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a) Headlines are not always complete sentences. Many headlines consist of noun phrases with
no verb:
E.g.: More wage cuts.

b) Headlines often contain strings of three, four or more nouns; nouns earlier in the string
modify those that follow:
E.g. Furniture factory pay cut row.

It sometimes help to read them backwards. A row (disagreement) about a cut (reduction) in
pay at a factory that makes furniture.

c) Headlines often leave out articles and the verb be.

E.g. Shakespeare play immoral, says Headmaster.
Woman walks on moon.

d) In headlines, simple tenses are often used instead of progressive or perfect forms. The
simple present is used for both present and past events.
E.g. Blind girl climbs Everest (- has climbed)
Students fight for course changes (- are fighting)

The present progressive can be used, especially to talk about changes. Be is usually dropped.
E.g. Britain getting warmer, say scientists.
Trade figures improving.

e) Many headline words are used as both nouns and verbs, and nouns are often used to modify
other nouns. Compare:
E.g. US cuts aid to Third World.
(The UD reduces its help cuts is a verb, aid is a noun)

Aid cuts row

(There has been a disagreement about the reduction in aid. Aid and cuts
are both nouns)

Cuts aid rebels

(The reduction is helping the revolutionaries. Cuts is a noun, aid is a

f) Headlines often use infinitives to refer to the future.

E.g. PM to visit Australia.
Hospitals to take fewer patients.

For is also used to refer to future movements or plans.

E.g. Troops for Glasgow? (- Are soldiers going to be sent to Glasgow?)

g) Auxiliary verbs are usually dropped from passive structures, leaving past participles.

E.g. Murder hunt: man held (- a man is being held by police)
Six killed in explosion (-Six people have been killed)

Note that forms like held, attacked are usually past participles with passive meanings, not past
tenses (which are rare in newspaper headlines)

Aid row: President attacked (- the President has been attacked)
Aid row: President attacks critics (-the President has attacked her critics)

Boy found safe (-The missing boy has been found safe)
Boy finds safe (-A boy has found a safe)

h) A colon (:) is often used to separate the subject of a headline from what is said about it
E.g. Motorway crash: Death toll rises

Quotation marks () are used to show that words were said by somebody else, and that
the newspaper does not necessarily claim that they are true.
E.g. Crash driver had been drinking

A question mark (?) is often used when something is not certain

E.g. Crisis over by September?


The Telegraph

General election result: Everything you need to know this morning

9 JUNE 2017 9:39AM


Britain was facing political turmoil this morning after Theresa Mays election gamble
backfired, putting her Brexit plans in chaos as the Conservative majority was predicted to
be wiped out.
With more than 500 results counted, Labour was taking constituencies from the Tories all
over the country, with the Conservatives forecast to take 318 seats down 13 and Labour
expected to gain 35 seats to put it on 267. The vote meant a hung parliament was the most
likely outcome.
It left Mrs Mays premiership in serious doubt and raised the possibility of Jeremy Corbyn in
Downing Street leading a minority government the coalition of chaos of which Mrs May
had persistently warned.
Mrs May was determined to fight on this morning, though she appeared to concede she would
have to lead a coalition rather than a majority government.
She said: At this time, more than anything else, this country needs a period of stability and if
the Conservative Party has won the most seats then it would be incumbent on us to ensure
that we have that.
She said her resolve to lead the country through Brexit is the same this morning as it has
always been.

But senior Tories cast doubt on whether Mrs May would still be Prime Minister by the end of
today. Asked if she would survive the day, Sir Craig Oliver, David Camerons former
director of communications, said: Its certainly looking increasingly difficult.
Boris Johnsons odds of being the next prime minister were slashed from 66/1 before polls
closed to 5/1.
Brexit negotiations, due to begin in 10 days, would have to be postponed if neither party is
able to form a government, and senior Conservatives suggested another election might now
have to be called. The result was being watched almost as keenly in Brussels as it was in the
Mrs May called the election hoping to strengthen her hand in Brexit talks, but her authority
would be hugely weakened if the predicted result proves correct.
Mrs May would be unable to form a coalition without the support of the Democratic Unionist
Party, but this morning DUP leader Arlene Foster said she did not favour a hard Brexit an
indication of the upheaval to come.
Mr Corbyn said Mrs Mays mandate is lost votes and lost support ... and I would have
thought that was enough to go. By the early hours, Conservative losses were racking up, with
ministers among those losing their seats.
Ben Gummer, the Cabinet Office minister who helped write the manifesto, lost to Labour in
Jane Ellison, the Financial Secretary to the Treasury, was beaten by Labour in Battersea,
forfeiting what had seemed a safe majority of 7,938. Amber Rudd, the Home Secretary, faced
a recount in her seat in Hastings and Rye, where she had a 4,796 majority. She eventually
prevailed by just 346 votes.
The Liberal Democrats were predicted to gain seats and retook Twickenham with a return
for Sir Vince Cable but Nick Clegg lost his seat in Sheffield Hallam in one of the biggest
shocks of the night.
It was a disastrous poll for the SNP and Ukip. Nicola Sturgeons party was predicted to lose
24 seats to end on 32, a result that will hugely undermine her hopes for a second Scottish
independence referendum.
Angus Robertson, Ms Sturgeons deputy and the SNPs leader in Westminster, and former
SNP leader Alex Salmond lost their seats to the Conservatives in a Tory surge north of the
border, led by Scottish leader Ruth Davidson, that saw the party capture at least nine more
A total collapse in Ukips vote appeared to have been decisive in the overall result.
Predictions that Ukip voters would flock to the Conservatives proved wide of the mark, with
Labour and the Tories appearing to pick up votes in roughly equal numbers.
It meant the Tories failed to make as many gains in northern Leave-voting seats as expected,
while Labour did well in southern Remain-voting seats.
The pound tanked by 1.7 per cent against the dollar as soon as the first exit poll was
published. Kenneth Clarke, speaking after retaining his Rushcliffe seat in Nottinghamshire,
said the country was in the middle of great events and added that it was one of the most
remarkable general elections he could remember.
Mrs May had a working majority of 17 seats and repeatedly told voters that if she lost just six
seats, Mr Corbyn would be prime minister.
Turnout across the country was high, with young voters apparently out in force to back Mr
Corbyns tax-and-spend manifesto.
Prof Michael Thrasher, Sky Newss election analyst, said the kinds of people that havent
been voting in the past do appear to be voting in this election.

A senior Conservative source said: Whether or not we get over the line, there are going to
be big changes. George Osborne, the former chancellor, said the result was ghastly for the
Tories and catastrophic for Mrs May.
A source close to Mr Corbyn said Mrs Mays reputation had been shot to pieces while John
McDonnell, the shadow chancellor, said her position appeared increasingly untenable.
Mr McDonnell said: She went for it to secure a mandate that she already had and people saw
through that. It was for party advantage.
People saw this as opportunism. Even if the result is anywhere near this, it was a catastrophic
error and people have seen through it.
Emily Thornberry, Labours shadow foreign secretary, accused Mrs May of hubris in
calling the election, saying: I think were on a verge of a great result. I think she should go,
because she has manifestly failed.
David Gauke, the Chief Secretary to the Treasury, hit back by saying Mrs Mays position
isnt in question.
He said: I dont think theres anyone else who could lead us into the negotiations so
effectively. The idea that we should ignore that and navel-gaze would be a big mistake.
Theresa May continues to be the right person to lead that. Shes the right person for the job,
Given that weve got really important negotiations beginning in 10 days time, the
responsibility of those of us who hope to be elected as Conservative MPs is to continue to
support her.
Dr Liam Fox, the International Trade Secretary, refused to be drawn when asked whether Mrs
May should be forced to step down.
He told the BBC: Its very early in the evening and I think we have to wait and see. We will
see what happens in terms of the numbers of seats we get and the vote share before we make
any assumptions.
Ms Thornberry said that if there was a hung parliament what we will do is we will put
forward a Budget we will put forward a Queens Speech and Labour MPs will support it and
we will ask MPs from other parties to support it as well.
If they do not, it will be for them to explain to their constituents why they have allowed a
highly unpopular Conservative Government to carry on with the same old same old.

Which were the parties involved in the election?

Define-describe the UK Parliament.
Look at the structure of the article: voices, paragraphs, punctuation, etc.

Match the words with their definitions

1.turmoil a) admit or agree that something is true after first denying

or resisting it; surrender or yield (a possession, right, or
2.constituency b) a violent or sudden change or disruption to something.
3.hung parliament c) an act of counting something again, especially votes in
an election.
4.concede d) (of a crowd or a natural force) move suddenly and
powerfully forward or upward.
5.incumbent on someone e) a state of great disturbance, confusion, or uncertainty.
6.upheaval f) fail completely, especially at great financial cost; defeat

7. forfeit g) the number of people who participate in or attend an
8. recount h) a group of voters in a specified area who elect a
representative to a legislative body.
9. surge i) lose or be deprived of (property or a right or privilege)
as a penalty for wrongdoing.
10. tank j) necessary for (someone) as a duty or responsibility.
11. turnout k) a parliament in which no political party has enough seats
to secure an overall majority.

1.wide of the mark a) having a successful outcome, but only by a narrow

2.out in force b) useless or excessive self-contemplation
3.get over the line c) to be wrong
4. navel-gaze d) appearing in great strength