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NETWORK PLANNING RF
MACRO SITE SELECTION
PLANNING GUIDELINES
Version 1.1
3G Radio Network Planning
Ryan Lim 10 July 2002

PLANNING GUIDELINES
STARHUB 3G RADIO NETWORK PLANNING
RF MACRO SITE SELECTION PLANNING GUIDELINES

The information in this document is subject to change without notice. This document is intended for the use of Nokia Telecommunications customers only,
and no part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without the written permission of Nokia Telecommunications.
The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products
cannot be considered binding but shall be defined in the agreement made between Nokia Telecommunications and the customer. Nokia Telecommunications
will not be responsible in any event for errors in this document or for any damages, incidental or consequential (including monetary losses), that might arise
from the use of this publication or the information in it.

Copyright Nokia Networks 2002


Number/Version 1.2 Prepared by Approved by
Owner unit : Radio Network Planning Nokia Matti Valtonen
NET Singapore StarHub 3G Project Ryan Lim B.K.
Doc ID: SH3G RF Macro Site Planning Guide_v12.doc
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TABLE OF CONTENT

ABBREVIATIONS ......................................................................................................................................................................6

1. PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................................................................8

2. SCOPE .................................................................................................................................................................................8

3. RESPONSIBILITIES .........................................................................................................................................................8

4. RELATED DOCUMENTS.................................................................................................................................................8

5. INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................................................................8

6. GENERAL RADIO PLANNING SITE SELECTION / PLANNING CRITERIA .......................................................9


6.1 SITE ACQUISITION .........................................................................................................................................................9
6.2 MACRO SITE SELECTION AND RADIO NETWORK PLANNING RELATED ..........................................................................9
6.2.1 Coverage Objectives ..............................................................................................................................................11
6.2.2 Importance of Controlling 'Little i' Other-to-Own Cell Interference ..................................................................12
6.2.3 Nominal Site Search Ring Definition .....................................................................................................................15
6.2.4 Antenna Height.......................................................................................................................................................16
6.2.4.1 Determining Antenna Height ...........................................................................................................................................17
6.2.5 Antenna Types and Configurations ........................................................................................................................19
6.2.6 Antenna Locations and Directions .........................................................................................................................21
6.2.6.1 Rooftop Clearance - Nearby Obstacles Requirement Vertical Plane.............................................................................23
6.2.6.2 Rooftop Clearance - Nearby Obstacles Requirement Horizontal Plane ........................................................................26
6.2.6.3 Antenna Beam Tilt ...........................................................................................................................................................27
6.2.6.4 Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation / Separation Distance .......................................................................................................30
6.2.6.4.1 Vertical Separation Distance .......................................................................................................................................31
6.2.6.4.2 Horizontal Separation Distance ...................................................................................................................................33
6.2.7 Air Interface Co-siting Aspects Between GSM, WCDMA and CDMA2000 ...........................................................38
6.2.7.1 WCDMA/FDD-WCDMA/FDD and WCDMA/FDD-GSM RF System Co-siting Aspects .............................................38
6.2.7.2 Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation Distances..........................................................................................................................38
6.2.7.3 StarHub GSM1800-WCDMA/FDD RF System Co-siting Aspects .................................................................................42
6.2.8 WCDMA/FDD-Other RF Transmission Systems Co-siting Aspects.......................................................................45
6.2.8.1 TV Antennas ....................................................................................................................................................................45
6.2.9 Feeder Selection.....................................................................................................................................................45
6.2.10 Mast Head Amplifier (MHA) .............................................................................................................................46
7. COUNTRY SPECIFIC RADIO NETWORK PLANNING SITE DESIGN ................................................................47
7.1 ANTENNA HEIGHT DESIGN CONSTRAINT - CAAS FLIGHT PROFILE ............................................................................47
7.2 MAXIMUM BASE STATION TRANSMIT POWER DESIGN CONSTRAINT - IDA ................................................................47
7.3 HOUSING DEVELOPMENT BOARD (HDB) BLOCKS ......................................................................................................47
7.3.1 Cellular Base Station Antenna Rooftop Design Constraints imposed by HDB......................................................47
7.3.2 HDB Blocks - Co-siting with Other Cellular Operators ........................................................................................51
7.4 CBD / NON-CBD / SINGAPORE TECHNOLOGIES AFFILIATED .....................................................................................53
7.4.1 Non-Central Business District (CBD) Areas..........................................................................................................53
7.4.2 Central Business District (CBD)............................................................................................................................54
7.4.3 CBD and Non-CBD Areas - Co-siting with Other Cellular Operators..................................................................56
7.5 MONOPOLES / TOWERS ...............................................................................................................................................56
7.5.1 Monopoles - Co-siting with Other Cellular Operators ..........................................................................................58
7.5.2 Reuse of StarHub Monopoles .................................................................................................................................58
7.6 MRT LINES, HIGHWAYS + TUNNEL PORTALS COVERAGE ..........................................................................................60
8. CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................................................................64
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9. REFERENCE ....................................................................................................................................................................65

10. APPENDIX A : SITE SURVEY TOOL KIT..............................................................................................................66

11. APPENDIX B: ANTENNA BEAM TILT GUIDE.....................................................................................................67

12. APPENDIX C : 3G ANTENNA SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................81

13. APPENDIX D : KATHREIN ANTENNA-TO-ANTENNA ISOLATION MEASUREMENTS ............................94

14. APPENDIX E : ANTENNA FEEDER CABLE SPECIFICATION ....................................................................... 114

15. APPENDIX F : NOKIA GSM/EDGE BASE STATION PERFORMANCE REGARDING GSM-WCDMA


(FDD) AIR INTERFACE CO-LOCATION REQUIREMENTS TECHNICAL SUMMARY ......................................... 118

16. APPENDIX G : CS72230.20 ULTRASITE GSM1800/WCDMA DIPLEXER TECHNICAL DATA ................ 120

17. APPENDIX H : ULTRASITE WCDMA MHA AND BIAS-TEE COMPONENTS SPECIFICATION ............ 122

18. APPENDIX I : NOKIA ULTRASITE BTS CABINET SPACE REQUIREMENTS ........................................... 125

19. DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY....................................................................................................................... 137

20. DISTRIBUTION LIST ............................................................................................................................................... 138


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List of Figures

Figure 1. Typical Rooftop Site with Base Station & Antenna Equipment .............................................................. 10
Figure 2. Illustration of DL Little i................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 3. Effect of Other-to-Own Cell (UL/DL) Interference Ratio, i ..................................................................... 14
Figure 4. Example of Good and Bad Site.......................................................................................................... 15
Figure 5. Antenna Height Determination for Rooftop Site.................................................................................. 17
Figure 6. Antenna Height Determination for Monopole Site............................................................................... 18
Figure 7. Example of Cross Polarised Antenna and Antenna Radiation Pattern ..................................................... 19
Figure 8. Example of Kathrein Antenna with RET, Variable Electrical Down-Tilt Adjustment Mechanism .................. 20
Figure 9. Coverage of 3-Sector Antenna Configuration with 65 Horizontal HPBW............................................... 23
Figure 10. Rooftop Antenna Placement and Shadowing Effects .......................................................................... 24
Figure 11. Vertical Clearance - Vertical HPBW Rule with Clearance Angle of 20 and Tilt, .................................. 25
Figure 12. Vertical Clearance with Rooftop Obstacles ....................................................................................... 26
Figure 13. Rooftop Antenna Placement ........................................................................................................... 26
Figure 14. Horizontal Clearance Horizontal HPBW Safety Margin .................................................................... 27
Figure 15. Antenna Horizontal Radiation Pattern due to (a) Mechanical & (b) Electrical Down-tilting ..................... 28
Figure 16. Effects of Antenna Beam Mechanical and Electrical Down-Tilting ....................................................... 29
Figure 17. Calculating Antenna Beam Tilt........................................................................................................ 30
Figure 18. Illustration of Near Field Distance ................................................................................................... 31
Figure 19. Vertical Separation Distance for Directional Antennas ....................................................................... 32
Figure 20. Vertical Antenna Isolation vs. Separation Distance ............................................................................ 32
Figure 21. (a) Antennas on pipe mast and (b) Antennas mounted on the wall - Horizontal Separation Distance
between Directional Antennas . .............................................................................................................. 34
Figure 22. Front-to-Front Horizontal Antenna Isolation vs. Separation Distance ................................................... 34
Figure 23. Front-to-Front Scenario : TX and RX Antenna directly beaming at each other ....................................... 34
Figure 24. Typical Horizontal Antenna Separation Scenarios (i) (iv) .................................................................. 35
Figure 25. Side-to-Side Horizontal Antenna Isolation vs. Separation Distance ...................................................... 36
Figure 26. Antenna Isolation provided by Vertical & Horizontal Antenna Separation ............................................. 37
Figure 27. Graph of Noise Power (dBm) vs. Antenna Isolation (dB)...................................................................... 39
Figure 28. Example of Rooftop Planview Drawing of Co-located Site between StarHub and Other Operators............ 41
Figure 29. Example of Antenna Beam Crossing for Co-siting Systems ................................................................. 41
Figure 30. Co-siting Scenario (a) Separate and (b) Shared Feeder-line Antenna System ...................................... 43
Figure 31. OU House (CBD) Example of Strategically Located and Congested Co-locate Site................................ 43
Figure 32. Shared feeder-lines with Separate Antennas for GSM and WCDMA ..................................................... 44
Figure 33. Feeder-line sharing with Dual-band Antenna.................................................................................... 44
Figure 34. Co-siting WCDMA Antenna with TV Antennas .................................................................................. 45
Figure 35. Example of Typical Height Warning Light ......................................................................................... 47
Figure 36. Typical HDB Clusters Example ......................................................................................................... 48
Figure 37. Examples of Typical HDB Clusters in Singapore ................................................................................. 49
Figure 38. HDB Rooftop Antenna Installation Restrictions ................................................................................. 51
Figure 39. Example of Co-locating GSM CityTalk/WCDMA UltraSite BTS on the Same Plinth .................................. 52
Figure 40. Typical Non-CBD Cluster Example ................................................................................................... 53
Figure 41. Typical Examples of Non-CBD Area.................................................................................................. 54
Figure 42. Typical Examples of CBD Area......................................................................................................... 55
Figure 43. Some Example of Bad Sites High Sites overlooking into CBD Cluster ................................................. 56
Figure 44. Top and Side View drawing of a 20m Monopole with BTS Location...................................................... 57
Figure 45. Example of Existing StarHub GSM1800 Steel Monopole ..................................................................... 58
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Figure 46. Example of Monopole to be Modified with Antenna Platform ............................................................. 59


Figure 47. (a.) Top View - Modified Monopole with Antenna Platform (max. length = 2.5m) (b.) RF Isolation based on
this configuration ................................................................................................................................. 59
Figure 48. Singapore Island with All Major Highways and MRT Lines .................................................................. 60
Figure 49. Example : Coverage of CTE Highway Tunnel Portal by Sector 2 (120) of 1353 The Cuppage ................... 62
Figure 50. Example : Coverage of East Bound MRT Tunnel Portal by Sector 3 (240) of 1024 HDB Block.................. 63

List of Tables

Table 1. Search Radius Definition ................................................................................................................... 15


Table 2. Antenna Heights for Different Geo-Types in Network Dimensioning........................................................ 16
Table 3. 3G Antenna Types Selection .............................................................................................................. 19
Table 4. Standard Azimuth for 3-Sector Antenna Configuration ......................................................................... 22
Table 5. Horizontal Antenna Isolation - "(GT + GR)" Modification for Different Scenarios ....................................... 35
Table 6. RF Isolation Requirements between Systems for WCDMA/FDD GSM1800 Co-siting ................................ 38
Table 7. Co-siting - Horizontal and Vertical Antenna-to-Antenna Separation Recommendation ............................. 40
Table 8. Feeder Type Specification .................................................................................................................. 46
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ABBREVIATIONS

Important point to note for Planners

Yes
No
Just for information only

2G 2nd Generation Mobile-communication System. Also known as GSM900/1800


3G 3rd Generation Mobile-communication System. Also known as UMTS.
3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project
AEDT Adjustable Electrical Down Tilt
AMSL Above Mean Sea Level
AYE Ayer Rajah Expressway
BKE Bukit Timah Expressway
BS Base Station
BTS Base Transceiver Station
CAAS Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore
CBD Central Business District
CTE` Central Expressway
DL Downlink
ECP East Coast Park Expressway
EDGE Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution
ERP Effective Radiated Power
FDD Frequency Division Duplex
GPS Global Positioning System
GSM Global System for Mobile Communication
HDB Housing Development Board
HPBW Half Power Beam-Width
IDA Info-communication Development Authority of Singapore (formally known as TAS)
KJE Kranji Expressway
LCX Leaky Coaxial System
LOS Line Of Sight
M1 Mobile One (Singapore's 2nd Cellular Mobile Operator)
MCL Minimum Coupling Loss
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MHA Mast Head Amplifier


MRT Mass Rapid Transmit commuter train system
NMS Network Management System

PIE Pan Island Expressway


QoS Quality of Service
RCU Remote Control Unit
RET Remote Electrical Tilting
RF Radio Frequency
RX Receiver
SA Site Acquisition
SAR Site Acquisition Report
SARF Site Acquisition Request Form
SingTel Singapore Telecom (Singapore's Incumbent Cellular Mobile Operator)
SLE Seletar Expressway
SRC Smart Radio Concept
TAS Telecommunication Authority of Singapore
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TPE Tampines Expressway
TRS Transmission
TRX Transceiver
TX Transmitter
UL Uplink
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
WCDMA/FDD Wideband Code Division Multiple Access / Frequency Division Duplex
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1. PURPOSE

This document details the Radio Network Planning Macro site selection and RF planning guidelines for the
StarHub 3G WCDMA project.

As the project is currently in the nominal planning stage, changes may be made to the specification that will
affect this document. Planners must ensure that they have the most current issue of each document. They may be
found in the <..\4. RNP\1. 3G NWPS\1. RNP\1. Nominal Cell Planning\4. Planning Guidelines, Work Instructions\RF
Site Selection PG> under network drive <Sisrv02nok>. Always consult the Nokia Planning Specialists / Zone
Leaders in case of any doubt.

2. SCOPE

This document is intended as a macro site selection RF planning guideline for the Radio Network Planning or Field
Planning Engineers for the radio network planning, design and installation of cellular antenna systems in the
turnkey 3rd Generation WCDMA System project roll-out. A separate document exists giving guidelines to the Site
Acquisition Agents on the site choice and selection.

The Planner is advised to read this site selection planning guideline in conjunction with the related documents as
stated in Chapter 4.

3. RESPONSIBILITIES

Authorisation Radio Network Planning Manager

Review and Amendments Ryan Lim

Review and changes Nokia 3G Radio Specialists

4. RELATED DOCUMENTS

/i/. StarHub 3G RF Macro Site Survey Process / Checklist (Confirm with project team et al)

/ii/. StarHub 3G WCDMA Coverage & Capacity Planning Process using NetAct WCDMA Planner

/iii/. StarHub 3G Radio Network Planning Indoor Planning Guidelines

5. INTRODUCTION

The macro site selection and design of cellular antenna systems in Singapore, be it GSM or WCDMA, poses
specific challenges like any other cities. Singapore has a high concentration of tall apartment blocks and buildings
that provide an ample number of potential site locations but also increase expected levels of signal attenuation.
Fortunately, there aren't any large bodies of water present between any densely populated areas (e.g. Hong Kong,
Sydney, New York and Budapest). But there are some elevated hills in close proximity to the Central Business
District (CBD), which fortunately are not too large or heavily populated.
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The Radio Network Planning or Field Planning Engineers are advised to adhere to the design criteria stipulated in
this planning guideline diligently. Any deviation or circumstances should be consulted with and concurred by the
Nokia Radio Network Planning Manager / Senior Radio Network Planner / RF Specialist / Zone Leader.

6. GENERAL RADIO PLANNING SITE SELECTION / PLANNING CRITERIA

6.1 Site Acquisition

For the StarHub 3G turnkey project, all owner liaison for all intends and purposes will be the responsibility of
StarHub's Site Acquisition Team in conjunction with Nokia's Site Acquisition Team and/or its appointed Real
Estate Companies.

The following is a quick checklist for Site Acquisition to take note from the radio and transmission planning point
of view when selecting a macro base station site :

RF/TRS:

Site meets coverage & capacity & quality requirements of RF/TRS


Site meets height requirements of RF
Chosen antenna location does not cause antenna shadowing
No significant near field obstructions
If no site available in search area immediately notify RF/TRS
Clear line of site potential exists to neighbouring candidates/sites
There are existing carriers/systems co-siting and close surroundings
SAR information completed and in accordance with the agreed quality requirements

6.2 Macro Site Selection and Radio Network Planning Related

Proper site location determines the usefulness of its cells. Sites are expensive, long term investments. Site
Acquisition is a slow process and hundred of sites are needed per network. A base station site is therefore a
valuable long-term asset for the operator. As such, it is crucial that the Planners visit each site to determine the
suitability of that site in terms of coverage and capacity objectives for the local radio environment and plan the
appropriate site solutions accordingly.

Also, since possible reusing of existing StarHub GSM sites for the WCDMA network will cut down site acquisition,
civil engineering and installation costs, co-siting is inevitable and issues of co-siting are detailed in the following
sections.

From RF planning point of view, the site solution means to find the right antenna positions and select the best RF
hardware, i.e. the base station configuration. The solution has to provide as much as possible the coverage and
capacity performance. The BTS and antenna type selection is dependent on the site capacity and coverage
required.

As a general guide, the following site selection criteria are to be observed from the Radio Network Planning and
the Site Acquisition point of view when selecting and planning for a site:
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Radio criteria Non-radio criteria

good view in main beam space for equipment


direction
availability of leased lines or
no surrounding high obstacles microwave link

good visibility of terrain power supply


room for antenna mounting access restrictions?
LOS to next microwave site house owner
short cabling distances rental costs

Generally, the typical base station and antenna equipment present on the rooftop site is shown in Figure 1

Lighteninng Protection

Antennas

Earthing kit
Mounting clamp
Wall gland
Cable trace
(tray ??)
Feeder cable

Jumper cable

Figure 1. Typical Rooftop Site with Base Station & Antenna Equipment
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6.2.1 Coverage Objectives

For details on the Coverage and Capacity Planning Process, please refer to /ii/ in Chapter 4. The StarHub 3G
network is dimensioned based on the 3 geo-types and their respective cell radius as defined below:

Geo-type Cell Radius (meters)


CBD / Technopark 240
Urban / HDB 310
Suburban 650

In general, when selecting / planning the nominal sites for coverage, the following StarHub 3G priority coverage
areas must be taken into account by the respective Zone's Planner(s) :

(a) High traffic areas like specific CBD areas, HDB Town Centrals etc. (determined either from NMS traffic
statistics or StarHub input)

(b) Traffic hotspot area / interchange area (determined again either from NMS traffic statistics or StarHub input)

(c) Highways (e.g. CTE, SLE, BKE, PIE, TPE, ECP, AYE, KJE etc.)

(d) MRT lines and tunnel portals

(e) The 44 routes stipulated by IDA


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6.2.2 Importance of Controlling 'Little i' Other-to-Own Cell Interference

Since WCDMA is an interference-limited network, from the Radio Network Planning point of view,
the "little i" other-to-own cell interference- is the only thing that can really be planned by the
Planner during the site selection and planning stage. Unlike GSM system, WCDMA RF planning is all
about good dominance, note that there is no frequency plan to "play" with in order to be able to
solve poor dominance issues.

The following illustrates the point about the importance of site selection and planning to control or minimise the
other-to-own cell interference ratio, by using the WCDMA Uplink and Downlink Loading Formulas as well as the
estimations on little i performance.
K
1
UL Load Equation dictates the maximum coverage: UL = (1 + pw _ rise i ) W
k =1
1+
E b R v
N k k
o k

Where:

K: Number of "active" radio links per cell

(Eb/No)k : Received Eb/No of radio link k at the BTS (per link)

W / Rn : Processing gain at the given bit rate (per link)

i : Other cell to own cell interference ratio seen by the BTS

pw_rise: Average power rise due to power control

vn : voice activity factor (DTX)

K
(E b / No )k
DL Load Equation dictates the maximum capacity: DL = [(1 k ) + i ] v k
k =1 (W / R )k

Where:

K: Number of "active" radio links per cell (inc. DTX factor and SHO)

(Eb/No)k : Eb/No of the radio link received at the MS n

W / Rk : Processing gain at the given bit rate

i: Other cell to own received BTS power ratio seen by MS,

k : Orthogonality factor in Downlink seen by MS k


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From the above UL and DL Load Equations, we can see that "little i" - the other-to-own cell interference- is the
only factor that can really be planned by the Planners during the site selection and planning stage. Basically, the
other to own cell interference (i) tells how much there is overlapping between cells. Some overlapping is needed
in order to guarantee safe handovers BUT excessive overlapping must be avoided.

L21
L31

L11 L41

Figure 2. Illustration of DL Little i

The average "little i" for one cell (see Figure 2 above) can be calculated for DL by using following formula :
I N
Lmk

k =1 n =1,n m L nk
Definition of "little i" in DL : i =
I
Where

Lmk is the pathloss from the serving BTS m (m=1) to MS k (k=1)

Lnk is the pathloss from the neighbouring BTS n (n=24) to MS k (k=1)

I is the number of connections in one cell

Planners have to select the sites diligently so that the other-to-own cell interference ratio is MINIMIZED.
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128 kbps
BTS TX power 43 dBm 170
i= 0.2
MS TX power 21 dBm D i= 0.2
) i= 0.4
Ec/Io -16.5 dB B 165 C i= 0.4
d( i= 0.6
BTS Eb/No 1.5 s B i= 0.6
s
ol 160 i= 0.8
MS Eb/No 5.5
n
A i= 0.8

Other to own cell 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, oit


interference ratio i
0.8 ga 155
pa A B C D
Orthogonality 0.6 or
p 150
Channel profile ITU Vehicular m
A, 3 km/h u
MS speed 3 km/h mi 145
x
a
MS/BTS NF 8 dB / 4 dB M
Antenna gain 16 dBi 140
0 500 1000 1500
DL throughput in kbps
Figure 3. Effect of Other-to-Own Cell (UL/DL) Interference Ratio, i

From the results shown in Figure 3, we can see that the doubling of "little i" will cause the Throughput to
decrease to 70% of the original value.

Low other-to-own cell interference can be achieved by planning clear dominance areas during the
site selection / planning phase. Remember that there is NO frequency plan to solve the poor
dominance problem which may lead to high other-to-own cell interference as well as pilot pollution
issues.

The cell coverage (and overlap) must be properly controlled. The cell should cover only what it is supposed to
cover, and this can be achieved by :

Low(er) antenna heights and down tilt of the antennas

Using buildings and other environmental structures as barriers to isolate cells coverage (see top example
in Figure 4)

Use indoor solutions to take advantage of the building penetration loss

Avoid sites "seeing" the buildings in horizon especially over the water or otherwise open area as shown in the
bottom example of Figure 4 which will cause high other-to-own cell interference as well as pilot pollution issues.
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< 300 m

> 5 km

Figure 4. Example of Good and Bad Site

6.2.3 Nominal Site Search Ring Definition

The radius of the search polygon depends on the location of the site, i.e. CBD, Urban/HDB, Suburban. The search
radius definition (15-20% of cell radius) from the nominal location of a site shall be within as shown in Table 1:

Table 1. Search Radius Definition


Morpho Type Search Radius
CBD (in city) within 50m
Urban / HDB within 80m
Suburban (outside city) within 120m

Note that the search ring need not be a circular one. High priority should be given to sites found within the issued
search ring indicated in the SARF and as close as possible to the nominal site location. If a cell is found at the
extreme limit of the acceptable distance from the preferred location, then the adjacent cell should not be located
in the extreme of the opposite direction in its search area.
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CBD, URBAN/HDB Outside CBD

Ra d ius :< 50 -100m Ra d ius :< 150m

6.2.4 Antenna Height

The antenna heights used during the network dimensioning for each geo-type are as shown in Table 2 :

Table 2. Antenna Heights for Different Geo-Types in Network Dimensioning

Dense Urban
Geo-Type Urban (HDB) Suburban
(CBD/HDB)
Antenna Height
30m 35m 25m
(above ground level)

The Planners and Site Acquisition Team / Agents should endeavour to provide sites that already provide, or could
potentially provide, the antenna heights close to these heights. However, circumstance may warrant exceptions
since the cluster building height for that morpho area type may not be conforming to the requirements.

Generally, cell site BTS antenna height should be selected according to the local radio environment, the local site
density and neighbouring cell heights. Large changes in cell heights should be avoided to prevent scenarios where
umbrella type coverage is generated. Umbrella coverage across co-channel cells generates high levels of inter-cell
interference and unevenly sized cell dominance areas.

Typical cell site BTS antenna height is between 20 45 meters above the average ground level. This may be
reduced in areas of low surrounding buildings in potentially high traffic areas. Also, cell site could be as high as
60m where it is difficult to find low level buildings and there are high rise neighbours in close proximity. The
Radio Network Planning team is responsible to determine the final antenna height. The general criteria is as
follows:

Antenna Height Comments


< 15m Reject the site. (exceptions like e.g. Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal (antenna
approx. 9m only, for localised coverage)
15 25m Can be used when there is a problem to build 25m antenna height
25 35m Preferred.
36 45m Can be used if it is suitable for that area. Typical height for HDB Blocks.
46 60m Should try to avoid. Will be used if there is no other better candidate.
> 60m Reject. Require very strong justification to select such antenna height.
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6.2.4.1 Determining Antenna Height

The antenna height from ground should be measured from the ground level (AMSL) to the boresight (middle)
of the antenna. Usually, this would be accomplished by obtaining the building height (measured to rooftop)
plus the antenna height from rooftop. Note that the pole height (be it tripod or wall-mounted pole above
parapet) does not imply the antenna height from rooftop.

Figure 5 and Figure 6 shows the example of determining the antenna height for a typical building rooftop site and
a monopole site.

120 degrees
20 degrees
MW antenna height
from the rooftop
40 meters - MW antenna height from the ground

240 degrees

from the rooftop to antenna


5 meters

Cellular antenna height

boresight (middle of

39 meters - Cellular antenna height from the ground


antenna)
4 meters
O degree
(North)

Building Height to rooftop


35 meters

Example of a Building plus Container Model Site

Figure 5. Antenna Height Determination for Rooftop Site


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30 meters - Mast height from the ground


20 meters - MW antenna height from the ground
0 degree

28 meters - Cellular antenna height


(North) 240 degrees

boresight (middle of antenna)


from the ground to antenna

Example of a Tower plus Outdoor BS Model Site

Figure 6. Antenna Height Determination for Monopole Site


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6.2.5 Antenna Types and Configurations

4 types of cross-polarised (+/- 45 degrees) F-panel antenna are used for the StarHub 3G Project. With this
polarisation diversity scheme employed, each sector will have only one antenna radome with two separate arrays
(see Figure 7). Only antenna with azimuth or horizontal HPBW of 65 is selected. This is to avoid excessive
overlapping regions between intra-sectors which may be caused by using 85 horizontal HPBW antenna type,
thus resulting in excessive resources involved in soft-handover overheads.

The antenna characteristics are listed in Table 3. Refer to Appendix C : 3G Antenna Specification for the antenna
specifications. For Smart Radio Concept (SRC) implementation (No SRC for StarHub 3G implementation) or for
feeder-line constraint scenario (see section 6.2.7.3 below), the multi-band 4-port antenna, CS72764.01 (2 x
cross-polarised antenna element in one housing) will be used.

Figure 7. Example of Cross Polarised Antenna and Antenna Radiation Pattern

Table 3. 3G Antenna Types Selection


Gain Elevation, Azimuth, Dimension
Antenna Name COSY Code Tilt (E/M)
(dBi) V-HPBW H-HPBW (H/W/D)
Kat. 739489 CS72761.01 12 28 63 2 (E) 342 / 155 / 69 mm
Kat. 742212 CS72761.08 18 6.5 65 0 - 8 (E) 1302 / 155 / 69 mm
Kat. 742211 CS72761.09 15.5 14 65 0 - 10 (E) 622 / 155 / 69 mm
Kat. 742234 CS72764.01 18 6.5 65 0 - 8 (E) 1302 / 299 / 69 mm

All the antenna with AEDT, adjustable electrical downtilts are fitted with a mechanical interface, which allows the
optional attachment of a separate "Remote Control Unit (RCU)" for remote tilt control functionality as shown in
Figure 8.
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Figure 8. Example of Kathrein Antenna with RET, Variable Electrical Down-Tilt Adjustment Mechanism

When selecting / deciding the antenna type to be used for a site, Planner should largely abide by the following
guidelines :

BUILDING HEIGHT SCENARIO PROPOSED ANTENNAS TYPES


3G (m)
15 20m (Low) SCATTERED LOW BLDG Elevation / Vertical HPBW = 7
15 20m (Low) DENSE VEGETATION Vertical HPBW = 7
15 20m (Low) Clear Vertical HPBW = 7 or more.
> 20m CLEAR Vertical HPBW = 7
> 20m SURROUNDED BY SIMILAR HEIGHT Vertical HPBW = 7
BUILDINGS but not obstructed near-
field
Any Very few buildings/structures, mainly Azimuth / Horizontal HPBW 33
vegetation with highways/straight High gain antenna if normal
roads, no built-up areas/dense areas Horizontal HPBW 65 antenna is
within 2km/LOS. already being considered and does
not meet this criteria.
15 30m Very Clear and Open, very little or no Horizontal HPBW =65 and
buildings, buildings very low relative to Vertical HPBW = 7 with electrical
site, very little potential for multipath down-tilt accordingly.
coverage (suburban or rural area).
Interference to +/- 90 of desired
antenna direction considered.
Any Shadowed Roof Narrow Vertical HPBW = 7. (must
consider shadowed roof and
down-tilts.)
> 20m VERY OPEN or Very high relative to Antenna with Horizontal HPBW =
surrounding sites, critically need to 65 and Vertical HPBW = 7, with
Control/limit coverage as coverage electrical (followed by mechanical
likely to exceed planned coverage/cell if necessary) down-tilting (Refer
range. Potentially dangerous as Dense to 6.2.6.3 for the guide on
area within LOS or about 800m to 2km antenna beam tilt)
away.
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High Sites

For high sites, the Elevation or Vertical HPBW of the antenna should be narrow so as to be able to control the
coverage range of that site. However, if the site is located amidst buildings that are of similar or taller height
(but yet not obstructed in the near-field), then wider Vertical HPBW type antennas can be chosen as the
buildings surrounding the site act as man-made barriers to control the propagation of the signal.

For suburban, rural sites with very open and clear view, where there are not many buildings or possibility for
coverage by means of multipath, antenna of Azimuth or Horizontal HPBW of 90 could be considered.
Notwithstanding, for 3G networks, to avoid excessive overlapping between intra-sectors which will increase
the soft-handover overheads and waste resources, antenna with horizontal HPBW of 65 should only be used.

Regardless of the height of the site, as long as it is >20m, if relative to the surroundings which are mainly
open space or 1 or 2 storey buildings (5-7m), then it can also be considered a high site. For such scenario,
antenna with narrow Vertical HPBW with electrical down-tilt should be chosen.

Low Sites

For Low sites less than 25m (including the short monopoles), it is better to use antenna with a wider Vertical
HPBW. This makes the effect of down-tilting easier. This is because down-tilting by a little will not result in
dramatic reduction in coverage. However narrow Vertical HPBW antenna can still be used, if there is LOS (i.e.
very Open/Clear area) and coverage may need to be controlled drastically.

Generally, larger Horizontal HPBW antenna could be used primarily for non-CBD (suburban, rural) sites which are
dimensioned with larger cell range. The higher Horizontal HPBW will ensure there are no dull spots between the
horizontal beams of each sector. However, it will also create excessive cell overlapping regions and more
interference for 3G systems.

The sites in all morpho types of the StarHub 3G network shall be planned using antenna types as
indicated in Table 3, with mainly H-HPBW = 65 and V-HPBW = 7. If the Planner feels that a site
requires a specific antenna pattern that is not covered by those listed above due to the local radio
environment, it is reasonable to request something that may be purchased for that particular site. These
requests should be consulted, evaluated jointly with and concurred by the Nokia Specialist / Zone Leader.

6.2.6 Antenna Locations and Directions

Antenna location should be carefully considered when planning a site. The building should provide
adequate roof-top space and clearance for all antennas. The antenna position should have a clear view of
the main beam direction to ensure For the 3G network implementation, wall-mounted antenna locations
will always be preferred where possible on taller buildings, and can also be mounted at different heights.
This is to control and reduce the potential interference that will be caused by the antenna backlobe
radiation.

If wall-mounted antenna locations are not available, pole-mounted antenna locations may be considered.
However, Planner should ensure that as much as possible, the backlobe radiation of the antenna will be blocked
by walls or other objects. One possible alternative design to reduce the backlobe radiation for pole-mounted
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antenna is to employ antenna mechanical up-tilting1, i.e. antenna with electrical down-tilt is mechanically up-
tilted to contain the backlobe radiation as shown below.

Fundamentally, the antenna should be located at various positions around the building in order to get the best
near-end clearance.

The default antenna site configuration shall be a 3-sector configuration for all morphological types
coverage unless otherwise stated. The azimuths of the 3-sector configuration shall conform as much as
possible to the standard orientation as shown in Table 4 and Figure 9. The azimuths may be altered where
specific dominance coverage requirements or site constraints dictate.

Table 4. Standard Azimuth for 3-Sector Antenna Configuration

Sector Azimuth
1 0
2 120
3 240

1
Implemented by KPN of Netherlands
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65 horizontal
65 horizontal
beamwidth
beamwidthantenna
antenna

Figure 9. Coverage of 3-Sector Antenna Configuration with 65 Horizontal HPBW


Reiterating, unlike GSM system, WCDMA RF planning is all about good dominance, and that there is no frequency
plan to "play" with in order to be able to solve poor dominance issues. The following problems/scenarios are
criteria for consideration also, in deviating from the standard antenna azimuths as in Table 4 if no other
alternative buildings are available.

To improve the indoor coverage to important buildings (which does not have dedicated indoor coverage
solutions) that fall outside the sector's main beam

There is an obstacle in front of the antenna main beam that will cause major coverage reflections into other
cells' serving areas

The rooftop clearance as described in the following 2 sections is not being met but cell dominance coverage
objective could be partly fulfilled with antenna azimuth panning.

In some cases where azimuth panning will do little to meet the coverage dominance requirement of the cell, it
may be a better option to remove the sector totally and look at whether the surrounding sites could be moved to
replace the coverage in that area or an additional site be used to provide coverage dominance in that area.

When proposing antenna azimuth panning, Planners should keep in mind the Horizontal HPBW of the antenna.
For example, if an antenna of Horizontal HPBW 90, azimuth panning of 10 will have little effect.

Any deviation or circumstance should be consulted with and concurred by the Senior Radio Network Planner /
Specialist / Zone Leader.

6.2.6.1 Rooftop Clearance - Nearby Obstacles Requirement Vertical Plane

Nearby obstacles are those reflecting or shadowing materials that can obstruct the radio beam both in horizontal
and vertical planes. When mounting the antenna system on a rooftop, the dominating obstacle in the vertical
plane is the roof edge itself and in the horizontal plane, obstacles further away, e.g. surrounding buildings, can
act as reflecting or shadowing material.
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Mainlobe- Strongest signal Mainlobe- Strongest signal

Shadow of radio signal No shadow of radio signal

The strongest signal is far away Both the area near and far away from
from Base Station BTS receive a strong signal

Figure 10. Rooftop Antenna Placement and Shadowing Effects

To avoid shadowing effect (see Figure 10), the clearance angle or safety margin between the bottom of the
antenna and the edge of the building obstructing object should be minimum 20 (see Figure 11 [/ 9]). This
will ensure that the antenna vertical beam has a clear view of the intended coverage area, clearance for
possible further down-tilting during optimisation is allowed for, and the building edge does not block the
required near-end coverage areas close to the building.

Also, if there are some structures rising above roof, e.g. neon signs or parapet walls, the specified height must be
measured from their top edge and not from the roof level (see Figure 12).

Note wherever possible this figure should be exceeded to achieve the best possible performance. However, with
limitations on antenna height and closeness to building edge, this shall be the minimum guideline to be achieved.

Generally, the antenna height off the rooftop will be heavily restricted and is unlikely to be allowed to exceed 5m
from the height of the roof.
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Antenna
D (meters)

(Top View)

= HPBW/2 + 20 +
H
D[m] 1 5 10
Roof Top = Obstacle H[m] 0.5 2.5 5
D HPBW = 8, = 2
(Side View)

Height Clearance vs Antenna Tilt (practical guide)

9.0 H (a=0)
8.0 H (a=2)
7.0 H (a=4)
6.0
H (a=6)
5.0
H (m)

H (a=8)
4.0
H (a=10)
3.0
H (a=12)
2.0
1.0 H (a=14)
0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10
D (m)
(Height Clearance vs Antenna Tilt Practical Guide)

Figure 11. Vertical Clearance - Vertical HPBW Rule with Clearance Angle of 20 and Tilt,
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Figure 12. Vertical Clearance with Rooftop Obstacles

6.2.6.2 Rooftop Clearance - Nearby Obstacles Requirement Horizontal Plane

For pole- or wall- mounted antenna installation, ensure the correct antenna placement positions (see Figure 13)
where antenna azimuth panning (+/- 45) are allowed in future.

N
1 1
: wrong antenna posiition
or not recommendated
3 2
: right a ntenna posiition
3 2

Ca se 1

1
: wrong a ntenna posiition
N 3
or not recommenda ted
2
: right antenna posiition
3
2

Ca se 2

Figure 13. Rooftop Antenna Placement


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For wall-mounted antenna, a safety margin of 15 between the reflecting surface and the antenna's 3dB lobe or
Horizontal HPBW should be ensured, see Figure 14 below.

Wrong !

Correct !

d has to be >
3.2 m

Figure 14. Horizontal Clearance Horizontal HPBW Safety Margin

6.2.6.3 Antenna Beam Tilt

Antenna beam tilt generally refers to the angular tilt (Mechanical or Electrical) of the main lobe in the elevation
(vertical) pattern above or below the 0 elevation pattern as shown below and it is an important tool for RF
network planning and optimisation.

In general, the elevation or vertical pattern of an antenna radiates the main energy towards the horizon. Only that
part of the energy which is radiated below the horizon can be used for the coverage of the sector. Down-tilting
the antenna limits the range by reducing the field strength in the horizon and increases the radiated power in the
cell that is actually to be covered.

It is important to note that antenna down-tilt, be it electrical, mechanical or combination, has an effect on the
calculation of the rooftop clearance in section 6.2.6.1 and as shown in Figure 11.
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(a) Mechanical Down-tilt (b) Electrical Down-tilt

Figure 15. Antenna Horizontal Radiation Pattern due to (a) Mechanical & (b) Electrical Down-tilting

Mechanical Down-tilt

Mechanical down-tilt reduces signal coverage at the bore-site (middle of antenna) but provides less and less
reduction with increasing deviation from the bore-site, until eventually no reduction occurs at 90 to the bore-
site (see Figure 15.(a)). Therefore cells located at 90 relative to the bore-site do not benefit from reduced
interference with mechanical down-tilt. As a consequence the effective Horizontal HPBW increases with
increasing mechanical down-tilt angle (see Figure 16(a)). This would result in excessive overlapping handover
region between sectors.

Electrical Down-tilt

When Electrical down-tilt is used, the down-tilt angle is kept constant over the entire azimuth range, thereby
predictably controlling the RF energy. The effective Horizontal HPBW remains constant, independent of the down-
tilt angle (see Figure 15(b)). The maintenance of the Horizontal HPBW over a range of down-tilts means that
electrical down-tilt provides much better interference suppression in TDMA networks and controlled handover
region and reduced pilot pollution in WCDMA networks (see Figure 16(b)).

In general, Electrical down-tilt is preferred over Mechanical down-tilt based on the technical justification above.
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(a) (b)
Figure 16. Effects of Antenna Beam Mechanical and Electrical Down-Tilting

Antenna beam down-tilts (Electrical first then Mechanical) MUST be implemented accordingly from the
onset during the site selection and planning phase based on the required coverage objective. Simplistically,
down-tilts must be considered based on the local radio environment, the height of the site, the antenna
Vertical HPBW to be used at the site and the surrounding environment / obstructions.

The degree of optimum antenna beam tilting can be computed based on the methodology as shown in Figure 172.
Refer to Appendix B: Antenna Beam Tilt Guide for a list of down-tilt examples based on various antenna heights
to be used in the project.

As a guide, basically, the antenna beam is analogous to a flashlight. It shines out with a beam having a
certain angular width. When we point a flashlight beam toward the ground, there is a bright spot where the
beam hits the ground and the light gradually fades as we move from the bright spot. If we require a lot of
light to cover an area, we aim the bright beam to the center of the area where we need the light and hope
for the best on the edges of the area. An antenna beam is similar, we aim the antenna main beam to get
the coverage objectives we need.

With the down-tilt table as a guideline, the Planner would be able to determine the degree of down-tilt
required for the site based on the main beam, taking into consideration the rooftop clearance in section
6.2.6.1.

Note that in all cases, Electrical down-tilt shall be applied or considered first. Mechanical down-tilt shall
only be applied if further down-tilting is required which exceeds the antenna's designed maximum variable
Electrical down-tilt angle. Mechanical up-tilt can be applied in combination with Electrical down-tilt to
reduce back-lobe radiation as mentioned in section 6.2.6.

However, the Planner should note that this should be used only as a guide. For instance, actual coverage distances
can be affected by the local radio environmental parameters such as terrain and obstacles which are not included
in the above calculations which are only valid when assuming a smooth earth.

2
Antenna height computation based on Feet. Planner should convert the antenna height from Meters to Feet when inputting the
required height information. Conversion : 1feet : 0.3048m
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1feet : 0.3048m

Figure 17. Calculating Antenna Beam Tilt


For more computation of the required antenna down-tilting for different scenarios of antenna height and vertical
HPBW, Planners are advised to visit the following down-tilt calculator web site :
http://www.rfsamericas.com/Technical/software/celtools.html or http://www.decibelproducts.com/frameset4.html
. Alternatively, Planners can install the standalone utility program from RFS as attached in Appendix A : Site
Survey Tool Kit or approach the author for assistance.

6.2.6.4 Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation / Separation Distance

To avoid undesired signals into the receiving unit, antennas have to be placed at a certain minimum distance from
each other. The isolation between two antennas is defined as the attenuation from the connector of one antenna
to the connector of the other antenna when the antennas are in their installation position. At least 40dB between
a TX and RX antenna and at least 20dB between TX and TX antenna is required. It is recommended to use the
manufacturers isolation curves to the certain antenna types, if those are available (see Appendix D : Kathrein
Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation Measurements).

The isolation is required for the following reasons:

To prevent receiver front-end blocking (desensitisation) i.e. when the RF signal strength arriving at the input
of the receiver is so strong that it becomes saturated.

To prevent interference from spurious transmission of nearby RF transmitters

To prevent interference from intermodulation products of nearby RF transmitters

To prevent the output from two transmitting antennas coupling together to generate intermodulation
products.
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In general, there are two method of antenna separation, horizontal or vertical. Horizontal separation distance is
always higher than vertical separation (please see following sections). The distance, which is needed for isolation,
depends of antenna types and on the configuration.

The isolation distances cannot easily be deduced by calculation as virtually all instances of co-location (mast
sharing, rooftop sharing) means that we are in the near field of the antenna rather than the far field3 (see Figure
18). The specified antenna patterns and gain are only provided in the far field of the antenna.

Wave front

Near field
L
position

Figure 18. Illustration of Near Field Distance

Near Field Distance, R = (2L2) / [m]

Where L = aperture or maximum dimension of the antenna [m]

= wavelength [m]

e.g. 2000MHz, = 0.15m, L = 1.3m, R = 22.5m

As such, the safest means of deducing antenna isolation distances is to use practical antenna-to-antenna
isolation measurements from antenna manufacturers as accepted by 3GPP [/ 8].

6.2.6.4.1 Vertical Separation Distance

As a general guide, Vertical isolation value, AV can be calculated approximately from the general formula [/ 1, / 2]:

Isolation AV 28 + 40 log (dV / ) [dB]


Where dV = vertical distance between antennas [m]

= wavelength [m]

3
Far field - The region where the angular field or wave-front distribution is essentially independent of distance from the source. If
the source has a maximum overall dimension L, that is large compared to the wavelength, , the far-field region is commonly
taken to exist at distances greater than 2L2/ from the source.
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Minimum acceptable decoupling or isolation value for base station antennas or minimum coupling loss (MCL) is
assumed to be 30dB [/ 7]. Also, there should not be any reflecting surfaces in the forward direction which might
decrease the isolation value.

From the theoretical equation, the Planner can approximate the vertical separation distance required between
antennas (see Figure 19) as shown in Figure 20.

However, for actual implementation, the Planner is recommended to use the antenna manufacturer's
isolation curves for the certain antenna types (see Appendix D : Kathrein Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation
Measurements) as a reference when planning for co-located sites.

Figure 19. Vertical Separation Distance for Directional Antennas

Distance (dv, dh) Av (dv)


0.2 33.85 Av (dv)
0.3 40.89 Vertical Antenna Isolation vs Distance (based on 2100MHz)
0.4 45.89
0.5 49.76
90.00
0.6 52.93
0.7 55.61 80.00
0.8 57.93
0.9 59.97
70.00
1.0 61.80
1.1 63.46
1.2 64.97 60.00
Isolation, Av [dB]

1.3 66.36
1.4 67.65 50.00
1.5 68.85 Av (dv)
1.6 69.97
1.7 71.02 40.00
1.8 72.01
1.9 72.95 30.00
2.0 73.85
2.1 74.69
20.00
2.2 75.50
2.3 76.27
2.4 77.01 10.00
2.5 77.72
2.6 78.40 0.00
2.7 79.06
2.8 79.69
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
2.9 80.30 distance [m]
3.0 80.89

Figure 20. Vertical Antenna Isolation vs. Separation Distance


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From the above equation and Figure 20, we can see that the approximated minimum vertical antenna
separation distance from other existing operator can be 0.5 meters to achieve >40dB isolation for
e.g. 1800MHz.

6.2.6.4.2 Horizontal Separation Distance

A sufficient horizontal distance between base station antennas depends on the gain of the antennas. Isolation
values required depends of the antenna types (TX/TX and TX/RX) and varies between 20dB and 40dB. Also, the
radiation direction of the antenna and the width of the main lobe (directional antennas) have to be considered
when defining certain horizontal separation distance.

As a general guide, horizontal isolation value, AH can be calculated from the general formula [/ 1, / 2]:

Isolation: AH 22 + 20 log (dH / ) - (G1 + G2) [dB]

Where dH = horizontal distance between antennas [m]

= wavelength [m]

G1 = gain of antenna 1 [dBi]

G2 = gain of antenna 2 [dBi]

Note: the above equation is assuming that the transmit antenna and receive antennas are directly beaming at
each other.

Horizontal separation distance between antennas depends on the gain of the antennas in the direction to
the other antennas as well as the horizontal HPBW of the antennas. Then it can be noticed that an antenna
with wider main lobe requires more distance compared to an antenna with narrower main lobe.

However, for actual implementation, the Planner is recommended to use the antenna manufacturer's
isolation curves to the certain antenna types (see Appendix D : Kathrein Antenna-to-Antenna
Isolation Measurements) when planning for co-located sites.

From the theoretical equation, the Planner can approximate the horizontal separation distance required between
antennas (see Figure 21) as shown in Figure 22.
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Figure 21. (a) Antennas on pipe mast and (b) Antennas mounted on the wall -
Horizontal Separation Distance between Directional Antennas .
Distance (dv, dh) Av (dh)
0.2 -7.08 Av (dh)
0.3 -3.56 Horizontal Antenna Isolation vs Distance (based on 2100MHz)
0.4 -1.06
0.5 0.88 20.00
0.6 2.46
0.7 3.80
0.8 4.96
0.9 5.99 15.00
1.0 6.90
1.1 7.73
1.2 8.49
1.3 9.18 10.00
Isolation, Av [dB]

1.4 9.82
1.5 10.42
1.6 10.98 Av (dh)
5.00
1.7 11.51
1.8 12.01
1.9 12.48
2.0 12.92 0.00
2.1 13.35
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
2.2 13.75
2.3 14.14
2.4 14.51 -5.00
2.5 14.86
2.6 15.20
2.7 15.53
2.8 15.85 -10.00
2.9 16.15 distance [m]
3.0 16.44

Figure 22. Front-to-Front Horizontal Antenna Isolation vs. Separation Distance

However, as stated above, the equation is assuming that the transmit antenna and receive antennas are directly
beaming at each other as shown in Figure 23 but this should be a rare occurrence.

FF : Front to Front

Antenna Direction

dH
Figure 23. Front-to-Front Scenario : TX and RX Antenna directly beaming at each other
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If we apply this equation, the horizontal antenna isolation would be very minimal even at the separation distance
of 3m as shown in Figure 22.

As such, the horizontal antenna isolation depends on the antenna direction and antenna pattern. It is therefore
difficult to calculate on a site by site basis.
Antenna Direction

(i) FS : Front to Side (ii) BS : Back to Side

-
- -
dH
dH
GT GR GT GR
FS : GT + (GR-) BS : (GT-) + (GR-)

(iii) FB : Front to Back (iv) SS : Side to Side

- -
- dH
dH
GT GR GT GR
FB : GT + (GR-) SS : (GT-) + (GR-)
Figure 24. Typical Horizontal Antenna Separation Scenarios (i) (iv)

The typical horizontal antenna co-siting scenarios are shown in Figure 24. However, the more common scenario
would be that as shown in Figure 24(iv).

To factor in the different directions of the antennas, we assume 2 additional attenuation factors, (e.g. loss at
90 direction) and (e.g. loss at 180 direction) where the values are obtained from the horizontal antenna
radiation patterns of the particular antenna respectively at the 90 and 180 to reflect the horizontal isolation for
that scenario. Then the "(G1 + G2)" or "(GT + GR)" in the horizontal isolation equation will be modified as shown in
Table 5. Note that the and values can be different depending on the azimuth that the 2 antennas are pointing
at each other (obtain from the antenna radiation pattern files of the antenna types used / to be used if available).

Table 5. Horizontal Antenna Isolation - "(GT + GR)" Modification for Different Scenarios

(i) FS : GT + (GR-) (ii) BS : (GT-) + (GR-)


(iii) FB : GT + (GR-) (iv) SS : (GT-) + (GR-)

Using the antenna type CS72761.03 as shown in section 6.2.5 and the antenna radiation pattern file
<741784_2140_X_CO_M45_00T.MSI> as an example, the "(GT + GR)" becomes:

Antenna Type Antenna Gain [dBi] H-HPBW


(Loss at 90 Dir.) (Loss at 180 Dir.)
CS72761.03 18dBi 65 22.1dB 38.8dB
(Kathrein 741784)
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Assuming both antennas are CS72761.03 type:

(i) FS : 18 + (18-22.1) = 13.9dB (ii) BS : (18-38.8) + (18-22.1) = -24.9dB


(iii) FB : 18 + (18-38.8) = -2.8dB (iv) SS : (18-22.1) + (18-22.1) = -8.2

Based on the typical horizontal separation scenario of Figure 24(iv), the horizontal isolation value, AH can be
calculated from the general revised formula and the Planner can approximate the horizontal separation distance
required between antennas shown in Figure 25. :

d
Ah = 22 + 20 log h ((G1 ) + (G 2 ))[dB ]

Distance (dv, dh) Av (dh)
0.2 37.12
0.3 40.64
0.4 43.14
0.5 45.08
0.6 46.66
0.7 48.00
0.8 49.16
0.9 50.19
1.0 51.10
1.1 51.93
1.2 52.69
1.3 53.38
1.4 54.02
1.5 54.62
1.6 55.18
1.7 55.71
1.8 56.21
1.9 56.68
2.0 57.12
2.1 57.55
2.2 57.95
2.3 58.34
2.4 58.71
2.5 59.06
2.6 59.40
2.7 59.73
2.8 60.05
2.9 60.35
3.0 60.64

Figure 25. Side-to-Side Horizontal Antenna Isolation vs. Separation Distance

From the above equation and Figure 25, we can see that the approximated minimum horizontal
antenna separation distance from other existing operator can be 1.0 meters to achieve >40dB
isolation for e.g. 2100MHz.

As much as possible, avoid pointing WCDMA antennas towards the beam of existing GSM antennas.
This will reduce the isolation between the two antennas.

It is important to note that the free field transmission formula shown above does not include the effects of
reflections, which exists in reality. Especially for configuration (i to iv) in Figure 24, reflections in the
surrounding and at the support construction have great influences. Additional influence is caused by
bending effects, for example, at the corners of the reflectors. All these effects are so worse that it is not
possible to calculate the antenna isolation with only few parameters. Therefore, reiterating, for actual
implementation, the Planners are strongly advised to use the antenna manufacturer's isolation curves for the
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certain antenna types (see Appendix D : Kathrein Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation Measurements) as a


reference when planning for co-located sites.

However, it should be noted that for a given horizontal and vertical beamwidth, there would be differences
in gain and radiation patterns between different antenna manufacturers. These differences will obviously
affect the isolation distance requirements. When applying these results to other antennas, care should be
taken to ensure that the antenna specifications are analogous.

In conclusion from the above 2 sections, we can see that with the same distance separation between
antennas, the Vertical antenna separation provides more isolation than that of the Horizontal counterpart,
as summarised in Figure 26

Antenna Isolation - Vertical vs Horizontal


90.00

80.00

70.00
Isolation, Av & Ah [dB]

60.00

50.00
Av (dv)
40.00
Ah (dh)
30.00

20.00

10.00

0.00
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
Distance [m]

Figure 26. Antenna Isolation provided by Vertical & Horizontal Antenna Separation
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6.2.7 Air Interface Co-siting Aspects Between GSM, WCDMA and CDMA2000

6.2.7.1 WCDMA/FDD-WCDMA/FDD and WCDMA/FDD-GSM RF System Co-siting Aspects

For co-located sites, the crucial rule is to keep enough RF intersystem isolation between antenna systems
regardless of the antennas' horizontal HPBW to prevent degradation of all co-located or close-located systems.
Where StarHub owns both systems at a particular site, they may choose to add extra filtering to the antenna
system to achieve the required isolation. The co-siting isolation requirements between GSM and WCDMA [/ 5, / 6]
are shown below in Table 6.

Table 6. RF Isolation Requirements between Systems for WCDMA/FDD GSM1800 Co-siting


Transmitter Frequency Level Parameter Required Required
[MHz] [dBm] / [MHz] affected [dBm] / MHz Isolation [dB]
GSM 1920 1980 96 / 0.1 UMTS BTS < 108 / 4.0 28
Spurious (FDD UL) -80 / 4.0 sensitivity (Noise floor)
GSM 1805 1880 +40 / 0.2 UMTS BTS < +204 / CW 20
Main Typical Blocking (Specifications)
UMTS 1710 1785 98 / 0.1 GSM BTS < 110 / 0.2 15
Spurious 95 / 0.2 Sensitivity (Typical)
UMTS 2110 2170 +43 / 4.0 GSM BTS 0 / CW 43
Main (FDD DL) Typical Blocking (Specifications)

Nokia has concluded studies into the requirement for additional filters to reduce interference between Nokia 2G
(GSM) and Nokia 3G (WCDMA) base stations in co-sited situations (see .Appendix F : Nokia GSM/EDGE Base
Station Performance Regarding GSM-WCDMA (FDD) Air Interface Co-location requirements Technical Summary).

Essentially, in the StarHub's co-siting case (GSM1800/WCDMA Band A), there is NO requirement for additional
filtering to avoid mutual interference between the StarHub Nokia 2G and Nokia 3G co-sited base stations if the
co-siting antenna systems are designed based on the guidelines stated in this document.

As Nokia would be responsible for the site designs, Nokia is prepared to underwrite the above by agreeing that
should any additional filtering be required to reduce the interference to the required 2G or 3GPP specifications,
the additional cost of the filters and their associated installation and testing would be to Nokias account.

For clarity, this guarantee is only applicable to interference between StarHubs Nokia 2G and Nokia 3G base
stations. Should external interference be encountered at a site then the additional cost of filtering would be to
StarHubs account on a site-by-site basis.

6.2.7.2 Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation Distances

From 3GPP TS25.104 Chapter 6.6.3.2.1 [/ 5], the GSM1800 BS can have up to 96dBm / 0.1MHz (scaled to
WCDMA RX bandwidth = -80dBm / 4MHz) spurious emissions at the antenna connector. If the reference level of
the WCDMA band is thermal noise floor (108dBm), theoretically 28dB (-108dBm (-80dBm)) isolation is

4
3GPP TS05.05 specification = +16dBm / CW
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required between the GSM TX and the WCDMA RX to keep the interference caused by spurious to be the same
level as the thermal noise (see Table 6 first row).

However, this would cause 3dB loss in sensitivity, i.e. 50% loading. Lower interference level is required as such
and this can be achieved by having higher isolation. If the isolation is greater or equal to 40dB (see Figure 27), the
resultant thermal noise floor plus the spurious level would be approximately 107.7dBm.

Figure 27. Graph of Noise Power (dBm) vs. Antenna Isolation (dB)

Note that in GSM05.05 [/ 6], co-sited base stations worst case antenna-to-antenna isolation or minimum
coupling loss (MCL) is assumed to be 30dB as in 3GPP TS25.104 [/ 5]. Thus, in most cases, the filtering/isolation
requirement can be met with proper antenna installation.

The antenna separation is a very good means to achieve the required isolation, but in single antenna solution
(dual-band), filter may be needed for this purpose. In practice, > 40dB antenna to antenna isolation can be
provided with quite short antenna separation (be it vertical or horizontal) distances.

As mentioned in 6.2.6.4, the isolation distances cannot easily be deduced by calculation as virtually all instances
of co-location (mast sharing, rooftop sharing) means that we are in the near-field of the antenna rather than the
far-field. As such, the safest means of deducing isolation distances is to use practical antenna-to-antenna
isolation measurements. Practical measurements were done by the 3GPP TSG-RAN Working Group 4 (Radio) [/ 8].
Note however that these measurements were done at the frequency range of GSM1800MHz which is very close to
WCDMA RX band and was performed in anechoic chamber.

The Planner is therefore recommended to use the antenna manufacturer's5 isolation curves (e.g.
Kathrein) as shown in Appendix D : Kathrein Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation Measurements as a
representative guide for the appropriate vertical or horizontal antenna to antenna separation
distances when planning for co-located sites with the following points in mind.

5
Kathrein has performed all isolation measurements outdoor on a flat rooftop. The antennas are mounted on two metallic poles
that can be seperated on a sort of rail to get different distances.
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Generally, measurements from the antenna manufacturer like Kathrein are based on the assumption that:

Both antennas are in the same plane

And, they are pointing towards same direction.

It should be remembered that for a given antenna vertical and horizontal beamwidth, there will be
differences in gain and radiation patterns between antenna manufacturers. These differences will obviously
affect the isolation distance requirements. When applying these results to other antennas, care should be
taken to ensure that the antenna specifications are analogous.

In practice, to achieve >40dB isolation, the rule-of-thumb requirements when designing antenna
placements for co-locating sites can be as shown below in Table 7.

Table 7. Co-siting - Horizontal and Vertical Antenna-to-Antenna Separation Recommendation


Antenna Separation Method Separation Distance (meters)
Horizontal >= 1.0
Vertical >= 0.5

Note that these figures are in line with the theoretical figures recommended in sections 6.2.6.4.1and 6.2.6.4.2.

In reality, the Radio Planner may be confronted by large number of different antenna types with different
horizontal HPBW (mainly 90 or 65) from the GSM systems at the co-located sites. It would be prudent for the
Planner to investigate case-by-case and refer to this planning guide for the appropriate separation distances in
order to avoid mutual interference.

Note that for ALL co-located sites with other cellular operators6, joint surveys may be required to be conducted to
obtain mutual agreement on the intended design of the new antenna placements and azimuth directions with
respect to the existing installation.

Notwithstanding technically, antenna isolation measurement results from antenna manufacturers have
shown that the horizontal and vertical separation distances could be those as shown in Table 7, other
cellular operators have insisted that for all co-located sites, StarHub's antenna system shall be
designed with 2 to 3 meter horizontal separation distance from their existing antennas. Nokia
Planners shall comply as much as possible with this design constraint when planning a co-located site.

If the co-located site permits, in terms of antenna mounting positions, the Planner should as much as
possible, design with the maximum allowable horizontal antenna separation distance in mind as
shown in Figure 28 to comply with the other cellular operators' agreed separation requirements.
Nonetheless, if due to site constraints like available antenna mounting space for any strategic co-located
sites, the Planner could appeal for more lenient separation distance based on the above with technical
justification to SingTel and/or M1 during the joint-survey sessions. The Planner shall consult with the Nokia
Specialist / Zone Leader for such circumstances and prepare the technical report accordingly.

6
Other cellular operators in Singapore SingTel and MobileOne.
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

F F
N

E E

Car Park Crane Access

Sector 1 : 0 degrees 0 degrees


Pasir Lift Motor Room 27.4m
D Ris H : 4m 3m D
Drive 5.5m
2.2m
6 BTS
2.5m 2m
5.6m
Water Tank
H : 4m
C C
4.4m
Sector 3 : 240 degrees Feeder Sector 2 : 120 degrees
2.5m

B B

Horizontal Separation of > 1m requirement


Building Height : 39m
H : Height
M1 antenna
A A

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Figure 28. Example of Rooftop Planview Drawing of Co-located Site between StarHub and Other Operators.

The Radio Planner has to judge whether the site is suitable for co-location of WCDMA equipment. If the
interference is greater than the level that has been planned for, the system QoS will be degraded. Thus, it may be
required to redesign or move the site.

For co-siting planning, it is imperative that the Planner ensure NO CROSSING of the antenna main beam with
other cellular operators' antenna systems (see Figure 29) when planning for the antenna azimuth and placement
taking into consideration the horizontal HPBW of the antennas (worst case between 2 x H-HPBW = 90), albeit
the fact that antenna isolation requirements are still achievable with antenna cross beams of e.g. 20 / 340 as
shown in Appendix D : Kathrein Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation Measurements.

E.g. 20 E.g. 340

Figure 29. Example of Antenna Beam Crossing for Co-siting Systems


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6.2.7.3 StarHub GSM1800-WCDMA/FDD RF System Co-siting Aspects

For the StarHub 3G network, separate antenna and feeder-line systems for GSM1800 and WCDMA are deployed
as much as possible for the potential GSM sites to be reused (see Figure 30(a)).

However, for reasons of site constraints such as the following:

Antenna mounting space on walls or space for antenna placements

Limit on wall feed-through diameter for feeder cables

Loading of feeder cables on building walls

Space constraint for additional feeder cables

Any other limitations imposed by the building owners (e.g. number of feeder cables or antennas allowed etc
for aesthetic reasons)

Also, from Radio Network Planning point of view, for strategically located or congested co-located sites, e.g. the
Overseas Union House in CBD area (see Figure 31), where there are not many or no alternative candidates for the
intended coverage objectives, the Planner may look into the following alternative designs to get around the above
challenges :

For feeder-line constraint scenario - introduction of passive components such as the Nokia
GSM1800/WCDMA Diplexer unit for feeder-line sharing with either separate GSM/WCDMA antennas or
dual-band antenna solution (2-port antenna) or multi-band antenna (4-port antenna, which can be
individually down-tilted for GSM and WCDMA) (see Figure 30(b), Figure 32, Figure 33). Note that the
introduction of the Diplexer for the separate GSM/WCDMA antenna solution will introduce a total of
approximately 0.6dB insertion loss to the existing GSM system.

For antenna placement space constraint scenario - modifying the existing StarHub GSM1800 antenna
system with dual-band antenna solutions (see Figure 33). This is based on the assumption that the coverage
footprint/objectives are the same for those strategic sites.

The Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Diplexer unit includes two filter sections for GSM1800 RX/TX and WCDMA RX/TX
filtering. The Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Diplexer unit combines GSM and WCDMA transmit and receive signals to
the same antenna feeder and has an isolation between ports of >50dB (see Appendix G : CS72230.20 Ultrasite
GSM1800/WCDMA Diplexer Technical Data), which meets the RF isolation requirements between the GSM and
WCDMA systems as stated in section 6.2.7.

Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Diplexers have a user-selectable, DC bypass function to support co-siting with MHAs.
This is implemented by using DC blocks that are supplied with Diplexer units. DC blocks are used to suppress DC in
the bands that do not require an MHA.

For such sites, the Planner shall consult accordingly with the Nokia Specialist / Zone Leader for the
appropriate site design solutions.
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ANTENNA
DUAL BAND
ANTENNA
GSM

ANTENNA
UMTS
UMTS GSM DIPLEXER
REJECT REJECT
FILTER FILTER

GSM UMTS GSM UMTS


BTS BTS BTS BTS

Co-located sites Co-sited sites


Separate feeders and antennas Shared feeders and/or antennas
(a) (b)
Figure 30. Co-siting Scenario (a) Separate and (b) Shared Feeder-line Antenna System

All surrounding
alternative candidates
rejected by owners.

Figure 31. OU House (CBD) Example of Strategically Located and Congested Co-locate Site
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Figure 32. Shared feeder-lines with Separate Antennas for GSM and WCDMA

Figure 33. Feeder-line sharing with Dual-band Antenna


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6.2.8 WCDMA/FDD-Other RF Transmission Systems Co-siting Aspects

6.2.8.1 TV Antennas

Most TV antennas are often placed close to the edge of rooftops. The Planner should be aware of the following 2
points when designing the WCDMA antenna placement on rooftops (see Figure 34):

TV antenna should not be allowed to intrude upon the 3dB beam-width of the antenna as scattering of the
main beam will impair the performance of the WCDMA system.

Be careful of the back-lobe of the WCDMA antenna to avoid the potentiality that the signal may block the
front end of the broadband TV receiver. However, the directional panel antenna usually has good front-to-
back ratio of greater than 25dB. If the 3G antennas are placed as according to the planning guideline, with
the spatial separation between the TV antenna and 3G antenna, coupled with the front-to-back isolation,
we would safely say that the TV receiver front-end will not be desensitised. In any case, there is quite a
huge frequency separation between the TV frequency bands (VHF/UHF) and WCDMA bands. Also, based on
the present GSM900/1800 networks, if the GSM900/1800 systems which are transmitting at higher power
albeit narrower bandwidth per carrier doe not cause any problem to the TV system, it would be safe from
the WCDMA system.

Be careful with
back-lobe!

Acceptable
Not Acceptable

Figure 34. Co-siting WCDMA Antenna with TV Antennas

6.2.9 Feeder Selection

Two feeder types are used in the project. They are NK Cables 7/8" CS72252, and 1 5/8" CS72254. The feeder
specification are shown in Table 8 and Appendix E : Antenna Feeder Cable Specification.

The selection of feeder type depends on the feeder length of individual sector, the feeder loss planned for and
what restrictions there are for buildings in running heavy cable across the rooftop. The feeder length and thus the
choice of feeder type is also governed by the location of the BTS. The StarHub 3G network has been dimensioned
based on 3dB cable loss.
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Table 8. Feeder Type Specification

Cable Loss / Connector Loss Jumper Loss Max Length for Max Length for
Feeder Type
100m (dB) (dB) (dB) 3dB Loss (m) 4dB Loss (m)
7/8" 6 0.16 0.36 41 58
1 5/8" 3.8 0.16 0.36 65 91

The Planner may select the antenna and BTS location to minimise the feeder length and the cable loss.
However, antenna location which gives good coverage should not be compromised. In this project, the
general guide for the choice of feeder type is to use feeder 7/8" when the feeder length is < 40m and 1 5/8"
when the feeder length is > 40m.

Feeder Length (m) Choice of Feeder


< 40m 7/8"
> 40m 1 5/8"

For sites with excessive cable loss of >3dB due to the antenna and BTS locations, the Planner may look into
the utilisation of Mast Head Amplifier (MHA) to compensate for the UL cable loss (see section6.2.10). For
such sites, the Planner shall consult accordingly with the Nokia Specialist / Zone Leader for the appropriate
site design solutions.

6.2.10 Mast Head Amplifier (MHA)

Mast-Head Amplifiers are used to compensate for losses between the Base Station TX/RX port to the antenna
input port in the Uplink. This is essentially cable loss and it is set at 3dB for dimensioning. It is exceptionally
useful to implement antenna system with MHA in order to remove loss and improve Uplink Coverage. Essentially,
the use of MHA is very much dependent on the feeder length of the sectors. If cable loss is already very minimal
at a particular site, the use of MHA would not be effective.

In the later Network phases, when cell size is largely dominated by capacity reasons, MHA would enhance quality
by improving the coverage location probability.

See Appendix H : UltraSite WCDMA MHA and Bias-Tee Components Specification for more details on the MHA
and Bias-Tee components.

In general, the MHA will be used as and when deemed justified for sites having excessive feeder length to
compensate for the excessive signal attenuation.
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7. COUNTRY SPECIFIC RADIO NETWORK PLANNING SITE DESIGN

7.1 Antenna Height Design Constraint - CAAS Flight Profile

In areas along the flight path of commercial or military air-planes (depending on the planning zones e.g. North,
East and West), the Planners should be aware that there are height limits constraint by the height profile imposed
by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS). A visible indication of such ruling is the presence of the
height warning light as shown in .

Figure 35. Example of Typical Height Warning Light


As such, the Planner has to ensure that the antenna height designed shall not exceed that as indicated by the
warning light. The Site Acquisition Team of StarHub and/or Nokia should accordingly inform the respective
Planners of such sites. Example areas with such constraints are Changi, Tampines, Pasir Ris.

7.2 Maximum Base Station Transmit Power Design Constraint - IDA

As stipulated by the Info-communication Development Authority of Singapore (IDA), the maximum


effective radiated power (ERP) permissible at the antenna shall be 100 Watts or 50dBm for all cellular
mobile base stations.

7.3 Housing Development Board (HDB) Blocks

7.3.1 Cellular Base Station Antenna Rooftop Design Constraints imposed by HDB

The Housing Development Board (HDB) estates are generally characterised as being of up to 800 buildings, all at
the same height of somewhere between 30 and 40 m arranged in clusters of 30 60 buildings very densely
packed together, with some significant roads running between each cluster. Each cluster often may have some
space set aside for car parks (see Figure 36). Buildings generally do not have a ground floor, the ground floor
being common space for residents recreation. There are often significant commercial areas (town centres) located
somewhere in each estate.
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HDB Estate with Basestation on one building


Ba se sta tion

Car Park
Area

Figure 36. Typical HDB Clusters Example

Note that although a large majority of estates are built this way there are others that use different height
buildings in a more random layout. These are far more easier to provide coverage to.

What makes these estates difficult from a radio coverage point of view is both the consistency of height of all the
buildings and the way they are so densely packed together. The density of buildings makes coverage inside the
outer ring of buildings that form each cluster very difficult. It is a common phenomenon to drive into the car park
areas of each cluster and find coverage to be very weak.

Placing a cell site in the middle of a cluster will provide solid coverage for that cluster but due the fact all
buildings are of the same height, coverage is unlikely to penetrate very far if at all past the edge of the cluster.
Thus the only option is to find a building close to the corner or edge of a cluster, therefore with a reasonable view
of other clusters or other areas and roadways and point one cell back into the middle of the cluster to provide
coverage for buildings inside.

The typical HDB clusters scenarios described above are shown in the following examples in Figure 37.
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Figure 37. Examples of Typical HDB Clusters in Singapore

For greenfield or co-located HDB blocks, the following design constraints / regulations imposed by the HDB
Authority from the Radio Network Planning point of view must be adhered to when the Planners are designing
the rooftop antenna placements and BTS locations (see Figure 38 for examples. It should be noted that the HDB
rooftop design examples given are illustrated using the older generation HDB blocks which are almost rectangular
design. However, newer or modern HDB blocks structures are much more complicated. Planner should design
every HDB block accordingly based on the guidelines given) :

The HDB Authority allows only a maximum of 3 wireless operators (including Cellular, TV, Trunk Radio, etc
operator) to occupy the same HDB rooftop.

No antennas shall be mounted on pitched (sloping) roofs and faade structures of HDB blocks.

All antennas + poles must be flush-wall-mounted (level) with the water-tank structure as shown in Figure
38. Appealing for approval to have the antenna pole extending beyond the water-tank structure is on a
case-by-case basis, which the probability of approval by the HDB Authority are not favourable due to
aesthetic reasons.

Antennas must only be mounted at the wall columns of the water-tank structure.
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For safety reasons, it is mandatory that all antennas and location of BTS must be at least 1.5m from the
edge of the roof. As such, antenna mounting methods based on tripod- and parapet- (pole or down-
hanging) will not be permissible.
Not OK !
OK !

(a)

HDB Rooftop

Watertank Structure
> 1.5m

B
T
S
X
(b)

> 1.5m

(c)
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(d)

(e)
Figure 38. HDB Rooftop Antenna Installation Restrictions

7.3.2 HDB Blocks - Co-siting with Other Cellular Operators

In a multi-operator environment like Singapore, co-siting of cellular base stations on HDB or private buildings are
unavoidable due to the fact that some buildings are strategically located for certain coverage objectives. Also, the
utilisation of existing sites is important to make the WCDMA deployment fast and to share the site costs with the
existing GSM system. With these restrictions, the co-located site design poses great challenges to the Planners.
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The general site design (radio and non-radio) criteria for reusing of existing HDB GSM sites are as follows:

Mounting space for WCDMA antennas that does not cause shadowing and achieve isolation requirement
from other cellular antennas ?

Room or for WCDMA BTS and other ancillary equipment (co-siting beside existing Nokia Talk Family BTS)
? See Figure 39

Power supply

Figure 39. Example of Co-locating GSM CityTalk/WCDMA UltraSite BTS on the Same Plinth

For HDB Blocks co-siting with other cellular operators, joint surveys must be conducted to obtain mutual
agreement on the intended design of the new antenna placements and azimuth directions with respect to
the existing installation (as seen in Figure 38(e)) to ensure that no mutual interference will occur.

The following few design points must be taken into consideration when co-siting with other cellular operators :

NO CROSSING of the antenna main beam with other operators' antenna systems when planning for the
antenna azimuth and placement (the tolerance azimuth is +/- 30) to avoid mutual receiver desensitisation
(as mentioned in section 6.2.7.2).

Antenna poles and the feeder cables shall NOT CROSS with other operators' feeder cable/trays.

Antenna main beam shall not be directly beaming towards the other operator's BTS. However, this scenario
should not occur since that would mean likely that the rooftop will cause shadowing of the radio signal.

The general rule of cellular base stations built on top of HDB blocks is on a first-comer-have-the-say basis, i.e.
during the joint survey, the co-siting operator has the prerogative to reject the antenna placement design
proposed by StarHub on the grounds of interference and vice-versa if the situation arise that the antenna
separation distances are too tight for comfort.

However, based on technical design criteria as mentioned in sections 6.2 together with the isolation
measurements from the antenna manufacturers, ample technical justifications can be provided to allay their
concerns.
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7.4 CBD / Non-CBD / Singapore Technologies Affiliated

Site selection of these sites should broadly follow these criteria:.

7.4.1 Non-Central Business District (CBD) Areas

In non-CBD and private residential areas, the building height for the chosen candidate should generally be higher
than the surrounding buildings by 2 stories/floors if possible (or the antennas height approximately 5 meter
higher then surrounding buildings). As the distance from the site increases then this can be relaxed.

A good site must have a reasonably clear area of about 250 meters or more from the next obstructing building as
shown in Figure 40.

minimun 250 meters minimun 250 meters

Ba se sta tion

Figure 40. Typical Non-CBD Cluster Example

Make sure the antenna height proposed will clear surrounding blockages., otherwise record obstructions, distance,
direction and height.

Note that on these building types there are no design restrictions other than those stipulated by the
respective building owners pertaining to the location and height of antennas from any existing rooftop
structures and BTS locations and aesthetics concerns etc. Use as high as necessary and possible within civil
design criteria.

Planners are advised to design the rooftop antenna placements and BTS locations based on the selection
and design criteria as mentioned in sections 6.2.

Figure 41 shows some typical examples of Non-CBD environment.


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Figure 41. Typical Examples of Non-CBD Area

7.4.2 Central Business District (CBD)

In CBD areas, due to the dense concentration of buildings it is expected that almost all sites will have blockages
in some directions. This is impossible to avoid. Thus, the above criteria will be relaxed. It is important to keep in
mind that mobile coverage is achieved through multi-path propagation, particularly in the CBD area. Thus,
although close blockages will appear to totally blocked coverage in a certain direction, reflections off of nearby
buildings will provide coverage behind the blocking building. This coverage by no means will be as strong as if
provided directly from the site, but nonetheless provide adequate levels of coverage behind the blocking building.

For these building types in CBD area, there are usually no design restrictions other than those stipulated by
the respective building owners pertaining to the location and height of antennas from any existing rooftop
structures and BTS locations, aesthetics concerns etc. Use as high as necessary and possible within civil
design criteria.

Planners are advised to design the rooftop antenna placements and BTS locations based on the selection
and design criteria as mentioned in sections 6.2.

Note that Nokia is responsible for the Civil Design and Construction for all these CBD and Non-CBD sites.

Figure 42 shows some typical examples of CBD environment.


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Figure 42. Typical Examples of CBD Area

Remembering that the "little i" - other-to-own cell interference, is the only factor during the site planning
that can really be planned by the Planners. As such, when selecting sites for planning WCDMA system,
Planners should avoid HIGH sites with surrounding low buildings and overlooking the CBD cluster (see
Figure 43 for some examples of bad sites to be selected ). As discussed in section 6.2.2, high 'i' will result in
the reduction of the system capacity and pilot pollution problems.
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Figure 43. Some Example of Bad Sites High Sites overlooking into CBD Cluster

7.4.3 CBD and Non-CBD Areas - Co-siting with Other Cellular Operators

For the CBD and Non-CBD area, the co-siting considerations are generally the same as that of HDB stated
in section 7.3.2. Planners are advised to design the rooftop antenna placements and BTS locations based on
the selection and design criteria as mentioned in sections 6.2 while adhering to the co-siting antenna-to-
antenna isolation considerations.

7.5 Monopoles / Towers

Monopoles and towers are usually deployed in suburban or rural areas. Due to the lengthy application and
approval process involved in monopole site construction, it shall only be the last resort where there are no
suitable building candidates for consideration. These suburban or rural areas are usually populated with low-rise
residential and industrial parks.

For each planning zone, the Planner is advised to consult with and obtain concurrence from the respective Zone
Leader and Specialist when proposing the erecting of monopoles or towers in order to achieve the coverage
objective for that area.

In general, the coverage objectives for these monopole sites would be the same for the 2G and 3G systems.

The height of existing StarHub monopoles is usually 2025 meters, even shorter for certain areas as constraint by
section 7.1. Figure 44 (a) & (b) shows the example of the top and side view drawings respectively of the monopole
and BTS to give an indication of the space requirements for the installation. Note that the BTS type in the
drawings is the Nokia Talk Family BTS.

If the Planner requires a verification of the area and Line-Of-Sight (LOS) check for possibility of microwave
transmission, cherry-picker may be ordered to perform such a task.
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(a) Top View

(b) Side View

Figure 44. Top and Side View drawing of a 20m Monopole with BTS Location
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7.5.1 Monopoles - Co-siting with Other Cellular Operators

Monopoles are usually owned by the Cellular Operator while occupying a small piece of land. In general, the
Cellular Operators do not prefer the sharing of such poles for reason of antenna mounting space (to confirm) as
well as maintenance issues unless mandated by the relevant approving authority for the use of the land or the
owner. One such potential co-siting monopole/tower site could possibly be example Pulau Tekong Island.

7.5.2 Reuse of StarHub Monopoles

Most of StarHub's current monopoles built for the GSM1800 network are steel monopoles without any platforms
as shown in Figure 45. To co-locate both the GSM1800 and WCDMA antennas on the same monopole structure,
there are 2 possible design alternatives in order of priority consideration:

a) As mentioned in Section 6.2.7.3, modifying the existing StarHub GSM1800 antenna system with dual-band
antenna solutions. This is based on the assumption that the coverage footprint/objectives are the same for
these monopole sites.

b) StarHub will undertake to modify the monopole structure with an antenna platform as shown in the example
in Figure 46, subject to the validation on the loading capability of existing monopole and any necessary
modification. The antenna platform dimension is shown in Figure 47, subject to StarHub's confirmation.
Separate GSM and WCDMA antennas will be deployed on the antenna platform. With this configuration, the
RF isolation requirements as stated in section 6.2.7.2 for the antenna co-location can be achieved (which is
analogous to the Configuration II (120) in / 8).

Depending on the space constraint of the monopole for additional feeder cables, the feeder cable run solution for
the above 2 designs shall be determined on a site-by-site basis as detailed in section 6.2.7.3.

Figure 45. Example of Existing StarHub GSM1800 Steel Monopole


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Antenna Plateform to be built

Figure 46. Example of Monopole to be Modified with Antenna Platform

65 65

2G 3G
2.5
m
ma
x.

120
d
2G

65 3G 65

2G 3G
65 65

(a.)

75
70
Minimum isolation (dB)

65
60
55
50
45
40
35
Same

1000

1100

1200
300

400

500

600

700

800

900

D is t a n c e ( m m )

(b.)
Figure 47. (a.) Top View - Modified Monopole with Antenna Platform (max. length = 2.5m) (b.) RF Isolation based
on this configuration
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7.6 MRT Lines, Highways + Tunnel Portals Coverage

Singapore, being a well developed nation in terms of housing, public transportation network and infrastructures,
has a sophisticated and well connected network of highways and public MRT train lines spanning the whole
Singapore island (see Figure 48). These highways and MRT lines are cutting through all the different morpho
classes and geo-types.

Figure 48. Singapore Island with All Major Highways and MRT Lines

As mentioned in section 6.2.1, when selecting and planning the sites for coverage, the respective Zone's Planner
has to ensure that the sites are selected and planned optimally to provide coverage and capacity not only to the
geo-type clusters but also to the Highways and MRT lines (including tunnel portals) that are within the intended
coverage areas since there will be large number of commuters of the MRT lines and vehicles during peak hours
and are potential high traffic volume areas.

Note that the Highways are among the test routes stipulated by IDA. For detailed description of the test routes,
please refer to .

It is essential for the Planners to be aware of the various Highway and MRT Line Tunnel Portals (entry and exit
from above-ground to underground) in their respective zones. Since the indoor coverage systems (LCX in most
cases) are usually terminated some distance from the portal, sufficient penetration of the signal coverage from
outdoor sites into these tunnels must be ensured for provision of seamless handover from outdoor to indoor. The
various tunnel portals are shown below :
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Tunnel portals for Highways : CTE North and South Tunnel, which are served by indoor coverage systems.
Figure 49 (a) & (b) shows an example of the existing GSM site providing coverage for the CTE highway and
the tunnel portal.

Tunnel portals for the MRT lines : Lavender-Kallang , Kembangan-Bedok, Kranji-Marsiling, Braddell-Bishan,
the future North-East MRT line and Changi line portals. Note that the MRT underground tunnel coverage
are provided by the shared indoor LCX systems. Figure 50 (a) & (b) shows an example of the existing GSM
site providing coverage for the East Bound MRT line and the tunnel portal of the Lavender-Kallang station.
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CTE Tunnel Portal

(a)

CTE Highway Tunnel


Portal

(b)

Figure 49. Example : Coverage of CTE Highway Tunnel Portal by Sector 2 (120) of 1353 The Cuppage
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East Bound MRT Line Tunnel Portal


Lavender - Kallang Station

(a)

East Bound MRT Line


Tunnel Portal

(b)

Figure 50. Example : Coverage of East Bound MRT Tunnel Portal by Sector 3 (240) of 1024 HDB Block
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8. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, it is important to note or realise that every site will present it's own challenges for the Network or
Field Planners. The work instructions or good practices presented in this document pertaining to the selection and
design of a macro antenna site, may not be exhaustive and it merely serves only as, reiterating, a guide to the
Planners.

This is especially true in a multi-operator environment with the rooftops already crowded with 2G cellular
systems, paging and trunked radio systems etc. The rat race to survey those strategic sites and occupy the good
antenna locations for the new 3G network will really be a challenge. Barring all the rule-of-thumb guides stated
in this document, the Planner must work closely with the Civil Implementation team (Cornwall) during surveys to
establish the optimal solution for antenna mounting in order to reach the coverage objectives while maintaining
the technical requirements etc. Example, special extension mounting brackets or down-hanging antenna solutions
just to name a few.

Remember, when in doubt, always consult the RF Specialist or Senior Radio Network Planner for possible solution
if the site is very strategic and no alternative candidates can be used to achieve the required objectives.
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9. REFERENCE

/ 1. Asha Mehrotra - Cellular Radio Performance Engineering Pg. 220-222, Artech House.

/ 2. Nokia General Instructions of Antenna Installation BAM 0084/1 E

/ 3. Nokia - StarHub GSM 1800 Project Phase I Radio Network Planning Site Selection Criteria 1383_90038

/ 4. Nokia Pauli Aikio WCDMA GSM Interference GSM_WCDMA_7.ppt

/ 5. 3GPP TS 25.104 V3.6.0 - UTRA (BS) FDD; Radio transmission and Reception

/ 6. 3GPP GSM 05.05-8.8.0 Radio transmission and reception

/ 7. 3GPP TS 25.942 V2.2.1 RF System Scenarios Chapter 9 Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation.

/ 8. 3GPP TSG-RAN Working Group 4 (Radio) Meeting #8 TSGR4#8(99)631, Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation


Measurements

/ 9. Nokia Field Planner UMTS Session 4 WCDMA RF Planning Module 5

/ 10. Nokia Elsey M. Antenna Configuration and Positioning, RF Planning Guidelines, Xfera WCDMA Project
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10. APPENDIX A : SITE SURVEY TOOL KIT

The following are the essential tools / equipment required when performing site survey:

Item Item Description

1 Digital Camera

2 Compass (optional with built-in clinometer for height estimation)

(be careful when close to steel structures, which may give false reading on orientation)

3 GPS (Global Positioning System) Receiver

4 Paper Map for geographical area study

5 Tape Measuring Equipment - for measuring dimensions and building height

6 Building Diagrams / Rooftop or Floor Plans

7 Safety Harness if required

8 Rangefinder (optional)

9 Antenna Down-tilt Table

RFS Antenna Utility Suite : useful set of tools for Radio Network Planners

"RFS Ant Utilities.zip"


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11. APPENDIX B: ANTENNA BEAM TILT GUIDE

ANTENNA HEIGHT = 20 METERS


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ANTENNA HEIGHT = 25 METERS


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ANTENNA HEIGHT = 30 METERS


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ANTENNA HEIGHT = 35 METERS


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ANTENNA HEIGHT = 40 METERS


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ANTENNA HEIGHT = 45 METERS


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ANTENNA HEIGHT = 50 METERS


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12. APPENDIX C : 3G ANTENNA SPECIFICATION

This appendix contains the specification of all the antenna types used in the StarHub 3G Project and is accurate
as of the date of this publication. Changes to the antenna specification will be updated accordingly.

It should be noted that the dimension (height) of an antenna radome is governed by physics of the antenna dipole
elements in the antenna radome as shown in the illustration below. Generally, with every doubling of the dipole
numbers, the HPBW approximately halves, and the gain increases by 3dB in the main direction.

As such, for higher gain antenna, e.g. 18dBi, the antenna height will be approx. 1.3 meters as compared to a
15.5dBi gain antenna which will be approx. 0.7 meters.
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CS72761.08
KATHREIN 742212

Multi-band F-Panel 1710 2170


Dual Polarization X
Half-power Beam Width 65
Adjust. Electrical Downtilt 0 8
set by hand or by optional RCU (remote control unit)

XPol F-Panel 17102170 65 18dBi 08T


Type No. 742 212
Frequency range 17102170
1710 1880 MHz 1850 1990 MHz 1920 2170 MHz
Polarization +45, 45 +45, 45 +45, 45
Gain 2 x 17.5 dBi 2 x 17.7 dBi 2 x 18 dBi
Half-power beam width Horizontal: 67 Horizontal: 65 Horizontal: 63
Copolar +45/ 45 Vertical: 7 Vertical: 6.7 Vertical: 6.5
Electrical tilt 0 8 0 8 0 8
continuously adjustable
Sidelobe suppression for 0 ... 2 ... 5 ... 8T 0 ... 2 ... 5 ... 8T 0 ... 2 ... 5 ... 8T
first sidelobe above horizon 17 ... 17 ... 15 .... 15 dB 20 ... 20 ... 18 ... 18 dB 20 ... 20 ... 18 ... 16 dB
Front-to-back ratio Copolar: > 30 dB Copolar: > 30 dB Copolar: > 30 dB
(180 30) Total power: > 25 dB Total power: > 25 dB Total power: > 25 dB
Cross polar ratio
Maindirection 0 Typically: 25 dB Typically: 25 dB Typically: 25 dB
Sector 60 > 10 dB > 10 dB > 10 dB
Isolation, between ports > 30 dB > 30 dB > 30 dB
Impedance 50 50 50
VSWR < 1.5 < 1.5 < 1.5
Intermodulation IM3 < 150 dBc
(2 x 43 dBm carrier)
Max. power per input 300 W (at 50 C ambient temperature)

1710 1880 MHz: +45/ 45 Polarization

67
125

10 10

3
dB

dB

0
0

Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern


0 8 electrical downtilt
1710 2170 1710 2170
1850 1990 MHz: +45/ 45 Polarization 45 +45

65
120
7-16 7-16
6.7

10 10 Mechanical specifications
Subject to alteration.

Input 2 x 7-16 female


dB

dB

3 3

0 0 Connector position Bottom


Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern
Adjustment 1x, Position bottom
0 8 electrical downtilt
mechanism continuously adjustable
1920 2170 MHz: +45/ 45 Polarization Weight 7.5 kg
Wind load Frontal: 130 N (at 150 km/h)
936.2051/c

120 63 Lateral: 110 N (at 150 km/h)


Rearside: 310 N (at 150 km/h)
6.5
Max. wind velocity 200 km/h
10 10
Packing size 1574 x 172 x 92 mm
dB
dB

3 3 Height/width/depth 1302 / 155 / 69 mm


0 0

Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern


0 8 electrical downtilt
page 1 of 2 742 212
Internet: http://www.kathrein.de
KATHREIN-Werke KG . Anton-Kathrein-Strae 1 3 . PO Box 10 04 44 . D-83004 Rosenheim . Germany . Telephone +49 8031 1 84-0 . Fax +49 8031 1 84-9 73
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F-Panels
Harmony of Design and Technology

Accessories (order separately) 64


35 8.5
Weight Units per
Type No. Description Remarks
appr. antenna

734 360 2 clamps Mast: 34 60 mm diameter 60 g 1


734 361 2 clamps Mast: 60 80 mm diameter 70 g 1
734 362 2 clamps Mast: 80 100 mm diameter 80 g 1
734 363 2 clamps Mast: 100 120 mm diameter 90 g 1
734 364 2 clamps Mast: 120 140 mm diameter 110 g 1
734 365 2 clamps Mast: 45 125 mm diameter 80 g 1
732 317 1 downtilt kit Downtilt angle: 0 10 1.0 kg 1
For downtilt mounting use the clamps for an appropriate mast diameter together with the downtilt kit.
Wall mounting: No additional mounting kit needed.

1302
1356
1386
Material: Reflector screen: Tin plated copper. Radiator: Tin plated zinc.
Flat fiberglass radome : The max. radome depth is only 69 mm. Fiber-
glass material guarantees optimum performance with regards to stability,
stiffness, UV resistance and painting. The colour of the radome is grey.
All screws and nuts: Stainless steel.
Grounding: The metal parts of the antenna including the mounting kit and the inner
conductors are DC grounded.
Environmental conditions: Kathrein cellular antennas are designed to operate under the environ-
mental conditions as described in ETS 300 019-1-4 class 4.1 E.
The antennas exceed this standard with regard to the following items:
Low temperature: 55 C
High temperature (dry): + 60 C
Ice protection: Due to the very sturdy antenna construction and the
protection of the radiating system by the radome, the antenna remains
operational even under icy conditions.
Environmental tests: Kathrein antennas have passed environmental tests as recommended
Adjustment
in ETS 300 019-2-4. The homogenous design of Kathreins antenna mechanism
families use identical modules and materials. Extensive tests have been with integrated
performed on typical samples and modules. scale
Long service life: According to our own experience, the outstanding mechanical 54
characteristics of Kathrein antennas result in an antenna service life
69

of over 15 years.
45 +45

155
Bottom view

Please note: As a result of more stringent legal regulations and judgements regarding product liability, we are
obliged to point out certain risks that may arise when products are used under extraordinary operating
conditions.
Subject to alteration.

The mechanical design is based on the environmental conditions as stipulated in ETS 300 019-1-4, which
include the static mechanical load imposed on an antenna by wind at maximum velocity.
Extraordinary operating conditions, such as heavy icing or exceptional dynamic stress (e.g. strain caused by
oscillating support structures), may result in the breakage of an antenna or even cause it to fall to the ground.
These facts must be considered during the site planning process.

The installation team must be properly qualified and also be familiar with the relevant national safety
936.2051/c

regulations.
The details given in our data sheets have to be followed carefully when installing the antennas and
accessories.
The limits for the coupling torque of RF-connectors, recommended by the connector manufacturers
must be obeyed.

Any previous datasheet issues have now become invalid.

742 212 page 2 of 2


Internet: http://www.kathrein.de
KATHREIN-Werke KG . Anton-Kathrein-Strae 1 3 . PO Box 10 04 44 . D-83004 Rosenheim . Germany . Telephone +49 8031 1 84-0 . Fax +49 8031 1 84-9 73
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CS72761.08
KATHREIN 742212
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CS72761.09
KATHREIN 742211
Multi-band F-Panel 1710 2170
Dual Polarization X
Half-power Beam Width 65
Adjust. Electrical Downtilt 010
set by hand or by optional RCU (remote control unit)

XPol F-Panel 17102170 65 15.5dBi 010T


Type No. 742 211
Frequency range 17102170
1710 1880 MHz 1850 1990 MHz 1920 2170 MHz
Polarization +45, 45 +45, 45 +45, 45
Gain 2 x 14.7 dBi 2 x 15 dBi 2 x 15.2 dBi
Half-power beam width Horizontal: 69 Horizontal: 67 Horizontal: 64
Copolar +45/ 45 Vertical: 14.5 Vertical: 14 Vertical: 13
Electrical tilt 0 10 0 10 0 10
continuously adjustable
Sidelobe suppression for 0 ... 4 ... 8 ... 10T 0 ... 4 ... 8 ... 10T 0 ... 4 ... 8 ... 10T
first sidelobe above horizon 18 ... 16 ... 15 .... 15 dB 18 ... 18 ... 18 ... 18 dB 18 ... 18 ... 18 ... 16 dB
Front-to-back ratio Copolar: > 30 dB Copolar: > 30 dB Copolar: > 30 dB
Total power: > 25 dB Total power: > 25 dB Total power: > 25 dB
Cross polar ratio
Maindirection 0 Typically: 25 dB Typically: 25 dB Typically: 25 dB
Sector 60 > 10 dB > 10 dB > 10 dB
Isolation, between ports > 30 dB > 30 dB > 30 dB
Impedance 50 50 50
VSWR < 1.4 < 1.4 < 1.4
Intermodulation IM3 < 150 dBc
(2 x 43 dBm carrier)
Max. power per input 300 Watt (at 50 C ambient temperature)

1710 1880 MHz: +45/ 45 Polarization

130 69

14.5

10 10

3
dB
dB

3
0
0

Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern


0 10 electrical downtilt
1710 2170 1710 2170
1850 1990 MHz: +45/ 45 Polarization 45 +45

128 67
7-16 7-16
14

10 10 Mechanical specifications
Subject to alteration.

3
dB

Input 2 x 7-16 female


dB

3
0
0 Connector position Bottom
Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern
Adjustment 1x, Position bottom
0 10 electrical downtilt
mechanism continuously adjustable
1920 2170 MHz: +45/ 45 Polarization Weight 4.5 kg
Wind load Frontal: 65 N (at 150 km/h)
936.2108/a

120 64 Lateral: 50 N (at 150 km/h)


Rearside: 160 N (at 150 km/h)
13
Max. wind velocity 200 km/h
10 10
Packing size 924 x 172 x 92 mm
3
dB
dB

3 Height/width/depth 662 / 155 / 69 mm


0
0

Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern


0 10 electrical downtilt
page 1 of 2 742 211
Internet: http://www.kathrein.de
KATHREIN-Werke KG . Anton-Kathrein-Strae 1 3 . PO Box 10 04 44 . D-83004 Rosenheim . Germany . Telephone +49 8031 1 84-0 . Fax +49 8031 1 84-9 73
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F-Panels
Harmony of Design and Technology

Accessories (order separately)


Weight Units per
Type No. Description Remarks 64
appr. antenna
35 8.5
734 360 2 clamps Mast: 34 60 mm diameter 60 g 1
734 361 2 clamps Mast: 60 80 mm diameter 70 g 1
734 362 2 clamps Mast: 80 100 mm diameter 80 g 1
734 363 2 clamps Mast: 100 120 mm diameter 90 g 1
734 364 2 clamps Mast: 120 140 mm diameter 110 g 1
734 365 2 clamps Mast: 45 125 mm diameter 80 g 1
732 321 1 downtilt kit Downtilt angle: 0 20 1.0 kg 1
For downtilt mounting use the clamps for an appropriate mast diameter together with the downtilt kit.

716
746
662
Wall mounting: No additional mounting kit needed.

Material: Reflector screen: Tin plated copper. Radiator: Tin plated zinc.
Flat fiberglass radome : The max. radome depth is only 69 mm. Fiber-
glass material guarantees optimum performance with regards to stability,
stiffness, UV resistance and painting. The colour of the radome is grey.
All screws and nuts: Stainless steel.
Grounding: The metal parts of the antenna including the mounting kit and the inner
conductors are DC grounded.
Environmental conditions: Kathrein cellular antennas are designed to operate under the environ-
Adjustment
mental conditions as described in ETS 300 019-1-4 class 4.1 E. mechanism
The antennas exceed this standard with regard to the following items: with integrated
Low temperature: 55 C scale
High temperature (dry): + 60 C 54
Ice protection: Due to the very sturdy antenna construction and the
69

protection of the radiating system by the radome, the antenna remains


45 +45
operational even under icy conditions.
155
Environmental tests: Kathrein antennas have passed environmental tests as recommended
in ETS 300 019-2-4. The homogenous design of Kathreins antenna Bottom view
families use identical modules and materials. Extensive tests have been
performed on typical samples and modules.
Long service life: According to our own experience, the outstanding mechanical
characteristics of Kathrein antennas result in an antenna service life
of over 15 years.

Please note: As a result of more stringent legal regulations and judgements regarding product liability, we are
obliged to point out certain risks that may arise when products are used under extraordinary operating
conditions.
Subject to alteration.

The mechanical design is based on the environmental conditions as stipulated in ETS 300 019-1-4, which
include the static mechanical load imposed on an antenna by wind at maximum velocity.
Extraordinary operating conditions, such as heavy icing or exceptional dynamic stress (e.g. strain caused by
oscillating support structures), may result in the breakage of an antenna or even cause it to fall to the ground.
These facts must be considered during the site planning process.

The installation team must be properly qualified and also be familiar with the relevant national safety
936.2108/a

regulations.
The details given in our data sheets have to be followed carefully when installing the antennas and
accessories.
The limits for the coupling torque of RF-connectors, recommended by the connector manufacturers
must be obeyed.

Any previous datasheet issues have now become invalid.

742 211 page 2 of 2


Internet: http://www.kathrein.de
KATHREIN-Werke KG . Anton-Kathrein-Strae 1 3 . PO Box 10 04 44 . D-83004 Rosenheim . Germany . Telephone +49 8031 1 84-0 . Fax +49 8031 1 84-9 73
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CS72761.09
KATHREIN 742211
STARHUB 3G RADIO 88 (138)
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CS72764.01
KATHREIN 742234

2-Multi-band F-Panel 1710 2170 1710 2170


Dual Polarization X X
Half-power Beam Width 65 65
Adjust. Electr. Downtilt 0 8 0 8
set by hand or by optional RCU (remote control unit)

XXPol F-Panel 17102170/17102170 65/65 18/18dBi 08/08T


Type No. 742 234
Frequency range 17102170
1710 1880 MHz 1850 1990 MHz 1920 2170 MHz
Polarization +45, 45; +45, 45 +45, 45; +45, 45 +45, 45; +45, 45
Gain 4 x 17.5 dBi 4 x 17.7 dBi 4 x 17.8 dBi
Half-power beam width Horizontal: 66 Horizontal: 65 Horizontal: 64
Copolar +45/ 45 Vertical: 7 Vertical: 6.7 Vertical: 6.5
Electrical tilt 0 8 0 8 0 8
continuously adjustable
Sidelobe suppression for 0 ... 2 ... 5 ... 8T 0 ... 2 ... 5 ... 8T 0 ... 2 ... 5 ... 8T
first sidelobe above horizon 17 ... 17 ... 15 .... 15 dB 20 ... 20 ... 18 ... 18 dB 20 ... 20 ... 18 ... 16 dB
Front-to-back ratio Copolar: > 25 dB Copolar: > 25 dB Copolar: > 25 dB
Total power: > 25 dB Total power: > 25 dB Total power: > 25 dB
Cross polar ratio
Maindirection 0 Typically: 25 dB Typically: 25 dB Typically: 25 dB
Sector 60 > 10 dB > 10 dB > 10 dB
Isolation, between inputs > 30 dB > 30 dB > 30 dB
Impedance 50 50 50
VSWR < 1.5 < 1.5 < 1.5
Intermodulation IM3 < 150 dBc
(2 x 43 dBm carrier)
Max. power per input 300 Watt (at 50 C ambient temperature)

1710 1880 MHz: +45/ 45 Polarization

66
130

10 10

3
dB

dB

0
0

Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern


0 8 electrical downtilt
1710 2170 1710 2170 1710 2170 1710 2170
1850 1990 MHz: +45/ 45 Polarization +45 45 +45 45

65
125
7-16 7-16 7-16 7-16
6.7

10 10 Mechanical specifications
Subject to alteration.

3
Input 4 x 7-16 female
dB

dB

0
0 Connector position Bottom
Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern
Adjustment 2 x, Position bottom
0 8 electrical downtilt
mechanism continuously adjustable
1920 2170 MHz: +45/ 45 Polarization Weight 12 kg
Wind load Frontal: 570 N (at 150 km/h)
936.2077

120
64 Lateral: 110 N (at 150 km/h)
Rearside: 570 N (at 150 km/h)
6.5
Max. wind velocity 200 km/h
10 10
Packing size 1574 x 320 x 92 mm
3
dB

dB

3 Height/width/depth 1302 / 299 / 69 mm


0
0

Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern


0 8 electrical downtilt
page 1 of 2 742 234
Internet: http://www.kathrein.de
KATHREIN-Werke KG . Anton-Kathrein-Strae 1 3 . PO Box 10 04 44 . D-83004 Rosenheim . Germany . Telephone +49 8031 1 84-0 . Fax +49 8031 1 84-9 73
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F-Panels
Harmony of Design and Technology

Accessories (order separately) 64


35 8.5
Weight Units per
Type No. Description Remarks
appr. antenna

731 651 1 clamp Mast: 28 64 mm diameter 330 g 2


738 546 1 clamp Mast: 50 115 mm diameter 1.0 kg 2
733 677 1 clamp Mast: 60 115 mm diameter 2.0 kg 2
733 678 1 clamp Mast: 115 210 mm diameter 2.6 kg 2
733 679 1 clamp Mast: 210 380 mm diameter 4.0 kg 2
733 680 1 clamp Mast: 380 521 mm diameter 5.3 kg 2
737 974 1 downtilt kit Downtilt angle: 0 15 2.8 kg 1
For downtilt mounting use the clamps for an appropriate mast diameter together with the downtilt kit.
Wall mounting: No additional mounting kit needed.

1302
1356
1386
Material: Reflector screen: Tin plated copper. Radiator: Tin plated zinc.
Flat fiberglass radome : The max. radome depth is only 69 mm. Fiber-
glass material guarantees optimum performance with regards to stability,
stiffness, UV resistance and painting. The colour of the radome is grey.
All screws and nuts: Stainless steel.
Grounding: The metal parts of the antenna including the mounting kit and the inner
conductors are DC grounded.
Environmental conditions: Kathrein cellular antennas are designed to operate under the environ-
mental conditions as described in ETS 300 019-1-4 class 4.1 E.
The antennas exceed this standard with regard to the following items:
Low temperature: 55 C
High temperature (dry): + 60 C
Ice protection: Due to the very sturdy antenna construction and the
protection of the radiating system by the radome, the antenna remains
operational even under icy conditions.
Environmental tests: Kathrein antennas have passed environmental tests as recommended
in ETS 300 019-2-4. The homogenous design of Kathreins antenna
families use identical modules and materials. Extensive tests have been Adjustment
performed on typical samples and modules. mechanism
with integrated scale
Long service life: According to our own experience, the outstanding mechanical 45
characteristics of Kathrein antennas result in an antenna service life
of over 15 years.
69

299
Bottom view

Please note: As a result of more stringent legal regulations and judgements regarding product liability, we are
obliged to point out certain risks that may arise when products are used under extraordinary operating
conditions.
Subject to alteration.

The mechanical design is based on the environmental conditions as stipulated in ETS 300 019-1-4, which
include the static mechanical load imposed on an antenna by wind at maximum velocity.
Extraordinary operating conditions, such as heavy icing or exceptional dynamic stress (e.g. strain caused by
oscillating support structures), may result in the breakage of an antenna or even cause it to fall to the ground.
These facts must be considered during the site planning process.

The installation team must be properly qualified and also be familiar with the relevant national safety
regulations.
936.2077

The details given in our data sheets have to be followed carefully when installing the antennas and
accessories.
The limits for the coupling torque of RF-connectors, recommended by the connector manufacturers
must be obeyed.

Any previous datasheet issues have now become invalid.

742 234 page 2 of 2


Internet: http://www.kathrein.de
KATHREIN-Werke KG . Anton-Kathrein-Strae 1 3 . PO Box 10 04 44 . D-83004 Rosenheim . Germany . Telephone +49 8031 1 84-0 . Fax +49 8031 1 84-9 73
STARHUB 3G RADIO 90 (138)
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CS72764.01
KATHREIN 742234
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CS72761.01
KATHREIN 739489

Multi-band F-Panel 1710 2170


Dual Polarization X
Half-power Beam Width 65
Fixed Electrical Downtilt 2
XPol F-Panel 17102170 65 12dBi 2T
Type No. 739 489
Frequency range 17102170
1710 1880 MHz 1850 1990 MHz 1920 2170 MHz
Polarization +45, 45 +45, 45 +45, 45
Gain 2 x 11.5 dBi 2 x 12 dBi 2 x 12 dBi
Half-power beam width Horizontal: 67 Horizontal: 65 Horizontal: 63
Copolar +45/ 45 Vertical: 32 Vertical: 30 Vertical: 28
Electrical tilt 3, fixed 2, fixed 0, fixed
Gain-reduction in horizon typ. 0.1 dB typ. 0 dB typ. 0 dB
Front-to-back ratio, copolar > 30 dB > 30 dB > 27 dB
Cross polar ratio
Maindirection 0 Typically: 25 dB Typically: 25 dB Typically: 25 dB
Sector 60 > 10 dB > 10 dB > 10 dB
Isolation, between ports > 30 dB
Impedance 50
VSWR < 1.4
Intermodulation IM3 < 150 dBc
(2 x 43 dBm carrier)
Max. power per input 150 Watt (at 50 C ambient temperature)

1710 1880 MHz: +45/ 45 Polarization

67
125

32

10 10

3
dB

dB

3
0
0

Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern


3 electrical downtilt

1850 1990 MHz: +45/ 45 Polarization


17102170 1710 2170
120
65 45 +45

30

10 10 7-16 7-16
Subject to alteration.

dB

dB

3 3

0 0 Mechanical specifications
Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern
2 electrical downtilt Input 2 x 7-16 female
Connector position Bottom
1920 2170 MHz: +45/ 45 Polarization Weight 2 kg
Wind load Frontal: 35 N (at 150 km/h)
936.1923/c

115 63 Lateral: 25 N (at 150 km/h)


Rearside: 80 N (at 150 km/h)
28
Max. wind velocity 200 km/h
10 10
Packing size 444 x 172 x 92 mm
dB

dB

3 3
Height/width/depth 342 / 155 / 69 mm
0 0

Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern


0 electrical downtilt
page 1 of 2 739 489

KATHREIN-Werke KG . Anton-Kathrein-Strae 1 3 . P.O. Box 10 04 44 . D-83004 Rosenheim . Germany . Telephone (++49)8031/184-0 . Fax (++49)8031/184-973
STARHUB 3G RADIO 92 (138)
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F-Panels
Harmony of Design and Technology

Accessories (order separately)


Weight Units per
Type No. Description Remarks
appr. antenna

734 360 2 clamps Mast: 34 60 mm diameter 60 g 1


734 361 2 clamps Mast: 60 80 mm diameter 70 g 1
734 362 2 clamps Mast: 80 100 mm diameter 80 g 1

342
396
426
734 363 2 clamps Mast: 100 120 mm diameter 90 g 1
734 364 2 clamps Mast: 120 140 mm diameter 110 g 1
734 365 2 clamps Mast: 45 125 mm diameter 80 g 1
732 327 1 downtilt kit Downtilt angle: 0 40 1 kg 1
8.5
For downtilt mounting use the clamps for an appropriate mast diameter together with the downtilt kit. 35
Wall mounting: No additional mounting kit needed.
64

Material: Reflector screen: Tin plated copper. Radiator: Tin plated zinc. 54
Flat fiberglass radome : The max. radome depth is only 69 mm. Fiber-
glass material guarantees optimum performance with regards to stability,

69
stiffness, UV resistance and painting. The colour of the radome is grey. 45 +45

All screws and nuts: Stainless steel.


155
Grounding: The metal parts of the antenna including the mounting kit and the inner
conductors are DC grounded. Bottom view

Environmental conditions: Kathrein cellular antennas are designed to operate under the environ-
mental conditions as described in ETS 300 019-1-4 class 4.1 E.
The antennas exceed this standard with regard to the following items:
Low temperature: 55 C
High temperature (dry): + 60 C
Ice protection: Due to the very sturdy antenna construction and the
protection of the radiating system by the radome, the antenna remains
operational even under icy conditions.
Environmental tests: Kathrein antennas have passed environmental tests as recommended
in ETS 300 019-2-4. The homogenous design of Kathreins antenna
families use identical modules and materials. Extensive tests have been
performed on typical samples and modules.
Long service life: According to our own experience, the outstanding mechanical
characteristics of Kathrein antennas result in an antenna service life
of over 15 years.

Please note: As a result of more stringent legal regulations and judgements regarding product liability, we are
obliged to point out certain risks that may arise when products are used under extraordinary operating
conditions.
Subject to alteration.

The mechanical design is based on the environmental conditions as stipulated in ETS 300 019-1-4, which
include the static mechanical load imposed on an antenna by wind at maximum velocity.
Extraordinary operating conditions, such as heavy icing or exceptional dynamic stress (e.g. strain caused by
oscillating support structures), may result in the breakage of an antenna or even cause it to fall to the ground.
These facts must be considered during the site planning process.

The installation team must be properly qualified and also be familiar with the relevant national safety
936.1923/c

regulations.
The details given in our data sheets have to be followed carefully when installing the antennas and
accessories.
The limits for the coupling torque of RF-connectors, recommended by the connector manufacturers
must be obeyed.

Any previous datasheet issues have now become invalid.

739 489 page 2 of 2

KATHREIN-Werke KG . Anton-Kathrein-Strae 1 3 . P.O. Box 10 04 44 . D-83004 Rosenheim . Germany . Telephone (++49)8031/184-0 . Fax (++49)8031/184-973
STARHUB 3G RADIO 93 (138)
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CS72761.01
KATHREIN 739489
STARHUB 3G RADIO 94 (138)
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13. APPENDIX D : KATHREIN ANTENNA-TO-ANTENNA ISOLATION MEASUREMENTS

Please note that 742212 have replaced 741784. The only difference between the two is the mechanical
interface for the RET unit. So all dimensions and electrical parameters including isolation are still valid.
For any clarification, please contact SiSo Tomi Karvonen (Email: tomi.karvonen@nokia.com )

Disclaimer: It should be noted that for a given horizontal and vertical beamwidth, there would be
differences in gain and radiation patterns between different antenna manufacturers. These differences
will obviously affect the isolation distance requirements. As such, when applying these results to other
antennas, care should be taken to ensure that the antenna specifications are analogous. These isolation
measurement results should be taken as a reference only.
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Isolation
XPol - Antenna Configurations

2 x 741 794 XPol F-Panel 1710-2170 65 18,5 dBi 2T

Distance a

Distance a

Horizontal Separation Vertical Separation


Distance a / mm Isolation / dB Isolation / dB

170 35 50
500 45
1000 50

AEM / FR / 05-2000
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Isolation Antenna Configuration

XXPol 900/1800 - XPol 1710-2170

741 320 XXPol A-Panel 900/1800 C 65/60 15/16,5 dBi

741 794 XPol F-Panel 1710-2170 65 18 dBi 2T

Distance d

Isolation Isolation
Distance d
GSM 900 / UMTS GSM 1800 / UMTS

220 mm > 40 dB > 38 dB

450 mm > 50 dB > 45 dB

700 mm > 50 dB > 47 dB

1200 mm > 50 dB > 50 dB

AEM / FR / 4-2000
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Isolation Antenna Configuration

XXPol 900/1800 - XPol 1710-2170

741 320 XXPol A-Panel 900/1800 C 65/60 15/16,5 dBi

741 794 XPol F-Panel 1710-2170 65 18 dBi 2T

Distance d

Isolation Isolation
Distance d GSM 900 / UMTS GSM 1800 / UMTS

100 mm > 50 dB > 50 dB

300 mm > 50 dB > 50 dB

AEM / FR / 4-2000
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Typical decoupling
for horizontal separation

55

1710 - 1990 MHz


741 784 (6T)

50

1710 - 2170 MHz


741 784 (6T)

45

Decoupling / dB
40

35

30
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Distance a / m

Date Type no.:


25.1.01
Decoupling 739 496 XPol F-Panel 1710 -1990 65 18 dBi 6T
Name 741 784 XPol F-Panel 1710 - 2170 65 18 dBi 0-8T
1710 - 1990 MHz and 1710 - 217
Hb Sheet:
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Decoupling
vertical separation

739 496 XPol F-Panel 1710 1990 65 18dBi 6T


741784 XPol F-Panel 1710-2170 65 18dBi 0-8T

741 784
6 tilt

739 496
6 tilt (fix)

Distance D Typical
[mm] Decoupling
>= 200 > 54 dB

Date Type:
25.1.2001 Decoupling 739 496
Name 1710 1990 MHz and 1710 2170 MHz 741 784
Hb Sh:
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Typical decoupling
for horizontal separation

55

739 708 (6 T fix)


50 to 741 784 (6 T)

45

741 784 (6 T)
to 739 708 (6 T fix)

Decoupling / dB
40

35

30
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
Distance a / m

Date Type no.:


29.1.01
Decoupling XPol
739 708 XPol F-Panel
F-Panel 1710-2170
1710-1880 65 16.5 dBi
90 18dBi 6
0-8
Name XPol
741 784 i F-Panel 1710-2170 65 18 dBi 0-8
1710 - 1880 MHz and 1710 - 217
Hb Sheet:
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Typical decoupling
for vertical separation

60

55

741 784 (6T)


to 739 708 (6T fix)
50

d
45
739 708 (6T fix) to 741 784 (6T)
Distance d [m] | Decou

Decoupling / dB
>= 0.2 | > 55
40

35

30
0 0.5 1 1.5
Distance d / m

Date Type no.:


29.1.01
Decoupling 739 708 XPol F-Panel 1710-1880
1719-2170 90
65 16.5 dBi
18 dBi 6T
0-8T
Name 741 784 XPol F-Panel 1710-2170 65 18 dBi 0-8T
1710 - 1880 MHz and 1710 - 217
Hb Sheet:
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Typical decoupling
for horizontal separation

55

50

741 622 741 784


9T (fix) 6T
45

Decoupling / dB
40

35

30
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25
Distance a / m

Date Type no.:


26.1.01
Decoupling 741 622 XPol A-Panel 824-960 65 17 dBi 9T
Name 741 784 XPol F-Panel 1710-2179 65 18 dBi 0-8T
824 - 960 MHz / 1710 - 2170 MHz
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Decoupling
vertical separation

741 622 XPol A-Panel 824 - 960 65 17dBi 9T


741 784 XPol F-Panel 1710-2170 65 18dBi 0-8T

741 784
6 tilt

D
d

741 622
9 tilt (fix)

Distance D Typical
[mm] Decoupling
>= 200 > 55 dB

Date Type:
26.1.2001 Decoupling 741 622
Name 806 - 960 MHz and 1710 2170 MHz 741 784
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Typical decoupling
for horizontal separation

50

48

46

44 739 661 741 784


8T (fix) 6T
42

40

Decoupling / dB
38

a
36

34

32

30
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25
Distance a / m

Date Type no.:


26.1.01
Decoupling 739 661 XPol A-Panel 800/900 90 15 dBi 8T
Name 741 784 XPol F-Panel 1710-2179 65 18 dBi 0-8T
806 - 960 MHz / 1710 - 2170 MHz
Hb Sheet:
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Typical decoupling
for vertical separation

55

741 784 (6T) to


739 661 (8T fix)

50

739 661 (8T fix)


to 741 784 (6T)
45

Decoupling / dB
40

35

30
0 0.5 1 1.5
Distance d / m

Date Type no.:


26.1.01
Decoupling 739 661 XPol F-Panel 800/900 90 15 dBi 8T
Name 741 784 XPol F-Panel 1710-2170 65 18 dBi 0-8T
806 -960 MHz and 1710 - 217
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ANTENNA CROSS BEAM SCENARIO 1 :


Typical decoupling 0 / 0
for horizontal separation

55

Using 1 meter separation as


50
the benchmark, we can see
that the worst case is cross
beam of 20/340 but we 0 0
are still able to achieve
45
49dB isolation despite the
crossing of antenna beam.

Decoupling / dB
40

35

30
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Distance a / m

Date Type no.:


30.11.00
Decoupling 739 708 XPol F-Panel 1800 90 16.5 dBi 6T
Name
1710 - 1880 M
Hb Sheet: 1
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ANTENNA CROSS BEAM SCENARIO 2 :


Typical decoupling 0 / 350
for horizontal separation

55

53dB

50

0 350

45

Decoupling / dB
40

35

30
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Distance a / m

Date Type no.:


30.11.00
Decoupling 739 708 XPol F-Panel 1800 90 16.5 dBi 6T
Name
1710 - 1880 M
Hb Sheet: 2
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ANTENNA CROSS BEAM SCENARIO 3 :


Typical decoupling
0 / 340
for horizontal separation

55

51dB
50

0 340
45

Decoupling / dB
40

35

30
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Distance a / m

Date Type no.:


30.11.00
Decoupling 739 708 XPol F-Panel 1800 90 16.5 dBi 6T
Name
1710 - 1880 M
Hb Sheet: 3
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ANTENNA CROSS BEAM SCENARIO 4 :


Typical decoupling
10 / 350
for horizontal separation

55

52dB
50

10 350

45

Decoupling / dB
40

35

30
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Distance a / m

Date Type no.:


30.11.00
Decoupling 739 708 XPol F-Panel 1800 90 16.5 dBi 6T
Name
1710 - 1880 M
Hb Sheet: 4
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ANTENNA CROSS BEAM SCENARIO 5 :


Typical decoupling 10 / 340
for horizontal separation

55

51dB
50

10 340
45

Decoupling / dB
40

35

30
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Distance a / m

Date Type no.:


30.11.00
Decoupling 739 708 XPol F-Panel 1800 90 16.5 dBi 6T
Name
1710 - 1880 M
Hb Sheet: 5
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Typical decoupling ANTENNA CROSS BEAM SCENARIO 6 :


for horizontal separation 20 / 340

55 Using 1 meter separation as


the benchmark, we can see
that the worst case is cross
50 beam of 20/340 but we
49dB
are still able to achieve
49dB isolation despite the 20 340
45
crossing of antenna beam.

Decoupling / dB
40

35

30
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Distance a / m

Date Type no.:


30.11.00
Decoupling 739 708 XPol F-Panel 1800 90 16.5 dBi 6T
Name
1710 - 1880 M
Hb Sheet: 6
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14. APPENDIX E : ANTENNA FEEDER CABLE SPECIFICATION

DRAFT ver.2 SPECIFICATION 5036/97


replace 5027/97
17.9.1997 1(2)
_________________________________________________________________________________________

COAXIAL CABLE

TYPE RF 7/8"-50 NOKIA CS Code: CS72252


RF 7/8"-50 LD NOKIA CS Code: CS72252.01
RF 7/8"-50 GHF NOKIA CS Code: CS72252.02

CONSTRUCTION

Inner conductor Copper tube 9.0 mm


Dielectric Cellular polyethylene 22.2 mm
Outer conductor Corrugated copper tube 24.9 mm
Sheath See table below 27.5 mm
Marking NOKIA, CS code, cable type,
manufacture week, year and metre mark

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS at +20 C

Characteristic impedance 50 1
Return loss for
- NMT 450 400- 500 MHz
- NMT 900 and GSM 800-1000 "
- DCS 1700-1900 or 1600-2000 "
bands according to customer's specifications
- other bands also available on request
Attenuation see table
Velocity factor 0.88
Capacitance 76 pF/m
Cut-off frequency 5300 MHz
Maximum operating frequency 3000 MHz
Max power rating see table
Peak RF voltage rating 3.1 kV
Peak power rating 100 kW
DC-resistance inner conductor 1.1 /km
DC-resistance outer conductor 1.0 /km

MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Weight 550 kg/km


Maximum pulling force 1800 N
Minimum bending radius
- single bending 120 mm
- repeated bending 360 mm
Operating temperature range -40...+70C
Minimum installation temperature -20C

JACKETING OPTIONS

TYPE Jacket IEC 754 -1/-2 IEC 1034 IEC 332-3 C UV retardancy Min. installation
halogen free, low smoke emission fire retardant temperature
non corrosive

RF 7/8"-50 Black HD/LD yes no no yes -20C


polyethylene
Grey,halogen free
RF 7/8"-50 GHF fire retardant yes yes yes no -5C
thermoplastic

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Made for NOKIA by NK Cables


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DRAFT ver.2 SPECIFICATION 5036/97


replace 5027/97
17.9.1997 2(2)
_________________________________________________________________________________________

7/8" COAXIAL CABLE

Frequency Attenuation Power rating Power rating


ambient ambient +40C ambient +40C
MHz temperature 20C innerconductor innerconductor
dB/100m +70C +100C
kW kW
10 0.366 10.0 21.0
30 0.641 5.7 12.0
50 0.834 4.4 9.1
100 1.20 3.1 6.3
200 1.73 2.2 4.4
300 2.15 1.7 3.6
400 2.51 1.5 3.1
450 2.68 1.4 2.9
500 2.84 1.3 2.7
600 3.14 1.2 2.5
700 3.42 1.1 2.3
800 3.69 1.0 2.1
850 3.82 0.99 2.04
900 3.94 0.96 1.98
950 4.06 0.93 1.92
1000 4.18 0.91 1.87
1200 4.65 0.82 1.69
1400 5.08 0.75 1.55
1600 5.49 0.70 1.44
1800 5.88 0.65 1.35
2000 6.26 0.61 1.27
2200 6.63 0.58 1.20
2400 6.98 0.55 1.14
2600 7.33 0.53 1.09
2800 7.66 0.51 1.04
3000 7.99 0.49 1.00

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Made for NOKIA by NK Cables


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TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES SPECIFICATION 5001/97


replace 5012/96
S Vilppola 09.01.1997 1(2)
____________________________________________________________________

1 5/8" COAXIAL CABLE

TYPE RF 1 5/8"-50

CONSTRUCTION

Inner conductor Corrugated copper tube 17.5 mm


Dielectric Cellular polyethylene 42.0 mm
Outer conductor Corrugated copper tube 46.5 mm
Sheath Black high density polyethylene 50.0 mm
Marking Manufacturer's name, cable type, manufacture
week, year and metre mark

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS at +20C

Impedance 50 1
Return loss for
- NMT 450 400- 500 MHz
- NMT 900 and GSM 800-1000 "
- DCS 1700-1900 or 1600-2000 "
bands according to customer's specifications
- other bands also available on request
Attenuation see table
Velocity factor 0.87
Capacitance 78 pF/m
Max power rating see table

MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Weight 1300 kg/km


Maximum pulling force 3000 N
Minimum bending radius
- single bending 400 mm
- repeated bending 800 "
Operating temperature range -40...+70C
Minimum installation temperature -20C

________________________________________________________________________
P.O.Box 269, FIN-90651 Oulu Phone + 358-10-5661
FINLAND Fax + 358-10-566 4474
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TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES SPECIFICATION 5001/97


replace 5012/96
S Vilppola 09.01.1997 2(2)
____________________________________________________________________

1 5/8" COAXIAL CABLE

Frequency Attenuation Power rating Power rating


ambient temperature ambient +40C ambient +40C
MHz 20C innerconductor innerconductor
dB/100m +70C +100C
kW kW
10 0.20 22.9 45.1
30 0.36 13.0 25.7
50 0.47 10.0 19.7
100 0.68 6.9 13.7
200 1.00 4.8 9.4
300 1.26 3.8 7.5
400 1.49 3.2 6.4
450 1.60 3.0 6.0
500 1.70 2.9 5.7
600 1.90 2.6 5.1
700 2.09 2.4 4.7
800 2.27 2.2 4.3
850 2.35 2.1 4.2
900 2.44 2.0 4.0
950 2.52 2.0 3.9
1000 2.60 1.9 3.8
1200 2.92 1.7 3.4
1400 3.22 1.6 3.1
1600 3.51 1.4 2.9
1800 3.79 1.3 2.7
2000 4.07 1.3 2.5
2200 4.33 1.2 2.4
2400 4.59 1.1 2.2
2600 4.85 1.1 2.1

________________________________________________________________________
P.O.Box 269, FIN-90651 Oulu Phone + 358-10-5661
FINLAND Fax + 358-10-566 4474
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15. APPENDIX F : NOKIA GSM/EDGE BASE STATION PERFORMANCE REGARDING GSM-


WCDMA (FDD) AIR INTERFACE CO-LOCATION REQUIREMENTS TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Appendix 1 - Technical Summary

This summary applies to GSM-WCDMA co-existence cases. The term co-siting can refer to the cases where GSM and
WCDMA Base Stations are located in the same geographic area or are co-located in the same site or can share the
same antenna system.

This statement applies to the Nokia's GSM/EDGE 1800 Base Station families:

Nokia 2nd Generation BTS


Nokia TALK-Family BTS
Nokia MetroSite GSM BTS
Nokia MetroSite EDGE BTS
Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS

Spurious emissions

The GSM Base Stations mentioned above are compliant according to GSM TS 05.05 Spurious emissions 4.3.2.2 at the
antenna connector according to tables below.

a) In geographic areas where GSM and WCDMA networks are deployed, the power shall be no more than

Frequency Level at 100kHz BW


1920-1980 MHz -62 dBm
2110-2170 MHz -62 dBm

b) When GSM and WCDMA Base Stations are co-located, the power shall be no more than

Frequency Level at 100kHz BW


1920-1980 MHz -96 dBm
2110-2170 MHz -62 dBm

Excluding:

-Nokia TALK-Family GSM1800 BTS:


- If the BTS is equipped with AFEB and the channel separation is e.g. >57MHz at the
bottom and >39.6 MHz at the top of the GSM1800 band performance is < -62 dBm.

(In the case above interpolation should be used in the other part of the band to
realize the correct separation respectively).
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Blocking characteristics

GSM Base Stations mentioned above have been evaluated according to GSM TS 05.05 Blocking characteristics 5.1
and the sensitivity for the above-mentioned GSM BTS is not deteriorated when the interferer stated below is
present in the GSM BTS roof connector.

Frequency of interferer Interfering signal Type of Interfering Signal


signal level
2110-2170 MHz +20 dBm CW

**** End of Technical Summary ****


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16. APPENDIX G : CS72230.20 ULTRASITE GSM1800/WCDMA DIPLEXER TECHNICAL DATA

CS72230.20 Diplexer 1710-1880 / 1920 2170 MHz


-Preliminary-
The diplexer can be used:
to combine several transmitting or receiving fre-
quencies in 2 frequency bands to a common Port 3
feeder cable, to a broad-band antenna or to a
broad-band radiating cable at port 3,
and, in reverse operating mode, to separate
several transmitting or receiving frequencies into
2 frequency bands (base stations) at port 1 and
port 2.

Design and construction:


The diplexer consists of an 8-cavity
band-pass filter for band 1 and a 10-cavity band-
pass filter for band 2. Both filter branches provide a
DC by-pass function to enable mast head amplifers
to be supplied with DC voltage.
The diplexer is designed for use as
either an indoor or outdoor device.

Note:
If used outdoors then the diplexer
has to be mounted with port 1 and port 2
showing upwards in order to comply with IP 66 Port 1 Port 2
specifications.

CS72230.20
Single Unit

Technical Data Typical Attenuation Curves


Diagram I Port 1 Port 3 Port 2 Port 3
Type No. CS72230.20 CS72230.xx
Single Unit Double Unit Detail see
Diagram II
Pass band
Band 1 (GSM 1800) 1710 1880 MHz
Band 2 (UMTS) 1920 2170 MHz
Insertion loss
Port 1 Port 3 < 0.3 dB (1710 1880 MHz)
Port 2 Port 3 < 0.3 dB (1920 2170 MHz)
Isolation
Port 1 Port 2 > 50 dB (1710 1880 MHz)
> 50 dB (1920 2170 MHz)
VSWR < 1.2 (1710 1880 / 1920 2170 MHz)
Impedance 50
Input power
Band 1 < 150 W Diagram II Port 1 Port 3 Port 2 Port 3
Band 2 < 60 W
IM products < 160 dBc (3rd order; with 2 x 20 W)
Temperature range 40 ... + 60 C
Connectors 7-16 female, silver-plated
Application Indoor or outdoor (IP 66)
Special features Port 1 / Port 2 Port 3: DC by-pass (max. 1000 mA)
Mounting Wall mounting: With 4 screws (max. 8 mm diameter)
Mast mounting: With clamp set CS72199.01 (suitable for
masts with 45 ... 125 mm diameter)
Dimensions (w x h x d) 183 x 315 x 56 mm 183 x 315 x 110 mm
(including mounting brackets) (including mounting brackets)
Weight Approx. 2.5 kg Approx. 4.9 kg
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RF Performance:
Insertion Loss Port - common 0.3 dB
Isolation, port to port 50 dB
Return Loss, any port 21 dB

Passive Intermodulation:
Any RX band -118 dBm/200 kHz
Any TX band -37 dBm/200 kHz
Rated Power at ports:
GSM 120 W avg 1.44 kW peak
WCDMA 55 W avg 2.15 kW peak
Common 175 W avg 7.35 kW peak
Installation:
RF connectors:
BTS port 7/16 male
Antenna port 7/16 female
Dimensions:
GSM 900 diplexer 150 x 75 x 55mm
GSM 1800 diplexer 210 x 230 x 60mm
Mounting Wall mounting using 4 screws
Pole mounting using 2 hose clamps
Environmental specifications:
Temperature Range C -40 - +55
Ingress Protection IP65 (within specified temperature range)
Operation ETSI 300 019-1-4 IN USE (classification 4.1
IEC class 4M5)
Storage ETSI 300 019-1-1 STORAGE (classification
1.3E class 1M4)
Transportation ETSI 300 019-1-2 TRANSPORTATION
(classification 2.3)
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17. APPENDIX H : ULTRASITE WCDMA MHA AND BIAS-TEE COMPONENTS SPECIFICATION

WCDMA MHA and Bias-Tee components


CS72995.01 WCDMA MHA 1920-1980 MHz band
CS72996.01 WCDMA Bias-Tee with VSWR, including power
cable

Nokia UltraSite WCDMA MHA technical data

Noise Figure: 2 dB
Gain, RX band:
Nominal gain 12 dB
Ripple +/- 0.5 dB room temp
+/- 0.9 dB all temps
Insertion loss 0.6 dB
Response, other frequencies 0 dB within 20 MHz of passband
MHA Input Dynamic Range:
3rd-order intercept 10 dBm
1 dB compression - 5 dBm
Return loss, ANT and BTS ports:
RX band 16 dB
TX band 18 dB
Group delay distortion: 20 ns over 5 MHz
Passive Intermodulation Products:
PIM level in RX band: -119 dBm/200 kHz
PIM level in TX band: -37 dBm/200 kHz
Critical Input RX filter rejection:
GSM 1800, 1805-1880 65 dB
WCDMA TX, 2110-2170 71 dB
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Critical Input TX filter rejection:


WCDMA RX, 1920-1980 65 dB
Rated Power at ports:
ANT port in-band 5 dBm
ANT port out-of-band 20 dBm
BTS port avg 46 dBm in-band
BTS port peak 62 dBm in-band
DC Power supply:
Voltage 7.0 - 8.6 V - from UltraSite WCDMA BTS
11 - 13 V - co-sited BTS
Nominal current 190 mA
Maximum current 350 mA
Alarm Setting Conditions:
Alarm current range 230-395 mA
Switch time 100 msec
Bypass mode:
Insertion loss -3 dB
Return loss -12 dB
Installation:
RF connectors:
BTS port 7/16 female
Antenna port 7/16 female
Dimensions 230 x 170 x 98mm
Mounting Wall mounting using 4 screws
Pole mounting using 2 hose clamps
Environmental specifications:
Temperature Range C -40 - +55
Ingress Protection IP65 (within specified temperature range)
Operation ETSI 300 019-1-4 IN USE (classification 4.1 IEC
class 4M5)
Storage ETSI 300 019-1-1 STORAGE (classification 1.3E
class 1M4)
Transportation ETSI 300 019-1-2 TRANSPORTATION
(classification 2.3)
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Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Bias-Tee technical data


RF Performance:
Insertion loss 0.3 dB
Return loss 18 dB
Rated power 55 W avg, 2.2 KW peak
Alarm signal - alarm indicates no RF power, high VSWR (no DC power implied)
VSWR alarm threshold 7 dB nominal
+/- 2 dB tolerance
Logic no alarm: 0 V, 50 mA max
alarmed: 3.3 V, 0 mA
Response time 0.5 sec
DC and Signal - DC supply via RJ-45 from BTS
Voltage drop 0.5 V
Rated power 7.5 - 9.1 V, 350 mA max
Insertion loss @ 1MHz 3 dB
Installation:
RF connectors:
BTS port 7/16 male
Antenna port 7/16 female
Dimensions 91 x 48 x 48mm
Mounting Wall mounting using 4 screws
Pole mounting using 2 hose clamps
Environmental specifications:
Temperature Range C -40 - +55
Ingress Protection IP65 (within specified temperature range)
Operation ETSI 300 019-1-4 IN USE (classification 4.1 IEC
class 4M5)
Storage ETSI 300 019-1-1 STORAGE (classification 1.3E
class 1M4)
Transportation ETSI 300 019-1-2 TRANSPORTATION
(classification 2.3)
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18. APPENDIX I : NOKIA ULTRASITE BTS CABINET SPACE REQUIREMENTS

The following Appendix shows the BTS cabinet space requirements for the 8 types of Nokia Site Family as shown
below:

Nokia Nokia UltraSite Nokia UltraSite Nokia UltraSite Triple-mode


MetroSite WCDMA BTS WCDMA BTS WCDMA BTS Nokia UltraSite
WCDMA Optima Optima Compact Supreme EDGE BTS
BTS

Indoor Outdoor Indoor Outdoor Indoor Outdoor


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Civil Works
Nokia WCDMA BTS EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS

SPACE REQUIREMENTS
OPTIMA COMPACT with RF EXTENSION
(Power Supply System : Nokia UltraSite Support - NUSS)

Nokia
UltraSite Nokia WCDMA BTS
Support Optima Compact
NUSS with RF Extension

DN01101266/1.0en - Optima Compact with RF Extension (Supreme SSS)

NOKIA WCDMA BTS OPTIMA COMPACT with RF Extension


Weights & Dimension*

Parameter WCDMA BTS Nokia UltraSite Support


Optima Compact (NUSS)
with RF Extension
Height 1300 mm 1940 mm
Widht 1200 mm 770mm
Depth 790 mm 790 mm

Cabinet Weight (Core) 140 kg 70 kg


Cabinet Weight (Empty) 260 kg 120 kg
Cabinet Weight, estimated for 325 kg -
1+1+1 (With Rel 1 HW)
Cabinet Weight, estimated for 390 kg -
2+2+2 (With Rel 1 HW)
Typical Power Consumption 2480 Watt (DC)
1+1+1, 20W, 128 HW channels 2530 Watt (AC)
Typical Power Consumption 4200 Watt (DC)
2+2+2, 20W, 320 HW channels 4270 Watt (AC)
Operating Temperature -33C +50 C -33C +50 C
Max Cabinet Weight 430 kg 510 kg

* Specification according to Document. DN0129915 / 1.0 en for Optima Compact BTS


Some of the detail product still in development, thus does not as such reflect the finished solution

DN01101266/1.0en - Optima Compact with RF Extension (Supreme SSS)


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Facility wall Facility wall

Minimum
770 mm recommendation
1200 mm 600mm*

Nokia WCDMA BTS


UltraSite Optima Compact
Support with RF Extension
(NUSS) 790 mm

Max : 430 kg
Max : 510 kg

Minimum
900mm

Door Door Door

Note* The rear clearance is between the BTS with other equipment / objects
For BTS Clearance with the Roof's edge, please refers to safety and health regulation (min 1500mm)

DN01101266/1.0en - Optima Compact with RF Extension (Supreme SSS)

Service Clearance
Clearances Recommendation for Nokia
WCDMA BTS OPTIMA COMPACT:

750 mm above the top.


900 mm at the front
100 mm on both sides
600 mm on the rear to provide fast and easy access
for back side installation,
900mm if the noise kit will be installed
the clearance between the BTS and rooftop's edge
should follow the safety and health regulation (min
1500mm)

DN01101266/1.0en - Optima Compact with RF Extension (Supreme SSS)


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Service Clearance
Clearances Recommendation for Nokia
NOKIA ULTRASITE SUPPORT (NUSS) :
750 mm above the top.
770 mm minimum at the front
100 mm on outmost side
600 mm on the rear to provide fast and easy access
for back side installation, the clearance between the
BTS and rooftop's edge should follow the safety and
health regulation (min 1500mm)

DN01101266/1.0en - Optima Compact with RF Extension (Supreme SSS)

Footprint for WCDMA BTS Optima Compact


and Nokia UltraSite Support (NUSS)

Nokia UltraSite Support


OPTIMA COMPACT BTS
(NUSS)

DN01101266/1.0en - Optima Compact with RF Extension (Supreme SSS)


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Civil Works

BTS EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS

SPACE REQUIREMENTS
NOKIA WCDMA BTS OPTIMA COMPACT

(Option)

SSS Nokia WCDMA BTS


Optima Optima Compact
Outdoor

DN01101266/0.2en - Optima Compact

NOKIA WCDMA BTS OPTIMA COMPACT


Weights & Dimension*
Parameter Optima Site Support Optima
Compact Outdoor (for later expansion)
Height 1300 mm 1300 mm
Widht 1200 mm 770mm
Depth 790 mm 790 mm
Cabinet Weight (Core) ~140 kg ~100 kg
Cabinet Weight (Empty) 225 kg 185 kg
Cabinet Weight, estimated for 330 kg -
1+1+1 (With Rel 1 HW)
Cabinet Weight, estimated for 430 kg -
2+2+2 (With Rel 1 HW)
Cabinet Weight, 490 kg -
estimated for 1+1+1 with IBBU
(With Rel 1 HW)
Power Consumption 4580 Watt -
Operating Temperature -33C +50 C -33C +50 C
Max Cabinet Weight 430 kg 450 kg
* Specification according to Document. DN0129915/Draft 3
Some of the detail product still in development, thus does not as such reflect the finished solution

DN01101266/0.2en - Optima Compact


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Nokia Site Support Optima or


Supreme to be used for later Nokia WCDMA BTS Optima
expansion of Power System Compact - 2, to be used for later
expansion of Carrier Capacity

Minimum
770 mm recommendation
1200 mm 1200 mm 600mm*

SSS WCDMA BTS WCDMA BTS


Optima or Optima Optima
Supreme Compact - 1 Compact - 2
790 mm
Outdoor Max : 490 kg Max : 490 kg
Max : 510 kg

Minimum
900mm

Door Door Door Door Door

Note* The rear clearance is between the BTS with other equipment / objects
For BTS Clearance with the Roof's edge, please refers to safety and health regulation (min 1500mm)

DN01101266/0.2en - Optima Compact

Service Clearance
Clearances Recommendation for Nokia
WCDMA BTS OPTIMA COMPACT:

600 mm above the top.


900 mm at the front
100 mm on both sides
600 mm on the rear to provide fast and easy access
for back side installation, the clearance between the
BTS and rooftop's edge should follow the safety and
health regulation (min 1500mm)

DN01101266/0.2en - Optima Compact


STARHUB 3G RADIO 131 (138)
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MACRO SITE SELECTION
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3G Radio Network Planning
Ryan Lim 10 July 2002

Footprint for WCDMA BTS Optima Outdoor


and Optima Compact

OPTIMA OUTDOOR OPTIMA COMPACT

DN01101266/0.2en - Optima Compact


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Civil Works
BTS EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS

SPACE REQUIREMENTS
NOKIA WCDMA BTS SUPREME OUTDOOR

(Option)

SITE SUPPORT NOKIA WCDMA BTS NOKIA WCDMA BTS


SUPREME OUTDOOR SUPREME SUPREME
FOR WCDMA BTS OUTDOOR - 1 OUTDOOR - 2

DN01101266/0.2en - Supreme Outdoor

NOKIA WCDMA BTS SUPREME OUTDOOR


AND SITE SUPPORT FOR WCDMA BTS - SUPREME OUTDOOR
Weights & Dimension

Parameter WCDMA BTS Site Support for WCDMA


Supreme Outdoor BTS Supreme Outdoor
Height 1940 mm 1940 mm
Widht 770 mm 770mm
Depth 790 mm 790 mm (850 mm with Extended Door)
Cabinet Weight (Core) ~120 kg ~120 kg
Cabinet Weight (Empty) 220 kg 220 kg
Cabinet Weight, estimated 315 kg -
for 1+1+1
Cabinet Weight, estimated 380 kg -
for 2+2+2
Power Consumption 4580 Watt 830 Watt for Aircond and fan
Operating Temperature -33C +50 C -33C +50 C
Max Cabinet Weight 420 kg 580 kg
* Specification according to Document. B6I 067208AE/6.0.1
Some of the detail product still in development, thus does not as such reflect the finished solution

DN01101266/0.2en - Supreme Outdoor


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Nokia WCDMA BTS Supreme


Outdoor - 2 to be used for later
expansion of Carrier Capacity

Minimum
Recommendation
770 mm 770 mm 770 mm 600mm*

SSS for WCDMA WCDMA


WCDMA BTS BTS BTS
Supreme Supreme Supreme
790 mm
Outdoor Outdoor-1 Outdoor-2
Max : 580 kg
Max : 420 kg Max : 420 kg

Minimum
900mm

Door Door Door

Note* The rear clearance is between the BTS with other equipment / objects
For BTS Clearance with the Roof's edge, please refers to safety and health regulation (min 1500mm)

DN01101266/0.2en - Supreme Outdoor

Service Clearance
Clearances Recommendation for Nokia
WCDMA BTS SUPREME OUTDOOR :

750 mm above the top.


770 mm minimum at the front
100 mm on both sides
600 mm on the rear to provide fast and easy access
for back side installation, the clearance between the
BTS and rooftop's edge should follow the safety and
health regulation (min 1500mm)

DN01101266/0.2en - Supreme Outdoor


STARHUB 3G RADIO 134 (138)
NETWORK PLANNING RF
MACRO SITE SELECTION
PLANNING GUIDELINES
Version 1.1
3G Radio Network Planning
Ryan Lim 10 July 2002

Footprint for WCDMA BTS Supreme Outdoor


and Site Support Supreme Outdoor for WCDMA BTS

SUPREME OUTDOOR

DN01101266/0.2en - Supreme Outdoor


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Version 1.1
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Ryan Lim 10 July 2002

Civil Works

BTS EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS

SPACE REQUIREMENTS
NOKIA WCDMA BTS METROSITE

MetroSite Nokia
BBU WCDMA BTS
for WCDMA MetroSite
Outdoor

DN01101266/0.2en - Metro

NOKIA WCDMA BTS MetroSite


and MetroSite BBU for WCDMA BTS
Weights & Dimension*
Parameter Nokia WCDMA BTS MetroSite BBU for
MetroSite WCDMA BTS
OUTDOOR MetroSite
Height 905 mm 905 mm
Widht 270 mm 270 mm
Depth 390 mm 39 mm
Cabinet Weight (Empty) 16 kg 16 kg
Power Consumption AC : 900 W; DC : 800 W -
Operating Temperature -33C +50 C (IP55) -33C +50 C (IP 55)
Max Cabinet Weight 45 kg 55 kg
Option for installation Wall or Pole installation Wall or Pole installation
Option for Configuration Cabinet Chaining for high
Capacity .
* Specification according to Document. DN0129915/Draft 3
Some of the detail product still in development, thus does not as such reflect the finished solution

DN01101266/0.2en - Metro
STARHUB 3G RADIO 136 (138)
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Version 1.1
3G Radio Network Planning
Ryan Lim 10 July 2002

Service Clearance
Top View

Min Min Min


50 400 400

Min Min Min


460 460 460

DN01101266/0.2en - Metro

Service Clearance
Clearances Recommendation for Nokia
WCDMA BTS METROSITE OUTDOOR:
200 mm above the top.
400 mm at the front
50 mm on side next to wall
400 mm on side to next equipment
All dimension in mm

200 200 200


Front
View
905
1505

400 400 400

DN01101266/0.2en - Metro
STARHUB 3G RADIO 137 (138)
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Version 1.1
3G Radio Network Planning
Ryan Lim 10 July 2002

19. DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY

DATE ISSUE EDITED BY SUMMARY OF CHANGES

20 May 2001 0.1 Ryan Lim First skeleton with reference from various documents (see
Reference list)

2 July 2001 0.2 Ryan Lim Continuation

16 July 2001 0.3 Ryan Lim Modify Co-siting chapters after discussion with Jussi R.

21 July 2001 0.4 Ryan Lim Section 5.2.6.1 amendment. Section 5.2.6.2, Appendix F
appended..

26 July 2001 0.5 Ryan Lim Comments from StarHub / Pauli A./ Jussi R. / Vincent T.,
Highway / MRT Coverage,

3 August 2001 0.6 Ryan LIm MHA, Diplexer, vertical and horizontal antenna isolation
requirement modifications. Modification to Appendix on BTS
dimensions etc.

3 September 2001 0.7 Ryan Lim Comments from StarHub dated 27 August 2001. Various
discussions with Project Team.

9 April 2002 0.8 Ryan Lim Update document with Antenna vertical clearance related.
Nokia RealTilt.. Confirmed 3G antenna types.

5 June 2002 1.0 Ryan Lim First official release. Confirmed the antenna isolation
measurements for 741784 is still applicable for 742212
since they are exactly the same except the mechanical part
for the RET.

10 July 2002 1.1 Ryan Lim Minor editorial changes on antenna isolation, separation
issues..

21 July 2002 1.2 Ryan Lim Minor editorial changes on antenna isolation, separation
issues. Appended section on WCDMA / CDMA2000 air
interface co-siting aspects.

1.3 Ryan Lim

1.4 Ryan Lim


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20. DISTRIBUTION LIST

DISTRIBUTION LIST FOR DOCUMENT: Nokia project staff

StarHub project staff