Abstract: The gearless and clutchless non-synchronous transmission is somewhat
similar to a modern automatic transmission. As one of the objectives would be to
include it into commercial cars, one must take into account the sound generated while
the transmission is in operation. In this sense the transmission was connected to a
small engine dynamometer while driven by a 2.2 kW electrical motor. During this time
the vibration level was measured with a PCB microphone. The tests were done both
under partial and full load, with the input frequencies ranging from 5 to 50 Hz

© All Rights Reserved

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Abstract: The gearless and clutchless non-synchronous transmission is somewhat
similar to a modern automatic transmission. As one of the objectives would be to
include it into commercial cars, one must take into account the sound generated while
the transmission is in operation. In this sense the transmission was connected to a
small engine dynamometer while driven by a 2.2 kW electrical motor. During this time
the vibration level was measured with a PCB microphone. The tests were done both
under partial and full load, with the input frequencies ranging from 5 to 50 Hz

© All Rights Reserved

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CLUTCHLESS NON-SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION

Prof. Univ. Dr. Eng. Ioan POP, Drd. Eng. Vlad BOCNE, Prof Dr. Eng. Iulian

LUPEA, Conf. Dr. Eng. Constantin CHIRI*, Drd. Eng. Marius DENE-POP, Drd.

Eng. Paul VIDICAN

similar to a modern automatic transmission. As one of the objectives would be to

include it into commercial cars, one must take into account the sound generated while

the transmission is in operation. In this sense the transmission was connected to a

small engine dynamometer while driven by a 2.2 kW electrical motor. During this time

the vibration level was measured with a PCB microphone. The tests were done both

under partial and full load, with the input frequencies ranging from 5 to 50 Hz.

Keywords: gearless, clutchless, non-synchronous transmission, sound analysis,

vibration level.

The automotive industry has high quality third octave analysis, analyzers often

standard for its components. One of the synthesized one-third octave bands from FFT

necessities of rising to these standards is data by assigning the energy from appropriate

controlling the noise level of the moving bins to a particular proportional band filter. This

components. To be able to control the noise method has drawbacks due to leakage. [1]

level, one must first identify the sources and

analyze the sound component to be able to 3. Signals

soundproof it accordingly. A signal is a set of data or information.

Examples include a telephone or television

2. Octave Analysis signal, monthly sales of a corporation or daily

The range of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz is called closing prices of a stock market. In all these

the audible frequency range and used in examples, the signals are functions of the

octave analysis although it reflects the actual independent variable time.

capability of only a small percentage of the Signals may be processed further by

population. The entire audible frequency systems, which may modify them or extract

range can be divided into eight or 24 frequency additional information from them. A system is

bands known as octave bands or one-third an entity that processes a set of signals

octave bands, respectively, for analysis. [1] (inputs) to yield another set of signals

Octave analysis is performed with a bank (outputs). A system may be made up of

of parallel bandpass filters. The output of each physical components, as in electrical,

filter then is averaged to compute the power in mechanical, or hydraulic systems (hardware

each band and displayed as a bar graph. realization), or it may be an algorithm that

Octave band filters can be either passive or computes an output from an input signal

active analog filters that operate on (software realization).

continuous-time signals or analog and digital The size of any entity is a number that

filters that operate on discrete-time signals. indicates the largeness or strength of that

Traditional octave analyzers typically used entity. Arguing in this manner, we may consider

analog filters, but computers host-based the area under a signal x(t) as a possible

octave analyzers most often use digital filters. measure of its size, because it takes account

[1] not only of the amplitude but also of the

duration.

91

HERVEX Noiembrie 2010

because even for a large signal x(t), its positive A signal whose amplitude can take on

and negative areas could cancel each other any value in a continuous range is an analog

out, indicating a signal of smaller size. The signal. This means that analog signal

difficulty can be corrected by defining the amplitude can take on an infinite number of

signal size as the area under x2(t), which is values. A digital signal, on the other hand, is

always positive. We call this measure the one whose amplitude can take on only a finite

signal energy Ex, defined (for a real signal) as: number of values.

3. Periodic and aperiodic signals

(3.1) A signal x(t) is said to be periodic if for

some positive constant T0

There are also other possible measures

of signal size, such as the area under |x(t)|. for all t (3.3)

The energy measure, however, is not only

more tractable mathematically but is also more The smallest value of T0 that satisfies the

meaningful in the sense that it is indicative of periodic condition of Equation 1.3 is the

the energy that can be extracted from the fundamental period of x(t). A signal is

signal. aperiodic if it is not periodic.

The signal energy must be finite for it to 1. Energy and power signals

be a meaningful measure of the signal size. A A signal with a finite energy is an energy

necessary condition for the energy to be finite signal, and a signal with finite and nonzero

is that the signal amplitude 0 as |t| . power is a power signal. Observe that power is

Otherwise the integral in equation 3.1 will not the time average of energy.

converge. 2. Deterministic and probabilistic signals

When the amplitude of x(t) does not 0 A signal, whose physical description is

as |t| the signal energy is infinite. A more known completely, either in a mathematical

meaningful measure of the signal size in such form or a graphical form, is a deterministic

a case would be the time average of the signal. A signal whose values cannot be

energy, if it exists. This measure is called the predicted precisely but are known only in

power of the signal. For a signal x(t), we define terms of probabilistic description, such as

its power Px as: mean value or mean-squared value, is a

random signal. [2]

with T (3.2)

There are several classes of signals. The most 4. The time system constant

important are: Like human beings, systems have a

1.Continuous-time and discrete-time signals certain response time. In other words, when

2. Analog and digital signals an input (stimulus) is applied to a system, a

3. Periodic and aperiodic signals certain amount of time elapses before the

4.nEnergy and power signals system fully responds to that input. This time

5. Deterministic and probabilistic signals lag or response time is called the system time

constant. The system time constant indicates

1. Continuous-time and discrete-time signals how fast the system is.

A signal that is specified for a continuum A larger time constant implies a sluggish

of values of time t is a continuous-time signal, system because the system takes longer to

and a signal that is specified only at discrete respond to an input. Such a system cannot

values of t is a discrete-time signal. respond efficiently to rapid variations in the

input. In contrast, a smaller tie constant

indicates that the system is capable to

responding to rapid variations in the input.

92

HERVEX Noiembrie 2010

between a system's time constant and its is known that the determination of the RMS

filtering properties. signal value (root-mean-square value) is an

A high-frequency sinusoid varies rapidly appropriate size for the characterization of the

with time. A system with a large time constant vibration strength of a signal [5]

will not be able to respond well to this input. The time evolution of the actual values

Therefore, such a system will suppress rapidly (URMS) gives essential information about the

varying (high-frequency) sinusoids and other process state. Consequently, there is a

high frequency signals, thereby acting as a correlation between the signal energy E,

lowpass filter (a filter allowing the transmission which is released in a time period T, and the

of low-frequency signals only). A system with a RMS signal of acoustic emission according to

time constant Th acts as a lowpass filter having the equation:

a cut-off frequency of fc = 1/ Th Hertz, so that (5.1)

sinusoids with frequencies below fc Hertz are

transmitted reasonably well, while those with The URMS value is calculated with the

frequencies above fc Hz are suppressed. formula:

The frequency fc is also known as the

bandwidth of the system because the system (5.2)

transmits or passes sinusoidal components

with frequencies below fc while attenuating Or from discrete values with the formula:

components with frequencies above fc. Of

course, the transmission in system behavior is (5.3)

gradual. There is no dramatic change in the

system behaviour at fc = 1/ Th. [3]

5. Analysis of the signal and With the help of statistics we can derive

extracting of main features different characteristics both from the raw and

After the signal has been acquired from the the URMS signal. The most important is the

sensors, amplified, filtered, and stored it must be average USTAT. The average is calculated

analyzed. There are different methods that can be according to the equation:

applied. The signal can be analyzed in Time and

(5.4)

Frequency domains.

Analysis in the time domain includes: determined with the formula:

absolute and weighted values

trends, discharges the mean curves (5.5)

statistical parameters (mean,

distribution, frequency distribution,

variance, skewness, kurtosis, etc.) It helps to draw conclusions about the

parameters of the spectra [4] average dispersion of the measurement of a

For the analysis in time domain the raw signal whose mean value is known. Thus it

values and the RMS are the main value of the represents a measure of the dynamics of the

signal in question. signal.

The raw value represents the unfiltered, Skewness S (symmetry) and kurtosis K

unprocessed by mathematical calculation (flatness, curvature) may be calculated with

acoustic emission signal from a certain the following formulas:

frequency range. The analysis of the raw value

is limited usually to the evaluation of the event (5.6)

rate. The event rate is described by the number

of bursts per unit time.

93

HERVEX Noiembrie 2010

(5.7) 6. Experiment

The experimental stand (1) presented in figure

6.1 consists of:

The skewness is a measure of the distortion of A Therpa small engine dynamometer (2);

the distribution function. A value of zero means The gearless clutchless non-synchronous

a normal distribution. If there are more values transmission (3);

below the mean, the skewness is negative, A 2,2 kW / 3000 rot/min electrical engine (4);

otherwise it is positive. The kurtosis describes An inverter for changing the speed of the

the width of a distribution function. A kurtosis engine (5);

greater than zero indicates that a large A PCB microphone (6);

number of readings are in the vicinity of the An acquisition card from National

average. Conversely, a negative value means Instruments (7);

that many measurements are away from the A computer (8) with a monitor (9) placed on a

mean value. [6] desk (10);

Acquisition and analysis software;

Frequency domain

It is possible that not all the important

features are available in the time domain and

therefore it is possible to transform the signal.

The goal of a signal transformation (for

example, from the time in the frequency

domain) is to provide information that is not

visible in the time domain. This transformation

from the time into the frequency domain is

made by use of the Fast Fourier Transform

(FFT).

The FFT algorithm is an extremely

efficient way of calculating the so-called

Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The actual

equation for the forward transform is:

(5.8)

(5.9)

where G(k) represents the spectrum Fig. 6.1 The experimental stand

values at the N discrete frequencies k f, and

The transmission is connected to the

g(n) represents samples of the time function at

small engine dynamometer and is driven by

the N discrete time points nt.

the motor. The microphone is placed at a

Whereas the Fourier transform equations

distance of 1m from the source. The signal is

are infinite integrals of continuous functions,

then acquired by an acquisition card and then

the above equations are finite sums, but

transmitted to the PC where the signal

otherwise they will be seen to have similar

processing will take place.

properties. [BRO84]

A photo of the gearless, clutchless non-

synchronous transmission is shown in figure

6.2.

94

HERVEX Noiembrie 2010

After acquiring the signal, we can analyse it. In

both cases, with a partial load and full load, we

could determine some mean values for every

step corresponding to the motor speed.

As shown in Figure 7.1 the mean values grew

from around 55dB at 5Hz to 84.5 dB at 50Hz.

Although the curves look similar, one can

observe that in the case where the load is at

50% there is a slight increase in the sound level

at a frequency of 15Hz. This seems to be the

systems resonance frequency. This effect

disappears when fully loaded.

synchronous transmission

sound domain with a frequency range between

125 Hz and 10,000 Hz. The chosen bandwidth

was 1/24 octave as shown in the figure 6.3.

surrounding environment noise. There are

multiple sources that need to be filtered out,

like computer fan noise, stand table resonance

sound, etc.

To be able to fully soundproof this type of

Fig. 6.3 The sound frequency configuration at a

motor speed of 35 Hz component other tests must be done, for

example with different soundproofing

The motor speed was varied from 5 Hz to 50 materials.

Hz with a step of 10 Hz. There were two sets of 8. References

trials, one with partial load and one with full

load. In figure 6.4 one can observe an example [1]Octave analysis Entrepreneur.com,

of the sound level and the waveform recorded. 28.10.2010, http://www.entrepreneur.com

tradejournals/article/183750337_1.html

[2]B. P. Lathi Linear systems and signals

Second Edition Oxford University Press,

Oxford, New York, USA, 2005

[3]Graham C. Goodwin, Kwai Sang Si

Adaptive filtering prediction and control,

Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewool Cliffs, New

Jersey, 1984

[4]M. Weck; C. Brecher, Werkzeugmaschine

Fig. 6.4 The time waveform and sound level at 3, Mechatronische Systeme,

a motor speed of 15 Hz Vorschubantriebe, Prozessdiagnose,

Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2006

95

HERVEX Noiembrie 2010

and Shock Measurements, Brel & Kjr,

Denmark, 1984

[6]M. Rschenschmidt Prozessberwachung

mittels Acoustic Emission beim Frsen mit

hartmetallbestckten Werkzeugen, Institut fr

Produktionstechnik und Fabrikbetrieb IPF der

Hochschule Bremen, Germany, 2007;

[7]Ioan I. Pop, Ioana Pop-Dene, Simona C.

Nicoar Dinamica i acustica mainilor

unelte, U.T. Press, Cluj-Napoca, Romnia,

2000;

[8]Ioan I. Pop Vibraii la maini unelte,

Atelierul de multiplicare al Institutului

Politehnic, Cluj-Napoca, Romnia, 1986;

[9]Liviu Deacu, Ioan I. Pop Vibraii la maini-

unelte, Atelierul de multiplicare al Institutului

Polite

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