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Figure 7.1 Transmission medium and physical layer

Chapter 7
Transmission Media

Based on Based on
7.1 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.2 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

7-1 GUIDED MEDIA


Figure 7.2 Classes of transmission media

Guided media, which are those that provide a


conduit from one device to another, include
twisted--pair cable, coaxial cable, and fiber
twisted fiber--optic
cable..
cable

Topics discussed in this section:


Twisted-Pair Cable
Coaxial Cable
Fiber-Optic Cable

Based on Based on
7.3 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.4 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

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Figure 7.3 Twisted-pair cable Figure 7.4 UTP and STP cables

Based on Based on
7.5 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.6 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

Table 7.1 Categories of unshielded twisted-pair cables


Figure 7.5 UTP connector

Based on Based on
7.7 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.8 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

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Coaxial cable Table 7.2 Categories of coaxial cables

1. 10Base-2 or thin Ethernet, uses RG-58 to transmit


data at 10 Mbps with a range of 185m.
2. 10Base-5 or Thick Ethernet, uses RG-11 to transmit
10 Mbps with rang of 500m. (Chapter 13)

Based on Based on
7.9 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.10 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

Coaxial Cable connectors Coaxial Cable connectors

Bayone-Neil-Concelman (BNC) connectors Bayone-Neil-Concelman (BNC) connectors

BNC connector: Used in TV


BNC T: Ethernet network
BNC terminator at the end of the cable to prevent the reflection of
the signal

Based on Based on
7.11 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.12 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

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Fiber-Optic Cable Figure 7.11 Optical fiber

Figure 7.10 Bending of light ray

Based on Based on
7.13 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.14 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

Propagation Modes Propagation Modes

Based on Based on
7.15 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.16 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

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Figure 7.14 Fiber construction Figure 7.15 Fiber-optic cable connectors

1. SC (Subscriber Channel): used for TV cable.


2. ST (Straight Tip): used for connect cable with networking
devices.
3. MT-RJ: Network

Based on Based on
7.17 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.18 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

7-2 UNGUIDED MEDIA: WIRELESS


Advantages and disadvantages of Fiber-optic

Unguided media transport electromagnetic waves


Advantages
Higher bandwidth without using a physical conductor.
conductor. This type of
Less signal attenuation communication is often referred to as wireless
Immunity to electromagnetic interference
Resistance to corrosive materials
communication..
communication
Light weight
More immunity to tapping

Disadvantages
Installation and maintenance
Topics discussed in this section:
Cost Radio Waves
Unidirectional Microwaves
Infrared

Based on Based on
7.19 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.20 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

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Figure 7.17 Electromagnetic spectrum for wireless communication Figure 7.18 Propagation methods

Radio waves: frequencies between 3kHz and 1GHz


Microwave: between 1 and 300 GHz

Based on Based on
7.21 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.22 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

Propagation methods Propagation methods


Ground propagation:
1. radio waves travel through the
Sky propagation:
lowest portion of the atmosphere, higher frequency radio
hugging the earths waves radiate upward into
2. Low frequency signal emanate in the ionosphere where they
all
ll directions
di i from
f the
h transmitting
i i are reflected back to earth.
antenna and follow the curvature Allows for greater
of the planet.
distances with low output
power

Based on Based on
7.23 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.24 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

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Propagation methods Figure 7.19 Wireless transmission waves

Line-of-sight propagation:
1. Very high frequency signals that
transmitted in straight line directly
from antenna to antenna
2 Antenna must be directionally,
2. directionally facing
each other and either tall enough or
close enough (to be not affected by
the curvature of earth)

Based on Based on
7.25 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.26 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

Radio waves Omnidirectional antenna

Radio waves are used for multicast


communications, such as radio and
television, and paging systems.
1. propagate in the sky mode
2. Can penetrate walls
3. Susceptible to interference from signals using the same band
4. The radio wave band is relatively compared to the microwave
band. Omnidirectional: propagated in all directions. This means
that the sending and receiving antenna do not have to be aligned.

Based on Based on
7.27 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.28 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

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Microwaves Infrared
Microwaves are used for unicast Infrared signals can be used for short-
communication such as cellular range communication in a closed area
telephones, satellite networks, and using line-of-sight propagation.
wireless LANs. 1. Frequency range from 300 GHz to 400 THz Transmit
digital data with a very high data rate
1. unidirectional 2. Use line of sight propagation
2. Propagation is line-of sight. 3. Cannot penetrate walls so interference is prevented
3. Repeaters are needed for long distance communication. 4. We cannot use infrared outside a building because the suns
4. Very high frequency microwaves cannot penetrate walls. rays contain infrared that can interfere with the
5. The Microwave wave band is relatively wide almost 299GHZ communication
a high data rate 5. Can be used for short-range communication
6. use of certain portion of the band requires permission from
authorities. Applications: IrDA
Based on Based on
7.29 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan 7.30 Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan