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ANS 1:

Organizational behaviour (OB) is the study of the way people interact within
groups. Normally this study is applied in an attempt to create more efficient
business organizations.

Personality, essentially a series patterned behaviour, plays a large role in

the way a person interacts with groups and produces work. Knowing a
persons personality, either through a series of tests, or through
conversation can give a better idea of whether theyre a fit for the
environment theyd be hired into, and how best to motivate that person.
Theories around job satisfaction vary widely, but some argue that a
satisfying job consists of a solid reward system, compelling work, good
supervisors, and satisfactory working conditions.
Leadership, what it looks like and where it is derived from is a rich topic
of debate and study within the field of organizational behavior. When one
views it connected to management, it can be either broad, focused,
centralized or de-centralized, decision-oriented, intrinsic in a persons
personality or a result of a place of authority.
Power, authority, and politics all operate inter-dependently in a
workplace. Understanding the appropriate ways, as agreed upon by a
workplace rules and general ethical guidelines, in which these elements
are exhibited and used are key components to running a cohesive

Occupational Stress : There are number of ways to characterize occupational

stress. One way of characterizing it is to term it an imbalance between job
demands (aspects of the job that require mental or physical effort) and
resources that help manage the demands

Organisational behaviour is the basis of human resource management and


The Following Features of Organisational Behaviour Emerge:

1. Behavioural Approach to Management:
Organisational behaviour is that part of whole management which represents
the behavioural approach to management. Organisational behaviour has
emerged as a distinct field of study because of the importance of human
behaviour in organisations.
2. Cause and Effect Relationship:
Human behaviour is generally taken in terms of cause and effect relationship
and not in philosophical terms. It helps in predicting the behaviour of individuals.
It provides generalizations that managers can use to anticipate the effect of
certain activities on human behaviour.

3. Organisational Behaviour is a Branch of Social Sciences:

Organisational behaviour is heavily influenced by several other social sciences
viz. psychology, sociology and anthropology. It draws a rich array of research
from these disciplines.

4. Three Levels of Analysis:

Organisational behaviour encompasses the study of three levels of analysis
namely individual behaviour, inter-individual behaviour and the behaviour of
organisations themselves. The field of organisational behaviour embraces all
these levels as being complementary to each other.

5. A Science as well as an Art:

Organisational behaviour is a science as well as an art. The systematic
knowledge about human behaviour is a science and the application of
behavioural knowledge and skills is an art. Organisational behaviour is not an
exact science because it cannot exactly predict the behaviour of people in
organisations. At best a manager can generalize to a limited extent and in many
cases, he has to act on the basis of partial information.


Manpower planning may, be defined as, the replacement planning which

analyse labour turnover, recruitment policy, promotion, development and
maintenance of employee programmes and assess the future needs of the
organization so that sufficient number of persons may be procured well in
Manpower planning is the process by which management determines how the
organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired
manpower position.

Factors Affecting Manpower Planning:

The following are the factors affecting manpower planning which constitute
the basis of manpower planning:
1. Exciting Stock of Manpower:
This is the first basis of manpower planning and it is the starting point of all
planning processes. By studying the position of total stock of manpower, by
dividing it into groups on the basis of function, occupation, level of skill or
qualification, we can analyse the existing stock of manpower.

2. Wastage:
The second basis of manpower planning is wastage. For a good planning,
appropriate adjustment in the existing stock of manpower should be made for
the possible wastage of manpower caused by any foreseeable changes in the
organization. Labour turnover rate, labour stability rate and the period of active
management can be studied to analyse the wastage of manpower. All these
factors should be taken into consideration to make necessary adjustments in the
requirement of personnel to plan the manpower.

3. Future Manpower Requirement:

We can easily measure the future requirements of manpower, after assessing
the existing stock of manpower and analysing the several factors of wastage.

To analyse the future manpower requirements, the following factors should

be considered:

1. Future plans of the company:

a. Government plans and programmes.

b. Employment policy.

c. Demand and supply.

d. Manpower in future.

e. Labour productivity.

f. Other factors of production and replacement needs

2.Future manpower requirements:

a. Direct and indirect labour cost

b. Administrative cost

c. Overtime allowance is payable to worker.

d. Maintenance and repair charge.

e. Wages can be paid according to time rate or price rate system.

f. Workers requirement during peak and sluggish period.

3. Future Withdrawal of Workers:

Effective manpower requires that the human resource manager should take into
consideration decrease in the working force in future due to retirement

5. Future availability of people dismissal and resignation.

6. Expected changes in the composition of labour force.

7. Workers cost benefit analysis.

Ans 3:

Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the management of human

resources. Commonly referred to as the HR Department[by whom?], it is designed
to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic
objectives. HR is primarily concerned with the management of people within
organizations, focusing on policies and on systems.[3] HR departments are
responsible for overseeing employee-benefits design,
employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and
rewarding (e.g., managing pay and benefit systems).[4] HR also concerns itself
with organizational change and industrial relations, that is, the balancing of
organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining
and from governmental laws

Human resources focuses on maximizing employee productivity. HR

professionals manage the human capital of an organization and focus on
implementing policies and processes. They can specialise on recruiting, training,
employee-relations or benefits. Recruiting specialists find and hire top talent.
Training and development professionals ensure that employees are trained and
have continuous development. This is done through training programs,
performance evaluations and reward programs. Employee relations deals with
concerns of employees when policies are broken, such as in cases involving
harassment or discrimination. Someone in benefits develops compensation
structures, family-leave programs, discounts and other benefits that employees
can get.

The list of Human Resource Responsibilities of project managers is:

1. Determine the resources required for the project
2. Negotiate with resource managers for optimal available resources
3. Create a project team directory
4. Create project job descriptions for team members and other stakeholders
5. Make sure all roles and responsibilities are clearly assigned on the project
6. Understand the team members needs for training related to their work
on the project, and make sure they get the training
7. Insert reports of team members performance into their official company
employment record
8. Send out letters of commendation to team members and their bosses
9. Make sure team members needs are taken care of
10.Create recognition and reward system

Develop Human Resource Plan:

One of the outcomes of develop human resource plan is defining the roles and
responsibilities of team members. The Develop Human Resource Plan process
Enterprise Environmental Factors:
The project manager needs to identify the organizations involved in the project,
existence of hidden agendas, are contracts available, is training available for
project team members, among others.
Organizational Process Assets:
Organizational process assets such as processes, procedures, historical
information are effectively used in Develop Human Resource Plan process.
ANS 4:

Typical Reasons for Employee Training and Development

Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an

employee or group of employees, e.g.,:

When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is


To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance

improvement effort

As part of an overall professional development program

As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a

planned change in role in the organization

To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management


To train about a specific topic (see below)

Typical Topics of Employee Training

1. Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a

wide variety of languages and customs.

2. Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting

administrative and office tasks.

3. Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace

makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of

4. Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how

people have different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to
value diversity

5. Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social

responsibility. Also, today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of
values and morals to the workplace.
6. Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include
misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the

7. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality

Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts,
guidelines and standards for quality, etc.

8. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment ,

hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with
practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc.

9. Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful

description of the organization's policies about sexual harassment,
especially about what are inappropriate behaviors.

General Benefits from Employee Training and Development

There are numerous sources of online information about training and

development. Several of these sites (they're listed later on in this library) suggest
reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. These reasons

Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees

Increased employee motivation

Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain

Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods

Increased innovation in strategies and products

Reduced employee turnover

Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good

reason for ethics training!)

Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity

Ans 5:

The recruitment and selection process is important for new and established
businesses alike. Your human resources department has the support and
expertise of employment specialists who assist hiring managers with the
procedures to ensure your company's leaders are making wise hiring decisions.
There are several pieces to the recruitment and selection process: sourcing
candidates, reviewing and tracking applicants, conducting interviews and
selection for employment.

Both recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process.
The differences between the two are:

1. Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and

stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization WHEREAS selection
involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing
the most suitable persons for vacant posts.

2. The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to

enable the selection of best candidates for the organization, by attracting more
and more employees to apply in the organization WHEREAS the basic purpose
of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the various positions
in the organization.

3. Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more employees

to apply WHEREAS selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of the
unsuitable candidates.

4. Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources

WHEREAS selection is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidate
through various interviews and tests.

5. There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment WHEREAS

selection results in a contract of service between the employer and the selected
Steps for selection Process :

Step 1: Advertise the sales position. Be clear and highlight the capabilities
needed for the job.
Step 2: Resume screening. ...
Step 3: Phone interview. ...
Step 4: Face-to-face interview. ...
Step 5: Assessment. ...
Step 6: Secondary face-to-face interview. ...
Step 7: Job Shadow. ...
Step 8: Reference Check.