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Going up or down stairs are instinctive gestures, which we do not even think
about when we need to move from one level to another. Whether in a
building or a space for public circulation, they ensure circulation naturally,
easing peoples physical effort since ancient times. They are essential for
any construction, not only as a way to mediate between two levels, but also
to facilitate the access within a building. Beyond functional considerations,
stairs correspond as well to an aesthetic need or to resistance to traffic,
which gave birth to a complex of structural factors that vary from one space
to another.

The stair is one of the most spectacular sub-assemblies of a building; it is at
the same time a huge sculpture and an escape route; an element that
enriches the building, giving it class and an element that ensures the
operational safety of a building. This does not mean, however, that all stairs
are beautiful; it does not even mean that all stairs must be treated with the
same care; technical stairs, secondary stairs, the ones with occasional
access, they must meet the essential requirements which are subordinated
to all construction products, from construction materials up to the building-

These requirements were established in 1989 through the European

Directive 106/89 regarding construction products that represent a
common basis of provisions on the legislation and regulations relating to
construction products.

Thus, the Building Codes regarding the performance criteria specific to
ramps and stairs, for pedestrian traffic in construction, based on which stairs
should currently be designed, refer to:
Mechanical resistance and stability;
Safety in use;
Fire safety;
Noise protection.

Regarding the requirement of mechanical resistance and stability,

"responsible" for ensuring this goal, and in the stairs case, too, is the
structural engineer; the architect answers - under the law - to ensure
compliance with the other three requirement (requirements of Law 10).
But there is an interference area between the stair composition, in terms of
structure, stair geometry, which includes its appearance in plan, as well as
the image seen underneath the stair, handrail turn at the stair eye.
Before anything else, a terminological convention is required.
This exists, regulated in a number of official materials (building codes
and law abiding design guide), according to which the terms below,
presented in alphabetical order, have the following meaning:

Handrail The sill generally made out of vertical (rails) and /or horizontal

Staircase Shaft The enclosed space, limited by the walls confining the staircase
Nosing The frontal part of the tread that is excluded from the plane of the
riser ;it has a decorative purpose

Riser Vertical surface connecting 2 treads

Observation: there can also be stairs with reads and no risers

Under stairs The lower part of the flight of stairs that can be seen from the
landing or a flight of stairs found on an inferior altitude
Observation: the same analogy can be used to identify the term
over stairs

Total height The circulation space between the sheer limits of 2 superimposed
flight of stairs or a flight of stairs and a landing ,measured using
the normal on the line of walk ,from the nosing of the tread to the
plane generated by the backside of the flight of stairs or the
landings beams

Total length The circulation space between the wall and the railing

Line of walk The Graphic indicator of the way to the stairs; in case of circular
or balanced staircases, its considered to be 50 cm from the
handrail towards the smaller arch of the curve, for flight of stairs
smaller than 1m; in axes of flights of stairs longer than 1.0 m its
considered to be at 60 cm
Handrail Construction element from the superior part of the sill/rail and/or
on the adjacent wall of the (flight of) stairs with the purpose of
giving support to the people using the (flight of) stairs
Tread edge The intersection between the horizontal plane and the vertical
one of the tread
Rail Vertical construction element (continuous or with gaps) that offers
protection to the people going up and down or pausing on the
(flight of) stairs.
Landing Horizontal construction element built for people to rest on when
going up/down stairs
Flight of stairs Flight of stairs Circulation construction element with a slope,
with /without treads
Staircase Construction subcomponent that serves pedestrian circulation in
between more floors, consisting in flights of stairs and eventually
a landing
Outer, open A staircase situated outside the building, standing alone
staircase (independent) or adjacent to the building with a maximum of 3
Inside/Inner, open A staircase situated inside the building, in lobbies, hallways,

staircase atriums, etc without having a shaft of its own
Inside, closed A staircase situated inside the building specific to isolation and
staircase fire safety codes
Staircase with A staircase that has multiple straight flights of stairs and the
relative orientation of some over others occurs at particular
multiple landings
(Most common at 180 or 90)

Monumental A staircase thats designed with the purpose of achieving a

staircase specific architectural impression and built to ensure (only if
necessary) safety evacuation
Main staircase A staircase that can ensure functional circulation throughout the
Curved/Helical A staircase that has curved flight of stairs either continuous or
Staircase interrupted by landings
Straight flights Straight flights staircase a staircase that has straight flight of
stairs either continuous or interrupted by landings

Straight staircase A staircase that has straight flight of stairs hat are positioned one
after another, in the same direction

Secondary A staircase for secondary circulation, passing through all floors or

staircase at least parts of them, ensuring even safety evacuation if built to
Abrupt staircase A staircase that has treads with the width between 22.6 and 30
Balanced or A staircase with one or more straight flight of stairs in which some
dancing parts of the flights are curved (the area of direction changing) or a
staircase staircase posed of a strait flight of stairs and a curved one, with or
without landing.
Staircase with A staircase with risers of height between 17.6 and 22.5cm
high risers
Staircase with low A staircase with risers of height lowers than 16.5cm

Staircase with A staircase with risers of height between 16.6 and 17.5
regular risers
Tread The horizontal surface, with a relatively low width, situated
vertically on equal distance between other treads

Balanced treads Treads that go follow a curved path, with tread edges that
converge to centers of different radius. In a drawing plan, each
tread has a different shape.
The eye of the The free space bound by the inner parts of flight of stairs
Stringer The lateral or central beam going along the flight or stairs bearing
all its weight.

III. Composing parts of staircases

1. Staircase Shaft the walls that define the space of the staircase, it given the
2. Flight of stairs construction element with a slope, with /without treads, that
connects more slabs or a slab and a landing.
3. Landing Horizontal construction element that allows changing of direction
for the flight of stairs or, in the case of very long flights, allows people to rest on
while using the staircase
4. Rail Vertical construction element (continuous or with gaps) that offers
protection to the people going up and down or pausing on the (flight of) stairs.
5. Handrail Construction element from the superior part of the sill/rail and/or
on the adjacent wall of the (flight of) stairs with the purpose of giving support to
the people using the (flight of) stairs
6. Tread horizontal element that allow circulation on the circulation.
7. Riser vertical element that connects 2 treads
8. The eye of the staircase the free space bound by the inner parts of flight
of stairs

9. Stringer The lateral or central beam going along the flight or stairs bearing
all its weight .There are staircases with one or more stringers .

IV. The flight of stairs

Designing the staircase depends on many factors: the place in which the
staircase is going to be situated (inside or out), the size of hole in the slab
and the type of building theyre serving (residential, commercial or industrial)
III.1. Usual slopes for the flight of stairs .The relation between the length of
the tread (l) and the height of the riser (h).
Observation: the treads of big slope staircases should be made without risers
is that the sole of the foot may have a larger contact area, thus going under
the tread above.

The relation between the length of the tread (l) and the height of the riser( h)
defines the slope of the flight of stairs. In his book Architecture course,
Jacques-Francois Blondel (1705 1774) introduced a two factors equation
that allows a proper design of a staircase:

2h + l = 62 64

Where 62 and 64 are the optimum interval (measured in cm) in which the
result of the sum 2h + l must ft in. For example, for a length l =28 cm that we
want to achieve, the right height can be calculated using:
The minimum optimal height

2h + 28 = 62
2h = 62 - 28 = 34
h = 34:2 = 17

The maximum optimal height

2h + 28 = 64
2h = 64 - 28 = 36
h = 36:2 = 18
The ideal height of the riser for a 28 cm tread will be between 17 is 18
mother formula is known even today as Blondels formula.
Over time, accumulated expertise lead to the development of specific ratios
that involve other parameters, according too the use of the stairs, their use or
the type of construction method.
For example, for staircases that have very low/high riser, this equation is
3h + l = 80 85

For stairs situated inside buildings and used by small children (kindergartens,
2h + l = 58 60

The diagram below features some common slopes for flights of stairs:

III.2.. Slopes for flights of stairs

Ramps and stairs with low slopes are generally used outside, for entering the
building or for the inside, where access for the disabled is needed.
European legislation demands the existence of access ramps for all types of
building ,with the mention that the slope may vary depending on if the ramp
is covered or not. The maximum slope for a ramp with no canopies a
maximum of 8% and for the covered ones it can reach to a maximum of 11%.
Most common staircases start from a slope of approximately 20 degrees and
can reach a maximum of 45 degrees ,with the mention that the optimum
slope is 30 -35 degrees, no matter its building material or its area of use .
Ramps and staircases with low slopes

Staircases with common slopes

Staircases with a steep slope

III.3. The width of the ramps

Its an important factor one must consider to allow a smooth flow of

circulation. The width of the flight of stairs represents the circulation space
between the wall and the rail or between 2 rails. Depending on the type of
building and the number of floors, code regulations demand certain minimum
widths for smooth flows of circulation .In the table below, the minimum widths
ate presented according to the type of building.

Minimum widths (recommended) for flights of stairs

NO Building type Width main Width
staircase /m secondary
staircase /m

1 Industrial buildings 1.20 1.10

2 Tall and high rise buildings 1.50 1.20
3 Hospital buildings 1.50 1.50
4 Kindergarten, senior retreats 1.20 1.20
5 Educational buildings maximum 500 students 1.50 1.20
6 Educational buildings over 500 students 1.70 1.20
7 Public buildings maximum 200 people 1.50 1.20
8 Public buildings over 200 people 1.70 1.20

9 Residential buildings maximum 2 floors 1.05 0.90
10 Residential buildings 3-5 floors 1.15 1.00
11 Residential buildings 6-8 floors 1.25 1.10
12 Residential buildings over 9 floors 1.30 1.20
13 Buildings with overcrowded halls public evacuation 1.70 1.20
14 Buildings with overcrowded halls bureaus 1.30 1.20

The width of the landing must be at least equal to the width of the widest
flight of stairs that intersects it and in order to hinder circulation, opening
doors on the landing must be avoided.

The headroom is the height between the sheer surface of the staircase and
the sheer plane of the inferior part of the flight of stairs or the slab above.
Generally, in order to avoid circulation problems, the minimum of 2.1 m is
considered acceptable, case in which any danger of accidents during
circulation is eliminated.

V. Rails and handrails

According to the width of the flight of stairs /ramps and the type of building
theyre situated, its recommended that rails and handrails are placed so:
-For staircases with a width smaller than 1.2 m, a rails and handrail must be
present toward the opening. In case of buildings in use by the disabled, a rail
and handrail must be added also on the other side (wall).
For staircases with the width between 1.2 m and 2.5 m a- a rail and handrail
must be added both towards the opening and the wall.
r staircases with the width bigger than 2.5 m - a rail and handrail must be
added towards the opening, the wall plus an extra rail at maximum 2.5 m.

V.1The rail

Its a construction element with a protective purpose ( it prevents people
using the stairs or resting on the landing from falling from the staircase ) .The
safety height of the railing is between 80 cm and 1.1 m depending on the
construction type ,number of floors etc.
Rails can be made out of masonry, wood or metal with /without closing
components made out of glass, wood or plastic. In this case, the balusters
(vertical elements) must be positioned carefully so that accidental sliding
between them is prevented; eventual horizontal elements must prevent
climbing, especially in the case of children oriented activity buildings.

V.2 The handrail

Its a constructive element thats used in the superior part of the rail or is
positioned directly on the wall adjacent to the staircase. It acts as support for
the users of the staircase. To help its purpose, the shape and material of the
handrail must prevent the slipping of the hand and allow a firm grip.

VI. Treads
They are the horizontal surfaces that allow going up (vertically moving along
a staircase) and down. Tread is a generic term, but architecturally speaking
its a unit made out of tread and riser.
same along the entire flight of stairs .In the case of high and steep treads ,it
is recommended to solve them with an angled riser or none at all ,to in order
to facilitate the support of the foot without any risk of slipping .

The tread edge

The tread edge can be have different components a. with a straight riser b.
with a nosing c. with an angled riser d with a strengthened edge

Staircases with load bearing tread
They are staircases made without any stringers or prefabricated flights of
stairs ,in which the treads are embedded in the lateral walls or just a wall ,the
tread being capable of supporting all the loads from the circulation on the
stairs. Usually, its made out of a metal structure embedded in the wall or
from concrete casting or embedded in the masonry using special
Treads can be made out of reinforced concrete, metal, wood or glass. They
are often used in staircases in residential or commercial buildings
(showrooms, small shops) due to their unique design .They are not
recommended for buildings used by great crowds of users or for evacuation

VII. Categories for staircase classification

Staircases can be classified according to different criteria, but here only the
three most important ones here considered (flight of stairs shape, purpose
and the material used for their structure more on the last criteria is to be
found in the Materials for staircases theme file)
The classifications to be presented are not singular: there is a possibility to
reconsider staircases in other categories as well - after the spaces that are
served (interior, exterior), design, tread shape etc
VI.1 According to the shape of the flight of stairs
There can be stairs with flights that are straight, curved, balanced (with or
without balanced treads). The shape must be chosen not only conforming to

the available space (that staircases must occupy to its full use, with a
minimum of material), but also to desired esthetic impression.

1-8 Staircases with straight flights:

1. Straight staircase with one flight of stairs and no landing
2. Straight staircase with one flight of stairs and a landing
3. Straight staircase with 2 flights of stairs at a 90 turn
4. Straight staircase with 2 flights of stairs at a 180 turn
5. Straight staircase with 3 flights and 2 landings at a 90 turn
6. Straight staircase with 4 flights and 3 landings at a 90 turn
7. Straight staircase with 3 flights and a landing at a 90 turn
8. Straight staircase with 3 flights and a landing at a 180 turn

9-12 Curved/Helical staircases
9. Curved staircase with an arch shape
10. Curved staircase with an cosinus arch shape
11. Curved staircase with an cosinus arch shape and a landing
12. Circular curved staircase
13. Helical staircase

14-21. Stairs with balanced treads
14. Straight balanced staircase
15. Straight staircase, balanced on the inferior part
16. Straight staircase, balanced on the superior part
17. Balanced staircase with a 90 turn
18. Balanced staircase on both the inferior and superior parts
19. Double balanced staircase on both the inferior and superior parts
20. Balanced staircase with a 180 turn
21. Staircase with a straight flight and a curved one

VI.2. According to the purpose
The place in which the staircases will be positioned determines their
classification in : monumental staircases ,main staircases and secondary
ones .Monumental staircases are most often found in public buildings ,not
just on the outside but also the inside ,though there is the possibility of their
use in residential buildings .They can be described as elegant ,with
outstanding architectural detailing .Main staircases are situated indoor ,
serving the building by ensuring proper flow between floors ,while the
secondary staircases have an extra purpose ,ensuring safety evacuation in
case of need ,transport of goods ,etc.

Balanced staircases with a 180 turn

This type of staircase can be designed for different spaces.Its not
supposed to be a safety evacuation staircase ,since it serves only one
circulation flux.Its the most economical way to occupy space because the
treads also replace the landing.
The preliminary phase to the graphic construction of the balanced staircase
with a 180 turn consists of:
according to the floor height and the staircase formula , the dimension of
the treads is decided
the flight of stairs are drawn
the width of the handrail is added
the line of walk (or step line) is constructed ( at 50cm from the edge of
the handrail ,on staircases with length smaller than 1 m ,at 60 cm staircases
with length bigger than 1 m)
the line of walk drawn on the length of the treads

Note : For balanced staircases with a 180 turn, its highly reccomended to
orient the tread after the axis of the staircase in order to avoid a lack of
precision when finishing corners, especially if the staircase is enclosed within
a shaft or has rectangular shape. If the staircase is open or has polygonal
shape, this note does not apply.
after determining the number of steps that need balancing and the
balancing limit line (also known as the balancing line its drawn at a distance
at least as equal to the double of the width of the flight of stairs or the non
rectangular treads are being counted and a twice as that treads are going to
be balanced (fig.1.))

Fig. 1 The preliminary phase to the graphic construction of the balanced

staircase with a 180 turn

The arc method
the width of the balanced tread is drawn in the axis of the staircase (of
14 cm) at the edge of the treads projection towards the inner part of the
staircase ,as considered when determining the total length of the staircase
;its called reference contour
the center of the semi-circle to balance with is marked ( also known as
balancing arc ) ;its found at the intersection between the staircase axis and
the balancing limit and marked as M;also point N is marked at the
intersection between the reference contour semicircle and the staircase axis
the balancing arcis drawn ,having MN as radius
to be drawn are all the points that represent the balanced tread from the
staircase axis to the balancing arc
the remaining arc segment is divided in a number corresponding to the
remaining number of treads to be balanced
the resulting points from the circle are then projected back to the
reference contour ( on either parts of the flight of stairs) ( 2)
the treads can now be drawn up by joining the points from the step line (
line of walk to their analogs on the reference contour (3) (fig. 2)

Fig. 2. The graphic construction of the balanced staircase with a 180 turn using
the arc method

The equal segments method

After determining the number of steps that need balancing , as well as the
balancing limit line (1) , the first balanced tread is drawn (2) using ,in this
method, a minimum width of 12 cm per balanced tread
On the reference countour line , the length of the balanced tread is drawn
at 12 cm
the resulting tread is continued until it intersects the balancing limit (3)
the segment thus obtained on the balancing limit ( 4) will be repeted as
many times as the number of steps left unbalanced (5)
the treads abre being drawn up by joining corresponding points found on
the balancing limit contour (fig. 3)

Fig. 3 The graphic construction of the balanced staircase with a 180 turn
using the equal segments method

The proportional segments method

After determining the number of steps that need balancing, as well as the
balancing limit line (1), the first balanced tread is drawn (2) using ,in this
method, a minimum width of 12 cm per balanced tread
by extending the axis of the already drawn tread next to the axis of the
staircase ,point M is obtained
starting from M a random line is drawn
this line will be divided in consecutive proportional segments, as many as
the number of the unbalanced treads (in fig. 4 the points are marked with
roman numbers)

the last point (from the random line) is joined with N (from the staircase
axis), found at the intersection between the balancing line and the staircase
axis, thus obtaining the III-N segment
referencing to the III-N segment, parallels are drawn starting from the
other points determined on the random line (IV-VIII) until it intersects the
staircase axis
these intersection points ( marked 4...8) are joined to their analogs on the
step line (4...8) , thus obtaining the corresponding balanced steps

Fig. 4 The graphic construction of the balanced staircase with a 180 turn
using the proportional segments method

The angle method
After determining the number of steps that need balancing, as well as the
balancing limit line (1) , the first balanced tread is drawn (2) using ,in this
method, a minimum width of 12 cm per balanced tread
two steps,a and b, that intersect at 90 are drawn ata reasonable scale
(for example 1/10) (3) and (4)
from the initial 90 a line c is being drawn , at aprox . 20 over the
on this line , a certain number of segments will be drawn , as many as
the numeber of the unbalanced steps;the segments represent the width the
treads have on the step line (the dimension of line c will be equal to the
length of the balancing zone on the step line)
line b will have the dimension equal to the unfolded balanced staircase
part on the reference contour
lines b and c are united and the resulting line d is continued until it
intersects line a (6)
the points from c are joined with the intersection point between a and d ;
the resulting segments on b are equal to the length of the balancing tread
on the reference contour (fig. 5)

Fig. 5. The graphic construction of the balanced staircase with a 180 turn
using the angle method



The stairs must meet the following quality requirements: strength and
stability, fire safety, safety in use, acoustics protection.

Hygiene, human health and environmental protection requirements can
be considered complied with if the construction and finishing materials emit
no pollutants.

Reinforced concrete stairs can have load bearing flights of stairs, made of
monolithic reinforced concrete or prefabricated and with steps finished with
other materials. The flights structural system is of the smooth or wrinkled
load bearing slab type.
The usual construction system made of monolith reinforced concrete shows
the following:
advantages in execution:
simple and economical casings, inventory casings can also be used;
simple reinforcement system;
convenient casting.
disadvantages in execution:
the stair is being executed by different teams of workers (smiths - benders
and other workers specialized in finishes, tiling, carpentry, etc), in different
work stages; work accuracy is different for the two categories of workers;
work-site circulation is more difficult and requires troubleshooting with
improvised devices, until resolving the raw steps or directly the finished
steps. In this situation the finishing workmanship (including the raw
concrete steps) is more expensive but more accurate.
the construction system of the "wrinkled slab bearing with rigid knotts "
type is more difficult to calculate and execute. For this reason, the solution
is used for decorative stairs in unique buildings.
the type of construction system consisting of the load bearing slab made
of prefabricated reinforced concrete has the following features:
the raw steps are executed along with the resistance structure;
they have controlled geometry, enabling the reduction of manual labor
when executing the finishes;

there are also already finished prefabs, generally produced by specialized
it ensures time savings for the manual labor on the construction site;
it requires powerful cranes (the weight of prefabricated elements is
between 1,000 and 5,000 kg), which justify their use for high-rise
with load bearing prefabricated steps and monolithic or prefabricated cast
they can be installed on the building site by lightweight lifting machines
(the weight of the prefabricated elements is generally less than 500 kg
(rarely 800 kg)), and they can be used on small sites with few levels;
the solution is interesting especially for prefabricated elements already
finished, produced by specialized firms.

Metal stairs can be used for decorative stairs or technical stairs.

Metal is used for both steps and stringers. Generally, the metal used is steel,
in the form of sheets and laminated or pressed profiles. It is advisable to use
"corten" steel, more resistant to corrosion than carbon steel.
Other metals used for stairs are:
stainless steel (chemically and mechanically resistant, polished or
matte - satin finished look);
aluminum, especially in the form of extruded or pressed castings,
profiles or sheets/toles;
brass and copper, in the form of laminated profiles or pressed metal
sheet, for decorative pieces or aesthetic;
cast iron, used in the nineteenth century, both for the resistance
elements as well as for the decorative;
Maintenance over time:
steel must be protected against corrosion by painting and requires
repainting at certain time intervals, depending on the material, stair

position (interior or exterior) and stair manufacturers
recommendations (if any).
in the case of stainless steel, aluminum, copper or brass stairs, the
problem of maintenance over time consists of avoiding mattifying the
shiny surfaces, especially on the stepping surface in the area most
used, perhaps by chemical treatment of surfaces and mattifying. In the
case of stairs with heavy traffic degradation of surfaces (even the
matte ones) due to scratching should be considered.

Metal steps can be made of:

metal steps of: gratings, checker plate, upholstered with rugs,
supporting rigid boards (wood, prefabricated of stone);
metal structure steps filled with other materials and that have a wear
layer of wood, carpet, stone, cast mosaic, ceramic.

Metallic stringers can be made of:

current laminated profiles, composite or special (expanded laminated
profiles), tubular pipes;
trusses; they are done either from laminated profiles, or tubes with
circular or rectangular section, assembled by welding. Stringers - very
high truss can be made, even forming the stair railing;
For decorative stairs, stringers can have smooth edges or one or both
toothed edges.

Stone stairs - are stairs with load-bearing stone steps; they can be
supported on the ground, embedded in the masonry walls, or supported on
stone or brick arches.
The stone blocks end in a parallelepiped shape in order to be easily
concealed by weaving together with the masonry blocks.

Mixed stairs may have reinforced concrete stringers (monolithic or
prefabricated), or out of metal and load-bearing steps from other materials
than the stringer (prefabricated concrete, wood, metal, stone, glass). Steps
are fixed locally on the stringers, mechanically or with special cemented or
welded pieces.


For finishing steps and stairs in general there are several types of profiles,
plinths and decorative elements. Among the most important are the
edge/banding profiles that allow finishing the step edge, providing durability,
but also the possibility of implementing anti-slip profiles, which prevent
slipping on stairs. They are usually made of aluminum or metal, but there are
also white or colored PVC versions.

Anti-slip profiles can be purchased separately, are made of rubber and can
be mounted on any type of step, if not provided when building, or in special
areas provided by the manufacturer.
To finish the stairs with usual conformation there are specially designed
plinth profiles or regular plinths can be used for floors, with the amendment
that in the case of stairs with a complex profile special attention to joints must
be paid.

Decorative profiles, in the case of stairs, refer to the finishing of the risers or
of the visible side. Usually it is made of plaster and glued in place along with
other finishes. As finishing versions there are also expanded polystyrene


The stair is a constructive assembly, perfectly determined geometrically,
through a formula, the height of the railing, and yet the choice and process of
the material, its installation and use can lead to a faulty operation of an
assembly or another.
People with faulty vision might find it hard to distinguish the steps and risers of
the same color.
The dark colors of steps can be misleading, as they can be mistaken for the
umbrellas left on the counter-step.
Providing stair illumination and appropriate accessories will help remove one of
the causes of accidents due to the designer's ignorance.
The correct location of windows, lamps and switches (which should be
accessible and easy to find) should solve some problems.
National regulations require that all stair steps should have the same height.
Studies have shown that most stair accidents are due to faulty execution, with
height variations.
Slippery surfaces: slip surfaces (shiny) or accidentally doused favor slipping;
loose rugs or carpets that induce a horizontal movement between the fabric
and the step finish.
Anti-slip materials can be provided in both the design phase and the execution
and operation phases.

Date : Architect:
21 01.2014 Nawzad Maaroof