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648 IEEE Transactionson Energy Conversion,Vol. 7, No. 4, December 1992.

A KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACH TO THE


DESIGN OF INTEGRATED RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

R. Ramakumar I. Abouzahr K. Ashenayi


Senior Member, IEEE Member, IEEE Member, IEEE
Director Research Associate Assistant Professor

Engineering Energy Laboratory Dept. of Electrical Engineering


Oklahoma State University The University of Tulsa
Stillwater, OK USA 74078 Tulsa, OK USA 74104

Keywords: Integrated Renewable Energy Systems (IRES) Basically, there are two options to supply energy to a variety
Design; Knowledge-BasedDesign Approach; Stand-Alone Energy of loads by utilizing different resources in tandem. All the resources
System Design; Design of Renewable Energy Systems; Hybrid can be converted to one versatile form (typically electrical) for
Systems; Wind-Electric Conversion Systems; Photovoltaic storage and supply to the users. While this may be convenient, it is
Systems; Biogas Usage. not always economical. The alternate approach is to match the
xsources, devices, and the needs and achieve integration of benefits
ABSTRACT at the user end. In most cases, the latter approach results in an
econoinicallyviable option [12].
Integrated Renewable Energy Systems (IRES) utilize two or
more renewable energy resources and end-use technologies to IRES Design
supply a variety of energy needs, often in a stand-alone mode. A The ultimate objective of any design procedure employed is
knowledge-based design approach that minimizes the total capital to obtain the sizes and ratings of the various energy conversion and
cost at a pre-selected reliability level is presented. The reliability energy storage devices needed to supply energy to the different
level is quantified by the loss of power supply probability (LPSP). loads. Moreover, energy supplies are typically required at a pre-
The procedure includes some resource-need matching based on selected reliability level and at minimum cost. Since IRES is very
economics, the quality of energy needed, and the characteristics of capital intensive and inputs are typically free or inexpensive,
the resource. A detailed example is presented and discussed to minimizing the capital cost will essentially result in a system with
illustrate the usefulness of the design approach. minimum annual cost.
Some of the resources (wind and insolation) are highly
INTRODUCTION stochastic and site-specific. Others (biomass and hydro) are more
predictable, though they have seasonal variations and are also site-
Global environmental concerns coupled with steady progress specific. Among the loads, some will be more variable than others
in renewable energy technologies are opening up new opportunities and some of them can be easily predicted. The design procedure
to hamess and utilize different manifestations of solar energy [1-3]. should consider all these factors and include them without unduly
Nowhere are these opportunities more pertinent than in powering expandingthe amount of calculationsrequired.
remote loads requiring a mixture of different grades of energy 14-61. Previous works on IRES design have proposed
Integrated Renewable energy systems (IRES) utilize two or chronological simulation [13], linear programming[l4,15], goal
more renewable energy resources and end-use technologies to programming [16], and a probabilistic approach involving the loss
supply a variety of energy needs [7,8]. Such systems are typically of power supply probability (LPSP) as a measure of the quality of
operated in a stand-alonemode. However, they can also function as the power supply [17]. Chronological simulationrequires extensive
easily in conjunction with conventional energy systems such as data on the resources and loads which may not always be available.
diesel-electric generators and/or utility grid connection. The most Linear programming and goal programming approaches are
effective use for IRES is believed to be in the stand-alone mode to deterministic and they employ seasonal or annual average values in
energize the two million or so remote villages in the world with no the analyses. In addition, they do not consider the quality
grid connection [9-111. Obviously, there are many other situations (reliability) of the power supply in the design methodologies.
where IRES can contribute by providing energy without increasing Conventional probabilistic approaches require a considerable amount
the associatedenvironmentalburdens. of computationswhich may not be justifiable.
The renewable energy resources that require consideration This paper presents a knowledge-based approach to the
are (1) biomass, (2) insolation, (3) wind, and (4) hydro. All the design of an IRES.It is a modification of the approach presented in
energy needs can be consolidated into four categories as given Reference 17 in that a knowledge-base and a search algorithm are
below: used in the last stages of the design program instead of a series of
1. medium-grade thermal energy (100' C to 300' C), long and time-consuming computations. The stored data that go
2. low-grade thermal energy (less than 100' C), with the knowledge-base have been developed by employing the
3. rotating shaft power (fixed or variable location), and results documented in a series of two IEEE papers [18,19] on the
4. electricity calculation of the loss of power supply probability of stand-alone
wind-electric and photovoltaic systems. An example is presented to
92 WM 037-2 EC A paper recommended and approved illustrate the proposed design approach.
by the IEEE Energy Development and Power Generation
Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for OVERALL DESIGN APPROACH
presentation at the IEEE/PES 1992 Winter Meeting,
New York, New York, January 26 - 30, 1992. Manuscript The year is divided into as many number of time-sections
submitted April 23, 1991; made available for (seasons) as needed such that the resources and the loads have
printing January 9, 1992. reasonably similar daily variations or are constant during each period
of time. The design procedure is applied for each time-section to
find the ratings of energy converters and/or quantities of resources
needed and the sizes of energy storage systems to satisfy the energy
needs at the desired reliability level subject to resource availabilities
0885-8969/92$03.0001992 IEEE
649

and at M u m capital Cost. The final design (for the entire year) is Data Base
based on these seasonal designs and the prioritization of the various The data base that is an integral part of the knowledge base
SXWXN- If the final design values are selected based on the worst consists of sets of data relating the amount of energy storage
possible combination of resource availabilities and loads, then a required to the resulting LPSP for various combinations of loads
considerable amount of excess energy will be available d&g most and energy converter ratings under different input (wind and/or
of the rest of the time. Unless this excess energy can be insolation) regimes. The energy converter could be PV or WECS or
productively utilized, the overall design will fail to be cost effective. PV and WECS. Non-tracking flat-plate PV arrays rated at 2 to 22
The information, knowledge, and data base used in the kW in steps of 2 kW are assumed. The rating of the WECS is also
development of the design procedure are discussed next. varied from 2 to 22 kW in steps of 2 kW. The electrical load is
assumed to be unifonnly distributed with its maximum value Lmax
KNOWLEDGE BASE ranging from 2 to 12 kW in steps of 2 kW, with & set at 10%of
Lax. The LPSP values considered are allowed to range from 0.02
Energy systems usually consist of several interconnected to 0.18 in increments of 0.02.
components performing together to satisfy a set of energy needs. For the sake of uniformity, a study period of 1 hour is
An IRES may consist of solar-thermalcollectors, water turbines and assumed for the data in storage. If all the hours during the study
pumps, wind-mechanical conversion systems (WMCS), wind- period are similar in the statistical sense , then the values
electric conversion systems (WECS),photovoltaic mays (PV), and corresponding to any other study period can be obtained by
different types of energy storage and reconversion systems and end- multiplying the hourly values in storage by the number of hours in
use devices in one or more of many possible combinations to satisfy the study period. For each combination of energy converter(s)
a variety of energy needs. Different energy resources are variable to rating(s), load, wind regime and/or insolation regime, assuming a
different degrees and some of them are complementary over the study period of one hour, the following quantities are calculated (see
annual cycle. Loads also vary to different extents and the quality of References 18 and 19) and stored:
the energy supply can be characterized by the probability of loss of
power supply to the loads. Energy conversion devices are derived (i) E,, the amount of energy input to storage, k w h
from different technologies and are matched to specific situations
based on the type of energy supply needed and the end-use (ii) E,, the amount of energy in k w h required to be drawn from
scenarios. A knowledge-based design approach can consider all energy storage to achieve an LPSP of zero, and
these factors by proper rules of assignment for resources-needs
combinations [20,21].
Any energy resource can be used to satisfy all the energy (i)a set of LPSP and corresponding SSMIN values where
needs by employing a string of energy conversion and interface SSMTN=E2p-E1
devices. However, some resource-need combinations are more
logical than others because of cost and efficiency considerations.
This point has been discussed in detail [22]. The design approach TABLE I
presented in this paper orders, prioritizes, matches, and finally finds
the ratings of the various energy conversion devices and sizes of WIND REGIME WEIBULL PARAMETERS
different energy storage components required. FOR THE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Wind Reeimes and WECS


Itis generally accepted that wind regimes can be modeled Pwmls a, m / s a, m / s P,
ushe a Weibull distribution exmessed in terms of a scale Parameter
and shape parameter [23]. d e s e two parameters can & obtained 4 2.00 4.52 2.10
from the mean and standard deviation of the sample set. For 4 2.21 4.5 1 1.88
developing the knowledge base, mean wind speeds are quantified 4 2.78 4.42 1.46
into three distinct values: low (4m/s), medium (6m/s) and high
(8m/s). With each of these mean wind speeds, tlm possible values 6 2.50 6.76 2.57
of standard deviation are considered. Thus nine different wind 6 2.77 6.77 2.30
regimes are employed to characterize the wind resource. Table I 6 3.47 6.74 1.79
lists the nine sets of values used. The choice of these values is
based on typical wind regimes that exist around the world [24]. 8 2.93 8.96 2.97
The power output of a WECS depends on the incident wind 8 3.24 9.00 2.66
speed, WECS power rating, and the cut-in, rated, and furling wind 8 4.07 9.03 2.06
speeds. Based on a survey of the specifications of most of the
available small(<100 kW) WECS, these wind speeds are taken to be
3.5 m / s , 10 m/s, and 22 m / s respectively in this work.

Insolation Regimes and PV TABLE II


Although several complex models are available [25], CLOUD COVER REGIME BETA PARAMETERS
insolation regimes are represented in this work in terms of a beta- FOR THE DESIGN EXAMPLE
distributed random variable 'cloud cover' [26]. The two parameters
of the beta distribution can be derived from the mean and standard
deviation of the factor by which insolation is reduced as compared to
the maximum possible value during the study period. Based on Ps 0 s a, P.
observed insolation data 1271, nine pairs of these parameters are
employed to characterize this resource. Table II lists these values. 0.1 0.0900 1.0111 9.1000
Photovoltaic arrays consist of individual cells fabricated 0.2 0.1600 1.0500 4.2000
using one of several possible technologies: single-crystal silicon, 0.3 0.2200 1.0016 2.3372
polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, thin-film devices, etc.
The conversion efficiency of a PV module depends on the particular 0.4 0.2610 1.0093 1.5139
technology employed, insolation, and the module temperature. In 0.5 0.288 1.0070 1.0070
this work, a simple model in terms of an average efficiency is used. 0.6 0.2610 1.5139 1.0093
Also, a value of ( l n ) is assumed for the fraction-of-daytime. Since
the objective is to 'design' the system in the presence of a multitude 0.7 0.2200 2.3372 1.0016
of uncertainties and variabilities, it is believed that a simple model 0.8 0.1600 4.2000 1.0500
would be adequate for considering the performance of PV systems. 0.9 0.0900 9.1000 1.0111
650

in which E2 <E2 is the energy required to be drawn from storage


and suppliecfto the load to achieve the assumed value of LPSP. All
this information is systematically arranged and stored in data files DESIGN PROCEDURE
for easy access. Appendix A shows typical data files for SSMLN
versus LPSP curves. With 9 different wind regimes, 9 different The knowledge-based design approach that has been
insolation regimes, 6 different load levels, 11 different WECS developed is presented in flowchart form in Figure 1. This
ratings and 11 different PV ratings, a total of 58,104 data sets are computer program will be identified by the acronym "IRES-KB."
calculated and kept in storage as a part of the knowledge base. Though this procedure considers a variety of energy
resources and loads, the absence of any of these can be easily
Enernv Storage Calculatiom handled by setting the appropriate quantities equal to zero.
As mentioned in the previous section, the values of El, E2, The first step in the design procedure is to divide the year
and LPSP versus SSMIN data in storage are all based on a study into "NY" time-sections (or seasons) where each season is
period of one hour. These values can indeed be multiplied by the characterized by a set of resource availabilities and load
number of hours in other study periods under consideration as long requirements. As mentioned earlier, the design procedure is applied
as they have similar characteristics. The actual amount of energy to each of these "NY"seasons to result in as many seasonal designs.
storage required for a given study period is calculated using these The final design will be selected from these seasonal designs.
values as discussed next. The next step is to find the maximum area "cmax" of solar-
During any one time-section (season), the diurnal variations thermal collector needed to satisfy low-grade thermal energy
of wind and insolation resources can be assumed to be repetitive in requirements. This is followed by a determination of the maximum
the statistical sense. In addition there will be long-term variations rating "wmax" of wind-mechanical conversion system (WMCS)
as described by the distribution (or density) function. A close needed to power all the rotating shaft loads at fixed locations. These
examination of the mechanism of energy storage and withdrawal two values are then divided into smaller areas/ratings as dictated by
leads one to conclude that the amount of energy storage required can their market availability. The design process starts with a selected
be assumed to consist of two components: set of these two values and goes through a series of steps,
1. the storage required on a daily (24 hours) basis, and culminating in an optimum combination of resource consumption,
2. long-term storage to meet the specified LPSP energy converter ratings, and energy storage device sizes that
requirements when the resource cannot supply the minimizesthe total installed cost.
demand during the study period. Medium-grade heat requirements are always satisfied by
If the energy converters (WECS and/or PV) are oversized biogas, if available. Any portion that is not satisfied is added to the
for the study period under question, then El will be greater than E2 electrical load for that season with suitable conversion factors.
and the amount of energy storage required is simply equal to 24E2. Low-grade heat requirements are satisfied by a combination of
Clearly, under these circumstances, some of the energy generated biogas and one of the solar collector segments chosen. The portion
will be "dumped" and not utilized. If El is equal to E2, then the of low-grade heat that is not satisfied is added to the electrical load
amount of energy storage required is equal to El or E2 times 24. In for that season. In the next step, mechanical shaft power
both cases, no additional long-term storage is needed.
If E1 is less than E2, then the amount of energy storage requirements at fixed locations are satisfied by a combination of
required is equal to the sum of 24E1 and the long-term component biogas-fueled engines and WMCS rated at a fraction of the
(SSMINXT) based on the required LPSP. maximum rating "wmax" calculated earlier. Any portion of this
The amount of energy storage as calculated above is of load that is not satisfied by this combination is added to the
multiplied by a factor of 2 to account for the fact that energy storage electrical load. Mechanical shaft power at variable locations is
systems should not be depleted below a certain level (assumed to be satisfied by biogas, if still available. The part that is not fulfiied is
50%) to preserve their lifetime and reliability attributes. once again added to the electrical load as appropriate
At this stage in the design process, the only load left to be
Resource and Need Prioritization satisfied is electrical, which is an aggregate of all the additions
Recognizing the fact that under the present economic discussed above and the loads that were electrical to start with. The
conditions IRES will be most appropriate to energize remote areas, electrical loads are satisfied by biogas-fueled-engine driven
the energy needs and the resources are prioritized as follows: generators if there is still any biogas left. Any leftover loads are
supplied by water-turbine-driven generators if available. Finally,
Needs: the remaining portion of the electrical loads is satisfied by a
a. medium-grade heat combination of WECS and/or PV with energy storage.
b. low-grade heat The design procedure has reached the point at which it is
c. mechanical shaft power (fixed or variable required to find the ratings of WECS and/or PV and the size of
location) energy storage required to satisfy a certain electrical load at a
d. electricity predetermined reliability level (as quantified by LPSP) and at
minimum capital cost. To accomplish this, the data base in storage
Resources: is searched to find all combinations of WECS and/or PV and energy
a. biomass (biogas) storage that will meet the LPSP requirement. The capital costs of
these combinations are calculated and the one that results in
b. solar-thermalenergy miniinum cost is chosen.
C. hydro power
This design process is repeated for each time-section
d. wind (WECS,WCS) and/or insolation (PV) (season) to obtain a set (NY in number) of designs. The design
Biogas obtained by anaerobic digestion of biomass is the values for each season will consist of solar collector m a , W M C S
cheapest energy resource at the present time. It can be burned rating, WECS rating, PV array rating, ratings of water turbines,
directly to obtain medium-grade and/or low-grade thermal energy,
and can be used in an internal combustion engine to obtain biogas-fueled engines and engine-generators,sue of energy storage,
mechanical shaft power and/or electricity by coupling a generator. amount of biogas required, and the amount of water storage.
For these reasons, biogas is given the highest priority. Simple solar The entire design procedure described thus far is repeated for
collectors can be used to obtain low-grade thermal energy fairly all the different and reasonable combinations of solar collector areas
and WMCS ratings. The final (applicablefor the entire year) design
economically. Hydro power can be used via turbines to obtain values are selected from these seasonal designs.
mechanical shaft power and/or electricity. Wind-mechanical
converters also can be used to obtain rotating shaft power. Finally, DESIGN EXAMPLE
though relatively expensive, wind and insolation can be converted to
electrical form using WECS and PV systems respectively. Based on A remote agricultural village with no electrical grid
this brief discussion, the logic behind the ordering of the needs and
the resources as given above is evident. The design procedure connection and a population of 3 11 is chosen as an example for the
considered in the next section discusses the fall-back positions for application of IRES-KB presented in this paper. The number of
cases where resources are in short supply. cattle is 367. The mount of animal and agricultural wastes available
is seasonal as expected.
I
U-
L forLGH
R forMRS
F for FRS
E for EL

RM(s#) = 0
--
enera need are
M for MGH

+-
do c# = o,cmax

do w# = o,wmax

do s# = 1,NY
flat plate sc areas
: c# = 0,cmax

W C S ratings
w# = 0,wmax

satisfy M(s#) by

BI(s#) = remaining

1
t
BI(s#)

I1
I I
E(s#) = E(&) + RM(s#)
BI(s#) = 0
I
r
III
= + IT

BI(s#) = remaining
0

\I
t-l
E(s#) = E@#) RR(s#)

satisfy
BI(s#) = 0

use data-base to
fiidr;tings I
65 1

satisfy L by
optimum rating
minimum cost

I I
E@#) = E(&) + RL(s#)
BI(s#) = remaining BI(s#) = 0

satisfy F by

.
RF(s#) = 0 E(s#) = E(#) + RF(s#)
exit with
optimum
design I
Figure 1 . IRES-KB Plowchart.
652

The year is divided into four seasons (NY=4),and Table III The efficiencies associated with the resource-need combinations are
lists the characteristics and the amounts of resources available during tabulated in Table V. The total cost is assumed to be equal to the
each season. It is assumed that 0.03 m3 of biogas is produced per sum of the cost per kW rating of energy conversion devices and
kg of wet animal waste, and that the energy content of biogas is 6.2 dollars per kWh of energy storage. The assumed costs per kW of
kWh/m3 [28]. For hydro storage, a water head of 10 in is assumed. the components are as shown in Table VI [29-311. The optimal
The daily energy needs are shown in Table IV. They are categorized resource-need combinations obtained using the design procedure are
into the following tasks with acronyms as given below: shown in Table W.
1. low-grade heat (LGH) Falling water provides less than 1 kWh of energy per day,
2. medium-grade heat (MGH) and therefore it is not a good candidate for utilization. Low-grade
3. rotating shaft for small scale industries (RSI), powered heat and medium-grade heat are always satisfied by biogas and
by biogas-fueled engines or electricity therefore solar collectors are not used in this case. Wind mechanical
conversion system is not used because of economical alternatives.
4. rotating shaft for irrigation (RS2) PV is not chosen by the design procedure because of its cost and
5. electricity (EL) also because of the good wind regimes assumed to be existing at the
The energy resources/technologiesare classified as listed below: site. Electricity is solely supplied by a WECS rated at 16 kW with
1. biogas (BI) 141 kWh of battery energy storage. The LPSP assumed in arriving
2. solar thermal collector (SC) at the optimum ratings of PR and & was 0.10, and the study period
3. wind-mechanical conversion system (WMCS) is 2190 hours, corresponding to one-fourth of a year. The
4. wind-electric conversion system (WECS) following daily data correspond to the WECS-energy storage
5. photovoltaic system (PV) combination.
6. water head storage and reconversion (FW)
TABLE III Season # 1 2 3 4
SEASONAL RESOURCE AVAILABILIIES
FOR THE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Daily Load, 178.35 121 121 50
kwh
M 1 2 3 4
Daily Energy 232.44 140.42 139.87 212.78
Generated by
Insolation WECS, kWh
0.3 0.4 0.2 0.6
P*
0.22 0.261 0.160 0.261
0, Daily Energy 97.57 67.15 74.30 173.48
,I kW/m2 0.9 1 1 0.9 input to storage
24 El, kWh
wind
8 6 6 8
P w m/s Daily Energy 43.48 47.71 55.57 10.60
2.93 2.50 3.47 4.07 drawn from
owm/s
storage
Biogas, 24Ezp, kWh
kWh 421.6 632.4 632.4 421.6
m3 68 102 102 68
TABLE V
Falling Water
3 30 30 30 30
m Iday ASSUMED EFFICIENCIES ASSOCIATED
W R H THE RESOURCE-NEED
COMBINATIONS FOR THE
DESIGN EXAMPLE
TABLE IV
SEASONAL ENERGY NEEDS TO BE SATISFIED
FOR THE DESIGN EXAMPLE
(all values in kWh per day)
Resources1
Technologies
Season # 1 2 3 4 BI 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.3

Enerm Nee&
sc 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
WMCS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0
LGH 3.11 3.11 3.11 3.11
WECS 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.6 0.8
MGH 196.85 196.85 196.85 196.85
PV 0.0 0.16 0.6 0.6 0.8
RS 1 6.21 162.25 162.25 6.21
Fw 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2
RS2 106.1 0 0 0
EL 40 40 40 40
653
TABLE VI
ASSUMED CAPITAL COSTS FOR Under these conditions, the design procedure results in a PV
THE DESIGN EXAMPLE array rated at 28 kW with a 167 kWh energy storage system. The
total cost in this case comes out to be $269,181.00. It is not
surprising that the cost has risen dramatically due to the employment
Flat Plate Solar Collector 100$/m2 of PV instead of WECS. The data base for PV had to be enlarged to
include PV systems rated above 22 kW in order to complete this
Wind Mechanical Converter System 200O$flcW design.
With the great disparity between PV and WECS costs
Biogas Digester lO$/kWh existing at the present time, IRES-KB will not select a PV/WECS
combination. However, as PV costs come down in the future as
Electric Stove 25$/kWh forecasted, PV and WECS could become competitive and then
designs will include a combination of PV and WECS to supply
Biogas-Driven Electric Generator SOo$/kW electlical loads.

ElectricMotor 500$/lrW
CONCLUDING REMARKS
Electric Pump 1500$/kW
Biogas-DrivenMotor lOOo$/kW A knowledge-based approach has been developed and
presented for designing Integrated Renewable Energy Systems. The
Biogas-Driven Water Pump lOOo$/kW design procedure has been coded into a computer program called
IRES-KB. It is capable of handling four types of resources as
Water Turbine 15OO$/kW inputs: biomass, insolation, wind, and hydro, and categorizes the
needs into four main groups: medium-grade thermal energy, low-
grade thennal energy, rotating shaft power, and electricity. With
some strategic a-priori resource-need matching and prioritization of
the resources and the needs based on economic and end-use
The cost f i p s for WECS, PV array, and battery storage are as considerations, the design approach minimizes the total capital cost
given below:. at a pre-selected reliability level as quantified by the loss of power
supply probability. A design example is included to illustrate the
The cost of battery storage Cs, is assumed linear at lOO$/kWh approach.
One of the unique features of the design approach is the use
The cost of PV panels, is linear at SOOO$/kW of a data base and a search algorithm to find the combination of PV
The cost of WECS, i s linear for large WECS at 900$/kW. The
WECS used in the design are of small size and the cost per kW is and/or WECS ratings and the size of energy storage that minimizes
capital cost, while maintaining the required LPSP. The data base
assumed as follows can be easily expanded to include a wider range of ratings for the
8 energy conversion devices (PV and WECS) as needed.
PR,kW 2 4 6 10 12 The data base kept in storage is developed on the basis of
Cost/kW,$ 1,800 1,700 1,425 1,288 1,209 1,157 certain assumptions regarding the load (assumed to be uniformly
distributed), independence of loads and resources, and the available
PR,kW 14 16 18 20 22 ratings of energy conversion devices. While these factors may not
Cost/kW,$ 1,119 1,092 1,070 1,052 1,038 always be valid, the complications introduced by more detailed
modeling will probably be not justifiable. As technologies and the
associated costs change, the prioritization assumed in this work will
The total energy delivered to the load every day by the be altered. However, IRES-KB can be easily modified to
WECS is equal to the sum of two terms. The fist is the energy accommodatethese changes. Further work is needed to compare the
supplied directly to the load by the WECS. It is equal to the design results obtained using IRES-KB with those obtained by other
difference between the total energy generated by the WECS and the design procedures for a representative set of cases.
energy input to storage, both calculated on a daily basis. The IRES-KB is versatile, easy to use, and establishes a rational
second term is the energy drawn from storage(% E2 ). Note that basis for designing an IRES. With the provision of appropriate
during all four seasons, electrical energy comes sofely from the user-friendly features in the accompanying software, it could be a
wind resource and long term storage is not used because the energy very valuable tool for energy planners and renewable energy system
input to storage El is greater than the energy drawn from storage E2, designers anywhere in the world. Because of its potential to
calculated on a daily basis, and therefore the duration of the study consider many "what-if' scenarios, several energy options can be
period is immqterial and no loss of power i s expected. In all analyzed fairly quickly and at minimal cost by planners and policy
seasons (especially 1 and 4), there is going to be an excess of makers. Thus, IRES-KBcan facilitate the introduction of renewable
electrical energy generated by the WECS. It is either dumped or can energy options where none exist at present and assist in the
be employed for other uses. substitution of renewables for conventional alternatives.
Next, the same energy needs are considered with an
alternative resource availability scenario. The wind regimes are ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
assumed to be very poor during all the four seasons and insolation
regimes are assumed to be good as characterized by the parameters The work presented in this paper was supported by the
listed below: Oklahoma State University Engineering Energy Laboratory. The
authors wish to express their appreciation to all the sponsoring
utilities.
Season # 1 2 3 4
NOMENCLATURE
BI amount of biogas
Lax.
kw/m2 1 0.9 1 0.9 c~lliv~ maximum area of solar collector
E, EL stands for electricity
El energy input to storage
Ps 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.3 E2 energy drawn from storage to achieve an LPSP of zero

0.09 0.16 0.09 0.218


654

long-term energy storage, normalized by T


iF
FW
energy drawn from storage by the load
size of battery storage
stands for water head energy storage and reconversion
study period
maximum rating of WMCS
Imax maximuminsolation acronym for wind-electric conversion system
IRES integrated renewable energy system acronym for windmechanical conversion system
L,LGH low-grade heat a parameter of the beta distribution for "cloud cover"
LPSP loss of power supply probability
M,MGH medium-grade heat scale parameter of the Weibull distribution for wind speed
M stands for MGH a parameter of the beta distribution for "cloud cover"
NY integer denoting number of seasons
PR ratingofWECS shape parameter of the Weibull distribution for wind speed
Psmax rating of photovoltaic array
PV acronym for photovoltaic mean value of "cloud cover"
RS 1 rotating shaft for small scale industries mean wind speed
RS2 rotating shaft irrigation
RL remaining low-grade heat standard deviation of "cloud cover"
RM remainjng medium-gradeheat standard deviation of wind speed
SC acronym for solar collector area

TABLE W

OPTlMAL RESOURCE-NEED COMBINATIONS


FOR THE DESIGN EXAMPLE
All values are in kWh per day

Season#
1 2 4
MGH satisfied by BI, kWh 196.85 196.85 196.85 196.85
Volume of BI, m3 52.9 52.9 52.9 52.9
LGH satisfied by BI, kWh 3.1 1 3.1 1 3.11 3.11
Volume of BI, m3 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84
RS 1 satisfied by BI, kWh 0 119.65 119.65 6.21
Volume of BI, m3 0 48.25 48.25 2.50
RS2 satisfied by BI, kWh 35.33 0 0 0
Volume of BI, m3 14.24 0 0 0
Volume of BI not used, m3 0 0 0 11.76
LGH satisfied by SC, k w h 0 0 0 0
RS2 satisfied by WMCS, kWh 0 0 0 0
EL satisfied by FW,k w h 0 0 0 0
MGH satisfied by PV/WECS, kWh 0 0 0 0
LGH satisfied by PV/WECS ,kWh 0 0 0 0
RS 1 satisfied by PV/WECS, kWh 10.35 71 71 0
RS2 satisfied by PV/WECS, k W h 118 0 0 0
EL satisfied by PV/WECS, kWh 50 50 50 50

Design Values
Psm, 0 kW
PR 16 kW
Eb 141 kWh

sc 0 m2
WMCS OkW

Total cost $ 130,150


655

APPENDIX A J. G. Vera, "Options for Rural Electrificationin Mexico,"


IEEE paper No. 91 WM 137-0 EC, to appear in IEEE Trans,
Typical Data Files for the SSMIN-LPSP Curves Conv., 1991.
K. S. Malhotra and P. B. L. Chaurasia, "A Plan For Energy
Management in 110 Villages of Silora Block in Rajasthan,
India," -, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 591-601, 1981.
Pv WECS-PV
p-4 m / s R. Ramakumar and W. L: Hughes, "Renewable Energy
pJ=o.l Sources and Rural Development in Developing Countries,"
Ow=2.78 m/s ion, vol. E-24, no. 3, pp. 242-251,
Os=O.O9
b , = 2 kW ps=o.l
Psmm=2 kW B. Bart&, et al. "The Design of Photovoltaic Plants: h
=0.09 Optimization Procedure," Avdied Enagx,vol. 18 no. 1,
h m = 2 kW pp. 37-47, 1984.
P R = kW
~
PSmm=2 kW A. K. N, Reddy and D. K. Subramanian, "The Design of
Rural Energy Centers," in Rural Technolagy, MacMillan
India Press, pp. 109-130, 1980.
LPSP SSMIN, kW SSMIN,kW SSMIN, kW R. R a m h m a r , P. S . Shetty, and K. Ashenayi, "A Linear
Programming Approach to the Design of Integrated
0.18 0.6937 0.7136 0.3346 Renewable Energy Systems For Developing Countries,"
0.16 0.7022 0.7215 0.3449 IEEE Trans. Enerev Conv., vol EC-1, no. 4, pp. 18-24,
0.14 0.7099 0.7290 0.3540 December 1986.
0.12 0.3626
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.7167
0.7227
0.7278
0.7319
0.7356
0.7413
0.7459
0.7495
0.3700
0.3764
0.3820
K. M. Chetty. 7
Desim of Intenrated Rural E n e w Cente S
1' o h

Dissertation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India,


0.04 0.7349 0.7521 0.3862 February 1989.
0.02 0.7369 0.7536 0.3888
K. Ashenayi and R. Ramakumar, "IRES - A Pfogram to
El, k\rhlhr
E2. kwh/hr
0.0847
0.8222
0.1006
0.8547
0.2429
0.6326
Design Integrated Renewable Energy Systems,
vol. 15, no. 12,pp. 1143-1152, 1990.
m,
I. Abouzahr and R. Ramakumm, "Loss of Power Supply
REFERENCES Probability of Stand-Alone Wind Electric Conversion
Systems: A Closed Form Solution Approach," IEEE Trans,
C. J. Weinberg and R. Williams, "Energy From the Sun," Energv Conv .,vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 445-452, September 1990.
. -s vol. 263, no. 3, pp. 146-155,
September 1990. I. Abouzahr and R. Ramakumar, "Loss of Power Supply
Probability of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems: A Closed
M. Totten, "Renewed Interest Brewing for Renewables," Form Solution Approach," v-o.l
Solar Today, American Solar Energy Society, vol. 4, no. 1, 6, no. 1 ,pp. 1-11, March 1991.
pp. 10-11, January/February 1990.
1.Abouzahr. r c
An Interlaboratory sf Stand-Alone Inteerated Renewable E*lerEv SYstemS.
White Paper, Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), March Ph.D. Dissertatiori, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater,
1990. OK, December 1990.
R. Ramakumar, "Techriicg and Socio-EconomicAspects of I. Abouzahr and R. Ramakumar, "Design of Renewable
Solar Energy and Ru;d Development in Developing Energy Systems: A Knowledge-Based Approach," Eu&
Countries," Solar Enerev, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 643-647, 23rd Frontiers of Power Conference, Oklahoma State
1976. University, Stillwater, OK, pp. VII-1 to VII-6, October
1990.
Y. El Mahgary and A. K. Biswas, Eds. btee-
Energv P l m ' g, Butterworths, for the United Nations
K. Ashenayi. Ovtimi
~ . o - 0
Environment Program (UNEP), 1985. Renewable Enerev Svstems. PbD. Dissertation, Oklahoma
State University,-Stillwater,OK, December 1986.
M. N. Islam, R. Morse, and M. H. Soesatro, Eds.
vEner N A i V' e R. Ramakumar and M. F. McNitt-Gray, "Wind Power,"
.- West View Press Inc., 1984. Standard Handbook for Electrical EngineerS, pp. 11-15 to
11-22, 12th edition, McGraw-Hill, 1987.
R. Ramakumar, "Renewable Energy Sources and
Developing Countries," ,- C. G. Justus, Winds and Wind Svstems Performance. PP.
vol. PAS-102, no. 2, pp. 502-510, February 1983.- 45-46, The Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, PA, 1978.
A. K. N. Reddv and J. Goldembere. "Enerev for the K. G. T. Hollands and R. G. Huget, "A Probability Density
Developing Wohd," Scientific Amerizk, vol. y63, no. 3, Function For The Cleamess Index With Applications,"
pp. 110-118, September 1990. Energy, vol. 30 no. 3, pp. 195-209, 1983.
B. C. Jain, "Rural Energy Centers Based on Renewables - R. Brinsfield, "Ground Level Solar Radiation Prediction
Case Study of an Effective and Viable Alternative," Model Including Cloud Cover Effects," Solar Energy, vol.
Trans. Enerev Conv., vol. EC-2, no. 2, pp. 329-335, 33 , no. 6, pp. 493-499, 1984.
September 1987.
R. Ramakumar and I. Abouzahr. Continued Collection and Imad Abouzahr (M'91)
Analvsis of Insolation Data Using PSO/OSU Insolation was born on December 28,
Monitoring Station in Stillwater. Final Report, submitted to 1962 in Sidon, Lebanon. He
the Public Service Company of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK, received his B.E. degree from
March 1991. the American University of
Beirut in 1984, and the M.S.
Enerev For Rural Develoument (Supplement). National and Ph.D. degrees from
Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1981. Oklahoma State University in
1986 and 1990. Currently, he
The Solar Electric Catalog. Solar Electric Company, 1990. is a Research Associate in the
Engineering Energy
L. N. Stoiaken, "1988 Outlook Projections for the New Laboratory at Oklahoma State
Year," Alternative sources of Enerev, pp. 8-16, January University, and an adjunct
1988. faculty member at Langston
University, Langston,
J. C. Schaefer, "Review of Photovoltaic Power Plant Oklahoma. His research
Performance and Economics," IEEE Trans. Enerw COnv., interests are in the areas of Modeling and Design of Conventional
vol. 5. no. 2, pp. 232-238, June 1990. and Renewable Energy Systems and in the Development and
Application of Expert Systems and AI. Dr. Abouzahr is a member
of Eta Kappa Nu and Tau Beta Pi.
7 (M '62 -
SM 75) received his B.E.
degree from the University of
Madras, India, the M. Tech.
degree from the Indian
Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur, India, and the
Ph.D. degree from Cornel1
University, Ithaca, New
York, all i n Electrical
Engineering.
After serving several
years on the faculty of the
Coimbatore Institute of
Technology Coimbatore, Electrical Engineering. Dr.
India, he came to Oklahoma Ashenayi's research interests are in the areas of Artificial Neural
s1[ate University. Stillwater. in 1967 where he has been a Professor Networks, Modeling, and Design of Conventional and Renewable
since 1976. h i 9 8 7 he bec'me the Director of the Oklahoma State Energy Systems, and Robotics and Automation. He is a member
University Engineering Energy Laboratory in addition to being a of the International Neural Network Society (INNS), Institute of
professor. In 1991, he was named PSO/Albrecht Naeter Professor Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), International Solar
of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Dr. R a m b a r ' s research Energy Society (ISES), and Robotics International (RI). He has
interests are in the areas of conventional and unconventionalenergy served as the Chairman of the Tulsa Chapter of RI and is currently
conversion, energy storage, power engineering, and renewable the National Chairman of the Robotics Automation Division of
energy sources and systems development and applications. He has INNS.
been a consultant to several national and supranational
organizations. His research involvement in the areas of energy and
power engineering has resulted in over 100 publications which
include four US. Patents, contributed chapters in three books and
four handbooks, and technical papers in various journals,
transactions, and national and international conferenceproceedings.
Dr. Ramakumar's text book entitled "Engineering Reliability :
Fundamentals and Applications" is scheduled to be published by
Prentice Hall in 1992.
Dr. Ramakumar is a member of the Energy Development and
Power Generation Committee, Energy Development Subcommittee,
and the Photovoltaics Working Group of the IEEE Power
Engineering Society, American Solar Energy society, International
solar Energy Society, American Society for Engineering Education,
Eta Kappa Nu, and Sigma Xi. He is a Registered Professional
Engineer in the State of Oklahoma.
651

Discussion Kcal [ 2 I . I The introduction of improved s t o v e s l i k e


ASTRA OLE developed and diffused by ASTRA with
effjciencies i n t h e range of 25 to 75 percent and low
J. Appelbaum (Tel-Aviv University, Faculty of Engineering, Israel):
opportunity costs In procuring firewood/agrowastes
The authors should be commended for their study on integrated
renewable energy systems which utilizes several renewable sources to r e s u l t e d i n firewood being t h e most a p p r o r i a t e
power a decentralized (stand alone) system. Their study is timely and option f o r MGH. Even with t h e introduction of
important. The authors stated that they use a search algorithm to biogas-electricity for liahting and improved
minimize the capital cost. The elaboration of this procedure in mathe- woodstoves for cookinr!, firewood remains major
matical terms would greatly add to their contribution. An optimization energy source. O u r optimization s t u d i e s [ 3 1 r e v e a l
problem can be defined by an objective function and sets of equality t h a t i n most of t h e c a s e s , firewood remains i n t h e
and inequality constraints. All these are functions of the design solution a s t h e source f o r cooking and biogas is
parameters. For each of the renewable energy sources considered in found to be t h e a p p r o p r i a t e option for lighting.
the paper it may be possible to formulate the optimization problem by Therefore firewood and agrowastes with attendant
defining the design parameters, the imposed constraints and the ' c o s t s ' - wherever p o s s i b l e may be included into
obiective function. This formulation of the uroblem may contribute to t h e knowledEe base ( K I 3 ) to mert UGII n e e d s .
a Getter understanding of the parameters gnd limits involved in the
design problem. (b) Knowledqe-based systems permit one to use a
v a r i e t y of facts like
Manuscript received February 21, 1992. (1) t h e cooklng tirncs t l i i r l n R thr d a y v a r y wlth
eriiployrnent hours of rural wornanfolk and t h e t a s k
of cooking must be completed q u i t e e a r l y in t h e
A.G. B a k i r t z i s and E.S. Gavanidou ( A r i s t o t e l i a n mornin*
university o f T h e s s a l o n i k i , Greece): ~h~ authors (it) cooicing times and h a b i t s v a r y with d i f f e r e n t
should be commended f o r a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g paper on spasons i n a year
t h e d e s i g n of i n t e g r a t e d renewable energy systems. ( i i i ) CookinE: energy needs may b e supplied e i t h e r
The authors/ clarification on the following points i n c e n t r a l i s e d fashion ( f o r e x , through community
raised during t h e study of t h e paper willbe t>iC>K;lq p l a n t s ) Or i n riPrPntr;lltSed fashion ( U s i n g
firewood s t o v e s , s o l a r cookers e t c . )
g r e a t l y appreciated: iv) certain ooerations a r e to b e ComDleted i n a
1. How i s t h e f i n a l design ( a p p l i c a b l e f o r t h e f i x e d i n t e r v a l ( f o r ex.ploughing should be completed
e n t i r e y e a r ) s e l e c t e d based on t h e computed in 10 to 15 d a y s cnllrd ' p l o r i q h i n g window' soon
seasonal designs ? Is i t s e l e c t e d based on t h e after t h e f i r s t monsoon showers a r e r e c e i v e d ) . Such
" w o r s t " case? If n o t , how i s t h e p r i o r i t i z a t i o n operations r e q u i r e a minimal power requirement i n
o f t h e v a r i o u s seasons performed i n t h e addition to t h e energy requirement. This aspect
d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e f i n a l design? may be included i n to t h e KB.
(v) Normally t h e prenionsoon wind regimen nra
2. I n t h e energy storage c a l c u l a t i o n s i t seems most suitable for harnessing wind energy for
t h a t i n t h e case El < E2 t h e s i z e o f t h e pumping water f o r i r r i g a t i o n p u r p o s e s , r e q u i r i n g
s t o r a g e b a t t e r y w i l l depend on t h e l e n g t h of minimal storage support. This option with
t h e s e l e c t e d t i m e - s e c t i o n (season). The l o n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o s t s may be Included into t h e KB.
t e r m s t o r a g e needed i n t h i s case i s SSMIN x T, ( v i ) Social constraint9 can also be r e p r e s e n t e d as
where T i s t h e number o f hours i n t h e season. f a c t s o r rules.
T h i s means t h a t i f a f o u r month p e r i o d i s ( v i i ) Independent device-based f a c t s can a l s o be
s e l e c t e d as a season, t h e s i z e o f t h e b a t t e r y included into t h e KB l i k e
w i l l be approximately ( n e g l e c t i n g s h o r t t e r m - whether t r a c t o r s o r t i l l e r s with t h e i r associated
storage) f o u r times the s i z e o f the b a t t e r y usage in transportation of necessary
c a l c u l a t e d i n a study w i t h one month seasons. fnputslagricultural products to and f r o houses to
How does t h i s a f f e c t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f i e l d s and market p l a c e s , for agricultural operations
proposed design methodology ? l i k e ploughing
- whether lighting, i f a t a l l p r o v i d e d by biogas, is
Manuscript received February 19, 1992. through mantle lamp route or biogas
enginelgeneratorllamp route.

The following points need clarification from the


K. MALLIKARJUNA CHETTY, UVCE, RanRaloro and authors:
I1.K. SU13RAMANIANI Inclinn lnstitute of Science,
bangalore, India: We commend t h e authors f o r u s i n g (I) Biogas engines a r e mostly dual fuel engines
t h e excellent tools of E x p e r t Systems i n t h e Design r u n n i n g on 80 percent of biogas and 20 percent of
of Integrated Renewable Energy SYgtems. Based on diesel. The cost of d i e s e l to r u n t h e biogas engine
Oln- work on t h e design of Integrated Rural EnerRY e i t h e r coupled to centrifugal pumpe to l i f t water f o r
Centres using single and multiple-objective i r r i g a t i o n o r to an e l e c t r i c generator to s u p p l y
optimization techniques [ 11 and t h e r e s u l t s obtained electrical energy, throughout the year may
t h e r e f r o m , we f e e l t h a t t h e following a s p e c t s may contribute a significant component to t h e total annual
a l s o b e taken into account i n t h e design process. costs sought to be mtnimised. Moreoever, t h e
inputs to the biogas plants like animal and
(a) Firewood and agrowastes a r e most used a g r i c u l t u r a l wastes a r e most often procured at some
energy sources f o r cooking, a major e n e r g y need nominal ' c o s t ' and personnel a r e r e q u i r e d to oversee
requiring medium grade heat (MGH) and often t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y r u n n i n g and maintenance of t h e
consuming 70 to 85 Percent Of energy plants. The r u n n i n g costs become significant i n such
requirement of a v i l l a g e I f o r e x , i n Pura Village of situations. ASTRA experiment in getting dung f r e e
K a r n a t a k a * South I n d i a where ASTRA-Centre for in lieu of biogas d i d not prove to be successful.
Of Science to Currently ASTRA is buying dung for its community
Areas, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore has - biogas plant and is collecting a nominal charge f o r
carried Out a n in-depth study Of energy t h e e l e c t r i c i t y s u p p l i e d to t h e houses f o r lighting.
firewood is found to s u p p l y 789x10 Kcal o r 88 Ilcrire. i t i n rirnirat>Ir t o inrlirtlp t l l c r u n n i n g comtn
percent of total energy requirement of 928 x 10 also i l l t o tile oi,jective r r l r l c t i o r i .
658

( i i ) The total e l e c t r i c a l load consists of t h e electrical applications. The analysis suggests, for the design exam-
unsatisfied portions, i f any, of enerRy needs l i k e ple described, Biogas systems are best suited for meeting different
M(;II, I X I I , etc., i n addition t o t h e purely e l e c t r i c a l types of loads, which is also the experience in this country [2].
one t o s t a r t with. There e x i s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o However, these systems may have major problems with maintenance
d i v e r s i f y t h e s e different categories of loads. This and reliability, which can offset the advantages. On the other hand,
I n tiirn miqht reduce tlip rrinulrnum demand, power PV systems are more reliable and easier to operate. Therefore, a
rating and t o t a l annual c a p i t a l c o s t s of d e v i c e s design example based mainly on electrical applications bringing out
comprising PV / WECS I PV 4 WECS with storage the advantages of PV and WECS systems will also be of interest. In
s u p p o r t , supplying t h e t o t a l e l e c t r i c a l load. fact, the authors could suggest different integrated systems based on a
particular technology with other systems playing a supporting role.
iii) The energy needs of certain categories This will enable the system designer to decide which integrated
e x p r e s s e d in kWh p e r d a y seem t o d i f f e r from Table systems should be developed for a given application.
1V to t h o w Riven in Tahlo V I I . F o r e x . for Sonson
2 , t h e following are t h e energy needs: Ref erences
Energy need Figs. i n Figs. in [I] Ashok Kumar Saxena, V. Dutta and K. L. Chopra "Design of
Table I V Table V1S Photovoltaic Based Remote Area Power Supply for Leh",World
Renewable Energy Congress, Reading, 1990.
RSl 162.25 119.65 [2] K. C. Khandelwal and S. S. Mahdi," Biogas Technology,," Tata
(from B I ) McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1986.
71.00
(from WECS) Manuscript received February 13, 1992.
---
-___-------
190.65
C. N. Kashkari (Global Energy Society University of Akron Akron,
EL 40 50 Ohio): Over one million villages in Asia, Africa and Latin America
have no commercial energy sources. These villages have depended
( i v ) In some villages, it may not be always
upon non-commercial energy like firewood, agricultural waste, cow
dung and animal and muscle power. Due to ruthless cutting of trees,
p o s s i b l e t o m e e t t h e energy demands from local
the forests are fast disappearing. Women now spend three-fourths of a
resources only. F u r t h e r , t h e growth of cottage and day collecting firewood and carrying water from remote wells. They
Brnall scale industries leads to additional burn cowdung which deprives the land of rich manure.
requtrements. Hence, i t may b e necessary t o get The developing countries had hoped that they would be able to lift
imported energy from o i l , coal, g r i d e l e c t r i c i t y and their people from the depths of poverty through energy powered
firewood. I t is d e s i r a b l e t o include t h e s e energy devices and systems. Due to the energy crisis, their hopes have faded.
soiirces with attached penaltlee BO t h a t t h e y a r e Integrated Renewable Energy Systems (IRES) offer the only hope of
selected a s t h e last option t o m e e t t h e remainder of meeting the energy and water requirements of hundreds of millions of
energy needs 12). people who live in these villages,
I

Global Energy Society (GES) has been promoting the development


Finally, t h e authors thank Prof. R . Ramakumar f o r of IRES in energy-starved villages for many years. In fact, the GES
supplying a'copy of t h i s excellent p a p e r making t h i s refers to these villages by the name-Global Energy Villages (GEV).
discussion possible. The authors have attempted and succeeded in developing a rational
basis for designing the GEV under a multitude of constraints imposed
REFERENCES by the variabilities of the resources, needs and economic considera-
tions. However, the procedure needs a reasonable amount of data on
1. K.M. Chetty. 'Optimization Techniques the needs, resources and costs. Such data are rarely available for the
Applied to t h e Design of Integrated Rural areas of the world that could benefit most from this work. D o the
Energy C e n t r e s ' , Ph.D. Dissertation, Indian authors have any ideas to overcome this issue?
Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. February There are other important considerations. 1. Training of local
1989. engineers in the usage of the computer program. 2. Training of
villagers who will operate the systems. 3. Availability of spare parts.
2. A.K.N. Reddy and D.K. Subramanian. 'The Have the authors given any thought to these issues?
Design of Rural I h e r g y Centres' in Rural GES believes that the standardization is a must if these systems are
Technology, MacMillan I n d i a P r e s s , pp.109-130, to be built in large numbers. The Society is planning a Model Global
1980. Energy Village in this country. A major university in the Midwest has
offered land and other facilities to build the model village but no
3. K.M. Chetty and D . K . Subramanian, "Rural decision has been made as yet. The Model GEV will be an interna-
Energy Consumption Patterns with Multiple tional center for training, demonstration and development of thou-
Objectives", International Journal of Energy sands of energy villages in the developing world.
Rerrcnrch, Vol.12. No.3, p p 561-567, July- There is no doubt that the paper is a significant contribution to the
September 1988. literature on renewable energy systems.

Manuscript received March 2, 1992. Manuscript received February 24, 1992.

R. Ramakumar. I. Abouzahr and K. Ashenavi: The authors


V. Dutta and D. P. Kothari (Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, =e grateful to all the discussers for their interest, insights, and
India): We wish to commend the authors for their valuable contribu-
tion in an important area of Integrated Renewable Energy Systems. valuable Their discussions have considerably
However, we would like to seek the authors' comments on the follow- enhanced the strength and value Of Our p a p r *
ing points.
1. Have the results of the analysis been compared with the perfor- Ap@baum is in his Statement that an
mance of an actual system comprising various renewable energy optimization problem c m be formulated the inputs,
generators? outputs, and costs included in terms of mathematical models and
2. It is clear that PV [l] and WECS are particularly suited for constraints. However, since most of the hardware components
659

come in quantized sizes, data on resource availabilities and loads in the energy needs noted by them is due to different end-use
often have to be estimated, and cost figures are subject to a high efficiencies assumed for resource-task combinations. If the
degree of variability, the additional improvement in the design establishment of IRES achieves its goals, then the local load will
gained by a global optimization approach may not be worth the grow and subsequently locally available resources certainly
increased effort needed. It should be pointed out that a cannot satisfy all the energy requirements. In such an event, grid
significant portion of the knowledge base is indeed assembled connection and importation of other energy forms will become
from the results of mathematical analyses (see References 18-20 justifiable.
of the paper) and the influence of various parameters involved in
the operation of wind-electric and photovoltaic systems can be Dr. Dutta and Professor Kothari point out the need to compare
included by suitable alterations and expansion of the knowledge the performance of an actual system with the results predicted by
base obtained from these results. the design procedure. As of now, this has not been done and it is
our hope that, as the idea of IRES gains more and more
Drs. Bakirtzis and Gavanidou raise two very relevant issues. If acceptance world-wide, such a comparison study can be pursued
the final design is based on the "worst case," then (a) the cost in the not-too-distant future. The inclusion of maintenance and
will become prohibitively high, and @) excess energy will reliability issues can also be done by employing suitable
become available (which may or may not be utilized) during a weighting factors for capital costs. The idea of suggesting
significant portion of the year. Unless this excess energy can be several IRES, each based on a different central technology,
used productively, the entire idea of establishing IRES to provide assisted by other technologies in supporting roles, is an excellent
energy to remote and rural areas may be scrapped based on one and deserves serious consideration. Once the design
economic considerations alone. Thus, one of the major factors to procedure is streamlined, such designs would be a natural result
be used in selecting the final design based on seasonal designs is of different sets of choices for capital cost weighting factors.
the availability of and the potential uses for this excess energy. The advantages of the knowledge-based approach truly shines
The prioritization of the seasons depends heavily on the specific under these circumstances.
case. under question. Regarding energy storage calculations, Drs.
Bakirtzis and Gavanidou have stated correctly that larger the T, Professor Kashkari strongly reinforces the authors' view that
larger the energy storage needed. The inequality E1 <E2 clearly IRES can play a very vital role in the rural areas of developing
points out that not enough energy is being generated to meet the countries. His efforts under the aegis of the Global Energy
needs on a daily basis and, under these circumstances, one would Society, are at present geared towards the provision of water
expect to require a large energy storage system for a long period supplies for hundreds of villages in the African continent.
of operation. Also, values of E1 and E2 vary from season to Obviously, this can be expanded to include energy supplies as
well. Dr. Kashkari's comment on training and spare parts are
season and no one pair of values can be used on an annual basis.
This is primarily due to the need for different models to describe right on target. However, we need not have to have local people 1

the resources and loads during different seasons. For these well versed in the use of the IRES-KB design tool. The design
reasons, the year is divided into a number of seasons as necessary part can be done by specialized teams. The need for trained
over each of which different models are valid. Practical designs people to operate, maintain, and trouble shoot the hardware
should strive for E1 2 E;! due to economic reasons. installed in remote areas is very real. While it is a good idea to
standardize hardware components, system designs could vary
Professors Mallikarjuna Chetty and Subramanian have suggested depending on the local conditions. Also, it is advisable to use
a number of items that should be included in the knowledge base. locally available technologies and hardware as far as possible. If
Their suggestions, based on extensive personal involvement and the idea of establishing a Model Global Energy Village in the
work with ASTRA, are sincerely appreciated. Our paper United Sates comes to fruition, it could serve as a global center
provides a good first step and it can be improved upon by for training and hand-on experience. Regarding the availability
incorporating several other factors and resources. The procedure of data, one has to start with what is available, estimate the rest,
to be followed will be similar, but with a more comprehensive and draw from similar experiences elsewhere. All the data need
knowledge base. Because most of the renewable energy not be available locally. As more and more experience is gained
technologies are highly capital intensive, we resorted to in designing and operating IRES, a data bank could evolve for
minimizing the total capital cost and excluded some of the use in other locations.
running costs. We feel that some of the running costs (as in the
case of biogas engines requiring some diesel fuel) can be Finally, it is truly gratifying to see the keen interest exhibited by
indirectly included by suitable modifications of the corresponding the discussers in this topic, which often does not get the attention
capital costs in terms of appropriate weighting factors. More it deserves. The authors thank all the discussers for their
detailed cost inclusions are also possible (see Reference 15 of generous comments and contributions.
paper). The detailed discussion by Drs. Chetty and Subramanian
clearly brings out the complexity of the problem. The difference M a n u s c r i p t r e c e i v e d A p r i l 8 , 1992.