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Test Bank

by Brian Bagatto
to accompany
Animal Physiology, Third Edition
Hill Wyse Anderson

Chapter 1: Animals and Environments:


Function on the Ecological Stage

1. Which of the following statements about the discipline of physiology is false?


a. It is one of biologys most integrative disciplines.
b. It is a key discipline for understanding how animals change over Earths history.
c. It is a key discipline for understanding the fundamental biology of all animals.
d. It is a key discipline for understanding human health and disease.
e. It is a key discipline for understanding the health and disease of nonhuman animals.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: The Importance of Physiology, p. 4
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

2. To understand how a fish propels itself by applying forces to the water, physiologists
would study its
a. biomechanics.
b. evolution.
c. chemistry.
d. ecology.
e. cell physiology.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: The Importance of Physiology, p. 5
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

3. In the study of physiology, the term _______ refers to the components of living
animals and the interactions among those components that enable animals to perform as
they do.
a. feedback
b. regulation
c. natural selection
d. physiology
e. mechanism
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 5
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

4. The data in the graph would be relevant to which subdiscipline of physiology?

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a. Evolution
b. Cell physiology
c. Morphology
d. Ecology
e. Biomechanics
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: The Importance of Physiology, p. 45; Mechanism and Origin:
Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 6
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

5. In the firefly, _______ acts like an on/off switch that determines whether the light cells
do or do not produce light.
a. nitric oxide (NO)
b. ATP
c. oxygen
d. luciferase
e. nitrous oxide (NO2)
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 7
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

6. Which of the following is not needed in the mechanism of light production in the
firefly?
a. Oxygen
b. ATP
c. Nitric oxide
d. Light
e. Luciferin
Answer: d

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Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 7
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

7. In the firefly, light is emitted when


a. ATP combines with luciferin, forming luciferyl-AMP.
b. released nitric oxide blocks the mitochondrias use of oxygen.
c. the electron-excited product of O2 and luciferyl-AMP returns to its ground state.
d. oxygen combines with luciferyl-AMP.
e. luciferase is activated by oxygen.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 7
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

8. Which of the following is considered the on switch for the light emitting reaction of
the firefly?
a. Oxygen
b. Luciferase
c. Nitric oxide
d. ATP
e. Luciferin
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 7
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

9. A physiological mechanism or other trait that is a product of evolution and is


advantageous is called
a. an adaptation.
b. natural selection.
c. adaptive significance.
d. evolution.
e. genetic drift.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 8
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

10. What is the adaptive significance of light emission in the firefly?


a. Female fireflies emit light in such a way that distinguishes their species.
b. Female fireflies emit light to see at night.
c. All fireflies emit light to lure prey.
d. Male fireflies emit light to attract mates.
e. Male fireflies emit light to evade predators.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 8
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

11. Which of the following is a similarity between an octopus and a fish?

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a. The evolutionary adaptation of excellent vision
b. The mechanism of vision
c. The processing of visual signals before reaching the optic nerve
d. Both a and b
e. All of the above
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, pp. 9
10
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluation

12. Research in the field of _______ physiology emphasizes synthesis across levels of
biological organization.
a. mechanistic
b. evolutionary
c. comparative
d. environmental
e. integrative
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: The Books Approach to Physiology, p. 10
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

13. Which of the following statements about animals is false?


a. There is no distinction between an animal and its environment.
b. Animals are structurally dynamic.
c. Animals are organized systems.
d. Animals require energy to maintain their organization.
e. Body size is significant in the lives of all animals.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 11
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

14. Most cells of an animal


a. are exposed to the external environment.
b. are exposed to the internal environment.
c. fluctuate between exposure to the external environment and the internal environment.
d. turn over while being exposed to the internal environment.
e. None of the above
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 11
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

15.17. Refer to the figures below.

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15. Which figure refers to a physiological trait that is regulated by an organism?
a. a
b. b
c. c
d. d
e. None of the above
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 12
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

16. A migrating salmon regulates its internal Cl concentration while conforming to water
temperature. The first process is shown in figure _______, and the second process is
shown in figure _______.
a. a; b
b. b; a
c. b; d
d. a; c
e. None of the above
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 12
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

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17. Figure _______ shows an animals regulation of its body temperature as the external
temperature increases. Figure _______ shows an animals continuous regulation of its
body temperature if the external temperature continues to increase.
a. a; b
b. b; a
c. b; d
d. b; c
e. None of the above
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 12
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

18. Which of the following statements regarding physiological conformity and regulation
is true?
a. All animals will eventually conform.
b. Animals are either regulators or conformers.
c. An animal cannot be both an ion regulator and a temperature conformer.
d. Conforming is more metabolically expensive compared to regulating.
e. All of the above
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 12
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

19. The functioning of regulatory mechanisms that automatically make adjustments to


maintain internal constancy is called
a. conformity.
b. feedback.
c. homeostasis.
d. regulation.
e. set point.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 13
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

20. During childbirth, muscular contractions acting to expel the fetus from the uterus
induce hormonal signals that induce even more intense contractions. This is an example
of
a. homeostasis.
b. negative feedback.
c. a controlled variable.
d. a set point.
e. positive feedback.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 13
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

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21. Physiological changes that occur by alteration of gene frequencies over the course of
many generations are referred to as _______ changes.
a. acute
b. chronic
c. evolutionary
d. developmental
e. None of the above
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 14
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

22. _______ is an example of abandoning constancy during thermoregulation.


a. Walking
b. Sweating
c. Shivering
d. Hibernating
e. Huddling
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 14
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

23. Which of the following is the principal disadvantage of conformity?


a. The process requires a large amount of energy.
b. It allows cells to function in steady conditions.
c. Virtually no energy is produced by this process.
d. Cells are subject to changes in their conditions.
e. None of the above
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 14
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

24. Sweating in response to heat is an example of a(n)


a. acute change.
b. chronic change.
c. evolutionary change.
d. developmental change.
e. change controlled by a periodic biological clock.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 14
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

25.26. Refer to the figure below.

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25. This figure refers to what type of physiological response?
a. Chronic response
b. Acute response
c. Evolutionary response
d. Developmental response
e. A response controlled by a periodic biological clock
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 15
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

26. If the heat exposure were removed, the line in the diagram would
a. continue to show a plateau.
b. drop sharply.
c. gradually drop to its initial starting point.
d. drop but be maintained somewhere at the middle level.
e. None of the above
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 15
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

27. Which of the following is not a response exhibited by individuals?


a. Acute response
b. Chronic response
c. Evolutionary response
d. Developmental response
e. Response controlled by a periodic biological clock
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 15
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

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28. Rainbow trout captured and brought into a lab aquarium undergo a chronic
adjustment to the conditions in the lab. This process is called
a. phenotypic plasticity.
b. feedback inhibition.
c. acclimatization.
d. development.
e. acclimation.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 15
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

29.31. Refer to the figure below.

29. What statistical method was used to draw the trend line in the figure?
a. Phylogenetically independent contrasts
b. Species mean
c. Ordinary least squares regression
d. Weight-specific mean
e. Logarithmic scaling
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 17
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

30. According to the figure, what is the expected gestation period of a warthog?
a. 20 weeks
b. 24 weeks
c. 30 weeks
d. 55 weeks
e. 60 weeks

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Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 17
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

31. Which species in the figure shows an actual gestation period that is furthest from its
expected gestation period?
a. Bushbuck
b. Dikdik
c. Warthog
d. Greater kudu
e. Mountain zebra
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 17
Blooms Category: Applying

32. Which of the following statements regarding the Antarctic fish species rock cod is
false?
a. Some species have no hemoglobin.
b. The fish metabolically synthesize antifreeze to keep from freezing.
c. The fish live their entire lives at body temperatures near 1.6C.
d. If acclimated slowly enough, the fish can survive in tropical waters.
e. The fish lay their eggs in holes or depressions in ice sheets.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 18
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

33. _______ can tolerate a body temperature of _______, one of the highest body
temperatures recorded for any vertebrate animal.
a. Humans; 50C
b. Thermophilic archaea; 100C
c. The desert cactus; 68.5C
d. The desert iguana; 48.5C
e. Sea stars; 45.5C
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 19
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

34.35. Refer to the figure below.

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34. This figure shows that
a. the number of butterfly species increases as one moves toward the equator.
b. butterfly populations are larger near the equator than at any other latitude.
c. The number of butterfly species increases as latitude increases.
d. The butterfly population increases as latitude increases.
e. Latitudes near the equator provide butterflies with the best chance of survival.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 19
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

35. The environmental factor that is most responsible for the data shown in the figure is
a. sunlight.
b. food.
c. oxygen.
d. temperature.
e. water.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 19
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

36. In which of the following habitats would O2 concentration most likely be the lowest?
a. A subnivean air space
b. A professors office
c. An open meadow at 4000 m elevation

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d. The bottom of a waterfall
e. Pond water with a lot of algae
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 20
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

37. At altitudes above _______ m, people often find simply walking uphill to be a
significant challenge.
a. 5000
b. 6500
c. 9000
d. 10,000
e. 21,000
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 20
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

38. In order to obtain O2, water-breathers face a substantially greater challenge compared
to air-breathers. Which of the following is not a reason for this difference?
a. The solubility of O2 in water is not high.
b. Water contains less O2 per liter than air does.
c. Water is denser than air.
d. Water can become anoxic more readily than air can.
e. Oxygen diffuses more slowly across respiratory surfaces in water than in air.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 20
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

39. Most invertebrates that live in the ocean, such as sea stars and corals,
a. tend to gain water via osmosis.
b. tend to lose water via osmosis.
c. must drink water.
d. must actively excrete water.
e. do not gain or lose much water.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 21
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

40. Which of the following animals gains the most water osmotically per gram on a daily
basis?
a. Sea star
b. Goldfish
c. Lobster
d. Coral
e. Reef fish
Answer: b

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Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 22
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

41. Certain _______ can tolerate almost complete desiccation.


a. toads
b. humans
c. tardigrades
d. marine bony fish
e. goldfish
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 22
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

42. The subnivean air space is an example of a(n)


a. thermocline.
b. microenvironment.
c. desert burrow.
d. hibernaculum.
e. anoxic environment.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 23
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

43. Which of the following is not considered a process that could lead to nonadaptive
evolution?
a. Natural selection
b. Genetic drift
c. Bottlenecks
d. Pleiotropy
e. Natural disasters
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Evolutionary Processes, p. 24
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

44. Which of the following best demonstrates the process of evolution?


a. The increased presence of a trait favored by natural selection
b. A change of gene frequencies over time
c. The presence of a trait in a population that confers a disadvantage on members of the
population
d. The shifting of gene frequencies in a population because of random events
e. The change in an animals phenotype in response to environmental change
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: Evolutionary Processes, p. 24
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

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45. The shift in gene frequencies in smaller populations because of random deaths is
referred to as
a. evolution.
b. adaptation.
c. nonadaptive evolution.
d. genetic drift.
e. pleiotropy.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: Evolutionary Processes, p. 24
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

46. The mosquito Culex pipiens has evolved a tolerance to orthophosphate insecticides.
Because of _______, this species is concurrently evolving a lower tolerance for colder
temperatures.
a. genetic drift
b. pleiotropy
c. maladaptation
d. evolution
e. nonadaptive evolution
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: Evolutionary Processes, p. 25
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

47. Which of the following was not one of the conclusions of the seminal 1979 paper by
Gould and Lewontin?
a. Natural selection in the present environment is just one of several processes by which a
species may come to exhibit a trait.
b. A trait is not an adaptation merely because it exists.
c. When physiologists refer to a trait as an adaptation, they are making a hypothesis that
natural selection has occurred.
d. Data must be gathered in order to assess whether adaptation is likely to have occurred.
e. Indirect evidence cannot be used to support the hypothesis of adaptation.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: Evolutionary Processes, p. 25
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

48. Which of the following methods is based on the premise that although we cannot see
evolution that occurred in the past, the many kinds of animals alive today provide us with
many examples of outcomes of evolution, and patterns we identify in these outcomes
may provide insights into processes that occurred long ago?
a. The Doppler method
b. Studies of laboratory populations over many generations
c. The adaptation method
d. Phylogenetic reconstruction
e. The comparative method
Answer: e

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Textbook Reference: Evolutionary Processes, pp. 2526
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

49. Which of the following techniques for the study of adaptation was used to generate
the data shown in the figure below?

a. The comparative method


b. Studies of laboratory populations over many generations
c. Single-generation studies of individual variation
d. Creation of variation for study
e. Studies of genetic structures of natural populations
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Evolutionary Processes, p. 26
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

50. The raw material(s) for evolution is (are)


a. trait variation.
b. natural selection.
c. clines.
d. alleles.
e. the environment.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: Evolutionary Processes, p. 27
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

Short Answer Questions

1. Using the firefly as an example, explain physiologys two central questions


mechanism and origin.
Answer: The firefly emits a flash of light from its abdomen. The process inside the
animal that results in this event is the mechanism. That is, the brain sends nerve impulses
that cause the light cells to become bathed with nitric oxide, resulting in the production of
excited electrons through the reaction of O2 with luciferyl-AMP. However, this

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explanation of the mechanism does not explain the evolutionary origin of the trait. In this
case, evidence suggests that the firefly produces light for mate attraction.
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, pp. 5
7
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

2. Compare and contrast adaptation and natural selection.


Answer: Adaptation and natural selection are both concepts of evolution. Natural
selection is a main process by which evolution occurs. It is the increase of gene
frequencies that produce phenotypes that raise the likelihood that animals will survive
and reproduce. An adaptation refers to the mechanism or trait that is the product of
evolution by natural selection.
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 8
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

3. Describe three of the subdisciplines of animal physiology.


Answer: Mechanistic physiology emphasizes the study of mechanism. Evolutionary
physiology emphasizes the study of evolutionary origins. Comparative physiology is the
synthetic study of the function of all animals. Environmental physiology studies how
animals respond physiologically to environmental conditions and challenges. Integrative
physiology is a synthetic investigation of all levels of biological organization.
Textbook Reference: The Books Approach to Physiology, p. 10
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

4. Compare and contrast conformity and regulation, including the advantages and
disadvantages of each.
Answer: Conformity and regulation are responses of animals to changing environmental
conditions. An animal that permits its internal conditions to be equal to those of the
external environment is exhibiting conformity. Conformity has some energy-saving
advantages, although the cells of the animal can be exposed to potentially widely varying
conditions. An animal that maintains its internal conditions while external conditions
change is exhibiting regulation. The advantage of regulation is internal consistency,
although there is a trade-off in terms of increases in energy expenditure.
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 12
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

5. Which of the five time frames in which physiology changes is represented by


phenotypic plasticity? Give an example.
Answer: Phenotypic plasticity refers to the chronic, reversible physiologic changes of
acclimation and acclimatization. For example, as temperatures become colder in the
winter, the fur on arctic hares becomes thicker and whiter.
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 15
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

6. What is the importance of body size in the study of animal physiology?

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Answer: Body size is important in the study of animal physiology because many
physiological measurements are affected by body size. Gestation period in mammals, for
example, increases in a predictable manner with body size. Metabolic rate and other
factors related to metabolic rate also correlate with body size. If body size is not taken
into account for certain measurements, this factor may produce most of the variation in
the data collected and mask other factors.
Textbook Reference: Animals, pp. 1617
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

7. A water temperature of 6C can be lethal for both tropical fish and Antarctic fish
explain.
Answer: Not all fish species are able to survive at all water temperatures, even if given
years to acclimate. Most tropical fish will die if cooled (even slowly) to 6C. In contrast,
Antarctic fish species have evolved for millions of years at 1.9C and even slowly
warming them to 6C will kill them.
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 18
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

8. Describe how the density layering of water can create anoxic zones.
Answer: Warmer water is less dense compared to colder water. During summer months,
the water on the surface of lakes and ponds gets warmed and stays on the top for the
duration of the summer with little mixing. This leaves a colder bottom stagnant layer of
water that will slowly lose oxygen because the microbes deplete the dissolved oxygen.
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 21
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

9. Explain how adaptive and nonadaptive processes can contribute to evolution.


Answer: Evolutionary adaptive processes are the processes of natural selection that result
in traits that provide advantages in a population. Nonadaptive evolution includes
processes by which less-adaptable alleles may persist in a population. A trait may persist
because of chance (genetic drift), or because it is related to another favored trait
(pleiotropy), or because it was once advantageous and has not been selected against.
Textbook Reference: Evolutionary Processes, p. 24
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

10. Explain the following statement: A trait is not an adaptation merely because it
exists.
Answer: Not all traits are evolutionary adaptations that confer an advantage. Traits can
exist because of evolutionary drift and other forms of nonadaptive evolution. Even a trait
that appears to be beneficial is not necessarily an evolutionary adaptation. As Gould and
Lewontin point out, in order to call a trait adaptive, one must provide empirical evidence
that the trait is an adaptation.
Textbook Reference: Evolutionary Processes, p. 25
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

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Online Quiz from Companion Website

1. Which of the following statements regarding the discipline of physiology is false?


a. Physiologists study how animals work.
b. Physiology is a key discipline for understanding the fundamental biology of all
animals.
c. Physiology is a key discipline for understanding human health and disease.
d. Physiology is a key discipline for understanding the health and disease of nonhuman
animals.
e. Physiology is a key discipline for understanding the social context of human disease.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: The Importance of Physiology, pp. 34
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

2. Which of the following is an example of a possible physiological effect a river dam


could impose on migrating Pacific salmon?
a. It could block the migrating salmon.
b. It may let salmon pass but cost them too much energy.
c. It could let them pass but may interfere with subsequent navigation.
d. It could allow earlier spawning.
e. It could slow the salmon and make them more vulnerable to predation.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: The Importance of Physiology, p. 4
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

3. _______ refers to the components of actual, living animals and the interactions among
those components that enable the animals to perform as they do.
a. Mechanism
b. Adaptation
c. Natural selection
d. Adaptive significance
e. Cell theory
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 5
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

4. Populations of one salmon species differ genetically, and this difference increases as
the physical distance between them increases. This statement refers to the study of which
level of organization?
a. Systems physiology
b. Cell physiology
c. Morphology
d. Ecology
e. Evolution
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 6

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Blooms Category: 3. Applying

5. Which of the following is the most accurate description of the mechanism of the light-
emitting reaction in the firefly?
a. Oxygen reacts with luciferin to produce light.
b. Oxygen reacts with luciferyl-AMP to produce light.
c. Nitric oxide reacts with luciferin to produce light.
d. Nitric oxide reacts with luciferyl-AMP to produce light.
e. Nitric oxide reacts with the mitochondria to produce light.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 7
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

6. The increase in frequency of genes that produce phenotypes that raise the likelihood
that an animal will survive and reproduce is called
a. a trait.
b. feedback.
c. adaptive significance.
d. natural selection.
e. adaptation.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, p. 8
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

7. Which of the following statements regarding fish eyes and octopus eyes is most
accurate?
a. They are similar in gross appearance and functional performance but differ in their
adaptive significance and mechanisms.
b. They are similar in gross appearance but differ in their functional performance,
adaptive significance, and mechanisms.
c. They are similar in gross appearance, functional performance, and adaptive
significance but differ in their mechanisms.
d. They are similar in gross appearance, functional performance, adaptive significance,
and mechanism.
e. They differ in gross appearance, functional performance, and adaptive significance, but
are similar in their mechanisms.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Mechanism and Origin: Physiologys Two Central Questions, pp. 8
10
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

8. If an animal permits internal and external conditions to be equal, it is said to show


a. conformity.
b. regulation.
c. homeostasis.
d. physiological independence.

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e. evolution.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 12
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

9. Which of the following statements regarding conformity and regulation is false?


a. Animals can be both regulators and conformers.
b. Conformity and regulation are extremes; intermediate responses are more common.
c. Animals frequently show conformity with respect to some characteristics while
regulating others.
d. Conformity costs more energy to maintain than regulation.
e. Maintaining internal constancy in the face of external variability defines regulation.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 12
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

10. Testosterone is released by the testes in response to luteinizing hormone released


from the pituitary gland. As circulating testosterone levels rise, they act on the pituitary
gland to reduce the secretion of luteinizing hormone, thus reducing the production of
testosterone. This is a classic example of
a. positive feedback.
b. negative feedback.
c. adaptation.
d. conformity.
e. acclimation.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 13
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

11. A surprise phone call at 3:00 AM results in an increase in heart rate. This is an
example of a(n)
a. acute change.
b. chronic change.
c. evolutionary change.
d. developmental change.
e. change controlled by a biological clock.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Animals, pp. 1415
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

12. Acclimatization is an example of a(n)


a. acute change.
b. chronic change.
c. evolutionary change.
d. developmental change.
e. change controlled by a biological clock.

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Answer: b
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 15
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

13. Length of gestation _______ body size in mammals.


a. is inversely proportional to
b. is independent
c. is unrelated to
d. is conditional upon
e. scales as a regular function of
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: Animals, p. 17
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

14. The lowest temperature inhabited by active communities of relatively large,


temperature-conforming animals is
a. 10C.
b. 1.9C.
c. 0C.
d. 1.9C.
e. 10C.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 18
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

15. The number of species of swallowtail butterflies tends to


a. increase at high longitudes.
b. be independent of latitude.
c. increase at low latitudes.
d. increase at high latitudes.
e. increase at high altitudes.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 19
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

16. The altitude limit at which dedicated human climbers can climb without supplemental
oxygen is about
a. 2000 m.
b. 5000 m.
c. 8000 m.
d. 12,000 m.
e. 15,000 m.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 20
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

2012 Sinauer Associates, Inc.


17. In the summer, a sun-heated lake will tend to have the lowest concentration of
dissolved oxygen
a. at the lakes surface.
b. about 2 m below the lakes surface.
c. at about the middle depth of the lake.
d. within the thermocline of the lake.
e. at the bottom of the lake.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 21
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

18. For terrestrial animals, one of the greatest physiological challenges is


a. obtaining food.
b. obtaining oxygen.
c. finding shelter.
d. preventing water loss.
e. locomotion.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: Environments, p. 22
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

19. A change of gene frequencies over time in a population of organisms is referred to as


a. evolution.
b. adaptation.
c. genetic drift.
d. pleiotropy.
e. a bottleneck.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: Evolutionary Processes, p. 24
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

20. The process of chance assuming a preeminent role in altering gene frequencies is
called
a. evolution.
b. adaptation.
c. genetic drift.
d. pleiotropy.
e. natural selection.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: Evolutionary Processes, p. 24
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

2012 Sinauer Associates, Inc.

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