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HERVEX Noiembrie 2010



Prof. Univ. Dr. Eng. Ioan POP, Drd. Eng. Vlad BOCNE, Prof Dr. Eng. Iulian
LUPEA, Conf. Dr. Eng. Constantin CHIRI*, Drd. Eng. Marius DENE-POP, Drd.

Abstract: The gearless and clutchless non-synchronous transmission is somewhat

similar to a modern automatic transmission. As one of the objectives would be to
include it into commercial cars, one must take into account the sound generated while
the transmission is in operation. In this sense the transmission was connected to a
small engine dynamometer while driven by a 2.2 kW electrical motor. During this time
the vibration level was measured with a PCB microphone. The tests were done both
under partial and full load, with the input frequencies ranging from 5 to 50 Hz.
Keywords: gearless, clutchless, non-synchronous transmission, sound analysis,
vibration level.

1. Introduction Due to the computational load of one-

The automotive industry has high quality third octave analysis, analyzers often
standard for its components. One of the synthesized one-third octave bands from FFT
necessities of rising to these standards is data by assigning the energy from appropriate
controlling the noise level of the moving bins to a particular proportional band filter. This
components. To be able to control the noise method has drawbacks due to leakage. [1]
level, one must first identify the sources and
analyze the sound component to be able to 3. Signals
soundproof it accordingly. A signal is a set of data or information.
Examples include a telephone or television
2. Octave Analysis signal, monthly sales of a corporation or daily
The range of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz is called closing prices of a stock market. In all these
the audible frequency range and used in examples, the signals are functions of the
octave analysis although it reflects the actual independent variable time.
capability of only a small percentage of the Signals may be processed further by
population. The entire audible frequency systems, which may modify them or extract
range can be divided into eight or 24 frequency additional information from them. A system is
bands known as octave bands or one-third an entity that processes a set of signals
octave bands, respectively, for analysis. [1] (inputs) to yield another set of signals
Octave analysis is performed with a bank (outputs). A system may be made up of
of parallel bandpass filters. The output of each physical components, as in electrical,
filter then is averaged to compute the power in mechanical, or hydraulic systems (hardware
each band and displayed as a bar graph. realization), or it may be an algorithm that
Octave band filters can be either passive or computes an output from an input signal
active analog filters that operate on (software realization).
continuous-time signals or analog and digital The size of any entity is a number that
filters that operate on discrete-time signals. indicates the largeness or strength of that
Traditional octave analyzers typically used entity. Arguing in this manner, we may consider
analog filters, but computers host-based the area under a signal x(t) as a possible
octave analyzers most often use digital filters. measure of its size, because it takes account
[1] not only of the amplitude but also of the

HERVEX Noiembrie 2010

However, this will be a defective measure 2. Analog and digital signals

because even for a large signal x(t), its positive A signal whose amplitude can take on
and negative areas could cancel each other any value in a continuous range is an analog
out, indicating a signal of smaller size. The signal. This means that analog signal
difficulty can be corrected by defining the amplitude can take on an infinite number of
signal size as the area under x2(t), which is values. A digital signal, on the other hand, is
always positive. We call this measure the one whose amplitude can take on only a finite
signal energy Ex, defined (for a real signal) as: number of values.
3. Periodic and aperiodic signals
(3.1) A signal x(t) is said to be periodic if for
some positive constant T0
There are also other possible measures
of signal size, such as the area under |x(t)|. for all t (3.3)
The energy measure, however, is not only
more tractable mathematically but is also more The smallest value of T0 that satisfies the
meaningful in the sense that it is indicative of periodic condition of Equation 1.3 is the
the energy that can be extracted from the fundamental period of x(t). A signal is
signal. aperiodic if it is not periodic.
The signal energy must be finite for it to 1. Energy and power signals
be a meaningful measure of the signal size. A A signal with a finite energy is an energy
necessary condition for the energy to be finite signal, and a signal with finite and nonzero
is that the signal amplitude 0 as |t| . power is a power signal. Observe that power is
Otherwise the integral in equation 3.1 will not the time average of energy.
converge. 2. Deterministic and probabilistic signals
When the amplitude of x(t) does not 0 A signal, whose physical description is
as |t| the signal energy is infinite. A more known completely, either in a mathematical
meaningful measure of the signal size in such form or a graphical form, is a deterministic
a case would be the time average of the signal. A signal whose values cannot be
energy, if it exists. This measure is called the predicted precisely but are known only in
power of the signal. For a signal x(t), we define terms of probabilistic description, such as
its power Px as: mean value or mean-squared value, is a
random signal. [2]
with T (3.2)

There are several classes of signals. The most 4. The time system constant
important are: Like human beings, systems have a
1.Continuous-time and discrete-time signals certain response time. In other words, when
2. Analog and digital signals an input (stimulus) is applied to a system, a
3. Periodic and aperiodic signals certain amount of time elapses before the
4.nEnergy and power signals system fully responds to that input. This time
5. Deterministic and probabilistic signals lag or response time is called the system time
constant. The system time constant indicates
1. Continuous-time and discrete-time signals how fast the system is.
A signal that is specified for a continuum A larger time constant implies a sluggish
of values of time t is a continuous-time signal, system because the system takes longer to
and a signal that is specified only at discrete respond to an input. Such a system cannot
values of t is a discrete-time signal. respond efficiently to rapid variations in the
input. In contrast, a smaller tie constant
indicates that the system is capable to
responding to rapid variations in the input.

HERVEX Noiembrie 2010

Thus there is a direct connection From studies of the mechanical vibration

between a system's time constant and its is known that the determination of the RMS
filtering properties. signal value (root-mean-square value) is an
A high-frequency sinusoid varies rapidly appropriate size for the characterization of the
with time. A system with a large time constant vibration strength of a signal [5]
will not be able to respond well to this input. The time evolution of the actual values
Therefore, such a system will suppress rapidly (URMS) gives essential information about the
varying (high-frequency) sinusoids and other process state. Consequently, there is a
high frequency signals, thereby acting as a correlation between the signal energy E,
lowpass filter (a filter allowing the transmission which is released in a time period T, and the
of low-frequency signals only). A system with a RMS signal of acoustic emission according to
time constant Th acts as a lowpass filter having the equation:
a cut-off frequency of fc = 1/ Th Hertz, so that (5.1)
sinusoids with frequencies below fc Hertz are
transmitted reasonably well, while those with The URMS value is calculated with the
frequencies above fc Hz are suppressed. formula:
The frequency fc is also known as the
bandwidth of the system because the system (5.2)
transmits or passes sinusoidal components
with frequencies below fc while attenuating Or from discrete values with the formula:
components with frequencies above fc. Of
course, the transmission in system behavior is (5.3)
gradual. There is no dramatic change in the
system behaviour at fc = 1/ Th. [3]
5. Analysis of the signal and With the help of statistics we can derive
extracting of main features different characteristics both from the raw and
After the signal has been acquired from the the URMS signal. The most important is the
sensors, amplified, filtered, and stored it must be average USTAT. The average is calculated
analyzed. There are different methods that can be according to the equation:
applied. The signal can be analyzed in Time and
Frequency domains.

Time domain The standard deviation can be

Analysis in the time domain includes: determined with the formula:
absolute and weighted values
trends, discharges the mean curves (5.5)
statistical parameters (mean,
distribution, frequency distribution,
variance, skewness, kurtosis, etc.) It helps to draw conclusions about the
parameters of the spectra [4] average dispersion of the measurement of a
For the analysis in time domain the raw signal whose mean value is known. Thus it
values and the RMS are the main value of the represents a measure of the dynamics of the
signal in question. signal.
The raw value represents the unfiltered, Skewness S (symmetry) and kurtosis K
unprocessed by mathematical calculation (flatness, curvature) may be calculated with
acoustic emission signal from a certain the following formulas:
frequency range. The analysis of the raw value
is limited usually to the evaluation of the event (5.6)
rate. The event rate is described by the number
of bursts per unit time.

HERVEX Noiembrie 2010

(5.7) 6. Experiment
The experimental stand (1) presented in figure
6.1 consists of:
The skewness is a measure of the distortion of A Therpa small engine dynamometer (2);
the distribution function. A value of zero means The gearless clutchless non-synchronous
a normal distribution. If there are more values transmission (3);
below the mean, the skewness is negative, A 2,2 kW / 3000 rot/min electrical engine (4);
otherwise it is positive. The kurtosis describes An inverter for changing the speed of the
the width of a distribution function. A kurtosis engine (5);
greater than zero indicates that a large A PCB microphone (6);
number of readings are in the vicinity of the An acquisition card from National
average. Conversely, a negative value means Instruments (7);
that many measurements are away from the A computer (8) with a monitor (9) placed on a
mean value. [6] desk (10);
Acquisition and analysis software;
Frequency domain
It is possible that not all the important
features are available in the time domain and
therefore it is possible to transform the signal.
The goal of a signal transformation (for
example, from the time in the frequency
domain) is to provide information that is not
visible in the time domain. This transformation
from the time into the frequency domain is
made by use of the Fast Fourier Transform
The FFT algorithm is an extremely
efficient way of calculating the so-called
Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The actual
equation for the forward transform is:


and for the inverse transform is:


where G(k) represents the spectrum Fig. 6.1 The experimental stand
values at the N discrete frequencies k f, and
The transmission is connected to the
g(n) represents samples of the time function at
small engine dynamometer and is driven by
the N discrete time points nt.
the motor. The microphone is placed at a
Whereas the Fourier transform equations
distance of 1m from the source. The signal is
are infinite integrals of continuous functions,
then acquired by an acquisition card and then
the above equations are finite sums, but
transmitted to the PC where the signal
otherwise they will be seen to have similar
processing will take place.
properties. [BRO84]
A photo of the gearless, clutchless non-
synchronous transmission is shown in figure

HERVEX Noiembrie 2010

7. Result and conclusions

After acquiring the signal, we can analyse it. In
both cases, with a partial load and full load, we
could determine some mean values for every
step corresponding to the motor speed.
As shown in Figure 7.1 the mean values grew
from around 55dB at 5Hz to 84.5 dB at 50Hz.
Although the curves look similar, one can
observe that in the case where the load is at
50% there is a slight increase in the sound level
at a frequency of 15Hz. This seems to be the
systems resonance frequency. This effect
disappears when fully loaded.

Fig. 6.2 The gearless, clutchless non-

synchronous transmission

In this case the analysis was done in the

sound domain with a frequency range between
125 Hz and 10,000 Hz. The chosen bandwidth
was 1/24 octave as shown in the figure 6.3.

Fig. 7.1 Evolution of the sound level

Another thing to be taken into account is the

surrounding environment noise. There are
multiple sources that need to be filtered out,
like computer fan noise, stand table resonance
sound, etc.
To be able to fully soundproof this type of
Fig. 6.3 The sound frequency configuration at a
motor speed of 35 Hz component other tests must be done, for
example with different soundproofing
The motor speed was varied from 5 Hz to 50 materials.
Hz with a step of 10 Hz. There were two sets of 8. References
trials, one with partial load and one with full
load. In figure 6.4 one can observe an example [1]Octave analysis Entrepreneur.com,
of the sound level and the waveform recorded. 28.10.2010, http://www.entrepreneur.com
[2]B. P. Lathi Linear systems and signals
Second Edition Oxford University Press,
Oxford, New York, USA, 2005
[3]Graham C. Goodwin, Kwai Sang Si
Adaptive filtering prediction and control,
Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewool Cliffs, New
Jersey, 1984
[4]M. Weck; C. Brecher, Werkzeugmaschine
Fig. 6.4 The time waveform and sound level at 3, Mechatronische Systeme,
a motor speed of 15 Hz Vorschubantriebe, Prozessdiagnose,
Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2006

HERVEX Noiembrie 2010

[5]J. Trampe Broch Mechanical Vibrations

and Shock Measurements, Brel & Kjr,
Denmark, 1984
[6]M. Rschenschmidt Prozessberwachung
mittels Acoustic Emission beim Frsen mit
hartmetallbestckten Werkzeugen, Institut fr
Produktionstechnik und Fabrikbetrieb IPF der
Hochschule Bremen, Germany, 2007;
[7]Ioan I. Pop, Ioana Pop-Dene, Simona C.
Nicoar Dinamica i acustica mainilor
unelte, U.T. Press, Cluj-Napoca, Romnia,
[8]Ioan I. Pop Vibraii la maini unelte,
Atelierul de multiplicare al Institutului
Politehnic, Cluj-Napoca, Romnia, 1986;
[9]Liviu Deacu, Ioan I. Pop Vibraii la maini-
unelte, Atelierul de multiplicare al Institutului