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Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

School of Graduate Studies


Faculty of Civil Engineering

MKAM 1033
Construction Technology
Assignment # 2

Prepared by
MAHMOUD A. M. ALBHAISI MKA161168
Course Lecturer
Dr. A. Aziz Bin Saim
12 December, 2017
Table Content

Contents

Table Content ................................................................................................................. 1


Table of Figures ............................................................................................................. 1
1.0 Introduction: ........................................................................................................ 2
2.0 Segmental Bridge Construction Techniques ....................................................... 3
2.1 Cast in Place .................................................................................................... 3
2.1.1 Cast in Place Segmental - Cantilever ....................................................... 4
2.1.2 Cast-in-Place Incremental Launching ................................................... 6
2.2 Precast Segmental ........................................................................................... 8
2.2.1 Casting Yard ............................................................................................ 9
2.2.1.1 Casting Yard Layout ................................................................................... 9
2.2.1.2 Requirements of a Casting Yard ............................................................... 10
2.2.2 Precast Segmental - Cantilever Construction ........................................ 10
2.2.3 Precast Segmental - Span by Span ......................................................... 11
2.2.4 Precast Segmental - Full Span ............................................................... 12
3.0 Conclusion ........................................................................................................ 13
4.0 References ......................................................................................................... 14

Table of Figures

FIGURE 1.1. Cantilever construction applied to pre-stressed concrete bridges. .......... 4


FIGURE 1.2. Cast-in place form traveler. ..................................................................... 5
FIGURE 1.3. Bendorf Bridge form traveler (courtesy of Dyckerhoff & Widmann). ... 5
FIGURE 1.4. Form traveler (courtesy of Dyckerhoff & Widmann). ............................ 5
FIGURE 2.1. Incremental Launching Cycle.................................................................. 7
FIGURE 2.2. Precast Segmental Manufacturing ........................................................... 8
FIGURE 2.3. Casting Yard Layout................................................................................ 9
FIGURE 2.4. Precast Cantilever .................................................................................. 11
FIGURE 2.5. Span by Span Precast Segments ............................................................ 11
FIGURE 2.6. Full Span Operation ............................................................................... 12
1.0 Introduction:

A segmental bridge is a bridge that is built in short sections (called segments),


i.e., one piece at a time, as opposed to traditional methods that build a bridge in very
large sections. The bridge is made of concrete that is either cast-in-place (constructed
fully in its final location) or precast concrete (built at another location and then
transported to their final location for placement in the full structure). These bridges are
very economical for long spans (over 100 meters), especially when access to the
construction site is restricted. They are also chosen for their aesthetic appeal.

Ed. W. Chen and Lian D., (2000), said that, before the advent of segmental
construction, concrete bridges would often be made of several precast girders placed
side by side, with joints between girders being parallel to the longitudinal axis of the
bridge. With the modern segmental concept, the segments are slices of a structural
element between joints which are perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the structure.

James M. Barker, (1981), mentioned that, the segmental concrete bridges offers
a great economical values. These type of bridges offered an ease in construction a
bridge in the shortest time possible. Also, it offers a multiple construction techniques
to build from 35 to 40 methods.

Segmental Bridges offers a great deal of techniques that it will be discussed in details.

Segmental Bridge Construction Techniques:

Cast In Place
o Travelers - Cantilever
o Incremental Launching
Precast Segmental
o Casting Yard
o Cantilever Construction
o Span by Span
o Full Span
2.0 Segmental Bridge Construction Techniques

There are many important techniques for erection of concrete segmental


bridges. Their characteristics are outlined so that understanding of the specific nature
of each of these methods can be achieved. These methods summarized in: Cast in Place
and Precast Segmental.

2.1 Cast in Place

The cast-in-place technique is favored for long and irregular span lengths with
few repetitions. Bridge structures with one long span and 2 to 4 smaller spans
sometimes have a varying-depth beam to hold the longer span, thence creating the
investment during a mold that accommodates varying-depth segments even additional
uneconomical.

In cast-in-place construction, segments square measure solid one once another within
their final location in the structure. Special instrumentation is employed for this
purpose, like travelers (for cantilever construction) or formwork units moved on a
supporting frame (for span by- span construction). Every phase is bolstered with
standard untensioned steel and typically by thwart wise or vertical pre-stressing or each,
whereas the assembly of segments is achieved by longitudinal post-tensioning. As a
result of the segments square measure solid end-to-end, it's not troublesome to put
longitudinal reinforcing steel across the joints between segments if the look entails
continuous reinforcement. Joints could also be treated PRN for safe transfer of all
bending and shear stresses and for water tightness in aggressive climates. Association
between individual lengths of longitudinal post-tensioning ducts could also be created
simply at every joint and for every sinew.
2.1.1 Cast in Place Segmental - Cantilever

The balanced or free cantilever construction construct was originally developed


to eliminate false work. Temporary shoring not solely is pricey however are often a
hazard within the case of fast floods, as confirmed by several failures. Over passable
waterways or traveled highways or railways, false work is either not allowed or severely
restricted. Cantilever construction, whether or not solid in situ or formed, eliminates
such difficulties: construction might proceed from the permanent piers, and therefore
the structure is independent the least bit stages. The basic principle of the method was
briefed in (Figure 1.1).

FIGURE 1.1. Cantilever construction applied to pre-stressed concrete bridges.

In cast-in-place construction the type work is supported from a movable form carrier,
Figure 1.2. Details of the shape traveler area unit shown in Figure 1.4. The shape
traveler moves forward on rails connected to the deck of the finished structure and is
anchored to the deck at the rear. With the shape traveller in situ, a brand new section is
created, cast, and stressed to the antecedently created section. In some instances a
covering is also provided on the shape carrier so work might proceed throughout
inclement weather, Figure 1.3. The operation sequence in cast-in-place balanced
cantilever construction is as follows:

1. Setting up and adjusting carrier.


2. Setting up and aligning forms.
3. Placing reinforcement and tendon ducts.
4. Concreting.
5. Inserting pre-stress tendons in the segment and stressing.
6. Removing the formwork.
7. Moving the form carrier to the next position and starting a new cycle.

FIGURE 1.2. Cast-in place form traveler.

FIGURE 1.3. Bendorf Bridge form traveler (courtesy of Dyckerhoff & Widmann).

FIGURE 1.4. Form traveler (courtesy of Dyckerhoff & Widmann).


2.1.2 Cast-in-Place Incremental Launching

The principle of the incrementally launched bridge consists of building the construction
segments in an exceedingly casting yard placed behind the bridge abutment. Every
phase is match solid against the previous one and prestressed to the section of
construction already engineered. The whole construction is then jacked forward a
distance adequate to the length of this phase. This method is continual till the bridge is
in its final position. The secondary noble metal is then put in and therefore the
temporary bearings ar replaced by the permanent bearings. This manner of construction
will be used for bridges having constant cross sectional form throughout their length.
The bridge ought to be straight or have a relentless horizontal and vertical curvature.

This technique, following an appropriate technological style with aspects of the ILM
technique projected to the construction style, brings a good vary of benefits and is
extremely effective compared to alternative strategies, despite typically higher material
demands. This is often nearly a factory for bridge construction in segments with
benefits like most productivity, reinforcement assemblages on the full length of phase,
minimum formwork et al.

Having goodish experiences during this technology, VSL offers and with success
provides the improvement of the load bearing structure style and stabilization of piers
against effects of horizontal forces, if needed, in addition because the style of
technological instrumentation for launching and casting yard, in cooperation with the
designer and contractor and in keeping with the scope of needed works. Notably the
casting yard, with relevance the management of the load bearing structures pure
mathematics with minimum tolerances, and safe launching device ar crucial for triple-
crown realization of launching. The VSLs construct of launching supported versatile
casting yard and hydraulic strand units maximally reduces the risks related to this
technique.

The scope of works offered by VSL, besides the participation in style, includes
prestressing works, delivery of special slippery pot bearings convertible to permanent
ones, delivery and operation of the launching instrumentation and extra mechanics
connected, and lifting works necessary for replacement or conversion of slippery
bearings.
The progressive launching technique is applied chiefly to structures with high piers or
wherever the formwork on solid centering cannot be used (above the prevailing build-
up space, communications, water areas, in ecologically sensitive areas, etc.)

FIGURE 2.1. Incremental Launching Cycle


2.2 Precast Segmental

The popularity of precast concrete segmental bridge construction has big


worldwide within the previous couple of decades. These sorts of bridges provide several
edges to house owners like reduced prices, reduced construction time, reduced
environmental impacts, and reduced maintenance of traffic. These edges is achieved
whereas utilizing native labor and materials, higher suggests that of internal control,
and with minimum necessities for future maintenance. They additionally provide extra
structural blessings of sturdiness, hearth resistance, deflection management, higher
rider serviceableness, unfitness to fatigue, and different redundancies. These bridges
will accommodate highways, railways, and mass rapid transit, in each urban and rural
environments. Theyll be straight or sinusoidal alignments, and might offer long spans
for tough obstructions and terrain.

Segmental Bridges are varied in sorts such as: incrementally launched, long
line castings, cable stayed, formed segmental progressive placement, arches, cast-in-
place segmental, transportation system match solid formed segmental construction,
etc. This course can contemplate formed Segmental substructures and superstructures
utilizing transportation system match casting of formed parts and each span by span,
and balanced cantilever ways of erection. The course are going to be countermined
into four basic sections: formed producing, Substructure Erection, and structure
Erection Span by Span technique, and structure Erection Balanced Cantilever
technique. Every section are going to be additional countermined by: got wind of and
staging, construction, stressing and grouting, and completion.

FIGURE 2.2. Precast Segmental Manufacturing


2.2.1 Casting Yard

A casting yard is a confined place where all the concrete structures like
segments, parapets, I- girders/beams, boundary wall panels, cable troughs etc. Re-
casted/manufactured, shifted to their stack yard, cured for the specific period/days and
then shifted to the working site/viaduct after they gain their required strength.

2.2.1.1 Casting Yard Layout

Batching Plant

Storage Area
Open Casting Yard

Office

FIGURE 2.3. Casting Yard Layout


2.2.1.2 Requirements of a Casting Yard

Site for any Casting Yard ought to be simply accessible from all web site
locations.
Land ought to be offered from twenty five Acres to forty Acres for establishing
a casting yard.
Approach Road resulting in Casting Yard ought to be simply known.
Good Environmental conditions.
It shouldn't quite three to four metric linear unit from operating web site.
Proper drinkable facilities for Engineers, Supervisors & Labors.
Canteen facilities for the workers & Labors.
Medical treatment Centre just in case of emergency.

2.2.2 Precast Segmental - Cantilever Construction

Balanced cantilever structure erection could be a methodology of construction


wherever span components are erected in their permanent location beginning at a
central purpose and dealing cantilevered incrementally each up-station and down-
station during an independent balanced state. The segments is placed severally
alternating briefly unbalanced to balanced conditions can specify what percentage
components out of balance is erected typically no quite one) or raised in pairs, one
over every finish. This methodology is additionally repetitive and is helpful for
extended spans that cannot be created by the span by span methodology. This
methodology is employed for formed segmental bridge spans starting from 150 to 500
ft. Like the previous sections of the course, potency is gained thanks to the repetitive
production line nature of the work however. This methodology of erection is a lot of
convertible than the span by span methodology. Though variations in span length and
span height, the parcel being spanned, and changes in alignment are going to be less
economical than straight, constant, and accessible styles, balanced cantilever spans ar
similar temperament for bowed alignments, full project sites, rough and water parcel,
rail crossings, and environmentally sensitive areas.
FIGURE 2.4. Precast Cantilever

2.2.3 Precast Segmental - Span by Span

Span by span structure erection may be a methodology of construction wherever the


span components square measure quickly command in situ till they're independent and
once capable of self-support the erection procedure advances to the following span. The
completion of 1 span at a time is that the shaping character that the name span-by-
span" comes from. This methodology is incredibly repetitive and might be economical
for spans starting from 80 to a 180 ft. (150 ft. spans square measure usually accepted
because the most economical span length supported typical substructure varieties vs.
typical truss). Like the previous sections of the course, potency is gained thanks to the
repetitive production line nature of the work. Things that may have an effect on
productivity include: variations in span length and particularly span height, the piece of
land being spanned (land vs. water. urban or industrial vs. open areas), and changes in
alignment (curves and transitions).

FIGURE 2.5. Span by Span Precast Segments


2.2.4 Precast Segmental - Full Span

The full span formed methodology of erection is fitted to specific structures


comprising multiple spans of comparable lengths and minimum curvature. Full span
formed components will be created below manufactory conditions that improve safety,
exactitude and potency of works. Besides work platforms at pier heads, solely little
temporary structures area unit needed on website. The delivery of factory-made spans
on the already created a part of the bridge structure in no approach disrupts the
prevailing road traffic and no parcel of land improvement works area unit necessary
that may somewhat be needed if spans area unit transported at ground level. The
achieved rate of erection for the on top of mentioned project was nearly a pair of spans
per day on the average.

FIGURE 2.6. Full Span Operation


3.0 Conclusion

Some contractors have expressed concern over the additional time and money
required to evaluate the options before bidding projects. The days of design engineers
telling contractors every move to make and when to make them are quickly coming to
an end. To create the most economical projects, competition between materials and the
methods of using the materials must be encouraged. In the future, projects and
construction methods are going to be more engineering oriented requiring a cooperative
effort between designers and contractors with a required increase in contractor
engineering staffs. Also, there will be more competition among construction materials,
and often two complete sets of plans for one project based on two alternative materials.
The final result should be a much more economical use of construction resources.

This construction is very specialized and no matter how in-depth the courses are
written there is no substitute for experience. Many specialty subcontractors and
suppliers offer onsite consulting services as a supplement to the construction staffing.
To organize a new construction project, managers should strongly consider these
additions as well as the support of an experienced construction engineering firm. The
consulting experience will help train the project personnel, troubleshoot problems, and
give confidence to the owner. Additionally, a well-structured quality control program
is a must. From design to casting to erection, unaccounted errors can have significant
impacts to cost, schedule, and safety.

Lastly, safety must be a constant focus of every operation. Because of the


versatility of these bridges (mostly described in the opening paragraphs of the course)
they are often chosen to be constructed in some of the most adverse and inaccessible
areas imaginable. Working with extreme weights at excessive heights requires safety
diligence from every stakeholder. A comment from a past superintendent demanding
patience about an operation: were not just throwing pillows around", sounds
lighthearted considering the critical nature of these operations but served as a rallying
cry for the safety of an entire project that completed without any OSHA recordable or
lost-time incidents. Please be safe.
4.0 References

1. John E. Kristensen, (2012), Precast Segmental Bridge Construction Part1.


2. James M. Barker, (1981), Segmental bridges: the best in the business,
Publication# C810135.
3. Ed. Wai-Fah Chen and Lian Duan, (2000), Segmental Concrete Bridges.
Bridge Engineering Handbook.
4. Walter Podolny, Jr., Ph.D., P.E.,(1807), Construction and Design of
Prestressed Concrete Segmental Bridges. A Wiley-Interscience Publication.
5. W. Jay Rohleder, Jr, P.E., S.E., (2011), Segmental Bridge Technology
Established and Evolving.
6. Bob Sward, (2012), Segmental Bridge Construction Techniques. PTI
Convention Nashville, TN May 7, 2012.