng ca nh cung cp dch v
khch c gi l AAA server khch. AAA server nh cha h s thu bao cu
ngi s dng, cn AAA server khch ch cha thng tin tm thi lin quan n
cc phin ang c s dng bi ngi s dng. H s c th cha thng tin v
ng k QoS v thng tin ny c truyn n PDSN. PDSN c th s dng thng
tin ny trao quyn truy nhp n mt s dch v hoc cp pht cc ti nguyn
da trn cc yu cu v QoS. AAA server mi gii l mt server trung gian, n c
cc quan h an ninh vi cc AAA server khch v nh. N c s dng
chuyn tip cc bn tin AAA mt cch an ninh gia mng nh cung cp dch v
truy nhp trung gian v mng IP nh. Mt mng c th c hoc khng c AAA
server mi gii.
C th tng kt cc yu cu i vi AAA nh sau:

35
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Nhn thc v trao quyn cho mt NAI ca ngi s dng trong mi trng
chuyn vng. NAI nhn c qua CHAP (i vi dch v PPP truyn thng)
hay FAC (FA Challenge: h lnh FA) (i vi dch v MIP). FAC thng
c tnh ton ph hp vi CHAP
Truyn ti cc thuc tnh s liu v tuyn t mng nh n mng phc v
(thng dng h s ngi s dng)
Mt m ha hoc k mt hay nhiu AVP (Attribute-Value Pair: cp gi tr
thuc ng) trong cc bn tin AAA gia mng nh, mng khch hay mt mi
gii qua nhiu chng AAA server
H tr mt c ch truyn ti AAA tin cy:
C ch ny c th ch cho mt ng dng AAA rng bn tin c chuyn

n ng dng ng cp tip theo hay rng xy ra mt thi gian tm


ngng
Pht li c iu khin bi c ch truyn ti AAA tin cy ny ch khng

phi cc giao thc thp hn (TCP chng hn)


Ngay c khi bn tin cn chuyn hay cc ty chn hoc ng ngha ca bn
tin khng ph hp vi giao thc AAA, c ch truyn ti vn bo nhn rng
pha ng cp nhn c bn tin. Tuy nhin nu bn tin khng qua c
nhn thc, n s khng c bo nhn
Bo nhn c th c gi cng vi cc bn tin AAA

C ch truyn ti tin cy phi c kh nng pht hin cc s c im lng ca


ng cp AAA hay ng truyn n ng cp AAA ny qun l s c
Truyn ti mt chng nhn s trong mt bn tin AAA gim thiu s ln
truyn vng lin quan n cc giao dch AAA. Lu : yu cu ny ch p
dng cho cc ng dng AAA ch khng cho cc MS
H tr chng pht li v cc kh nng chng t chi cho tt c cc bn tin
trao quyn v thanh ton. Giao thc AAA phi m bo kh nng cho cc
bn tin thanh ton ph hp vi cc bn tin trao quyn trc
H tr thanh ton thng qua dn xp hai pha v thng qua cc server mi

gii m bo cch vit thanh ton khc nhau gia mng phc v v
mng nh. y l mt tha thun r rng rng nu mng ring hay ISP nh
nhn thc MS yu cu dch v, th mng ring hay mng ISP nh ny cng
chp nhn cc tnh cc vi nh cung cp dch v nh hay mi gii. Phi
m bo thanh ton thi gian thc
m bo an ninh gia cc AAA server, gia AAA server v PDSN hay

HA thng qua an ninh IP.

36
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.10.3.3. Nt phc v s liu gi

Nt phc v s liu gi (PDSN: Packet Data Serving Node) l mt phn t


mng neo nm bn trong mng khch v thc hin nhiu chc nng cho vai tr
neo ny. i vi dch v MIP, n m bo chc nng FA theo c t RFC 2002.
FA l mt router v n m bo cc dch v nh tuyn n mt MS trong mng
khch. i vi c MIP v IP n gin, PDSN m bo kt ni lp lin kt s liu
n MS bng cch s dng giao thc im n im (PPP: Point-to-Point
Protocol). PDSN c ni n PCF thng qua giao din A10/A11 (giao din R-P),
A10 s dng cho s liu ca ngi s dng cn A11 s dng cho cc bn tin iu
khin. N cung cp mt lin kt gia a ch lp lin kt TTD vi a ch IP ca
mt MS. a ch lp lin kt bao gm s nhn dng MS (IMSI chng hn) v nhn
dng kt ni MS (mt thng s phn bit cc phin trn mt MS). PDSN cng
hot ng nh mt RADIUS client v n truyn thng tin nhn thc n AAA
server khch. N cng thu thp s liu thanh tan t PCF, lp tng quan cho s
liu ny, to ra thng tin thanh ton v chuyn n n AAA server khch.
C th tng kt cc yu cu i vi PDSN nh sau:
Thit lp, duy tr v kt cui lp lin kt n client di ng
Khi u nhn thc, trao quyn v thanh tan cho client di ng
Truyn tunnel (an ninh ty chn) s dng an ninh IP n tc nhn nh
Nhn cc thng s dch v t AAA cho client di ng
Thu thp s liu v mc s dng cho mc ch thanh ton chuyn cc
s liu nh n AAA
nh tuyn cc gi n cc mng s liu ngoi hay n HA trong trng hp
truyn tunnel ngc
Chuyn i a ch nh v a ch HA n mt nhn dng lp lin kt duy
nht thng tin vi mng v tuyn

1.10.3.4. Tc nhn nh

MIP HA l mt router t ti mng IP nh ca MS. N ng k PDSN /FA


cho mt MS. ng k PDSN cho MS c thc hin bng CoA, y l mt a
ch IP cu PDSN. Khi MS khng nm trong mng nh, HA nhn cc gi gi n
MS trn lin kt nh, ng bao chng vo mt tiu IP khc v truyn tunnel
chng n PDSN. Cc yu cu i vi HA:
Duy tr ng k ca ngi s dng v chuyn cc gi n PDSN
Thit lp tunnel (an ninh IP ty chn) n PDSN/FA
H tr n nh a ch HA ng

37
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

n nh a ch nh ng (ty chn) cho MS. n nh a ch nh c th c


thc hin t cc pun (t hp) a ch c lp cu hnh ti ch, thng qua
DHCP server hay t AAA server

1.10.4. Cc dch v s liu gi trong cdma2000

1.10.4.1. IP n gin

c im ca IP n gin l n khng h tr di ng bn ngoi PDSN phc


v. Mng ny ch m bo dch v nh tuyn IP n im nhp mng hin thi
(PDSN). iu ny ging nh dch v ca nh cung cp dch v Internet quay s.
Mt MS c th chuyn vng t mt RAN ny n mt RAN khc s dng th tc
cp nht v tr, nhng khi mt phin c thit lp vi mt PDSN, MS khng
th chuyn giao phin ny n mt PDSN khc. PPP c s dng m bo
giao thc lin kt s liu gia ngi s dng v PDSN. PDSN n nh mt a ch
IP ng cho cho MS trong giai on IPCP (IP Coltrol Protocol) ca PPP. Giao
din A10/A11 c s dng m bo truyn tunnel lu lng v chuyn giao
ni PDSN. Ngi s dng duy tr a ch IP ca mnh v s dng kt ni IP chng
no vn cn nm trong vng phc v ca PDSN phc v. Mng cng c th h tr
dch v mng ring o (VPN: Virtual Private Network) khi b sung thm phn
mm cho MS.

Nhn thc ngi s dng c thc hin bng giao thc nhn thc mt
khu (PAP: Password Authentication Protocol) v giao thc nhn thc bt tay h
lnh (CHAP: Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol). PDSN hat ng
nh mt AAA (RADIUS) client, n truyn i thng tin nhn thc ngi s dng
CHAP hay PAP. PAP l dng nhn thc c s nht, trong tn ngi s dng v
mt khu c ngi ny gi i v c mng so snh vi mt bng cha cp tn-
mt khu. im yu ca PAP l c tn ngi s dng v mt khu u truyn
dng khng c mt m. CHAP loi b c im yu ny bng cch gi n
MS mt kho mt m ha tn ngi s dng v mt khu. Trong CHAP, trc
ht mng gi i mt bn tin h lnh n MS. MS tr li bng mt gi tr nhn
c bng cch s dng kha ni trn. Nu cc gi tr ny trng nhau, th ngi s
dng c nhn thc. Nhn thc ngi s dng ch l ty chn trong IP n gin.
Mt ngi s dng c th c lp cu hnh cho php MS nhn c dch v IP
n gin m khng cn CHAP hoc PAP.
IP n gin h tr nn tiu v ti tin theo tiu chun TIA/EIA/IS-835.
Nn tiu TCP/IP Van Jacobson cng c h tr theo tiu chun RFC 1144.
Giao thc iu khin nn PPP cng c ty chn h tr. Giao thc ny c s
dng m phn mt gii thut nn ti tin PPP.

38
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.10.4.2. MIP

Dch v MIP m bo di ng hon ton cho mt ngi s dng. PDSN


hot ng nh mt FA. Mi ngi s dng c n nh mt HA trong mng nh
ca mnh. MS c n nh mt a ch IP c gi l a ch nh trong cng mt
mng con nh HA. MS s dng CoA (a ch IP cu FA) ng k vi HA.
ng k ny buc HA phi thc hin ARP (Address Resolution Protocol: Giao
thc phn gii a ch) y thc trn mng con nh v bt u nhn tt c cc gi
c chuyn n theo a ch nh cu MS. HA cng to lp mt rng buc gia
a ch nh ca MS v CoA c quy nh trong yu cu ng k. Khi HA nhn
c s liu gii n cho MS, n hng s liu ny n FA theo CoA v FA
chuyn s liu ny n MS. Cc gi hng n MS c truyn tunnel bng cch
s dng truyn tunnel IP trong IP n a ch CoA. Truyn tunnel IP trong IP c
c t trong RFC 2003. MIP cho php ni n MS khng ph thuc vo vic n
ang u trong mng cng cng hoc mng ring. iu duy nht cn thit l
CoA v HA phi c a ch nh tuyn ton cu. Trong trng hp truy nhp mng
ring, MS s dng truyn tunnel ngc qua FA gi s liu n mng ring.
Ging nh IP n gin, giao thc lin kt s liu gia MS v PDSN c
m bo bi PPP. Nu PDSN nhn c mt gi cho MS khi phin PPP khng
c thit lp, PDSN loi b gi ny v gi i mt gi thng bo khng th gi
n ni nhn ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol: Giao thc bn tin iu
khin). Mt phin PPP c th h tr nhiu a ch nh IP v th ch php nhiu
ng dng trn mt MS.
Bo hiu MIP c trao i trn cc knh lu lng trn giao din v tuyn
v th khng s dng hiu qu ti nguyn qu gi ca v tuyn. Mt s ci thin
c p dng so vi giao thc MIP c s truyn bo hiu hiu xut hn. Mt
trong cc ci thin ny l PDSN s khng pht qung b cc bn tin qung co tc
nhn thng xuyn v nh k n tt c cc MS. Thay vo chng ch c
pht n mt MS sau khi thit lp phin. Mt ci thin khc l PDSN ch lp li
cc qung co theo mt s ln c lp cu hnh i vi mt MS. Ngoi ra
PDSN dng pht i cc qung co n MS ngay sau khi n nhn c yu cu
ng k t MS ny. Khi MIP hot ng trn kt ni PPP, thi hn hiu lc ng
k MIP phi nh hn ng h thi gian khng tch cc PPP.
MIP cung cp tp cc th tc an ninh gia client di ng (MS) v cc tc
nhn di ng v gia cc tc nhn di ng. iu quan trng l phi c mt knh
gia MS v HA cho cc bn tin ng k. Lin kt an ninh ny c th c thit lp
bng cch trang b c nh (ti thi im ng k) cc kha gia MS v HA. MIP
khng yu cu c ch nhn thc gia FA v HA. Tuy nhin trong mi trng kinh
doanh nh cc mng thng tin di ng, cn nhn thc tt c cc bn tin gia FA v

39
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

HA chng li s xm hi cc dch v v thit lp c ch tnh cc tin cy gia


mng nh v mng khch. Tiu chun (TIA/EIA/IS-835) h tr cc ty chn sau
y phn phi kha gia FA v HA:
IKE v chng nhn cng cng (X.509)
Kha b mt IKE quy nh chia s ng c phn phi bi AAA server nh

Kha chia s IKE quy nh lp cu hnh tnh

Th tc an ninh MS-FA c m bo bi c ch h lnh/tr li c m t


trong RFC 3012. PDSN khi u nhn thc ngi s dng trong min khch khi
ng k ngi s dng. PDSN a phn m rng h lnh MS-FA trong qung
co tc nhn. V cc qung co c pht khng thng xuyn, PDSN a h
lnh tip theo vo tr li ng k. MS s dng h lnh tip theo ny trong ng
k tip theo vi PDSN. PDSN truyn thng tin tr li h lnh FA nhn c t
MS n AAA server nh thng qua AAA server khch.

1.10.5. Nhn thc cdma2000

MS s dng dch v thoi ch cn nhn thc mt ln trn giao din v


tuyn.
MS yu cu dch v s liu trong cc h thng cdma2000 s b nhn thc
hai ln: trn lp giao din v tuyn v nhn thc mng. Nhn thc giao din v
tuyn c thc hin bi h tng HLR/AuC v VLR. Qu trnh ny da trn IMSI
c nh ngha trong IS2000. Nhn thc trm di ng lp lin kt cdma2000 hay
truy nhp mng truyn s liu gi, c thc hin bi cc c s h tng ca cc
server AAA v cc client, trong cc client dc t trong cc PDSN v cc HA.
Qu trnh ny da trn NAI (Network Access Identifier c nh ngha bi IETF
trong [RFC2486]. y l s nhn dang c dng user@homedomain (ngi s
dng@min nh) cho php mng khch nhn dng AAA server mng nh bng
cch chuyn nhn "homedomain" thnh a ch AAA IP. H lnh t PDSN cng
cho php bo v chng cc tn cng theo cch pht li.
Ngoi ra, NAI cho php phn pht lin kt an ninh MIP c th h tr
nhn thc PDSN/HA trong thi gian ng k di ng, n nh HA v chuyn giao
gia cc PDSN. Lu rng AAA ca mng s liu nhn thc ngi s dng v
khng nh nhn thc lp vt l ch nhn thc MS. V th ngi s dng mun
truy nhp n cc mng s liu cng cng hay ring phi thc hin ng nhp v
mt khu ging nh cc ngi s dng truy nhp s liu t xa, ngoi vic nhn
thc thit b di ng xy ra trong giai on ng k, iu ny dn n tm dng
khi khi u in thoi nh thng thy i vi hu ht cc ngi s dng my
thoi di ng.

40
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

H thng s liu cdma2000 m bo hai c ch nhn thc khi s dng cc


phng php truy nhp IP n gin v MIP nh nh ngha trong [IS835] v
[RFC3141]. i vi ch truy nhp IP n gin, nhn thc da trn CHAP, y
l mt b phn ca m phn PPP. Trong CHAP, PDSN hi h lnh MS bng mt
gi tr ngu nhin. MS phi tr li bng mt ch k da trn tm tt h lnh MD-
5, mt tn ngi s dng v mt mt khu. PDSN chuyn cp h lnh/tr li n
AAA server nh nhn thc ngi s dng.
i vi MIP, PDSN gi i mt h lnh tng t cng trong bn tin qung
co tc nhn. Tng t, MS phi tr li h lnh ny bng mt ch k v NAI
(c kim tra bi mng nh), nhng ln ny tr li c gi i cng vi yu cu
ng k ch khng phi trong khi thit lp phin PPP. C hai c ch ny u da
trn cc b mt dng chung lin kt vi NAI c lu ti mng nh v c hai c
h tr bi cng mt h tng AAA server. Trong c hai trng hp, s liu thanh
ton c thu thp trong PDSN v c truyn n AAA server. PDSN thu thp
thng k mc s dng s liu cho tng ngi s dng, kt hp chng vi cc
bn ghi thanh ton truy nhp v tuyn do PCF gi n v gi chng n AAA
server a phng. Lu rng thng tin thanh ton c thu thp bi c hai PCF
v PDSN. i vi cc ngi s dng chuyn mng, AAA server c th c lp
cu hnh chuyn mt bn sao ca tt c cc bn tin thanh ton RADIUS n
AAA server nh ngoi vic gi bn sao ny ti AAA server khch. Trong qu
trnh trao i cc bn tin bo hiu gia AAA nh v AAA khch, nu cn c th
s dng thm AAA mi gii.

1.10.6. Cc phn t mi cho cdma20001xEV-DO

Qualcomm xut tiu chun cdma20001xEV-DO ( Evolution for


Data Optimized: pht trin cho s liu ti u) vo thng 3 nm 2000 h tr cc
dch v sliu cao.. cdma1xEV-DO l mt h thng lai ghp CDMA/TDM v c
hai li im khi h tr cc dch v tc s liu cao..Trc ht n c th h tr
tc s liu ln n 2,4576 Mbps vi bng thng 1,25MHz, trong khi
cdma20001x thun ty ch c th h tr tc s liu 2,0736 Mbps vi bng
thng gp 3 ln (3,75 MHz).

1.10.6.1. Mng truy nhp, AN

Bao gm cc thit b mng m bo kt ni s liu gia mng chuyn mch


s liu (thng l internet) v thit bi u cui (AT). Mng truy nhp tng ng
vi BTS trong cdma 2000

41
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.10.6.2. Thit b truy nhp (AT)

Thit b truy nhp (AT) m bo kt ni ca ngi s dng. AT c th


c ni n n thit b tnh nh my tnh xch tay hay c th l thit b c cha
my tnh nh PDA. AT tng ng vi MS trong cdma2000

1.10.6.3. AAA cu mng truy nhp (AN AAA)

L phn t thc hin cc chc nng nhn thc v trao quyn cho mng truy
nhp

1.10.6.4. Kt ni

Kt ni l mt trng thi ca ng v tuyn trong AT c n nh


mt knh lu lng ng xung, mt knh lu lng ng ln v cc knh
MAC i km. Trong mt phin HRPD (High Rate Packet Data) AT v AN c th
m v ng kt ni nhiu ln.

1.10.6.5. MS/AT lai ghp

MS/AT lai ghp l mt thit b c kh nng lm vic c mng cdma2000


v cc mng HRPD AN.

1.10.6.6. Lung dch v

Lung HRPD (High Rate Packet Data: s liu gi tc cao) c s dng


trao i s liu gia cdma2000 v PDSN.

1.10.6.7. Phin HRPD

Phin HRPD (1xEVDO) c coi l mt trng thi chung gia AT v AN.


Trng thi ny lu gi cc giao thc v cc cu hnh giao thc c m phn
v c s dng thng tin gia AT v AN. Nu khng m phin AT khng th
thng tin vi AN khi AN khng m phin.

1.10.6.8. PCF

PCF c thm thm chc nng nng SC/MM v m bo hot ng c th


HRPD.

42
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.10.6.9. Phin s liu gi

L trng hp s dng dch v s liu gi ca ngi s dng. Phin s liu


gi c bt u khi ngi s dng yu cu dch v s liu gi v kt thc khi
ngi s dng hoc mng kt thc dch v s liu gi. Trong thi gian phin,
ngi s dng c th thay i v tr nhng vn duy tr a ch IP khng i.

1.10.6.10. Chc nng SC/MM

SC/MM (Session Control and Mobility Management: iu khin phin v


qun l di ng) c t ti PDF v bao gm cc chc nng sau:
Lu gi cc thng tin lin quan n phin HRPD: duy tr ng h thi
gian tn ti, MNID, chuyn i gia MNID v UATI cho mt AT) i
vi cc AT ng
n nh UATI (Unicast AT Identifier: nhn dng AT n phng) cho
AT
Nhn thc u cui. Chc nng ny thc hin th tc nhn thc u
cui. N quyt nh AT c phi nhn thc hay khng khi AT truy nhp
HRDP RAN.
Qun l di ng. Chc nng ny qun l v tr ca AT. Thng tin v v
tr ca AT nhn c thng qua ng k da trn khong cch. Chc
nng ny c th thc hin th tc tm gi da trn thng tin trn.

1.10.6.11. Nhn thc u cui

L th tc trong AT c nhn thc bi AN-AAA.

Mng thng tin di ng ang tin ti mt mng ton IP, trong cc phn
di y ta s xt cc .mt s vn quan trng lin quan n kt ni mng thng
tin di ng trn c s IP.

1.11. NH A CH IP

1.11.1. nh a ch IP trong IPv4

Kch thc ca a ch IPv4 l 32 bit (4 byte). Khng gian a ch c chia


thnh hai phn, mt phn nhn dng mng v mt phn nhn dng my trong
mng. Trong khi a ch thc t th hin my tnh l 32 bit nh phn, th a ch
IP c vit dng sau:. 32 bit a ch c chia thnh bn on tm bit phn
cch vi nhau bi du chm, trong mi on c th hin bng mt s thp

43
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

phn nm trong di t 0 n 255, th d:

152.226.86.23

V c 4 byte, nn di a ch tri rng t 0.0.0.0 n 255.255.255.255 vi


ti tng s a ch ln n hn 4 t. Tuy nhin do cch cp pht a ch trong thc
t, khng gian da ch nh hn khng gian ni trn. C bn loi a ch nh cho
trong bng 1.1. Mi lai cho php nh a ch cho mt s lng mng v s
lng my nht nh. a ch loi A c 8 bit nhn dng mng v 24 bit nhn dng
my. Bit u tin ca loi A lun bng khng router nhn dng loi A. Cc a
ch loi B s dng 16 bit cho nhn dng mng v 16 bit cho nhn dng my. Bit
u tin cu n lun lun bng 10 router nhn ra loi a ch ny. a ch loi C
c 24 bit dnh cho a ch mng v 8 bit dnh cho a ch my, bit u ca n lun
lun bng 110 router c th nhn dng c a ch ny. a ch loi D dnh
cho pht a phng, a ch ny gm 8 bit u l a ch mng v 24 bit cn li l
a ch cho nhm a phng, ba bit u tin cu i ch ny l 110. Cc a ch
lai E d phng v cha c chun ha. Cc a ch loi A bt u bng 1-
126, cc a ch loi B bt u bng 128-191, cc a ch loi C bt u bng 192-
223 v cc a ch loi D (truyn a phng) bt u bng 224-239. Cc a ch
loi E bt u t 240-247. Chng hn, 152.266.0.0 l a ch loi B v v th n h
tr cc a ch trong di t 152.266.0.0 n 152.226.255.255.
Mt n a ch mng c s dng nh mt b lc ly ra a ch mng.
Chng hn s dng mt n cho trong bng 2.2 ta c th tnh ra a ch mng cho
mt a ch loi B: 152.226.86.23 bng cch nhn logic tng bit a ch IP vi mt
n. Trong trng hp ny v a ch IP l loi B nn mt n cu n l 255.255.0.0.
Kt qu nhn cho ta a ch mng: 152.226.0.0. y l a ch m router cn
nh tuyn.
Trong khng gian a ch my c hai a ch c s dng cho vic khc
(mt n v qung b) v th tng s a ch dnh cho my s c tnh nh sau:

2(s bit a ch my)-2

Chng hn i vi a ch loi C, khng gian dnh cho a ch my l 8 bit nn s


a ch my c th c s l:

28-2=254 a ch

44
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Bng 1.1. Cc khun dng a ch IPv4


Loi ngha Kch th- Kch thc Tng s Tng s Phn u tin Mt n
c trng a a ch a ch ca cc bit a mc nh
trng ch my mng my ch IP/di a mng
a ch ch
mng
A 1 byte 7 24 126 16.777.21 0/1.0.0.0- 255.0.0.0
nhn 44 126.255.255.255
dng
mng, 3
byte nhn
dng my
B 2 byte 14 16 16384 65.534 10/128.0.0.0- 255.255.0.
nhn 191.255.255.255 0
dng
mng, 2
byte nhn
dng my
C 3 byte 21 8 2097152 254 110/192.0.0.0- 255.255.2
nhn 223.255.255.255 55.0
dng
mng, 1
byte nhn
dng my
D a ch 4 bit 24 (nhm 1110/224 .0.0.0-
a qung b) 239.255.255.255
phng
E D tr 11110/240.0.0.0
cho tng -
lai 247.255.255.255
a ch 127.x.x.x
hi tip-
my a
phng

Mt mng thng c chia thnh cc mng con c s my t hn. chia


mng con ta c th s dng mt phn 32 bit a ch ch th mng con v phn
cn li ch a ch cu my trong mng con. Chng hn s dng loi C ta c th
c 6 mng con mi mng c 30 my. Hnh 1.13 cho thy cch tng s mng con
ng thi vi gim s my trong mi mng con. Bng 1.2 cho thy ta c th tng

45
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

s s 1 trong mt n to ra mt mng con (th d c xt cho loi B).

Bng 1.2. Tng s mng con bng cch tng s s 1 trong mt n

Mt n mng con Dng bit S mng con S trm


255.255.0.0 11111111.11111111.00000000. 0 65534
00000000
255.255.192.0 11111111.11111111.11000000. 2 16382
00000000
255.255.224.0 11111111.11111111.11100000. 6 8190
00000000
255.255.240.0 11111111.11111111.11110000. 14 4094
00000000
255.255.248.0 11111111.11111111.11111000. 30 2046
00000000
255.255.252.0 11111111.11111111.11111100. 62 1022
00000000
255.255.254.0 11111111.11111111.11111110. 126 510
00000000
255.255.255.0 11111111.11111111.11111111. 254 254
00000000

Phng php s dng cc mt n mng con khc nhau nhn dng cc


mang con c gi l to mt n mng c di kh bin (VLSNM: Variable
Length Subnet Masking). Hnh 2.10 cho thy phng php ny.

a ch mng a ch mng con a ch trm

Hnh 1.13. iu chnh s bit 1 trong mt n iu chnh s mng con con v


s my trong mi mng con.

V loi A ch c 126 a ch mng, nn cc a ch mng ny lc u c


c cp pht cho cc t chc c cc mng ni b rt ln. Loi B dnh 14 bit
nh a ch mng, v th n m bo nhiu mng hn vi khng gian a ch my
nh hn (ch c 65 534 my trn mt mng). Loi C c khng gian a ch my
nh nht: 254 a ch my, nhng li c s a ch mng ln nht. V nhiu t chc
c nhiu hn 254 my nn nhu cu lai B rt cao. iu ny dn n thiu ht i

46
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

ch. v th cn phi tm ra phng cch n nh a ch ph hp cho cc t chc c


kch c trung bnh (s my ln hn 254). Cc vn ny v cc vn khc na
s c gii quyt bng cch s dng NAT (s xt phn sau) hoc trit hn
bng cch s dng IPv6. IPv6 s dng 128 bit a ch v v th m bo ngun a
ch rt ln.
Cn lu rng, c mt s a ch c bit khng c dng. Cng thc
chung dng tnh ton s a ch mng con v s my khi bit mt n mng con
nh sau:
S mng con c th c= 2(s bit mt n)-2
S my c th c = 2(s bit khng thuc mt n)-2

lm th d ta xt mng loi B s dng mt n mng con 255.255.240.0.


Mt n loi B trong trng hp ny c thm bn bit 1 (th hin bng 240) to
nn mt n mng con, v th
S mng con = 24-2 = 14
S my trong mi mng con = 212-2 = 4029

Trong th d trn a ch mng lai B c m rng thm 4 bt t mt


a ch loi B c cp pht cho mng t chc khai thc c th to ra t a ch
ny 4029 a ch mng con khc nhau.
m rng mt a ch mng B thm 10 bit to ra cc a mng con, ta
s dng mt n sau: 255.255.255.192 . Trong trng hp ny ta c:

S mng con = 210-2= 1022


S my trong mi mng con = 26-2=62

Trong trng hp ny nu ta nh a ch IP cho mt my bng


172.16.2.160 c byte dng nh phn l:1010000, th a ch mng con tng ng
ca n s l: 172.16.2.128.

Bng 1.3 lit k cc a ch c ngha c bit trong giao thc IP v khng


c s dng n nh a ch.

47
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Bng 1.3. Cc i ch c ngha c bit


a ch Hm
0.0.0.0 ni rng y l mng mc nh
127.0.0.0 Dnh cho u vng. Thng thng
127.0.0.1 c s dng cho mc ch
th nghim
a ch c a ch mng ton cc bit ni rng y chnh l mng, chng
khng hn 135.34.0.0 ni rng mng l 135.34.
a ch ny c s dng trong cc bn
nh tuyn
a ch mng hay a ch my c ton ni v tt c cc my"
cc bit 1
255.255.255.255 a ch qung b

Ngoi ra IETF nh ngha cc a ch ch dnh s dng lm a ch


ring ni b trong cc mng ring ch khng c s dng trong internet (cho
bng 1.4)

Bng 1.4. Cc a ch ring c th s dng li


Loi A 10.0.0.0
Loi B 172.16.0.0-172.31.0.0
Loi C 192.168.0.0-192.168.255.0

V cc a ch IPv4 ch c 32 bit, nn khng gian a ch l thuyt ch cho


php nh a ch cho 4 294 967 296 my. Cu trc phn lai ni trn gim khng
gian ny xung cn 3,7 t. Ngoi ra khng gian ny b gim tip do lng ph
khng gian a ch khng s dng trong khng gian loi B.
i vi a phn cc t chc, khng gian loi A vi 16 triu a ch qu ln,
trong khi khng gian loi C vi i ch 254 li qu nh. V th hu ht cc t
chc mong mun c c khng gian loi B . iu ny c ngha rng mt t chc
ch c 2000 my s dng khng gian loi B vi 65 534 a ch, khng gian ny
vn qu ln so vi yu cu. Trong trng hp ny 97% khng gian a ch c
cp pht b lng ph. Mt vn khc ny sinh l ch c 16 383 a ch mng kh
dng cho loi B. V th nu mi t chc u yu cu mt a ch mng khng gian
loi B th cc a ch ny s nhanh chng ht. gii quyt vn ny ta c th
n nh tm a ch khng gian loi C cho t chc c 2000 my ny. Gii php ny
c th gii quyt c vn cp pht a ch nhng li lm cho cc bng nh
tuyn qu ln. Khi ny thay v ch cn mt mc trong bng nh tuyn cho khng
gian a ch loi B, t chc ny cn phi c tm mc trong bng nh tuyn cho
tm a ch mng khng gian loi C.

48
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.11.2. Mt s gii php thiu ht a ch cho thng tin di dng

Cng vi s ra i ca cc h thng thng tin di ng th h sau cng s


pht trin mnh cc ng dng IP trong thng tin di ng v thc t l s thu bao
di ng ton cu ln n trn mt t to ra mt p lc mi i vi khng gian
a ch c hn ca IPv4. Hin nay mt s lng ln cc a ch IP c cp
pht cho cc nh cung cp dch v internet chnh (ISP) v ch cn li khng gian
a ch khng ln dnh cho tng lai. Tt nhin khi a ra s dng IPv6 vn
ny s c gii quyt trit , tuy nhin cho n khi ta cn tm ra gii php
khc phc thiu ht a ch cho IPv4. Hin nay hai gii php c s dng cho cc
t chc thc hin kt ni cho cc ngi s dng mng intranet l: giao thc
lp cu hnh my t ng (DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) v bin
dch a ch mng (NAT: Network Address Translator).

1. Giao thc lp cu hnh my t ng (DHCP)

S dng DHCP tit kim khng gian a ch da trn trit l l khng


phi tt c cc UE u s dng cc dch v IP ti mt thi im cho trc. ISP hay
nh khai thc khi u vi mt t hp cc a ch. Khi mt ngi s dng yu cu
kt ni n dch v IP, ngi ny s c cp pht tm thi mt a ch IP t t
hp. Qu trnh ny c gi l thu mt a ch. Phng php ny cng rt ging
nh cch thc m PABX h tr nhiu ngi s dng bng mt s trung k ngoi
hu hn. Giao thc h tr lp cu hnh my ng c gi l DHCP, n c cc
ISP s dng ton cu n nh cc a ch IP cho cc ngi s dng cu h.
DHCP cng n nh cc a ch quan trng khc cho my nh DNS server mc
nh v cng mc nh. DHCP c s dng trong cc h thng 3G cp pht
ng mt a ch IP cho thit b di ng khi thit b ny yu cu tch cc PDP
context. N c s dng cho cc UE khi cc UE ny khng c chuyn i tnh
trong HLR i vi mt im truy nhp nht nh. Nu ngi s dng ni n mt
mng ngoi, th n nh DHCP c thc hin trong ng trc GPRS IP. Thng
thng DHCP c t bn trong GGSN. Phng php n nh ny c gi l
ch trong sut. Tuy nhin nu ngi s dng ni n mng intranet hng, th
a ch IP c th c n nh bn trong mng ny. Phng php ny c gi l
ch khng trong sut.

2. Bin dch a ch mng (NAT)

DHCP ch hot ng tt khi n nh mt t hp hu hn cc a ch cho

49
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

mt s ngi s dng nhng khng th m rng ton b khng gian a ch kh


dng. n nh a ch PDP cho UE, a ch IP cng cng ca IPv4 l khng ,
v th ngi ta phi s dng a ch ring. s dng a ch ring cn c NAT
phin dch a ch cng cng vo a ch ring. NAT cho php mt mng ni b
intranet c th s dng cc i ch ring vi khng gian a ch ln m khng s
chng ln cc a ch ny ln cc a ch IP nh tuyn ton cu. C th coi NAT
l mt router ni gia hai mng: mng ni b intranet v mng ngoi internet. i
vi mng internet NAT pht i a ch IP nh tuyn ton cu cn i vi mng
ni b intranet NAT pht i a ch ring. V th bn trong mt mng di ng, nh
qun l c th nh a ch ring cho cc trm di ng (MS: Mobile Station) khc
nhau. Nhiu a ch ring cu cc MS c th c sp xp ln mt hay nhiu a
ch ton cu khi pht ra mng internet. phn bit cc MS, s ca c s dng.
Nh vy trn mng internet mi MS c nhn dng bi hai s nhn dng: a ch
internet ton cu (chung vi nhiu MS khc) v s ca (ring cho mi internet).
Mt gi t mt MS trc khi a ra mng internet ngoi c NAT phin dch a
ch ring cu MS vo mt a ch IP nh tuyn ton cu v mt s ca. Ngc li
mt gi c gi t mng internet ngoi vo cho MS c NAT phin dch vo
a ch ring da trn a ch nh tuyn ton cu v s ca. Chc nng NAT cng
thng c kt hp trong tng la m nh qun l mng s dng bo v an
ninh mng.
Thng thng mt nh khai thc hot ng vi a ch mng loi C ch c
th h tr 254 a ch IP. Mng UMTS cn phc v mt s lng ln UE ni n
internet m khng cn s lng ln cc a ch IP cng cng. Di a ch c
dnh ring cho vic s dng ni b c cho trong bng 1.4.
Cc a ch trong bng 1.4 c th c chn s dng ni b trong mng
ring cu mt nh khai thc.
gii quyt vn thiu ht a ch, nh khai thc phi n nh cc a
ch IP ni b ring cho UE khi tch cc PDP context (thng iu ny c thc
hin bi DHCP). Khi ngi s dng ni n Internet, NAT thc hin chuyn i
a ch ring ny thnh a ch cng cng c th nh tuyn c trong mng
Internet. Dng NAT n gin nht l phin dch c nh: tn ti quy nh chuyn
i c nh gia a ch IP ring v a ch IP cng cng. Dng ny thng c
s dng cho cc server truy nhp cng cng (cng WAP chng hn). Cc server
ny c t c nh, tip nhn cc kt ni n n v chuyn i a ch ni b
thnh a ch ngoi. Tuy nhin dng ny khng ph hp vi cc UE v cc UE ny
ch c n nh a ch khi n cn kt ni n internet. Trong trng hp ny
ngi ta s dng phin dch ng, trong cc UE chia s chung mt a ch
ngoi (a ch IP cng cng) bng cch s dng a ch ring. Trong trng hp
ny m bo phin dch a ch ng, cc a ch IP ni b khc nhau c
chuyn i vo cc s ca khc nhau trong router. NAT ny thng c t bn

50
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

trong GGSN, nhng n cng c th c t ring hay c th kt hp vi tng


la. Phin dch ng i khi c gi l NAPT (Network Address and Port
Translation), nhng cch gi ph bin hn vn l NAT. Cc gi TCP hay UDP c
gi tr ca 16 bit cho php to ra 216=65 536 ca trn mt i ch IP. Cc ca thp
hn 1024 c gi l cc ca bit r v c s dng cho cc dch v c th.
Cc ca cao hn di ny c s dng cho NAT. Ta xt th d trn hnh 1.14. Nh
khai thc s dng a ch ring loi A 10.0.0.0 lm a ch ni b v c a ch
cng cng loi C l 212.56.65.0 v UE c n nh a ch IP 10.1.1.102 bi
DHCP. Ngi s dng ni n web server ngoi c a ch 135.237.78.6:80, trong
80 nhn dng dch v HTTP. UE gi i yu cu truy nhp HTTP trn web
server theo a ch c cp pht l 10.1.1.102:1345, trong 1345 l s ca. Ti
NAT, a ch trong cu yu cu c dch thnh a ch ngoi loi C 212.56.65.10
vi s ca 16456. Web server s tr li theo a ch loi C ny v NAT phin dch
n vo a ch trong 10.1.1.102:1345.
Mi khi mt kt ni TCP c thit lp, mc chuyn i ca c to ra
trong bng tra cu v khi kt thc kt ni TCP mc ny s b xa. Cn c mt
dng NAT na l phin dch cn bng ti, trong mt router co th m rng cc
kt ni ca mt server qu bn n mt s server cng chc nng khc v mi
server ny c a ch duy nht. Trng hp ny thng xy ra khi truy nhp n
mt web server bn trn internet. Router s kim tra xem server no t bn nht v
t phin dch IP cho server ny. Cn lu rng cn bng ti thng c xy
dng theo phng php ring v cc server cn thng tin v mc kh dng ca
chng cho router trong khun dng m router hiu c.
Mt mng s dng NAT c th m bo nh a ch cho trn 16 triu UE.
Hn ch ln nht ca dch v NAT l cng sut x l nht l khi dch v ny
c t trong thit b phi thc hin cc dch v khc chng hn GGSN ny
tng la. Ngoi ra s dng NAT cho UDP cng dn n vn cn x l. V
UDP khng theo ni thng, NAT khng c mt thng tin no v phin thng
bo cho n xa mc phin dch. Trong trng hp UDP, ngi ta phi s dng c
ch tm ngng xc nh khi no kt thc v loi b phin dch.

51
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

GGSN
UTRAN SGSN ng trc IP Internet
NAT `

Web Server
DHCP: n nh a ch IP ring 10.1.1.102 135.237.78.6:80

Yu cu Web Server
T: 10.1.1.102:1345
n: 135.237.78.6:80 Yu cu Web Sever c bin dch
T: 212.56.65.10:16456
n: 135.237.78.6:80

Web Sever tr li
Web Sever tr li c bin dch T: 135.237.78.6:80
T: 135.237.78.6:80 n: 212.56.65.10:16456
n: 10.1.1.102:1345

Hnh 1.14. M t hot ng ca NAT

1.11.3. nh a ch IP trong IPv6

Trng a ch ngun v nhn trong trong IPv6 l mt trng 128 bit


nhn dng ngun pht gi v nhn dng ni thu gi.
a ch IPv4 thng c biu din bi cc s thp phn c phn cch
bng du chm. 32 bit a ch c chia thnh bn on tm bit phn cch vi
nhau bi du chm, trong mi on c th hin bng mt s thp phn nm
trong di t 0 n 255, chng hn: 152.226.51.126. Cch trnh by ny khng
thch hp cho IPv6 v cc a ch IP ca n di 128 bit, nn IPv6 s dng cch
trnh by a ch khc (RFC 2373). Phng php trnh by thch hp nht l:
x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x
Trong x l mt on 16 bit c th hin c s 16. Th d a ch IPv6 c
dng sau:
DEFC:A9BE:1236:DE89:D7FE:4535:908A:4DEF
Ta thy rng cc on 16 bit c phn cch nhau bi du hai chm v mi
on c th hin bng bn ch s c s 16. Nu c cc on cha cc s u
bng khng th cc s khng ny c th b qua, th d:
DEC5:0000:0000:0000:0009:0600:3EDC:AB41
c th trnh by n gin l:
DEC5:0:0:0:9:600:3EDC:AB41
Nu c nhiu on lin tip ch cha ton khng th c th biu din n
gin cc on bng bng du hai chm kp ::, th d:
DEC5::9:600:3EDC:AB41

52
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Ch c s dng du hai chm kp mt ln trong mt a ch mc d c


th xut hin cc xu khng trc v sau trong a ch. Th d a ch sau:
0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
C th vit n gin l: ::1
Khng gian a ch ca IPv6 cho php gii quyt vn thiu ht a ch
trong IPv4. Tuy nhin do hin nay trn th gii cn c qu nhiu IPv4 router nn
vic thay th IPv4 bng IPv6 i hi thi gian. Trong giai on qu ny cn c
cc gii php chuyn i gia IPv4 v IPv6. Mt s gii php chuyn i c
s dng nh: lp IP kp (trong mt trm h tr c IPv4 ln IPv6), truyn tunnel
(trong gi IPv4 khi truyn trong min IPv6 c ng bao vo tiu IPv6 v
ngc li)

1.11.4. H thng tn min (DNS)

DNS (Domain Name System) chuyn i cc tn dng vn bn vo cc


a ch IP v ngc li. N trnh cho ngi s dng khng phi nh a ch IP khi
truy nhp n mt dch v nht nh bng cch cung cp tra cu chuyn i gia
tn vn bn v a ch IP. Phng php ny ging nh phng php trong thng
tin di ng, trong cc ngi s dng c th tm n i tc ca h theo tn cu
cc i tc ny cn s tay thoi lu trong thit b s m bo vic chuyn i tn
ny vo s my di ng ca i tc. Chng hn s dng DNS, tn website ca
mt hng c th c tm theo tn nm gia www v com. Ngi s dng ch
vic nh www.tn hng.com vo b trnh duyt. Sau a ch ny c a n
DNS server v server ny c nhim v chuyn n vo a ch IP.
Cc tn min c t chc v qun l theo hnh cy phn cp. Hnh 1.15
cho thy mt tp nh ca khng gian t tn DNS. Khng gian tn i vi DNS
c chia nh v c qun l theo hnh cy. y l tn min. Qu trnh dch t
pha phi tn min sang pha tri tn min tng ng vi dch t pha trn cu cy
xung cc nhnh di. Th d trn hnh 1.9 ta thy tn min cam.ac.uk. y l
min ca trng i hc Cambrridge v v th chu s qun tr ca h thng qun
tr mng ca trng i hc Cambridge. Min ny nm bn trong ac.uk, ac.uk l
min c n nh cho tt c cc c s i hc trong nc Anh. n lt mnh
ac.uk li nm trong min uk, min uk l min dnh cho tt c cc tn min trong
nc Anh. Vic phn on khng gian a ch cho php mt nh khai thc c th
n nh cc tn DNS mi m khng s gy ra chng ln cc tn ny (hai t chc
c cng mt tn web server), v khng gian tn cu h c phn bit bi phn
cui ca cc a ch DNS. Chng hn trng i hc Cambrridge c th tin chc
rng a ch ca h lun khc vi a ch ca trng i hc Oxford.

53
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Gc

com my sg th uk

3com ac

ox cam

Hnh 1.15. Phn cp khng gian tn min ca DNS

Khi chuyn tn DNS vo a ch IP, client phi tham kho DNS server. Hu
ht cc client u c a ch DNS server mc nh c n nh theo cu hnh.
Nu DNS server i phng khng c quy nh chuyn i cho a ch DNS, n
s s dng tn DNS tm ra ni tra cu quy nh chuyn i ny. Chng hn khi
cn chuyn i a ch DNS www.3com.com, trc ht DNS server a phng
phi hi server gc DNS ca internet v a ch ca server c tn .com x l min
.com. Sau khi nhn c a ch ny, client hi server tn .com v a ch v a
ch cu server c tn .3com. Sau khi tm c server c tn .3com, client hi n v
a ch www.3com.com. Qu trnh ny c thc hin t gc cy cho tt c cc
tn v thc hin qu trnh ny c th l client hoc l mt server khc i din cho
n. Khi mt server tn ngoi thc hin tt c cc cng vic ny a din cho client,
qu trnh ny c gi l tra cu DNS quy. Tra cu DNS quy c li cho
client bi v client khng phi thc hin qu nhiu vic v gim lu lng ni
vng a phng. iu ny c bit quan trng i vi cc client s dng ng
truyn v tuyn. Lu rng mi server tn u bit a ch ca server con (server
pha di) nhng khng nht thit phi bit a ch ca server con ca con ca n.
Ngoi ra server tn phi bit a ch ca ca server m cu mnh (server pha trn)
n c th gi cc yu cu cha hiu n cp bc DNS cao hn.
Trong GPRS, DNS c s dng phn gii tn im truy nhp (APN:
Access Point Name). APN xc nh giao din ca GGSN vi mng ngoi m
ngi s dng s ni n. Qu trnh tch cc ng cnh giao thc gi s liu (PDP
context) s thng bo cho mng v APN yu cu v APN ny c chuyn i
vo a ch IP ca GGSN.

54
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.11.5. Giao thc phn gii a ch (ARP)

Giao thc ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) chu trch nhim chuyn i
cc a ch IP thnh cc a ch MAC (Media Access Control: iu khin truy
nhp phng tin). Chuyn i ny rt quan trng trong IP v thc t cc khung
c nh tuyn n ni nhn trong mng LAN ch s dng a ch MAC thay v
a ch IP. a ch MAC l mt a ch bao gm 48 bit (6 byte) ci trong phn
cng ca giao din mng, v th hai card giao din khng th c chung mt a
ch. Ba byte u ca a ch ny ch th nh sn xut v ba byte cn li do nh sn
xut quy inh khi sn xut ra card mi. Chng hn, khi gi i mt gi trn mng
ethernet, ta phi bit c c a ch MAC ln a ch IP ca ni nhn. Hot ng
ca giao thc ny nh sau. Mt gi yu cu ARP c pht trn LAN trong
a ch MAC c t vo qung b (Broadcast). Bn tin qung b cng cha c
a ch IP ra mng ngoi cn thit cho chuyn i. a ch qung b MAC bao
gm a ch ni nhn c t tt c l 1 (FFFFFFFFFFFF). Tt c cc trm trong
LAN s nhn v phn tch khung ny nhng ch mt trm nhn ra a ch IP cu
n trong yu cu v trm ny gi i tr li n pha pht. Trong tr li, pha thu
t vo a ch MAC ca chnh mnh. Khi c bn sao a ch cng (a ch
MAC), pha pht c th gi cc gi trc tip n a ch IP ny. Thc t, ARP
hot ng cng vi b nh a phng lu cc bn sao chuyn i ARP mi
nhn. B nh ny cho php gim lu lng mng v tng hiu nng.
Hnh 1.16 cho thy mt Ethernet ni n Internet. Nu mt trm c a ch
IP l 192.10.1.100 cn gi mt gi n a ch 192.10.1.1, gi s c gi nh ch
dn trong bng 1.5.
Nu trm 192.10.1.100 cn gi mt gi n a ch 166.10.10.1, a ch ny
khng nm cng mng con. Gi ny phi gi qua router ti 192.10.1.254, v th
yu cu ARP s dnh cho a ch Ethernet cu router. Cc bn tin c cho trong
bng 1.6. Khi ny trm s gi gi n Ethernet theo a ch 00800123ABDF. Lu
rng khi my c a ch 192.10.1.100 gi gi n ni nhn, mc d n gi gi
theo a ch Ethernet cu router, a ch IP s c t vo 166.10.10.1 (a ch
nhn cui cng) ch khng phi a ch IP ca router.

55
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

192.10.1.101 Router
00AF01234567 192.10.1.254
008001234ABDF

internet
ethernet

192.10.1.100
008001234567
Hnh 1.16. M t th d v ARP v a ch MAC: (1) ni gi hai trm bn
trong ethernet, (2) ni vi mt trm ngoi ethernet

Bng 1.5. Th d ARP (1)


Kiu gi a ch IP i ch MAC a ch IP a ch MAC
nhn nhn ngun ngun
Yu cu 192.10.1.101 FFFFFFFFFFFF 192.10.1.100 008001234567
ARP 192.10.1.100 008001234567 192.10.1.101 00AF01234567
Tr li ARP

Bng 1.6. Th d ARP (2)


Kiu gi a ch IP i ch MAC a ch IP a ch MAC
nhn nhn ngun ngun
Yu cu 192.10.1.254 FFFFFFFFFFFF 192.10.1.100 008001234567
ARP 192.10.1.100 008001234567 192.10.1.254 008001234ABD
Tr li ARP

1.12. TRUYN TUNNEL IP TRONG IP

IP in IP cn c k hiu l IPIP, l dch v tunnel ph bin nht. N ng


bao cc gi IP v mt gi IP khc. Phng php ng bao ny c c t trong
[RFC2003] c pht trin cng vi [RFC2002] (tiu chun MIPv4 u tin).
Trong IPIP, tiu ngoi ca gi IP nhn dng cc a ch ca cc im cui

56
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

tunnel, trong a ch ngun l i ch ca ni ng bao cn a ch nhn l a


ch cu ni tho bao (xem hnh 1.17).
Gi IP
Header1 Payload Header2 Header1 Payload

Tho bao
Header2 Header1 Payload
Header1 Payload
Tunnel
Gi IP
u tunnel Cui tunnel
Header: Tiu
Payload: Ti tin

Hnh 1.17. ng bao v tho bao cho gi IP trong qu trnh truyn tunnel

V i khi vic ng bao mt gi IP vo mt gi IP khc dn n chi ph qu


ln, nht l khi ti tin ca cc gi IP cn truyn tunnel qu nh, nn cn nh ngha
thm cch nn thng tin lin quan n tiu cu gi IP bn trong.
C hai giao thc IP in IP v ng bao ti thiu cho IP tunneling u da trn
cc giao thc khc (chng hn MIP) hay cung cp phn t mng thit lp
tunnel. IP in IP t mnh khng an ton v i hi IPsec cho chc nng ny. T hp
c hai chc nng trn c gi l ch tunnel IPsec.

Giao thc truyn tunnel GPRS (GTP)

Trong GPRS v UMTS truyn cc gi trn IP ngi ta s dng giao thc


truen tunnel GTP (GPRS Tunneling Protcol). GTP c s dng cho cc th tc
bo hiu trong mt phng iu khin (GTP-c) v truyn s liu trong mt phng
ngi s dng(GTP-u) gia cc GSN. N cung cp mt tiu v tiu ny
cng vi tiu TCP/UDP v IP cho php nhn dng nt h tr GPRS (GSN:
GPRS Support Node) nhn v x l gi ti ni nhn. Cn c mt GTP khc c
gi l GTP' s dng cho giao thc tnh cc. GTP' c s dng gia cc GSN v
CGF.
Trong mt phng bo hiu, GTP-c l mt giao thc qun l v iu khin
tunnel c s dng to lp, thay i v xo cc tunnel gia cc GSN. Cc th
tc bo hiu ny bao gm: yu cu PDP context, cp nht PDP Context v xo
PDP Context. Cc th tc ny c s dng nh l mt b phn cu thit lp
phin hay qun l di ng gia SGSN v MS. Trong mt phng ngi s dng,
GTP-u cung cp mt tiu truyn tunnel. Ngoi truyn tunnel, GTP-u cung
cp cc tnh nng nh: truyn theo th t v ghp cc lung.

57
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.13. IP DI NG (MIP)

1.13.1. Nguyn l MIP

MIP (Mobile Internet Protocol) cho php gi quyt vn ngi s dng


trong mng di ng di chuyn ra khi mng nh ni ngi ny ng k a ch IP.
V nhiu ngi s dng internet di chuyn t ni ny n ni khc, cn
m bo truy nhp cc ti nguyn mng v cc dch v thun tin cho h khi di
chuyn. L tng, mt ngi s dng c th ni n mt im truy nhp bt k ti
ni m ngi ny n hay s dng mt kt ni di ng mt cch trong sut n
mng nh ca mnh qua internet.
Tr ngi y l vic nh a ch. Ta bit rng a ch ca internet bao
gm 4 byte, chng hn 152.226.23.45. Trong th d ny 152.226 nhn dng mng
nh ca ngi s dng; tt c cc gi c gi theo a ch ny c cc router
hng n mng ny. Nu ngi s dng ang trc thuc mng ny th s khng
c vn g. Tuy nhin nu ngi s dng di chuyn n mt mng khc, chng
hn 145.67, th cc gi s khng bao gi n c ngi ny. S dng DHCP
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol: giao thc lp cu hnh my ng), mt
ngi s dng khi ng nhp vo mt mng mi c th nhn c mt a ch IP
mi nhng cng khng gii quyt c vn ny, v a ch ny ch cho php
truy nhp n mng khch m khng cho php truy nhp n mng nh (v thc t
i tc ch bit a ch mng nh ca anh ta).
Vy trong thc t vn ny c gii quyt MIP nh th no?. Hnh
1.18 cho thy cch gii quyt ca MIP. Mng nh phi c mt tc nhn nh (HA:
Home Agent) v mng khch phi c mt tc nhn ngoi (FA: Foreign Agent).
Khi my tnh ng nhp n mng khch, n s tip xc vi FA bng cch pht i
bn tin khn ni yu cu qung co t pha FA (hay i cho n khi FA t pht i
qung co). Trong qung co ca mnh, FA s cung cp mt danh sch cc chm
sc a ch (CoA: Care of Address), cc CoA ny s c nt di ng s dng khi
n nm trong mng ngoi.

58
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Gi tin IP Node Gi tin IP


7 i tc 4
ch Ngun ch Ngun
165.5.5.2 128.4.5.6 128.4.5.6 165.5.5.2
165.5.2.2

Mng khch Router


Internet
192.4.5.0
Router
Mng nh
128.4.0.0
192.4.5.6 128.4.255.254
Tc nhn
Tc nhn
Node di ng nh
ngoi
128.4.5.6

Qung co
1
CoA= 192.4.5.6

Yu cu ng k
CoA= 192.4.5.6
2 a ch nh= 128.4.5.6 Yu cu ng k
Tc nhn nh= CoA= 192.4.5.6
128.4.255.254 a ch nh= 128.4.5.6
3
S liu nhn thc Tc nhn nh=
128.4.255.254
S liu nhn thc

Gi tin IP
5
Tiu ng hm Tiu trong
ch Ngun ch Ngun
192.4.5.6 128.4.255.254 128.4.5.6 165.5.2.2

Gi tin IP
6
ch Ngun
128.4.5.6 165.5.2.2

Hnh 1.18. Hot ng ca MIP.

1.13.2. nh tuyn MIP

Trong MIP, mi ngi s dng khi di chuyn vo mng khch s ng k


CoA vi HA ca mnh. Lin kt gia CoA vi ngi s dng c gi l rng
buc (binding) a ch nh ngi s dng. Khi cc gi c gi n my ca
ngi s dng, HA s nhn chng, sau chuyn chng n FA theo CoA. Mi
gi sau c ng bao vo mt tiu IP ngoi v c truyn tunnel t HA
n FA. Bng cch ny gi gc khng b thay i v qu trnh di ng tr nn

59
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

trong sut i vi cc my u cui. Khi FA nhn c gi ti u cui tunnel, n


loi b tiu ngoi v chuyn ni dung thng n ngi s dng. Ti phng
ngc li, cc gi c th c gi thng n my i tc v khng cn phi truyn
qua mng nh ca ngi s dng.
Hnh 1.18 m t chi tit cc bc ni trn trong MIP nh sau:
1. Khi di chuyn vo mng khch, my di ng nhn c qung co cha a
ch CoA 192.4.5.6
2. My di ng pht yu cu ng k CoA, a ch HA (128.4.255.254), a ch
nh ca my (128.4.5.6) v s liu nhn thc n FA. Bn tin ny cha c
thi hn hiu lc ca rng buc (khng ch ra trn hnh v)
3. FA chuyn yu cu ng k n HA. Sau HA s dng thng tin ny to
lp rng buc gia a ch nh ca nt di ng (128.4.5.6) v CoA (192.4.5.6)
4. Gi c gi t nt i tc n nt di ng theo a ch nh ca nt ny
(128.4.5.6) v c HA thu nhn
5. HA truyn tunnel gi ny n FA theo CoA ng k
6. FA nhn gi, loi b tiu ngoi ri chuyn n n nt di ng theo a ch
192.4.5.6)
7. My di ng gi gi tr li trc tip n my i tc.

V cc yu cu ng k MIP c s dng thay i nh tuyn cc gi di


ng, nn cc ng k la o (t cc ngi s dng khng c php) c th
c s dng dn n tn cng t chi dch v (DoS) trn mng. V th cc bn
tin ng k MIP u cha mt trng nhn thc. Trng ny c to ra bng
cch s dng mt b mt chia s gia ngi s dng di ng v HA ca h. Khi
HA nhn c mt bn tin ng k, n phi kim tra trng nhn thc, nu nhn
thy trng ny sai, yu cu b lai.

1.13.3. nh tuyn truyn tunnel ngc

T hnh 1.18 ta thy nt di ng gi thng gi ca mnh n i tc theo


a ch ngun khng hp l. Tin t mng ca gi ny l 128.4 v y l a ch
mng nh ca my. Tuy nhin hin nay my ang nm ti mng c tin t 192.4.5
v v th cc a ch ny khng ging nhau. Cc thit b an ninh thng thng
(tng la chng hn) s loi b cc gi c cc a ch ngun IP khng hp l.
Bin php ny nhm bo v mng khi mt ngun pht tn cng DoS. trnh
vn ny, ngi ta a ra s nh tuyn truyn tunnel ngc. Trong s
ny, cc gi theo chiu ngc t my di ng n my i tc s c truyn
tunnel t FA n HA. HA loi b tiu tunnel sau chuyn chng n ni
nhn cui cng.

60
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.13.4. nh tuyn ti u

T hnh 1.19 ta thy rng tuyn truyn cc gi t nt i tc n nt di


ng l khng ti u. L do v nt i tc khng bit c CoA ca nt di ng.
V th s nh tuyn ti u c xut. S ny cho php nt di ng
cp nht trc tip rng buc CoA ca mnh cho nt i tc. Cc bc nh tuyn
ti u c m t trn hnh 1.13.

Node tng ng
2) Cp nht rng buc
CoA= 192.4.5.6
a ch nh= 128.4.5.6

1) Gi gi qua tc nhn nh
3) Gi gi trc tip

Tc nhn
1) Gi gi qua tc nhn nh nh
Node di ng
192.4.5.6

Hnh 1.19. nh tuyn ti u trong MIP

Cc bc nh tuyn ti u trn hnh 2.45 nh sau:


1. Gi u tin c gi t my i tc n HA sau HA chuyn n qua FA
n nt di ng
2. Nt di ng pht cp nht rng buc n my i tc cha rng buc gia
CoA v a ch nh ca n
3. My i tc gi cc gi thng n CoA ca ngi s dng

Tuy nhin vic s dng nh tuyn ti u gp tr ngi v cc vn nhn


thc. Cn nhn thc cp nht rng buc ( chng li cc tn cng DoS). Nu ta
khng nhn thc cc cp nht ny, k tn cng c th gi n cc rng buc gi
mo nh la my i tc v my ny s gi cc gi n a ch sai. Vic nhn
thc gi nt di ng v HA l rt n gin: hai nt ny ch cn c lp cu hnh
c chung mt b mt chia s. Nhn thc gia nt di ng m my i tc kh

61
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

hn nhiu, v i tc c th l mt my bt k trn mng. Lp cu hnh hai nt


ny cng c mt b mt chia s l iu khng thc t. Hin nay IETF ang nghin
cu khc phc c an ninh cho nh tuyn ti u.

1.13.5. MIP cho IPv6

Trong MIPv6 khng cn s dng FA v chm sc a ch ng v tr


(CCOA) ti my di ng c s dng thay cho COA. MIPv6 s dng ba bn tin
sau: cp nht rng buc, bo nhn rng buc v yu cu rng buc.
Cp nht rng buc c mc ch ging nh yu cu ng k nhng khng
cha trng nhn thc. L do v bn thn IPv6 h tr nhn thc bng cch s
dng IPSec trong tiu m rng (AH hay ESP). Cp nht rng buc c gi
n cc tc nhn nh ca ngi s dng v chng cng c th c gi thng n
my i tc ( t c nh tuyn ti u). Tuy nhin vn cn tn ti vn nhn
thc cho nh tuyn ti u. L do v mt nt di ng ch c th gi cc cp nht
rng buc n cc my i tc khi chng c th to lp mt lin kt an ninh IPSec.
Mi cp nht rng buc c p li bng mt bo nhn rng buc m bo s
tin cy. Cui cng, yu cu rng buc c my i tc gi i yu cu mt cp
nht mi, th d, khi my i tc c mt CCOA cho nt di ng sp ht hn. Nt
di ng s p li bng bng mt cp nht rng buc mi.
Tm li, MIPv6 n gin v r m rng hn MIPv4. N s dng cc c ch
an ninh c sn bn trong ca IPv6 (IPSec) v cha tiu chun nh tuyn ti u
bn trong n.

1.13.6. Chuyn giao FA v MIP

Khi mt nt di ng trong mng thng tin di ng di chuyn t mt FA ny


sang mt FA khc, n phi tip xc vi FA ny v kt ni n HA phi c thit
lp li. Tuy nhin lc u cc gi c th vn c th c chuyn n FA c v
chng cha bit c CoA ca FA mi. m bo chuyn i m khng mt
gi ta cn c h thng chuyn giao. trnh mt gi cn phi c mt thi gian
chuyn i HA c th h tr cc ng k ng thi cho c hai FA. (xem hnh
1.20).

62
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Tc nhn Bng rng buc


ngoi a ch nh CoA
128.0.1.2 192.6.7.8
128.0.1.2 192.9.5.4
Node di ng
128.0.1.2 Tc nhn
nh

Tc nhn Tc nhn nh c nhiu


ngoi rng buc v s gi cc
gi ti tc nhn ngoi phc
v c 2 .

Hnh 1.20. Chuyn giao MIP

C S trong yu cu ng k cho php HA h tr ng thi nhiu rng buc.


C S c lp bng 1 ch th cho HA b sung thm mt rng buc mi nhng
vn duy tr rng buc hin c. Th tc chuyn giao m nh sau:
1. Tip xc vi FA mi nhn c a ch CoA mi trc khi chuyn giao
xy ra
2. ng k COA mi vi HA bng cch t bit S bng 1. Sau ng k, HA s
chuyn cc gi n c hai t bo
3. Sau khong thi gian qu chuyn giao n t bo mi, nt di ng
ng k li CoA mi vi bit S t bng 0 loi b rng buc c.

1.13.7. MIP cho cdma2000

MIP c s dng trong cdma2000. FA c t ti PDSN v h tr cc


chc nng chnh sau:
nh tuyn n MS t HA
nh tuyn ngc n HA
Chuyn giao gia cc PDSN khng cn s tham gia ca mng nh
Thit lp lin kt an ninh IPSec vi tc nhn nh
n nh a ch nh ng
Dch v AAA cho cc ngi s dng khch

MIP trong cdma2000 cung cp chc nng ging nh GTP trong UMTS. C
hai u h tr chuyn dch ngi s dng trong RAN m khng cn thay i a
ch IP. im khc bit l ch MIP cho php ngi s dng chuyn dch ra ngoi
mng TTD nhng vn duy tr kh nng kt ni. Tri li GTP tunnel ch tn ti
trong mng ca nh khai thc v v th khng th h tr nh tuyn di ng khi
ngi s dng ng nhp mng bng phng php khc vi GPRS.

63
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.13.8. MIP cho UMTS

Nghin cu tnh kh thi khi s dng MIP trong UMTS h tr truyn


tunnel v qun l di ng c th hin trong TS23.923 ca 3GPP. Khuyn ngh
ny m t hai kin trc. Kin trc th nht xp chng MIP ln mng GPRS hin
thi h tr di ng rng khp. Kin trc ny cho php lun lun ni c n
ngi s dng cho d ngi ny s dng kt ni bng GPRS hay cc phng tin
khc. y l mt kin trc MIP thng thng trong chc nng FA c t
trong GGSN. Trong trng hp ny, GGSN pht i qung co khi nhn c yu
cu PDP context. V khng phi mi GGSN u h tr di ng IP nn vic chn
dch v ny da trn APN ca yu cu gc.
Kin trc th hai thay th ton b GTP bng MIP. Trong trng hp ny
SGSN v GGSN c kt hp vo mt nt h tr Internet GPRS (IGSN). IGSN s
hot ng nh mt FA cung cp tunnel chuyn gi gia n v HA ca ngi
s dng. TS 23.923 ch l mt nghin cu kh thi ch cha phi l mt yu cu
bt buc i vi UMTS.

1.13.9. PMIP

1.13.9.1. M u

MIP l giao thc h tr di ng IP c bit rng ri. N c hai phin


bn: MIPv4 v MIPv6. MIP h tr di ng cho my ch IP bng cch cho php
chng s dng hai a ch HoA (a ch nh) l mt a ch c nh ca MN v
CoA l a ch thay i theo mng con m MN ng nhp. Xt v cc kha cnh
kin trc nn tng, c hai chun ny u tun th cng mt khi nim. Tuy nhin
v chi tit vn c nhng nt khc nhau. MIPv6 gm ba phn t: HA (tc nhn
nh), MN (nt di ng v CN (nt i tc), trong khi MIPv4 ngoi ba phn t
ni trn cn c thm mt phn t na l FA (tc nhn ngoi). Vai tr ca FA c
thay bng AR (Router truy nhp) trong MIPv6. Ngoi ra mc d c thm cc m
rng ti u ha nh tuyn cho MIPv4 v MIPv6, nhng cc m rng ny ch
c chun ha trong MIPv6.
Mc d MIPv6 l mt chun chn mui h tr di ng IP v gii quyt
nhiu vn nh nh tuyn tam gic, an ninh v khng gian c a ch c hn
(MIMv4), n vn cn c mt s vn nh tr chuyn giao, tn tht gi v chi phi
bo hiu. Ngoi cc tr chuyn giao MIPv4/v6 khng m bo cht lng dch vu
yu cu trong cc ng dng thi gian thc. V th rt nhiu cc tng cng MIPv6
c a ra trong nhiu nm gn y nh MIPv6 phn cp (HMIPv6), MIPv6
chuyn giao nhanh (FMIPv6). Tuy nhin MIPv6 v cc tng cng ny i hi

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

thay i ngn xp ca MN h tr chng. Cc i hi thay i ngn xp ny l


nguyn nhn lm tng thm tnh phc tp ca MN.
Qun l di ng da trn mng c cng chc nng nh MIP nhng khng
thay i ngn xp giao thc TCP/IP. Vi PMIP my ch c th thay i im
nhp mng internet ca mnh m vn khng cn thay i a ch IP. Khc vi cch
tip cn ca MIP, chc nng ny c thc hin bi mng v mng chu trch
nhiu theo bm cc chuyn ng ca my ch cng nh khi xng bo hiu di
ng cn thit thay cho MN. Tuy nhin trong trng hp di lin quan n
nhiu giao din mng khc nhau, my ch cn cc thay i ging nh trong MIP
duy tr cng mt a ch trn cc giao din khc nhau.

Trong cch tip cn qun l di ng da trn mng PMIPv6, mng phc


v s x l qun l di ng thay cho MN, v th MN khng phi tham gia vo bt
k mt bo hiu no lin quan n di ng. So vi cch qun l di ng da trn
my ch trong MIPv6 v cc tng cng ca n, cch qun l di ng da trn
mng c cc tnh nng v u im ni bt sau y:
Trin vng trin khai. Khng nh qun l di ng da trn my, qun l di ng
da trn mng khng yu cu bt c mt thay i no i vi MN. Yu cu thay
i MN l mt l do m MIPv6 khng c trin khai rng ri trong thc tin mc
d c nhiu tng cng cho n trong nhng nm gn y. V th c th k vong l
vic khng cn thay i MN s y nhanh tin trnh trin khi PMIPv5.

Nn tng ca PMIPv6 c xy dng trn c s MIP 6. PMIPv6 m rng


bo hiu MIP6 v s dng li nhiu khai nim nh HA. Tuy nhin PMIP c
thit k m bo h tr qun l di ng da trn mng cho nt di ng (MN)
trong min c khoanh vng theo topo. Trong cch tip cn da trn mng cu
PMIP6, mng ang phc v iu khin qun l di ng thay mt cho MN, v th
MN khng cn thit phi tham d vo bt k mt bo hiu no lin quan n di
ng. Mc ch thit k PMIP t c cc tnh nng sau:
H tr cc MN m khng phi thay i n. Khc vi cch tip cn da
trn my ch, cch tip cn da trn mng khng yu cu cp nht phn
mm h tr di ng cho MN
H tr IPv4 v IPv6. Mc d thit k ban u ca cch tip cn da trn
mng s dng my ch IPv6, nhng n cng d kin lm vic vi my
ch IPv4 hoc my ch hai ngn xp
S dng hiu qu ti nguyn v tuyn. Cch tip cn da trn mng trnh
c chi ph b sung cho truyn tunnel trn mt lin kt v tyun; v th n
gim thiu chi ph b sng trong mng truy nhp v tuyn
Khng cn bit cng ngh lin kt. Cch tip cn da trn mng s khng
s dng bt c thng tin c th no v lin kt v tuyn qun l nh
tuyn c s v s h tr mi kiu cng ngh khng dy
Ci thin hiu nng chuyn giao. Cch tip cn da trn mng s gim
thiu thi gian cn thit chuyn giao.

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.13.9.2. Nguyn l PMIP

Tiu chun nh ngha hai phn t mng tham gia vo qu trnh qun l di
ng: (1) LMA (Local Mobility Anchor: neo di ng a phng) v (2) MAG
(Mobile Access Gateway: cng truy nhp di ng).
MAG l mt chc nng trn router truy nhp c nhim v qun l bo hiu
lin quan n di ng cho nt di ng (MN: Mobile Node) khi n ng nhp vo
lin kt truy nhp ca n.
LMA l HA (Home Agent: tc nhn nh) i vi MN trong min PMIPv6
cn MAG ng vai tr nh PMA (Proxy Mobile Agent: tc nhn di ng i
din).
Hnh 1.21 cho thy min PMIPv6 vi mng li di ng khng ph thuc
vo truy nhp.

LMA (neo: PDN Gateway)

LTE LTE CDMA WiMAX WLAN

MAG MAG MAG MAG MAG

MN

Hnh 1.21. Min PMIPv6 vi mng li di ng khng ph thc truy nhp

Nh ni trn nn tng PMIP6 da trn MIP6 kha cnh n m rng


bo hiu ca MIP6 v s dng li nhiu khi nim chng hn chc nng HA. Tuy
nhin PMIP6 c thit k h tr qun l di ng da trn mng cho MN trong
min c khoanh vng theo topo, v th MN khng phi tham gia vo bt k bo
hiu no lin quan n di ng, mt tc nhn i din trong mng phc vu s thc
hin bo hiu lin quan n di ng nhn danh n. Khi mt MN i vo min
PMIP6 v thc hin nhn thc truy nhp, mng phc v s m bo rng MN ny
lun mng nh ca n v c th nhn c HoA ca n ti mi mng truy nhp.
Nghi l mng phc v n nh mt tin t mng nh duy nht cho tng MN v

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

tin t ny lun i km MN trong khi n di chuyn trong min PMIPv6. Xt t


gc MN, ton b min PMIPv6 th hin nh mng nh ca n. V th khng
cn lp cu hnh CoA ti MN.
Cc thc th chc nng mi ca PMIPv6 l MAG (Mobile Access
Gateway: cng truy nhp di ng) v LMA (Local Mobile Anchor: neo di ng
a phng). MAG thng hot ng trn AR (Access Router). Nhim v chnh
ca MAG l pht hin chuyn ng ca MN v khi ng bo hiu lin quan n
di ng vi LMA ca MN nhn danh MN. Ngoi ra MAG cng thit lp tunnel
vi LMA cho php MN s dng mt a ch t tin t mang nh ca n v gii
phng mng nh ca MN ti mng truy nhp cho tng MN. Tuy vy n cn c cc
kh nng khc cn thit h tr PMIPv6. Chc nng ch yu ca LMA l duy tr
kh nng t c a ch MN khi n di chuyn trong min PMIPv6. LMA bao
gm mc nh (Cache Entry) rng buc cho tng MN hin c ng k. Mc nh
rng buc c duy tr LMA di hn mc ca HA trong MIP6 vi mt s
trng b sung nh: s nhn dng MN, tin t mng nh ca MN, c ch th ng
k di din v s nhn dng giao din ca tunnel hai chiu gia MAG v LMA.
Thng tin ny s lin kt MN vi MAG phc v v cho php duy tr quan h gia
MAG v LMA.

Giao thc PMIP hot ng nh sau:


My ch di dng i vo min PMIP
Cng truy nhp di ng trn lin k ny kim tra quyn my di ng
My ch di ng nhn c a ch IP
Cng truy nhp di ng cp nht LMA v v tr hin thi ca my ch
MAG v LMA to lp mt tunnel hai chiu

Hnh 1.22 m t nguyn l hot ng ca PMIv6 trong min c phn


vng.

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

IP tunnel
IP-in-IP tunnel gia LMA v MAG

LMA Mng nh
Mng nh ca MN
(im neo topo)
MAG

a ch LMA (LMAA)
L im vo tunnel

Min NETLMM Cng nhn rng buc


MAG (Min qun l di ng i din (PBA)
Chuyn ng Bn tin iu khin c
c khoanh vng
da trn mng) LMA gi n MAG

Bn tin cp nht rng buc i din (PBU)


a ch nh ca MN (MN-HoA) Bn tin iu khin c MAG gi n LMA
MN tip tc s dng n chng no thit lp rng buc gia MN-HoA v Proxy-CoA
cn chuyn ng trong cng mt min
Chm sc a ch i din (Proxy-CoA)
a ch ca MAG,
L im cui tunnel

Hnh 1.22. Nguyn l PMIPv6

Trao i bn tin trong PMIPv6

Hnh 1.23 cho thy trao i bn tin trong PMIPv6. Cc bc trao i trn
hnh 1.23 nh sau:
Bc 1v 2. Khi MN ln u nhp mng truy nhp c kt ni n MAG, th
tc nht thc truy nhp c thc hin bng cch s dng nhn dng MN (s nhn
dng MN) thng qua cc giao thc an ninh truy nhp c trin khai trn mng
truy nhp,
Bc 3. Sau khi nhn thc truy nhp thnh cng, MAG nhn c h s MN gm
s nhn dng MN, a ch LMA c h tr bi ch cu hnh a ch . t kho
lu chnh sch (AAA: Authentication, Authorization and Accounting server)
Bc 4. MAG gi cp nht rng buc i din (PBU: Proxy Binding Update)
cha s nhn dng MN n LMA ca MN nhn danh MN
Bc 5 v 6. Khi LMA nhn c PBU, n kim tra kho lu chnh sch m
bo rng phia gi c quyn gi PBU. Nu pha gi l MAG tin tng, LMA
tip nhn bn tin PBU
Bc 7. LMA gi cng nhn rng buc i din (PBA: Proxy Binding
Acknoledgment) cha ty chn tin t mng nh ca MN v thit lp mt tuyn
cho tin t mng nh MN trn tunnel n MAG,

68
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

MN MAG AAA server LMA CN

(1) MN nhp mng


(2) Hi AAA vi MN-ID

(3) AAA tr li vi h s

(4) PBU vi MN-ID

(5) Hi AAA vi MN-ID

(6) AAA tr li

(7) PBA vi MN-ID, ty chn tin t mng nh


Thit lp tunnel hai chiu
Qung co Router
Cc gi s liu
Cc gi s liu c truyn tunnel
Cc gi s liu

Hnh 1.23. Trao i bn tin trong PMIPv6

Khng ging MIPv6, tunnel trong PMIPv6 c thit lp gia: LMA v


MAG ch khng phi MN. iu ny l cn thit v truyn tunel lm tng bng
thng trn lin kt khng dy v tng ti x l trn MN. Khi MAG nhn c
PBA t LMA, n nhn c tt c cc thng tin cn thit gi lp mng nh
ca MN trn mng truy nhp v sau n pht qung co router (RA: Router
Advertisement) n MN. Cn lu rng bn tin RA cha tin t mng nh ca
MN. Sau khi nhn c bn tin RA, MN lp cu hnh a ch nh ca n bng
cch kt hp tin t mng nh c trong bn tin RA v a ch giao din ca n da
trn ch lp cu hnh a ch c h tr t kho lu chnh sch. Cn lu rng
v PMIPv6 ch h tr m hnh tin t cho mt MN ch khng phi m hnh tin t
chia s, nn mt tin t mng nh duy nht dc gn cho tng MN. V th khng
ging nh MIPv6 v cc tng cng ca n, MN lun nhn c tin t mng nh
duy nht khi n di ng trong min PMIPv6.
Sau khi tunnel hai chiu c thit lp thnh cng, tt c lu lng c
pht i t MN u c nh tuyn n LMA ca n qua tunnel. LMA nhn c
cc gi s liu gi i t CN (nt i tc) n MN. LMA chuyn gi thu c n
MAG thng qua tunnel. Sau khi thu c cc gi, MAG ti u kia ca tunnel lai
b tiu bn ngoi v chuyn chng n MN.

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.14. KIN TRC MNG 4G LTE/SAE

1.14.1. Cu hnh kin trc h thng c s

Hnh 1.24 m t kin trc v cc phn t mng 4G LTE/SAE trong ch


c phn truy nhp v tuyn E-UTRAN. Cc nt lgic v cc kt ni trn hnh v
th hin cu hnh kin trc h thng c s.
LTE-Uu

PCRF
Gxc Gx Rx Mng
TE ngoi: cc
S1-U
eNodeB S-GW P-GW dch v ca
R nh khai
S5/S8 SGi
SAE GW thc (IMS)
ME X2
S11 v Internet
Cu eNodeB MME HSS
USIM S1-MME S6a
S10
UE E-UTRAN EPC Cc dch v
Lp kt ni IP
Lp kt ni cc dch v

E-UTRAN: Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network: Mng truy nhp v tuyn UMTS pht trin,
EPC: Evolved Packet Core: Li gi pht trin, MME: Mobility Management Entity: Thc th qun l di ng,
SAE: System Architecture Evolution: Pht trin kin trc h thng, PCRF: Policy and Charging Rules
Function: chc nng cc quy tc tnh cc v chnh sch, HSS: Home Subsscriber Server: Server thu bao
nh, S-GW: Serving Gateway: Cng phc v, P-GW: Packet Data Network Gateway: Cng mng s liu gi,
SAE-GW: SAE Gateway: Cng SAE, IMS: IP Multimedia Subbsystem: Phn h a phng tin IP
Hnh 1.24. Kin trc h thng cho mng 4G LTE/SAE ch cho EUTRAN ca
LTE.

Hnh 1.24 cho thy kin trc bao gm bn min chnh: (1) thit b ngi s
dng (UE: User Equipment), (2) mng truy nhp v tuyn UMTS pht trin (E-
UTRAN), (3) mng li gi pht trin (EPC) v (4) min cc dch v.
Cc min kin trc mc cao c chc nng ging nh cc chc nng hin
c trong cc h thng 3GPP. Pht trin kin trc mi ch yu tp trung ln mng
truy nhp v tuyn v mng li: E-UTRAN v EPC. Cc min UE v dch v
khng i v mt kin trc.
UE, E-UTRAN v EPC cng nhau th hin lp kt ni giao thc internet
(IP). Phn ny cng cn c gi l H thng gi pht trin (EPS: Evolved Packet
System). Chc nng chnh ca lp ny l cung cp kt ni da trn IP. Tt c cc
dch v u c cung cp trn nh IP. Cc cng ngh IP cng l cc cng ngh
ng tr trong truyn ti, ti y tt c u c thit k hot ng trn nh ca
truyn ti IP.

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Phn h a phng tin IP (IMS: IP Multimedia Sub-System) l th d r


rng nht v b my dch v c s dng trong lp kt ni dch v cung cp
cc dch v trn nh kt ni IP do cc lp thp hn cung cp. Th d, h tr
dch v thoi, IMS c th cung cp thoi trn IP (VoIP) v kt ni vi cc mng
chuyn mch dch v knh PSTN v ISDN thng qua cc cng phng tin
(MGW) m n iu khin.
Nghin cu pht trin trong E-UTRAN tp trung ln mt nt, nt B pht
trin (eNodeB: Evolved Node B). eNodeB l im kt cui cho tt c cc giao
thc v tuyn. E-UTRA n gin l mt li cc eNodeB c ni vi nhau qua
giao din X2.
Mt trong s cc thay i ln ca kin trc trong vng mang li l EPC
khng cha min chuyn mch knh. V mt chc nng, EPC tng ng nh
nh min chuyn mch gi ca cc mng 3GPP hin c. Tuy nhin c cc thay i
ng k trong vic t chc cc chc nng v hu ht cc nt v c th coi rng
kin trc ca phn ny l hon ton mi.
Cng SAE GW bao gm hai cng: (1) cng phc v (Serving Gateway) v
cng mng s liu gi (P-GW) c nh ngha x l mt phng ngi s dng
(UP) trong EPC. Cng c th thc hin chng chung nh l mt SAE-GW, nhng
chng cng c th hot ng tch bit v ni vi nhau qua mt giao din chun.

1.14.2. Cc phn t logic trong cu hnh kin trc h thng c s

Di y ta s gii thiu cc phn t mng logic cho cu hnh kin trc h


thng c s.

1.14.2.1. Thit b ngi s dng, UE

UE l thit b m ngi s dng u cui s dng thng tin. UE cha


USIM. USIM l mt ng dng c t trong mt th thng minh tho ri c
v c gi l UICC (Universal IC Card: th vi mch vn nng). USIM c s
dng nhn dng v nhn thc ngi s dng cng nh rt ra cc kha an
ninh bo v truyn dn trn giao din v tuyn.
V mt chc nng, UE l mt nn tng cho cc ng dng thng tin nh bo
hiu vi mng v thit lp, duy tr v gii phng cc lin kt thng tin m ngi
s dng u cui cn. Bo hiu bao gm c cc chc nng qun l di ng nh
chuyn giao v bo co v tri my u cui v thc hin cc chc nng theo ch th
t mng. Cc giao thc hot ng gia UE v mng li c gi l cc giao thc
tng khng truy nhp (NAS: Non-Access Stratum).

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.14.2.2. eNodeB

Nt duy nht trong E-UTRAN l eNodeB (evolved Node B: Nt B pht


trin). eNodeB l trm gc v tuyn chu trch nhim iu khin tt c cc chc
nng lin quan n v tuyn trong phn c nh ca h thng. eNodeB thng
thng c phn b trn cc vng ph sng ca mng, eNodeB c t gn cc
anten v tuyn thc t.
V mt chc nng eNodeB hot ng nh mt cu ni lp 2 gia UE v
EPC v l im kt cui ca tt c cc giao thc v tuyn hng n UE v
chuyn tip s liu gia kt ni v tuyn v kt ni da trn IP tng ng n
EPC. Trong vai tr ny, eNodeB thc hin mt m ha/gii mt m ha s liu v
ng thi nn/gii nn tiu IP.
eNodeB cng chu trch nhim cho nhiu chc nng ca mt phng iu
khin (CP). eNodeB chu trch nhim qun l ti nguyn v tuyn (RRM: Radio
Resource Management), ngha l iu khin mc s dng giao din v tuyn
bao gm: n nh cc ti nguyn v tuyn theo yu cu, t mc u tin v lp
biu lu lng theo cht lng dch v (QoS) yu cu v thng xuyn gim st
tnh trng s dng ti nguyn.
Ngoi ra, eNodeB cn c mt vai tr quan trng trong qun l di ng
(MM: Mobility Management). eNodeB iu khin v phn tch cc o c mc tn
hiu v tuyn do UE thc hin, t mnh thc hin o c tng t v da trn cc
kt qu o c ny a ra quyt nh chuyn giao UE gia cc . Qu trnh ny
bao gm trao i bo hiu gia cc eNodeB v MME. Khi mt UE mi tch cc
trong mt eNodeB v yu cu kt ni n mng, eNodeB cng chu trch nhim
nh tuyn yu cu ny n MME trc y phc v UE ny hoc chn mt
MME mi nu khng c tuyn n MME trc y hoc khng c thng tin nh
tuyn.

1.14.2.3. Thc th qun l di ng (MME)

MME l mt nt iu khin x l qu trnh bo hiu gia UE v mng


li, n chu trch nhim cho tt c cc chc nng ca mt phng iu khin lin
quan n qun l thu bao v qun l phin. Xt c chc nng nhim v, MME
h tr cc qu trnh sau:
Cc th tc an ninh. Lin quan n nhn thc ngi s dng u cui
cng nh khi u cc gii thut mt m v bo v tnh ton vn
X l phin gia UE n mng. Lin quan n tt c cc th tc bo
hiu thit lp ng cnh s liu gi (Packet Data Context) v m phn
cc thng s lin quan nh QoS

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Qun l di ng khi UE ri. Lin quan n qu trnh cp nht vng theo


bm (TA) c th tm gi u cui cho cc phin vo

C th phn lai cc chc nng chnh m MME h tr nh sau:


Cc chc nng lin quan n qun l knh mang. Bao gm thit
lp, duy tr v gii phng cc knh mang v c x l bi lp qun
l phin trong giao thc NAS
Cc chc nng lin quan n qun l kt ni v di ng. Bao gm
thit lp kt ni, an ninh gia mng v UE v di ng, c x l bi
lp qun l kt ni hay di ng trong lp giao thc NAS.

1.14.2.4. Cng phc v, S-GW

S-GW. Xt v chc nng th S-GW l im kt cui ca giao din s liu gi ti


E-UTRAN. S-GW ng vai tr nh mt neo di ng ni ht cho cc knh mang
s liu khi UE chuyn ng gia cc eNodeB. iu ny c ngha l tt c cc gi
IP ca ngi s dng u c chuyn qua S-GW cho di ng ni E-UTRAN v
di ng vi cc cng ngh 3GPP khc nh 2G GPRS v 3G UMTS . N cng gi
li thng tin v cc knh mang ni trn khi UE trong trng thi ri (c gi l
ECM-IDLE) v nh m tm thi s liu ng xung khi MME khi xng tm
gi UE thit lp cc knh mang. Ngoi ra S-GW thc hin mt s chc nng
quan trng trong mng khch nh thu thp thng tin tnh cc (khi lng s liu
c pht hay c nhn ti UE) v chn theo lut.

1.14.2.5. Cng mng s liu gi, P-GW

Ging nh S-GW, P-GW l im kt cui ca giao din s liu gi n


mng s liu gi (PDN). Vi vai tr l mt im neo cho cc phin n cc mng
s liu gi bn ngoi, P-GW cng h tr cc tnh nng thc thi chnh sch (thc
hin cc quy tc c nh khai thc nh ngha n nh ti nguyn v mc
s dng) cng nh lc (gim st gi pht hin ch k virus) v h tr tnh cc
pht trin nh tnh cc cho tng URL (Uniform Resource Locator: nh v ti
nguyn ng nht, dng nhn dng mt ti nguyn internet kh dng chng hn
nh a ch ca cc trang WEB).

1.14.2.6. Chc nng cc quy tc chnh sch v tnh cc , PCRF.

Chu trch nhim quyt nh iu khin chnh sch cng nh iu khin cc


chc nng tnh cc theo lung trong PCEF (Chc nng thc thi iu khin chnh

73
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

sch) nm trong P-GW. PCRF m bo trao quyn QoS (nhn dng loi QoS v
tc bit), n quyt nh cch thc x l mt lung s liu trong PCEF v m
bo rng iu ny ph hp vi h s thu bao ca ngi s dng

1.14.2.7. Server thu bao nh, HSS.

HSS cha s liu ng k thu bao ca ngi s dng nh: h s QoS


ng k bi EPS v cc hn ch truy nhp i vi chuyn mng. Ngoi ra n cng
cha thng tin v cc PDN (mng s liu gi) m UE c th kt ni. y c th l
APN (Access Point Name: im truy nhp mng) (c nh nhn theo cc quy
c t tn DNS m t im truy nhp n PDN) hay mt a ch PDN (ch th
a ch IP c ng k). Ngoi ra HSS c lu thng tin ng nh s nhn dng
MME m hin thi UE ang ng nhp hay ng k. HSS cng c th lin kt vi
trung tm nhn thc (AuC) ni to ra cc vect cho nhn thc v cc kha an ninh

1.14.3. Min phc v.

Min phc v c th bao gm cc phn h khc nhau, mi phn h ny


cha mt s nt logic. Di y ta s phn loi cc kiu dch v c th c v m
t ngn gn kiu h tn cn c cung cp cc dch v ny:
Cc dch v da trn IMS. Phn h a phng tin IP (IMS) l mt b
my dch v m ngi s dng c th s dng cung cp cc dch v s
dng Giao thc khi u phin (SIP). IMS c kin trc c 3GPP nh
ngha
Cc dch v khng da trn IMS. Kin trc cho cc dch v ca nh khai
thc khng da trn IMS khng c nh ngha trong tiu chun. Nh khai
thc c th n gin t mt server v mng ca mnh v cc UE ni n
server ny thng qua mt giao thc c tha thun no v c h tr
bi ng dng trong UE. Dch v lung video do mt server lung cung cp
l mt th d
Cc dch v khc khng do nh khai thc di ng cung cp. Cc dch v
c cung cp qua internet chng hn. Cc chun 3GPP khng cp n
kin trc ny v kin trc ny ph thuc vo yu cu dch v. Cu hnh
in hnh l mt UE ni n mt server trong internet chng hn n mt
web-server cho dch v trnh duyt hay ti mt SIP server cho in thoi
internet (VoIP).

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.15. IMS

1.15.1. Tng quan

Phn h cc dch v a phng tin IP (IMS: IP Multimedia Services Sub-


System) l b my dch v thch hp cho LTE/SAE. u tin IMS c a ra
trong R5 v c nh ngha c th tng tc vi cc mng hin c, nhng hin
nay R8 IMS c th c s dng cung cp dch v cho c truy nhp v tuyn
v c nh. IMS cung cp tt c cc thc th mng v cc th tc h tr thoi
thi gian thc v cc ng dng IP a phng tin. N s dng SIP h tr bo
hiu v iu khin cho cc dch v thi gian thc. Hnh 1.25 m t kin trc tng
qut ca IMS. Hnh 1.25 cho thy IMS c t trn nh ca lp kt ni IP do
EPS cung cp. ng m trn hnh ny cho thy kt ni UE n P-GW v y l
kt ni IP ca UE n IMS v cc mng ngai thng quan RAN v EPC. Cc giao
din bo hiu Gm v Ut c thc hin trn nh ca kt ni ny v chng thng
s dng knh mang mc nh m mt UE lun c khi nhp mng LTE/SAE.
Cc dch v c th yu cu thm cc knh mang ring c thit lp qua mng
EPC. Cc lung s liu ca dch v c th c x l bi mt trong s cc phn t
dch v hay tng tc mng.

75
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Cc mng
IMS khc
Cc phn t dch v
AS MRFC MRFP
Mp Mb
ISC Mr
Qun l phin v Cc phn t tng tc Mm
ISC, nh tuyn
Dh Sh, Si Ma Ici
Serving IBCF TrGW
CSCF
HSS Mx Ix Mb
Cx Mw Mx
Mk Izi
I-CSCF BGCF
Mi Min CS
Dx
SLF Mj CS
Mw
Cc c s Proxy IMS
d liu Mg MGCF
CSCF MGW
Mn Mb
AF
Ut Gm Rx

SGi
EPC
PCRF P-GW

Lp kt ni IP
Gx

EPS
Mng truy nhp v tuyn

Thit b ngi s dng

UE

S-CSCH (Serving CSCF: CSCF phc v), I-CSCF (Intrrogating-CSCF: CSCF hi),
P-CSCF (Proxy CSCF: CSCF i din), HSS (Home Subscriber Server: Server thu bao
nh), MRFC (Media Resource Function Controller: B iu khin chc nng ti nguyn),
BGCF (Breakout Gateway Control Function: Chc nng iu khin cng ni xuyn),
IBCF ( Interconnection Border Control Function: Chc nng iu khin bin gii kt
ni), TrGW (Transition Gateway: Cng chuyn tip), MGCF (Multimedia Gate Control
Function: Chc nng iu khin cng a phng tin), IMS-MGW (IMS Multimedia
Gate), AS (Application Server: server ng dng), AF (Application Function: chc nng
ng dng), SLF (Subscription Locator Function: Chc nng nh v thu bao).

Hnh 1.25. Kin trc IMS

76
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

V nguyn tc, IMS c lp vi lp kt ni v n i hi cc th tc ng


k cng nh qun l phin ring, nhng n cng c thit k c bit hot
ng vi cc mng truy nhp ca 3GPP v c th lm vic xun s vi iu khin
chnh sch v tnh cc (PCC) trong LTE/SAE. IMS s dng giao thc SIP
(Session Initiation Protocol) ng k v iu khin cc phin dch v. SIP
c s dng gia u cui v IMS (giao din Gm) cng nh gia cc nt IMS
(cc giao din ISC, Mw, Mg, Mi, Mx, Mk, Mr v Mm). Cc giao thc khc cng
c s dng trong IMS nh: Diameter (cc giao din Cx, Dx, Dh v Sh) v
H.248 (Mp).
u tin UE bo hiu vi cc CSCF cho cc dch v m n mun s dng,
ngoi ra mt s bo hiu c th dch v cng c th thc hin trc tip vi cc
server ng dng. Cc chc nng qun l phin v nh tuyn c th c x l bi
cc CSCF c nhim v iu khin ng k UE trong IMS. thc hin iu ny,
cc CSCF bo hiu vi cc s d liu nhn c cc thng tin tng ng. Cc
CSCF cng iu khin cc phin dch v ca UE trong IMS, vy chng cn bo
hiu vi mt hay nhiu cc phn t dch v bit c loi kt ni no l cn
thit i vi dch v c yu cu v sau bng lp kt ni thng qua giao din
Rx a ra cc yu cu i vi cc ti nguyn knh mang. Cui cng cc CSCF cn
bo hiu vi mt hay nhiu phn t tng tc iu khin kt ni gia cc
mng. Khi lung UP c nh tuyn qua mt hay nhiu phn t IMS, nh tuyn
ny c thc hin quan giao din Mb kt ni IMS n cc mng IP.
Hu ht cc phn t chu trch nhim cho qun l phin v nh tuyn hoc
tng tc u thu tp thng tin tnh cc. Cc giao din Rf v Ro l cc giao din
tnh cc chnh ca IMS. n gin cc nt lin quan n tch cc khng c
trnh by trn hnh 1.

1.15.2. Qun l phin v nh tuyn

Chc nng iu khin trng thi kt ni (CSCF: Connection State Control


Function) l phn t trung tm trong bo hiu SIP gia UE v IMS, n c nhim
v ng k ca UE vi IMS v qun l phin dch v. ng k bao gm c nhn
thc. Phng php nhn thc thng c s dng l IMS-AKA (Authentication
and Key Agreement: nhn thc v tha thun kha), nhng http digest cng c th
c s dng. CSCF c nh ngha vi ba vai tr v cc vai tr ny c th c
t trong cng mt nt hoc trong ba nt ring bit ni vi nhau qua giao din
Mw. Tt c cc vai tr ny u tham gia v cc giao dch bo hiu SIP lin quan
n UE:
S-CSCH (Serving CSCF: CSCF phc v) c t trong mng nh ca
ngi s dng, chu trch nhim ng k UE v duy tr trng thi phin.
Khi ng k, n giao tip vi HSS nhn h s thu bao gm c thng tin
nhn thc v nhn thc UE. i vi cc phin dch v, S-CSCF bo hiu
vi UE thng qua cc CSCF khc v cng c th tng tc vi cc AS

77
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

(Application Server: server ng dng) khc hay vi MRFC (Media


Resource Function Controller) thit lp phin dch v. N cng chu
trch nhim chnh cho iu khin cc phn t tng tc. S-CSCF cng cn
tng tc vi MGCF kt ni vi cc mng CS hay vi cc mng a
phng tin khc cho cc dch v m UE yu cu.
S-CSCF l b no ca IMS. N c t mng nh. Ngha l bo hiu
cuc gi khi xng t my di ng c nh tuyn qua mng nh ca
ngi s dng. Chng hn mt thu bao Vit Nam chuyn mng vo Trung
Quc sau gi n mt thu bao ti c, bo hiu cuc gi ny s phi i
qua mng ca thu bao nh ca n ti Vit Nam. Cch thc hin ny cho
php nh khai thc mng c th tha thun cc bn tin tnh cc vi nh
khai thc mng khch cho tng thu bao. Tt nhin iu ny ch lin quan
n bo hiu, cn lu lng cuc gi vn c nh tuyn IP gia cc P-
GW ca cc mng Trung Quc v c N thc hin cc dch v iu khin
phin v ng k cho cc UE. Khi UE tham gia mt phin, S-CSCF duy tr
trng thi cu phin ny v tng tc vi cc nn tng dch v khc v cc
chc nng tnh cc m nh khai thc mng cn thit h tr dch v. C
th c nhiu S-CSCF v cc S-CSCF ny c th c cc chc nng khc
nhau trong mng nh khai thc. S-CSCF c cc chc nng chnh sau:
ng k: S-CSCF c th hot ng nh mt b ng k SIP (SIP
Registrar) tip nhn cc yu cu ng k SIP, thc hin ng k
cho ngi s dng v cung cp thng tin v tr cho cc server v tr
nh Server thu bao nh (HSS: Home Subscriber Server)
Nhn thc: cc ngi s dng bng s nhn thc v tha thun
kha ca IMS (IMS AKA: IMS Authentication and Key Agreement)
Ti xung t HSS: cc thng tin v ngi s dng v s liu lin quan
dch v trong qu trnh ng k hoc x l yu cu ca mt ngi
s dng khng c ng k
iu khin phin: S-CSCF c th thc hin cc chc nng iu khin
phin cho ngi s dng c ng k. N c th hot ng nh mt
server i din (Proxy Server) hoc mt UA (User Agent) chuyn
tip cc yu cu SIP gia ch gi v b gi
Tng tc vi cc Server ng dng: S-CSCF hot ng nh mt giao
din gia cc server ng dng hay cc nn tng dch v hp l. N c
th quyt nh khi no cn nh tuyn cc yu cu v tr li n mt
AS c th x l tip
Bin dch s E.164 vo SIP URI bng c ch cch s dng tn min
c khun dng c c t trong [Draft-ietf-enum-rfc2916bis]. Bin
dch ny l cn thit bi v nh tuyn nh tuyn bo hiu SIP trong
IMS ch s dng SIP URI.
Gim st cc nh thi ng k ng k c th hy b ng k khi cn
thit

78
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Chn la mt trung tm bo khn khi nh khai thc h tr cc phin


bo khn IMS. y l tnh nng ca R6
Thc hin kim sot phng tin. S-CSCF c kh nng kim tra ni
dung ti tin cu ca SDP v kim tra xem n c cha cc kiu phng
tin hay cc CODEC khng c php i vi ngi s dng hay
khng. Khi ngh SDP khng ph hp vi chnh sch hay ng k
thu bao cu ngi s dng, S-CSCF t chi yu cu v gi bo li
SIP 488
Duy tr cc b nh thi phin. R5 khng cung cp phng tin ny
cho i din trng thi v trng thi ca phin. R6 sa cha khim
khuyt ny bng cch a ra cc b nh thi phin. N cho php S-
CSCF pht hin v gii phng cc ti nguyn s dng ht bng
cch treo cc phin
To lp CDR (Call Detail Record: bn ghi chi tit cuc gi). Gi
thng tin lin quan n tch cc cho CCF tnh cc khng trc
tuyn v n cc h thng tnh cc trc tuyn (OCS) tnh cc
trc tuyn

I-CSCF (Intrrogating-CSCF: CSCF hi) c t ti bin ca mng nh,


chu trch nhim tm trng thi ng k ca UE v hoc n nh mt S-
CSCF mi hoc nh tuyn n S-CSCF hin c. Yu cu ny c th n t
P-CSCF (Proxy CSCF: CSCF i din), t cc mng a phng tin khc
hay t cc mng CS thng qua MGCF (Media Gateway Control Function:
chc nng cng iu khin a phng tin). Ngoi ra I-CSCF cng cn
tng tc vi cc AS (Application Server: server ng dng) x l dch
v. Giao din Ma c s dng khi PSI (Public Service Identity: nhn dng
dch v cng cng) c s dng nhn dng dch v, I-CSCF c th
nh tuyn trc tip yu cu ny n AS.
I-CSCF l mt im tip xc trong mng cu nh khai thc cho tt c cc
kt ni n thu bao ca mng ny. N ng vai tr nh mt im tip xc
trung tm trong mng nh khai thc dnh cho mt thu bao ca mng ny
hay mt ngi s dng hin ang lm khch mng ny i vi tt c cc
phin. C th c nhiu I-CSCF trong mt mng ca nh khai thc. I-CSCF
thc hin cc chc nng sau:
Chn la S-CSCF cho phin ca ngi s dng da trn cc thng tin
sau: (1) cc kh nng m ngi s dng yu cu, (2) cc kh nng v
s kh dng ca cc S-CSCF, (3) thng tin v cu hnh topo nh v tr
ca S-CSCF v v tr ca cc P-CSCF nu chng nm trong cng mt
mng ca nh khai thc vi cc S-CSCF
Chuyn cc yu cu hay cc tr li SIP n S-CSCF c chn
Gi cc thng tin lin quan n thanh ton n CCF

79
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Cha chc nng: cng tng tc mng che du cu hnh (THIG:


Topology Hiding Inter-network Gateway). THIG c s dng che
du cu hnh, dung lng v topo mng i vi mng ngoi.

P-CSCF (Proxy CSCF: CSCF i din) l nt IMS gn nht m UE tng


tc, chu trch nhim cho tt cc chc nng lin quan n iu khin lp kt
ni IP (EPS). vy, P-CSCF cha AF (Application Function: chc nng
ng dng), y l mt phn t logic cho khi nim PCC. P-CSCF thng
c t trong cng mng vi EPS, tuy nhin R8 cha khi nim xuyn
thng ti ch (Local Breakout) cho php P-CSCF vn nm trong mang nh
trong PCRF trong mng khch vn c s dng.
P-CSCF l im tip xc u tin ca my di ng trong IMS ti ch hay
khch. Ni mt cch khc, P-CSCF tip nhn cc yu cu SIP t cc my di
ng v hoc t mnh thc hin cc yu cu ny hoc chuyn chng n
cc server khc. P-CSCF cha chc PCC (trong AF) iu khin chnh
sch v tnh cc. P-CSCF thc hin cc chc nng c th sau:
Chuyn yu cu SIP REGISTER (ng k SIP) t my di ng n
mng nh ca my di ng. Nu mng nh c s dng I-CSCF, th P-
CSCF s gi yu cu SIP ny n I-CSCF. Tri li n s gi yu cu
ny n S-CSCF trong mng nh cu my di ng. P-CSCF xc nh
ni gi yu cu SIP REGISTER da trn tn min nh trong yu cu
SIP REGISTER m n nhn c t my di ng
Chuyn cc yu cu SIP khc t my di ng n mt SIP server
(chng hn S-CSCF trong mng nh ca my di ng). P-CSCF xc
nh SIP server m n s chuyn cc bn tin n da trn kt qu ca
qu trnh ng k SIP
Chuyn cc bn tin SIP t mng n my di ng
Thc hin cc thay i cn thit i vi cc yu cu SIP trc khi
chuyn chng n cc phn t mng khc
Duy tr lin kt an ninh vi my di ng. Bo v ton vn cc bo hiu
SIP v duy tr lin kt an ninh gia UE v P-CSCF. Bo v tnh ton
vn c cung cp bi IPSec ESP. R6 cng c th m bo c tnh bo
mt.
Pht hin cc yu cu phin khn. Trong R5, P-CSCF gi tr li bng
bn tin li 380 thng bo rng UE cn th yu cu ny mng li
CS. Trong R6 P-CSCF s chn mt S-CSCF x l phin khn. L
do la chn l v trong trng hp chuyn mng IMS S-CSCF c n
nh trong mng nh v S-CSCF mng nh khng th nh tuyn yu
cu n trung tm khn
To lp cc CDR cho cc cuc gi khi xng t my di ng. Gi cc
thng tin lin quan thanh ton n CCF.

80
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Nn v gii nn cc bn tin SIP t UE


Thc hin kim tra phng tin. P-CSCF c kh nng kim tra ni
dung cu ti tin SDP va kim tra xem n c cha cc kiu phng tin
v CODEC khng c php i vi ngi s dng hay khng. Khi
SDP ngh khng ph hp vi chnh sch ca khai thc, P-CSCF t
chi yu cu v gi bn tin SIP li, 488, n UE. Nh khai thc c th
mun s dng tnh nng ny cho cc ngi s dng chuyn mng do
hn ch bng thng.

Ngoi ba CSCF ni trn, c c thm E-CSCF (Emegency-CSCF: CSCF


khn) ng vai tr th t. E-CSCF c dnh ring cho x l dch v gi khn
trong IMS. E-CSCF c ni n P-CSCF qua giao din Mw v cc nt ny lun
nm trong cng mt mng. E-CSCF cng ni n LRF (Location Retrieval
Function: chc nng thu v tr) qua giao din Mi. LRF c th cung cp v tr cu
UE v thng tin nh tuyn nh tuyn cuc gi khn. n gin E-CSCF v
LRF khng c trnh by trn hnh 1.
Cc CSCF ni vi nhau qua giao din Mw v ni n cc mang khc qua
giao din Mm. Kt ni cc CSCF trong cc mng ca cc nh khai thc khc nhau
c th c nh tuyn qua mt im chung c gi l IBCF (Interconnection
Border Control Function: chc nng iu khin bin gii kt ni).

1.15.3. Cc c s d liu

HSS (Home Subscriber Server: Server thu bao nh) l c s d liu chnh
c s dng trong IMS. HSS cha bn sao s liu thu bao chnh v c s
dng rt ging nh trong lp kt ni IP. N cung cp thng tin v tr v nhn thc
theo yu cu t I- hay S-CSCF hay AS. Giao din gia HSS v cc phn t dch
v c th l Sh hoc l Si tuy thuc vo kiu phn t dch v. Giao din Sh c
s dng trong trng hp server c kh nng dch v SIP hay OSA cn Si c s
dng trong trng hp Camel AS.
Khi c nhiu HSS c s dng vi cc a ch khc nhau, SLF c s
dng tm HSS.

1.15.4. Cc phn t dch v

Logic dch v thc s c t trong cc AS (server ng dng). Cc AS


khc nhau c th cung cp nhiu dch v khc nhau, nhng chun khng nh bao
ph tt c cc dch v c th c. Chun ch a ra mt s dch v chnh to iu
kin ni mng gia cc nh mng khi chuyn mng. Mt th d v AS chun l
Server ng dng in thoi (TAS: Telephone Application Server) c s dung
cung cp dch v IMS VoIP.

81
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Chc nng ti nguyn a phng tin (MRF: Multimedia Resource


Function) chu trch nhim x l phn t dch v a phng tin. N bao gm b
iu khin MRFC (MRFC: Multimedia Resource Function Controller) v b x l
MRFP (MRFP: Multimedia Resource Function Processor). UP c th c nh
tuyn qua MRFP pht cc thng bo cng nh cho hi ngh hoc chuyn i
m. i vi cc mc ch kt hp, MRFC c th c ni n AS lin quan.

1.15.5. Cc phn t tng tc

Cc phn t kt ni cc mng cn thit khi IMS hot ng vi nhiu mng


chng hn vi cc mng IMS khc hoc vi cc mng CS khc. Di y l cc
chc nng chnh ca cc phn t ni cc mng c chun ha:
Chc nng iu khin cng ni xuyn (BGCF: Breakout Gateway
Control Function) c s dng ni vi mng CS khi cn thit v n
chiu trch nhim chn v tri kt ni. N c th chn Chc nng iu khin
cng a phng tin (MGCF: Multimedia Gateway Control Function) nu
ni xuyn xy ra trong cng mng hay n c th chuyn yu cu n mt
BGCF trong mng khc. Tng tc ny c th c nh tuyn qua IBCF
(chc nng iu hin bin gii kt ni).
Chc nng iu khin bin gii kt ni (IBCF: Interconnection Border
Control Function) c s dng khi kt ni cc mng ca cc nh khai
thc cn c nh tuyn qua cc im c quy nh (cho php che du
cu hnh tpo trong mng). IBCF c th c s dng kt ni gia cc
CSCF hay cc BGCF v iu khin ca Cng chuyn tip (TrGW:
Transition Gateway). TrGW c s dng cho chc nng tng t trong
UP.
Lu rng giao din IBCF-TrGW khng c nh ngha y trong
Rel-8. Cc IBCF v TRGW trong cc mng ca cc nh khai thc khc
nhau c th c ni vi nhau qua cc giao din Ici v Izi v cng vi nhau
chng t nn giao din gia mng vi mng ca IMS (II-NNI: Inter IMS
Network to Network)
Chc nng iu khin cng a phng tin (MGCF) v Cng a phng
tin IMS (IMS-MGW) l cc nt CP v UP ni mng vi cc mng CS
nh min CS ca GERAN hay UTRAN, hoc PSTN/ISDN. C cuc gi
IMS VoIP vo v ra u c h tr vi ni gia cc mng bo hiu v
chuyn i m gia cc s m ha ting khc nhau. MGCF hot ng
di s iu khin hoc ca CSCF hoc ca BGCF.

82
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

1.15.6. iu khin chnh sch v tnh cc

iu khin chnh sch v tnh cc (PCC: Policy and Charging Control)


ng vai tr ch cht trong cch thc x l cc dch v trong h thng 3G v 4G.
N cung cp cch qun l cc kt ni lin quan n dch v theo cch c nh hay
c iu khin. N xc nh cch thc n nh cc ti nguyn knh mang bao
gm: (1) cch phn chia cc lung dch v trong cc knh mang (2) cc knh
mang c cc c tnh QoS g v (3) kiu thanh ton v tnh cc no c p
dng. Nu nh khai thc ch s dng m hnh QoS ht sc n gin th cu hnh
tnh ca cc thng s ny c th , nhng R8 PCC cho php nh khai thc thit
lp ng cc thng s ny cho tng dch v v thm ch tng ngi s dng ring
r.

1.16. CU HNH A L CA H THNG THNG TIN DI NG

Do tnh cht di ng ca thu bao di ng nn mng di ng phi c t


chc theo mt cu trc a l nht nh mng c th theo di c v tr ca
thu bao.

1.16.1. Phn chia theo vng mng

Trong mt quc gia c th c nhiu vng mng vin thng, vic gi vo


mt vng mng no phi c thc hin thng qua tng i cng. Cc vng
mng di ng c i din bng tng i cng GMSC/GGSN/P-GW. Tt c cc
cuc gi n mt mng di ng t mt mng khc u c nh tuyn n
GMSC/GGSN/P-GW. Tng i ny lm vic nh mt tng i trung k vo cho
mng thng tin di ng mt t (PLMN). y l ni thc hin chc nng hi
nh tuyn cuc gi kt cui trm di ng. Tng i cng (GMSC /GGSN/P-
GW) cho php h thng nh tuyn cc cuc gi vo t mng ngoi n ni nhn
cui cng: cc tram di ng b gi.

1.16.2. Phn chia theo vng phc v MSC/VLR

Mt mng thng tin di ng c phn chia thnh nhiu vng nh hn, mi vng
nh ny c phc v bi mt MSC/VLR hoc SGSN/VLR hoc S-GW/MME
(hnh 1.26). Ta gi y l vng phc v ca MSC/VLR MSC/VLR hoc
SGSN/VLR hoc S-GW/MME.

83
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

I II

VLR1 VLR2
MSC1* MSC2*

III IV

VLR3 VLR4
MSC3* MSC4*

* Hoc SGSN/VLR, S-GW/MME


Hnh 1.26. Phn chia mng thnh cc vng phc v ca MSC/VLR
(SGSN/VLR hoc S-GW/MME)

nh tuyn mt cuc gi n mt thu bao di ng, ng truyn qua


mng s c ni n MSC (SGSN hoc S-GW) ang phc v thu bao di ng
cn gi. mi vng phc v MSC/VLR thng tin v thu bao c ghi li tm
thi VLR (hoc MME). Thng tin ny bao gm hai loi:
Thng tin v ng k v cc dch v ca thu bao.
Thng tin v v tr ca thu bao (thu bao ang vng nh v no).

1.16.3. Phn chia theo vng theo bm u cui di ng

Mi vng phc v MSC/VLR (SGSN/VLR hoc S-GW/MME) c chia


thnh mt s vng theo bm u cui di ng: LA (Location Area: vng nh v)
trong min CS hoc RA (Routing Area: vng nh tuyn) trong vng CS ca 3G
UMTS hoc TA (Tracking Area: vng theo bm) ca 4G LTE (hnh 1.27).

84
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

LA1** LA2 LA3

VLR
MSC*

LA4 LA5 LA6

* Hoc SGSN/VLR, S-GW/MME


** Hoc RA, TA
Hnh 1.27. Phn chia vng phc v ca MSC/VLR thnh cc vng nh
v/nh tuyn/theo bm (LA/RA/TA)

Vng nh v LA (hay RA, TA) l mt phn ca vng phc v MSC/VLR


(hay SGSN/VLR, S-GW/MME) m mt trm di ng c th chuyn ng t
do v khng cn cp nht thng tin v v tr cho MSC/VLR ((hay SGSN/VLR, S-
GW/MME)) qun l v tr ny. C th ni vng nh v (hay RA, TA) l v tr c
th nht ca trm di ng m mng cn bit nh tuyn cho mt cuc gi n
n. vng nh v ny thng bo tm s c pht qung b tm thu bao di
ng b gi. H thng c th nhn dng vng nh v bng cch s dng nhn
dng vng nh v (LAI: Location Area Identity, hay RAI, TAI). Vng nh v c
th bao gm mt s v thuc mt hay nhiu BSC(RNC), nhng ch thuc mt
MSC (SGSN hay S-GW).

1.16.4. Phn chia theo

Vng nh v c chia thnh mt s (hnh 1.28).

85
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

LA1** LA2 LA3

VLR
MSC*
LA6
LA4** LA5
1
2 3
4 5 6

* Hoc SGSN/VLR, S-GW/MME


** Hoc RA, TA
Hnh 1.28. Phn chia LA/RA/LA thnh cc

l mt vng ph v tuyn c mng nhn dng bng nhn dng ton


cu (CGI: Cell Global Identity). Trm di ng nhn dng bng m nhn dng
trm gc (BSIC: Base Station Identity Code). Vng ph ca cc thng c
m phng bng hnh lc gic tin cho vic tnh ton thit k.

1.16.5. Mu

Mu c hai kiu: v hng ngang (omnidirectional) v phn on


(sectorized). Cc mu ny c cho trn hnh 1.29.
a) v hng ngang b) phn on

b a

Hnh 1.29. Cc kiu mu

v hng ngang (hnh 1.29a) nhn c t pht x cu mt anten c bp


sng trn trong mt ngang (mt phng song song vi mt t) v bp sng c

86
TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

hng chc xung mt t trong mt ng (mt phng vung gc vi mt t)


phn on (hnh 1.29b) l nhn c t pht x ca ba anten vi hng pht x
cc i lch nhau 1200. Cc anten ny c bp sng dng na s 8 trong mt ngang
v trong mt ng bp sng ca chng chc xung mt t. Trong mt s trng
hp phn on c th c to ra t pht x ca nhiu hn ba anten. Trong thc
t mu c th rt a dng ty vo a hnh cn ph sng. Tuy nhin cc mu
nh trn hnh 1.18 thng c s dng thit k cho s ph sng chun.

1.16.6. Tng kt cc khi nim vng tm gi trong cc h thng thng tin di


ng

Trong cc kin trc mng bao gm c min chuyn mch knh v min
chuyn mch gi, tm gi u cui di ng khi c cuc gi n n vng phc
mng khng ch c phn chia thnh cc vng nh v (LA) hoc vng nh
tuyn (RA: Routing Area) hoc vng theo bm (TA: Tracking Area). Trong 3G
UMTS cc vng nh v (LA: Location Area) l khi nim qun l di ng cu
min CS k tha t mng GSM. Trong 3G UTMS cc vng nh tuyn (RA:
Routing Area) l cc thc th ca min PS. Trong h thng 4G LTE vng tm gi
c chia thnh cc TA (Tracking Area: vng theo bm) thuc S-GW. Nhn dng
thu bao P-TMSI (Packet- Temporary Mobile Subsscriber Identity: Nhn dng
thu bao di ng gi tm thi) l duy nht trong mt RA. Trong 4G LTE: Nhn
dng thu bao di ng tm thi SAE (S-TMSI) c s dng trong mt TA.
Trong mng truy nhp v tuyn ca 3G UMTS, RA li c chia tip thnh
cc vng ng k UTRAN (URA: UTRAN Registration Area). Tm gi khi
xng UTRAN s dng URA khi knh bo hiu u cui c thit lp. URA
khng th nhn thy c bn ngoi UTRAN.
LA thuc 3G MSC v RA thuc 3G SGSN. URA thuc RNC. Theo di v
tr theo URA v trong UTRAN c thc hin khi c kt ni RRC (Radio
Resource Control: iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn) cho knh bo hiu u cui.
Nu khng c kt ni RRC, 3G SGSN thc hin tm gi v cp nht thng tin v
tr c thc hin theo RA. TA thuc mt S-GW trong mng 4G-LTE
Quan h gia cc vng c phn cp nh cho hnh 1.30 ( khng c
th hin).

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

LA1 LA2 LA3

RA1 RA2 RA3 RA4 RA5

LA RA/TA URA
LA (cc LA) c x l bi mt MSC
RA/TA (cc RA/TA) c x l bi mt SGSN/MME

Hnh 1.29. Cc khi nim vng theo bm trong 3G UMTS v 4G TE.

1.17. TNG KT

Chng ny trc ht xt qu trnh pht trin ca cc h thng thng tin di


ng t 1G n 3G v n 4G. Cc h thng 1G l cc h thng tng t da trn
a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s (FDMA) c thit k truyn thoi vi tc
thp. 1G c dung lng thp. Cc h thng TTD 2G c thit k trc ht
l gii quyt vn dung lng thp ca 1G. Cc h thng 2G l cc h thng
s da trn cc phng thc a truy nhp tin tin hn nh TDMA v CDMA. 2G
c thit k cho thoi tc cao hn (13 kbps) v cho php truyn s liu vi s
dng modem. Nhu cu pht trin cc dch v IP trong thng tin di ng dn n
s ra i cu cc h thng TTD 3G. Cc h thng 3G u s dng cng ngh a
truy nhp CDMA v cho tc truyn s liu cao ln n 384kbps. Cc ci tin
ca cc h thng ny cho tc ln n trn 10 Mbps. t c truy nhp bng
rng ln n 1 Gbps ngi ta ang nghin cu 4G.
Tip theo chng ny cp n cc kin trc ca cc h thng thng tin di
ng 2G v 3G nh: GSM, GPRS, UMTS v cdma20001x. Nu 2G ch da trn
chuyn mch knh (CS), th p ng truyn s liu gi cho cc dch v IP, 3G
a thm min chuyn mch gi (PS) trong giai on u v sau ton b
chuyn mch s l gi.
Cc phn sau trnh by n cc vn lin quan n ni mang di ng da
trn IP. Cc vn chnh c xt trong cc phn ny l: nh a ch IP, truyn
tunnel v giao thc internet di ng (MIP).
Phn tip sau trnh by kin trc c s ca h thng 4G LTE/SAE. Khc
vi cc h thng trc 4G LTE/SAE khng c min chuyn mch knh v c
xy dng trn c s hon ton IP. IMS l phn h h tr cho truyn IP a phng
tin rt thch hp cho h thng 3G v 4G c trnh by tip sau kin trc 4G
LTE/SAE.

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TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

Phn cui ca chng ny xt phn chia vng a l trong cc mng thng


tin di ng. Khc vi cc my c nh cc my di ng thng xuyn thay i v
tr v th mi v tr cn c nh s mng c th d rng tm gi my di ng.
Phn chia vng a l gip cho vic nh s cc v tr trong mng di ng c
thun tin.

1.14. CU HI

1. Trnh by qu trnh pht trin ca cc h thng thng tin di ng t 1G n 3G.


2. Trnh by kin trc mng GSM.
3. Trnh by kin trc mng GPRS.
4. Trnh by kin trc mng 3G UMTS R3
5. Trnh by kin trc mng 3G UMTS R4
6. Trnh by kin trc mng 3G UMTS R5
7. Trnh by kin trc mng 3G cdma20001x
8. Trnh by cc im mi ca kin trc mng cdma2000 1xEVDO
9. Trnh by nh a ch IP trong IPv4
10. Trnh by nh a ch IP trong IPv6 v cc bin php chuyn i a cha gia
IPv4 v IPv6
11. Trnh by k thut truyn tunnel IP trong IP
12. Trnh by chc nng giao thc GTP trong GPRS v UMTS
13. Trnh by MIP
14. Trnh by ng dng MIP trong 3G UMTS
15. Trnh by ng dng MIP trong cdma20001x
16. Trnh by PMIP
17. Trnh by cu hnh kin trc c s ca h thng 4G LTE/SAE v cc phn t
ca n.

89