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monkeys

Hadas Taubman, Eilon Vaadia, Rony Paz and Gal Chechik

J Neurophysiol 109:2842-2851, 2013. First published 6 March 2013;

doi: 10.1152/jn.00449.2012

This article cites 44 articles, 22 of which you can access for free at:

http://jn.physiology.org/content/109/11/2842.full#ref-list-1

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http://jn.physiology.org/content/109/11/2842.full

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J Neurophysiol 109: 28422851, 2013.

Innovative Methodology First published March 6, 2013; doi:10.1152/jn.00449.2012.

supplementary motor area of behaving monkeys

1

The Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; 2Department of Medical

Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Institute for Medical Research Israel-Canada, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel; 3The

Interdisciplinary Center for Neural Computation, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel; 4The Edmond and Lily Safra Center

for Brain Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel; and 5Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science,

Rehovot, Israel

Submitted 4 June 2012; accepted in final form 2 March 2013

Taubman H, Vaadia E, Paz R, Chechik G. A Bayesian approach and execution. SMA neurons are believed to participate in

for characterizing direction tuning curves in the supplementary motor preparation and planning of movements (Nachev et al. 2008),

area of behaving monkeys. J Neurophysiol 109: 28422851, 2013. particularly of complex movements (Tanji and Mushiake

First published March 6, 2013; doi:10.1152/jn.00449.2012.Neural

responses are commonly studied in terms of tuning curves, charac- 1996). The SMA motor plans could interplay in various ways

terizing changes in neuronal response as a function of a continuous with movement control in M1. For instance, the SMA could be

stimulus parameter. In the motor system, neural responses to move- raising coarse plans that are further refined by downstream

ment direction often follow a bell-shaped tuning curve for which the areas, or it could dictate already-refined control plans. These

exact shape determines the properties of neuronal movement coding. alternative strategies could be reflected in the widths of move-

Estimating the shape of that tuning curve robustly is hard, especially ment-direction SMA tuning curves. Seung and Sompolinsky

when directions are sampled unevenly and at a coarse resolution.

(1993) showed that in the population vector model for direction

Here, we describe a Bayesian estimation procedure that improves the

accuracy of curve-shape estimation even when the curve is sampled estimation, the performance depends mainly on the width of

unevenly and at a very coarse resolution. Using this approach, we the population tuning curves and the background noise. Seris

characterize the movement direction tuning curves in the supplemen- et al. (2004) showed that the effect of tuning curve sharpening

tary motor area (SMA) of behaving monkeys. We compare the SMA on the quality of the code depends on the sharpening mecha-

tuning curves to tuning curves of neurons from the primary motor nism. When tuning curves are sharpened through cortical

cortex (M1) of the same monkeys, showing that the tuning curves of lateral interactions, strong pairwise correlations are created,

the SMA neurons tend to be narrower and shallower. We also show leading to severe information loss and complicated codes that

that these characteristics do not depend on the specific location in each rely on pairwise correlations. However, if sharpening is

region. achieved while keeping the noise distribution independent

tuning curve; von Mises distribution; Bayesian estimation; supple- among neurons and independent of the tuning curve width,

mentary motor area; motor cortex then sharpening the tuning curves can improve the population

code.

Tuning curves are commonly modeled using parametric

TUNING CURVES ARE COMMONLY used to characterize neuronal functions such as the cosine function (Georgopoulos et al.

responses to continuous features of the world. In the visual 1982), but cosines provide poor fit when the widths of the

cortex, orientation tuning curves are a landmark of visual curves vary substantially (Amirikian and Georgopoulos 2000).

processing, and in the early auditory system, neurons respond The richer family of von Mises (VM) models (von Mises 1918)

strongly to tones close to their best frequency. In the primary captures better the widths of orientation tuning curves in the cat

motor area (M1) of the mammals, many cortical neurons visual cortex (Swindale 1998) and in the direction tuning

exhibit a strong unimodal relation between the direction of curves in M1 (Amirikian and Georgopoulos 2000). However,

movement and their firing rates (Georgopoulos et al. 1982). for many other motor areas including the SMA, the refined

The properties of these M1 direction tuning curves were characteristics of tuning curves have not been studied. More-

intensively studied, yielding a characterization of curve shapes over, although many techniques were proposed for estimating

and preferred directions (Ben-Shaul et al. 2003; Gribble and the shapes of tuning curve (Cronin et al. 2010; Georgopoulos

Scott 2002; Johnson and Ebner 2000; Naselaris et al. 2006; et al. 1986, 1988; Gribble and Scott 2002; Kass et al. 2005;

Vaadia et al. 2003). Neurons in the supplementary motor area Simoncelli et al. 2004; Stark and Abeles 2005), robust estima-

(SMA) are also tuned to movement direction (Alexander and tion is hard to obtain with the little data that are typically

Crutcher 1990; Crutcher and Alexander 1990; Nachev et al. collected in motor experiments. The challenges become even

2008; Sohn and Lee 2007), but the effect of movement direc- greater when activity is measured at a small number of un-

tion on SMA activity is far less understood. evenly spaced directions, as commonly collected in brain-

Comparing the shape of tuning curves across motor regions machine-interface applications.

could reveal different regional roles for movement planning Here, we describe a simple Bayesian approach to model

Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: G. Chechik, Gonda

tuning curves using VM functions and show that it estimates

Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, accurately their width and modulation depth. We then analyze

Israel (e-mail: Gal.Chechik@biu.ac.il). direction tuning curves of neurons recorded in the SMA and

2842 0022-3077/13 Copyright 2013 the American Physiological Society www.jn.org

Innovative Methodology

MOVEMENT DIRECTION TUNING IN MONKEY SMA: A BAYESIAN APPROACH 2843

M1 of the same behaving macaque monkeys. We find that the physiology experiments are typically limited by their overall duration,

tuning widths in the SMA tend to be narrower than in the M1 this sparse-data scenario is common. Cronin et al. (2010) presented a

and that the modulation depths and the dynamic range values full Bayesian method based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)

both tend to be smaller in the SMA. This suggests that SMA sampling that allows one to obtain the posterior probability distribu-

tion over tuning curves and test hypotheses over the parameters.

neurons that are involved in movement planning code the Implementing MCMC sampling and optimizing may require a con-

direction of movement in a more specific way than the move- siderable effort and would not be necessary in the common case where

ment controlling neurons in M1. one is interested in a single, most likely, tuning curve.

Modeling tuning curves using the VM function. The cosine function

MATERIALS AND METHODS f(x) b m cos (x ), which is commonly used to model direction

Data. We used electrophysiological recordings to evaluate the tuning curves, predicts a firing rate f given a movement direction x. It

effect of the Bayesian approach on properties of direction tuning can be tuned to capture the preferred direction , the baseline firing

curves in the SMA. We compared the tuning curve properties using rate b, and the modulation depth m but is constrained to a predefined

electrophysiological recordings from the SMA and the primary motor half-peak width of 180. Although cosines are easy to tune from data,

areas recorded in the same monkeys. For both data sets, the experi- they provide poor fits when the tuning curve widths vary substantially

mental setup, behavioral paradigm, and detailed behavior were the as was observed in the macaque primary motor cortex population

(Amirikian and Georgopoulos 2000). Swindale (1998) has discussed

same as described in previous studies (Paz et al. 2003, 2005).

Two female rhesus (Macaca mulatta, 4.5 kg) monkeys were a richer family of tuning functions based on the VM distribution (von

trained in a delayed go-signal paradigm to move a manipulandum to Mises 1918). In circular statistics, the VM distribution, which is also

control the movements of a cursor on a video screen located 50 cm known as the circular normal distribution, plays a prominent role

from their eyes. Each trial began when the monkey centered the cursor similar to that of the Gaussian distribution on the line (Batschelet

on the origin (central circle) for 1 s. After a random delay of 11.5 1981; Mardia 1972). The VM tuning function is defined as:

s, the target appeared: a circle of diameter 0.8 cm at one of eight f VMx b m exp cosx . (1)

possible positions 4 cm from the origin. Target appearance was

followed by another variable hold period of 11.5 s until the origin As in the cosine function, the parameter b determines the baseline

circle disappeared (go signal), at which time the monkey moved her firing rate, m the modulation depth, and the preferred direction. VM

arm to bring the cursor to the target in 2 s. After another hold of 750 contains one additional parameter, , which determines the width of

ms, a liquid reward was delivered. The monkey also performed a the function (Fig. 1A). As a result, the VM model can describe more

learning paradigm, but the data analyzed here used only control trials. accurately cells with narrower or wider tuning curves than the stan-

The monkeys were implanted with recording chambers (27 27 dard cosine function. Indeed, VM models provide superior fits for

mm) above both the right and left hemispheres. Each day, eight direction tuning curves in the macaque primary motor cortex

glass-coated tungsten microelectrodes (impedance, 0.21 M at 1 (Amirikian and Georgopoulos 2000).

kHz) were inserted into each hemisphere. The signals were amplified, Least-squares and Bayesian function estimation. We first review

filtered, and sorted (MCP-Plus; Alpha-Omega, Nazareth, Israel), and here the relation between least-squares and maximum likelihood (ML)

all spike shapes were sampled at 24 kHz. We used a template-based estimation. The common approach to fit a function to a measured

method for real-time isolation of spike shapes (MSD; Alpha-Omega). response profile is to use a least-squares minimization. Under this

Penetration locations and angles were verified by magnetic resonance approach, we assume that a neuron is sampled repeatedly in multiple

imaging (BioSpec 4.7 T; Bruker BioSpin, Ettlingen, Germany) before trials, and its responses produce a firing rate ri for the trial i where

and after recordings. Penetrations into the SMA proper were angled at movement was at direction xi. We also assume that the firing rate ri is

30 to the sagittal plane and advanced from the point of insertion until determined by a function f(xi) of the direction xi, possibly with added

they reached the medial cortex. Animal care and surgical procedures noise , yielding ri f(xi) , where is a vector of parameters that

complied with the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care determines the shape of the response profile. For instance, if f(x) is a

and Use of Laboratory Animals (7th ed. Washington, DC: Nat. Acad. cosine, then could be a vector holding the baseline firing rate b, the

Press, 1996) and with the Hebrew University guidelines approved by modulation depth m, and the preferred direction yielding

the Institutional Committee for Animal Care and Use. [b,m,]. According to the minimum least-squares approach, we search

Analysis was performed over a window 200 to 700 ms around for the set of parameters that minimizes the average-squares predic-

initiation of movement, an epoch that contains most of the neuronal tion error:

responses that generate the movement. Movement initiation was n

1

calculated offline from the velocity profile by extrapolating a line

through the one-third and two-thirds of the peak and selecting the

arg min

f x i r i 2 .

n i1

zero-velocity crossing of that line as the movement onset. This

approach yielded very reasonable solutions as validated by visual The solution * of the least-squares approach often misrepresents the

inspection. data. This problem is illustrated in Fig. 1B, where a bell-shaped

Overall, a total of 448 SMA cells and 1,495 M1 cells were function is being fit to a set of firing rate measurements collected from

recorded. All M1 cells and 35 of the SMA cells had recordings with a macaque cortex. Here, we first used all of the measured data to

8 movement directions. Fifteen SMA cells were recorded with move- create the blue solid curve and then left most of the data aside and

ments at six directions and the remaining SMA cells with movements fitted a VM function (dashed red) to 20% of the data using minimum

at five directions. squared error. The red curve strongly overshoots the measured data,

Previous approaches to estimate tuning curve shape. Estimation of producing a curve that is too peaked and very different from the blue

tuning curves properties has been previously explored using various curve. Here, even though the VM function achieves a lower squared

methods ranging from parametric (Amirikian and Georgopoulos error, the resulting curve fails to capture the correct tuning curve

2000; Georgopoulos et al. 1982, 1986, 1988; Stark and Abeles 2005) shape.

to reverse correlation (Simoncelli et al. 2004) to nonparametric To address this overfitting issue, we take a probabilistic Bayesian

methods (Kass et al. 2005). Bayesian estimation complements and approach to estimate the parameters and add a prior on the width of

extends these previous approaches and is particularly helpful when the tuning curves. To explain how this is done, we first note that the

data are scarce relative to the number of free parameters in the model. minimum least-squares problem is equivalent to a ML estimation

Since neurons often exhibit complex response properties and electro- problem when the noise has a normal distribution with zero mean,

Innovative Methodology

2844 MOVEMENT DIRECTION TUNING IN MONKEY SMA: A BAYESIAN APPROACH

i1

log Pr (ri|)

n

i1

log

2

1

exp f x i r i 2

22

n

log

i1

2

1

n

log exp

i1

f x i r i 2

22

1 n f x i r i 2

n log 22

2 i1

1 1 n

n log f x i r i 2 .

2 i12

2

This shows that the least-squares problem and ML problem both yield

the same optimal parameters.

This view of minimum least-squares as finding the parameters that

maximize the likelihood of the data is useful in that it allows us to take

a Bayesian approach to estimate the parameter . In Bayesian esti-

mation, we seek the set of parameters that maximize the posterior

probability Prr1, . . . , rn Prri, . . . , rnP0, where P0() is a

prior distribution that expresses our prior belief over the possible

values of . This prior can be used to penalize models with very

narrow curves, for instance by taking a probability density function

that decays with the width, like P0() exp() (we discuss the

considerations for selecting the form of the prior further below). For

a given observed data r1, . . . , rn, the posterior is proportional to the

joint distribution Pr(|r1, . . . , rn) Pr(r1, . . . , rn, ).

Finding the parameter that maximizes the posterior is equivalent

to minimizing the following:

n

arg min

f xi ri2 log P0

i1

(3)

in the prior and is inversely related to the magnitude of the noise. This

equivalence comes from the following derivation:

arg max Pr(r1, . . . , rn|)P0(

Fig. 1. A: the parameter changes the shape of the von Mises (VM) function.

Curves correspond to values of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4. All curves have baseline

arg max log Pr (r1, . . . , rn|)P0()

firing rate (b) 0, modulation depth (m) 0.2, and preferred direction () n

0 and then have been scaled to have their peaks at 1. max, Maximum; min,

minimum. B: overfitting with VM models. The blue solid curve represents a

arg max log

Pr(ri|)P0()

i1

n

log Pr (ri|) log P0()

ground-truth tuning curve and was estimated from a large number of trials.

The empirical mean firing rates of each direction (green circles), computed arg max

i1

over a subset of the recordings (20%), were fitted with a VM function that n

1

minimizes the squared error (red dashed curve). The red curve clearly overfits

the data.

arg max

f xi ri2 log P0()

2 i1 2

n

N(0, ). With such noise, the probability of observing the

2 arg min

f xi ri2 log P0().

i1

response ri, also known as the likelihood, is given by:

The constant allows balancing of the relative weight of the first

Prri Pr f x ri term, which depends on the empirical data, with the second term,

exp f x ri2 22 2 . which depends on the prior knowledge about the expected parameters.

We show below how can be set in the case of estimating the

In this case, finding the parameter that maximizes the total likelihood direction response profiles. The optimization problem in Eq. 3 can be

of all of the data given the model, arg max Prr1, . . . , rn, is equivalent solved using standard tools. Specifically, in the experiments below,

we used MATLAB function fmincon, which uses a trust-region-

to maximizing the log likelihood arg max log Prr1, . . . , rn

reflective method. We repeated optimization with 20 random restarts

arg max

i1

n

logPrri. These parameters are also the ones that to increase the probability that the optimization converges to global

minimize the squared deviation: minima. Using even more restarts only yielded an insignificant im-

provement to the objective.

n What should be the form of the prior distribution? In this paper, we

arg min

f x i r i 2

i1

(2) selected the exponential distribution and for several reasons. First, for

any given mean, the exponential distribution is the maximum entropy

because distribution, which, loosely speaking, means that it embodies minimal

Innovative Methodology

MOVEMENT DIRECTION TUNING IN MONKEY SMA: A BAYESIAN APPROACH 2845

further assumptions about the prior. Indeed, exponential priors have during fitting and 0 to a direction that was hidden and all of

been shown to lead to superior modeling in various systems (e.g., its trials kept for validation. Since there are eight different

Goodman 2004). Second, for exponential distributions, P0() possible cyclic shifts of this pattern, there are also eight options

exp(), the regularization term log [P0()] in Eq. 3 has only one

term that depends on and equals to . This suggests that instead for subsets of directions following this pattern, and we selected

of tuning both and , one can equivalently treat as a constant, for each cell the subset of directions that maximize its firing

making optimization simpler and faster. rate. For each cell, we found the VM parameters that minimize

Converting to width. After estimating the VM parameters, we can the objective function of Eq. 3 when using only five directions

use the value to calculate the estimated width in half-height. For out of eight. We then computed the absolute error between the

that, we first calculate the y-value in half-height. The VM function has measured firing rates of the remaining three directions and the

maximum value when cos(x ) 1, thus ymax b m e. The

VM predictions for these directions.

VM minimum value is for cos(x ) 1, thus ymin b m e.

Combining both equations, we have: The weight of the prior is a hyperparameter for which the

value is not optimized in Eq. 3. We tested two strategies for

e e selecting the weight of the prior . In the first approach, which

y half b m .

2 we call Shared-, we used a single value for all cells. That

common value was selected using a leave-one-trial-out

Since the width does not depend on the preferred direction, we can

assume 0. Then, the VM function is symmetrical around the (LOTO) approach: we further hid another trial, minimized Eq.

y-axis and the width in half-height is twice the x in half-height. Thus 3 with values in the range [0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5], and

we look for x that satisfies the following equation: selected the value that led to the smallest absolute error over

e e the hidden trial. In a second approach, Per-Cell-, we selected

b m ecosx b m a separate for each cell.

2

Figure 2 compares four fitting strategies to SMA neurons:

e e 1) ML, which is equivalent to selecting 0; 2) maximum

ecosx

2 a posteriori (MAP) with a shared ; 3) MAP with adjusted

(4)

e e for each cell separately (Per-Cell-); and 4) ML initialized

cosx log with MAP solutions. For each of the four strategies, we

2

compared the median of the absolute errors, since the errors

e e do not follow a normal distribution. The median error of the

x arccos log

2 ML approach [median 1.38 Hz, mean absolute deviation

2 .

(m.a.d.) 0.93 Hz] was not significantly different (Wil-

coxon test, P 0.94) from with MAP (median 1.46 Hz,

m.a.d. 0.96 Hz), but selecting an individual per cell

achieved significantly lower (Wilcoxon test, P 0.02)

RESULTS median error (median 1.03 Hz, m.a.d. 0.83 Hz). For

We studied electrophysiological recordings from the Shared-, accuracy was largely insensitive to , hence we

SMA and the M1 of macaque monkeys while the monkey show below results with 2.5.

performed an eight-direction center-out task and used the The improved accuracy obtained with MAP over ML

Bayesian approach before study the shape of their VM could result from two different causes. First, as discussed

tuning curves. We started by evaluating the quality of the above, a prior that favors wide tuning curves could help

inferred curves in two aspects. First, we evaluate the accu- reduce overfitting in ML. Second, the likelihood surface in

racy of predicting firing rates for directions that were hidden the parameter space has multiple maxima, and gradient-

during fitting. Second, we evaluate the accuracy of estimat- based approaches often get stuck in a local, inferior maxi-

ing shape parameters and specifically the width parameter . mum. Using MAP could alleviate this problem since param-

Our approach for evaluating the quality of fit is to hide eter regularization operates to smooth the error surface and

some of the collected data, keep it aside during the fitting remove local maxima corresponding to narrow curves (large

procedure, and use it for validation. Specifically, we either ). To test which of these two effects contributes more to the

leave some trials out or leave all of the trials of one or more inferior accuracy of ML, we also tested the following fourth

directions hidden during fitting. approach, ML-initialized-by-MAP. In this approach, we first

Typically, the experimental design for estimating tuning find good VM parameters using Per-Cell- MAP and then

curve shape involves using eight directions or less. It has been use these parameters to initialize a ML procedure. If local

argued (Amirikian and Georgopoulos 2000) that using more maxima are the main issue of the ML procedure, then

directions is necessary to estimate robustly the width of a initializing with the MAP optimal parameters is expected to

tuning curve. We turn to test whether the Bayesian approach yield better fits than MAP.

can yield good estimates even with a small number of direc- The rightmost bar in Fig. 2 depicts the absolute error of the

tions. ML-initialized-by-MAP approach. It achieves significantly

Predicting the firing rates for unseen direction. We fitted a (Wilcoxon test, P 0.05) higher median error (median 1.25

VM function to every eight-direction response profile using a Hz, m.a.d. 0.86 Hz) than Per-Cell- MAP, and its error is

predefined subset of five directions. This specific subset of not significantly lower than that of standard ML (Wilcoxon

directions was selected according to other data sets with five test, P 0.61). We conclude that poor initialization and

directions only. They followed a pattern of the form 1-1-1-0- convergence to poor local minima is not the main cause of poor

1-0-1-0 where a 1 corresponds to a direction that was used accuracy obtained with ML.

J Neurophysiol doi:10.1152/jn.00449.2012 www.jn.org

Innovative Methodology

2846 MOVEMENT DIRECTION TUNING IN MONKEY SMA: A BAYESIAN APPROACH

with ML (median 1.75, m.a.d. 0.61). Per-Cell- reduces

the estimation error significantly.

To explore more deeply the effect of MAP estimation on an

individual cell basis, Fig. 3 compares the estimates of both

firing rates and shape obtained using a ML with the Per-Cell-

approach.

Figure 3A shows that the firing rates of three held-out

directions are predicted significantly better by using the Per-

Cell- approach than by using plain ML. This is apparent by

the fact that errors of the MAP estimates (squares) are in

general much closer to the zero line than the errors of the ML

estimates (open circles). This effect holds for the complete

wide range of firing rates. Figure 3B compares the estimates

obtained with five directions (5) with the ones obtained with

eight directions (8) for each cell. The errors of the Per-Cell-

estimates of 5 (squares) are again much closer to the zero line

than the errors of the ML estimates of 5 (open circles). In this

case, too, the effect holds across the whole range of values.

We further looked at individual cases where the Per-Cell-

estimates of 5 deviates significantly from the ML estimate.

Figure 4 shows the tuning curves estimates for three cells as

the firing rate estimate (EstFR) of supplementary motor area (SMA) cells.

Estimate errors are computed over 3 held-out directions using 4 approaches: 1)

maximum likelihood (ML); 2) maximum a posteriori (MAP) with a shared ,

where is a hyperparameter that expresses the strength of our belief in the

prior and is inversely related to the magnitude of the noise; 3) MAP with

selected using leave-1-out separately for each cell (MAP-Best--per-cell or

Per-Cell-); and 4) ML initialized with the solutions of the Per-Cell- MAP

(ML-init-by-MAP). Error of Shared- MAP is not lower than the error of ML.

Per-Cell- is significantly better than ML (Wilcoxon test, P 0.02) and even

ML-init-by-MAP (Wilcoxon test, P 0.05). ML-init-by-MAP error is not

significantly lower than ML (Wilcoxon test, P 0.61). B: median estimation

error of for the same 4 approaches. The median Per-Cell- error is

significantly lower than the median ML error (Wilcoxon test, P 0.1). 8, the

value that is estimated using the full 8 direction profiles; 5, the value

estimated using a predefined subset of 5 directions.

parametric representation of each curve. Once again, we fitted

a VM function to every response profile using a predefined

subset of five directions and computed the estimated value

(denoted 5). We compared these estimates with 8, the

value that is estimated using the full eight direction profiles.

The prior weight for the 8 estimation was again selected Fig. 3. Estimation errors per cell for ML and MAP. A: EstFR of the hidden 3

using a LOTO method. Results using leave-one-direction-out directions (ordinate), achieved by estimating the VM coefficients using 5

(LODO) were comparable and are not shown here. Figure 2B directions (Coefs5), against their original firing rates (abscissa). Each circle and

compares the estimation error of for the four methods, square denotes the estimate error for a different cell. Open circles denote ML

estimate errors obtained with a subset of 5 directions; squares denote Per-

showing that the Bayesian estimator with an individual value Cell- estimate errors. Arrows point from the ML to the MAP errors. B: 5 vs.

per cell (median 0.5, m.a.d. 0.5) outperforms the method 8 with MAP-Best--per-cell, which we treat as the ground truth. The MAP

ML-initialized-with-MAP (median 0.61, m.a.d. 0.61), and errors are closer to 0 over the full range of firing rates and values.

Innovative Methodology

MOVEMENT DIRECTION TUNING IN MONKEY SMA: A BAYESIAN APPROACH 2847

Fig. 4. Tuning curves with different fitting methods for 3 individual SMA cells. A and B: fitting a subset of 5 directions (d) using the ML method (red dash-dot

curve) overfits the data. At the same time, a Bayesian estimator (green dashed curve) closely fits the 8-direction curve (blue solid curve) that can be viewed as

ground truth. C: the ML estimator (red dash-dot curve) again overfits the data and the 8-direction curve (blue solid curve), but here a Bayesian estimator of fitting

the subset of 5 directions (red dash-dot curve) underfits the data and the 8-direction curve, suggesting that the influence of the prior on the estimated function

is too strong.

obtained using various methods. For Fig. 4, A and B, the MAP which physical direction matches the 1st direction in the

fit of five directions is much closer to the eight-directions fit missingness pattern. We choose for each cell the subset of

than the ML fit of the five directions. In contrast, Fig. 4C shows directions that maximize the cell firing rate. Then, for each cell,

a cell for which the ML estimator is more accurate than a we used cross-validation to choose the best . Each estimate

Bayesian estimator. As Fig. 3 shows, there are many more cells was converted into a width parameter, which corresponds to

for which the Per-Cell- estimator is superior. the curve width in its half-height.

Movement direction tuning curves of macaque SMA and M1 Figure 5A shows the distribution of the widths estimated

neurons. The above analyses convinced us that the Bayesian from 319 SMA cells and 1,112 M1 cells for which the response

estimation procedure provides an accurate method to estimate curve could be well-fitted with a VM model (means r2 0.7,

the shape of the direction tuning curves. We now turned to namely, the model captures 70% of the variance across the

analyze recording from a monkey performing a center-out task mean responses per direction). The median width value for

collected in 2 motor areas: the M1 and the SMA. Recordings SMA units is 119, whereas the median width value for M1

were made in the SMA in 24 sessions with a total of 448 cells units is 130; both correspond to curves that are narrower than

and in M1 in 70 sessions with a total of 1,495 cells. In the SMA the cosine function, for which width is 180. The difference

recordings, only 2 sessions included recordings from 8 direc- between the distributions is significant (2 test, P 0.01,

tions, and 1 session from 6 directions and the remaining 21 Wilcoxon test, P 3e4). The error bars show the variation

sessions had 5 directions only. To compare SMA and M1 of the count across recording sessions. Cells in this analysis

tuning curve on the same basis, we used for every cell only 5 were selected based on how well the VM model captures the

directions, which were selected to match the same missing- shape of the mean response for each direction, as measured

ness pattern 1-1-1-0-1-0-1-0 that sessions with 5 directions using the ratio of explained variance r2. Since the trial-to-trial

already followed. This left 1 degree of freedom for selecting variability of spike counts within a single direction was typi-

Fig. 5. Distribution of width, modulation depth, and dynamic range in M1 and SMA. A: the widths of tuning curves of M1 neurons (dashed curve, mean width

0.66) are significantly larger (Wilcoxon test, P 3e4) than the widths in SMA (solid distribution curve, mean width 0.61). Widths were estimated by 1st

fitting the curve using the Bayesian method and then converting estimated into the width at half-height. Error bars denote the standard error of the mean across

24 SMA recording sessions and 70 M1 recording sessions. deg, Degrees. B: the VM modulation depth of the tuning curves, defined as the m parameter in the

VM fit, is significantly larger (Wilcoxon test, P 2e5) in M1 (dashed curve, mean 4.77) than in the SMA (solid curve, mean 3.17). Curves were estimated

using the Bayesian procedure. Error bars as in A. C: the dynamic range of tuning curves is significantly higher (Wilcoxon test, P 0.006) in M1 (mean 6.14)

than in the SMA (mean 5.25). The dynamic range was computed as the difference between the maximum number of spikes and the minimum number of spikes.

Error bars as in A.

Innovative Methodology

2848 MOVEMENT DIRECTION TUNING IN MONKEY SMA: A BAYESIAN APPROACH

cally very high, the trial-to-trial r2 in the same cells was decaying priors improves the accuracy of the estimation of the

significantly lower than the means r2. hidden measurements even when only five directions were

Figure 5B shows the distribution of the modulation depths used to estimate the shape of the curve and when these

estimated in the SMA and M1 populations. The two distribu- directions were not evenly spaced. Using this Bayesian tuning

tions have slightly different shapes (2 test, P 0.01), and curve estimation procedure, we characterized the shape move-

their medians differ significantly (Wilcoxon test for equal ment direction response curve recorded from the SMA of

medians, P 2e5). The median modulation depth for SMA behaving monkeys. We found that the widths of tuning curves

units is 0.95 spikes, whereas the median modulation depth for in the SMA were often quite narrow, with a median width of

M1 units is 1.91 spikes. 110 as opposed to 180 assumed when using the standard

The neurons of the different areas seem to encode the cosine function.

preferred direction in a different way. The SMA tuning curves We further used the Bayesian estimation procedure to com-

are narrower than the M1 neurons, hence more specific to their pare the direction tuning curves of neurons in the SMA with

preferred direction. The M1 tuning curves are deeper, namely those of neurons in M1 of the same monkeys.

the M1 neurons modify their activity for their preferred direc- The current study focused on coding of movement direction,

tion in a more prominent way. but cells in the primary and the premotor cortex also show that

Figure 5C shows the distribution of the dynamic range the discharge of single neurons is correlated with other aspects

calculated for the same SMA and M1 cells. The dynamic range of movement, including movement speed, distance, and target

is calculated by subtracting the minimal average firing rate position (Fu et al. 1993, 1995). In the current context, it is

across all directions from the maximum firing rate. In a VM possible that the slightly smaller modulation depth for direction

function, the dynamic range depends on two parameters, and observed in the SMA, compared with M1, could indicate that

m, and can be viewed as the magnitude of the response to the a larger involvement of the SMA in other movement parame-

preferred direction relative to a baseline. In our data, the ters besides direction.

distribution of the dynamic range in M1 and in the SMA are Some intuition about the meaning of tuning curves widths

very close, but their medians are significantly different (Wil- can be gained by considering stimulus representation in sen-

coxon, P 0.006): the dynamic range in the SMA (mean sory systems. In the auditory and the visual systems, the

5.25 spikes) is lower than in the M1 (mean 6.14 spikes). representation of stimuli often becomes coarser and coarser

Figure 6 shows the dispersion of the widths and the modu- when advancing from the periphery to higher processing areas.

lation depth values across the electrode locations along the For example, in the auditory system, frequency tuning curves

rostrocaudal and the medial-lateral axis. We found no signifi- in the auditory cortex tend to be wider than in the inferior

cant relation between the electrode location and the curve colliculus (IC) and in the auditory thalamus (MGB), and

width or the modulation depth. Specifically, splitting the SMA neurons in MGB follow more faithfully the amplitude modu-

cells into one group with wide tuning curves (width 120, lations of natural sounds than neurons in A1 (Creutzfeldt et al.

n 154) and a second group with narrow curves (n 165), 1980). In the visual system, the receptive fields of individual

the Euclidean distance between the centers of these two groups cells grow substantially from the retina through the primary

(0.3 mm) is smaller than the average standard deviation (SD) visual cortex to higher areas. This view of sensory systems as

of each group (2 mm). The Euclidean distance between the extracting more complex semantic entities, but becoming more

centers of the wide tuning curves (n 635) and the narrow invariant to their physical properties (like the frequency of

tuning curves (n 477) of the M1 cells (0.1 mm) is also sound stimulus or the position of visual stimuli), could call for

smaller than the average SD of each group (3.50 mm). It is also a counterpart trend in the motor system. Although motor

true for the modulation depth values of the SMA neurons: systems are very different from sensory systems, one could

mean distance between cells with deep tuning curves (depth hypothesize that motor control areas that are more remote from

2, n 109) and shallow tuning curves (n 210) is 0.45 mm, the periphery may operate at a coarser resolution when con-

which is smaller than the average SD of the group, which is trolling movements and, as a result, may exhibit wider tuning

1.93 mm; and for the M1 neurons: mean distance between cells curves than in the periphery.

with deep tuning curves (n 541) and shallow tuning curves When considering this curve-narrowing hypothesis in the

(n 571) is 0.28 mm, whereas the average SD is 3.55 mm. context of the SMA, there are several opposing considerations.

The SMA is involved in motor planning, possibly using a

different coordinate space (Kalaska et al. 1997). For instance,

DISCUSSION

SMA neurons fire before arm movement (Tanji and Kurata

Cells in the SMA often exhibit tuned responses to the 1982), and many SMA neurons project to M1. One may expect

direction of simple movements. The shapes of their tuning that SMA tuning curves would therefore be wider than the

curves may vary in their preferred direction, the modulation curves in M1. At the same time, the SMA also contributes a

depth (response strength), and the width of the curve around substantial fraction of the corticospinal tract, with up to 18% of

the preferred direction. Characterizing these properties of the the neurons in the SMA being corticospinal neurons (Dum and

curves requires that we obtain accurate estimates of their Strick 1991). Also, for simple motor tasks, activity in SMA is

shapes even when sampled at an irregular small number of similar to that in M1 (Chen et al. 1991; Fried et al. 1991;

movement directions. Kollias et al. 2001; Tanji and Mushiake 1996). As such, the

We described a simple Bayesian procedure for estimating SMA could be viewed as parallel to M1.

the parameters of unimodal tuning curves that is based on VM To test these alternative views, we applied the Bayesian

functions. Using measurements from SMA neurons and hiding estimation procedure to both SMA neurons and M1 neurons

part of the data, we found that adding simple, exponentially from the same monkeys and computed the distribution of

J Neurophysiol doi:10.1152/jn.00449.2012 www.jn.org

Innovative Methodology

MOVEMENT DIRECTION TUNING IN MONKEY SMA: A BAYESIAN APPROACH 2849

Fig. 6. Mean width and modulation depth of

tuning curves estimated per electrode loca-

tion along the rostrocaudal and the dorsolat-

eral axis. A: each square correspond to 1

electrode penetration location. The number

denotes the number of units recorded at that

position, and the color denotes the mean

width of their tuning curves. The SMA units

are shown on the left, and the M1 units on

the right. A scheme of the sulci around the

penetrations is added. The 0 in both axes is

an arbitrary point. B: same as in A but for

each position, the color denotes the mean

modulation depth.

tuning curve widths in each brain region. This analysis shows position. Tanaka et al. (2009) used a population coding

that the hypothesis that curves become narrower when moving model to argue that neurons involved in visuomotor rotation

from SMA to M1 does not hold since the widths of the SMA adaptation have a relatively narrow directional tuning width

tuning curves are actually significantly narrower than the M1 and identified visually selective neurons with narrow Gauss-

curves (a median of 128; Fig. 5A). ian tuning curves in the posterior parietal cortex, which is a

Narrow direction tuning curves were also shown in other possible site for adaptation to visuomotor rotation. Narrow

brain areas that are linked to the motor cortex. Andersen and tuning curves were also observed in analysis of local field

colleagues (1985) described neurons in the posterior parietal potentials (LFP). OLeary and Hatsopoulos (2006) de-

cortex that exhibited narrow tuning curves for coding eye scribed neurons both in the primary motor cortex and the

J Neurophysiol doi:10.1152/jn.00449.2012 www.jn.org

Innovative Methodology

2850 MOVEMENT DIRECTION TUNING IN MONKEY SMA: A BAYESIAN APPROACH

premotor cortex that exhibited a range of tuning curve tion of a movement can be coded accurately to a high resolu-

widths at various LFP frequency bands, with many premotor tion using the activity of the population, even when building on

neurons exhibiting sharp tuning curves (10 40) in the wide-tuned neurons (Seris et al. 2004). Although it is often

-band. assumed that a neuron codes for the preferred direction where

Estimating tuning curves from spike counts is often hard to its response peaks, the parts of the tuning curves with the

do in a robust manner. The most common approach is to fit the steepest slope allow the best discrimination between nearby

responses with a curve using least-squares (Amirikian and directions (Butts and Goldman 2006). In the general case, it is

Georgopoulos 2000), where the model could also depend on not possible to tell a priori if it is easier to code direction using

additional aspects of the movement besides the directions, like a group of cells with narrow tuning curves or wide tuning

movement speed (Moran and Schwartz 1999). Unfortunately, curves since the coding accuracy depends strongly on the

the least-squares approach is sensitive to outliers and to non- correlation between cells (Averbeck et al. 2006; Pouget et al.

Gaussian noise in general (Etzold et al. 2004). An even harder 1999). Specifically, sharpening of tuning curves under fixed

challenge is that typical experiments probe tuning curves at a noise can increase the Fisher information that activity conveys

coarse resolution, using five to eight directions only. Further- about the direction, but the information can also be decreased

more, these directions are not necessarily spaced homoge- if sharpening is the result of interaction between neurons, due

neously but rather probe some directions more finely than to stronger correlated noise (Seris et al. 2004). In the SMA,

others. Intuitively, coarse and inhomogeneous sampling strongly there is evidence for pairwise correlations that affect coding

limits the resolution by which the width of the tuning curves accuracy (Averbeck and Lee 2003), but a full characterization

can be estimated accurately. of the effect of correlations on coding directions and their

We find that adding priors on the distribution of widths comparisons with correlations in M1 awaits further research.

actually allows an accurate estimation for a large range of

width values, including the widths that are found experimen- GRANTS

tally in the high-resolution experiments of Amirikian and

Georgopoulos (2000). Handling movement directions that are G. Chechik was supported by Israeli Science Foundation Grants 1001/08

and 1090/12 and Marie Curie Reintegration Grant PIRG06-GA-2009-256566.

sampled in a nonhomogeneous way is particularly useful in the

case of neural prosthesis, where movements are often collected

based on the distribution of natural movements, rather than in DISCLOSURES

a controlled experiment. The above results suggest that includ- The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.

ing priors in the estimation process offers benefits for estimat-

ing movement directions in brain-machine interface (Hatso-

AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

poulos and Donoghue 2009; Nicolelis and Lebedev 2009;

Taylor et al. 2002). Finally, the Bayesian approach is not H.T., E.V., R.P., and G.C. conception and design of research; H.T., E.V.,

limited to neurons in the motor system and can become useful and R.P. performed experiments; H.T. and G.C. analyzed data; H.T., R.P., and

G.C. interpreted results of experiments; H.T. and G.C. prepared figures; H.T.

for analysis of sensory responses. For example, tuning curves and G.C. drafted manuscript; H.T. and G.C. edited and revised manuscript;

are a common way of representing responses of the sensitivity H.T., E.V., R.P., and G.C. approved final version of manuscript.

of visual neurons to orientation or the sensitivity of auditory

neurons to the frequency of a pure-tone stimulus.

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