0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

7 просмотров96 страницMedium mechanics

mmk bab 5

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

Medium mechanics

© All Rights Reserved

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

7 просмотров96 страницmmk bab 5

Medium mechanics

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 96

Stress Introduction Search

Introduction

This page reviews the familiar stress tensor. Stress

is always simply F orce/Area , but some

complexity does arrise because the relative

orientation of the force vector to the surface normal

dictates the type of stress. When the force vector is

normal to the surface, as shown to the right, the

stress is called normal stress and represented by .

stress is called shear stress and represented by .

When the force vector is somewhere in between,

then its normal and parallel components are used as

follows.

Fnormal Fparallel

= and =

Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Axial_stress.svg

A A

This page is a near-duplicate of the earlier stress.html page in the Introductory Mechanics section. If

you have read that page, then this one can be skipped.

The earlier page served as the complete discussion of stress because it was in the

Introductory Mechanics section (keyword here being Introductory). This time, this page is only the

introduction to a full chapter on the subject. The reason being that, this time, we will worry about the

complications that arise when large deformations and rotations are present.

For example, when large deformations are present, does one use the initial or deformed area to

calculate stress? And if a part rotates 90 such that a force originally in the x-direction ends up acting

in the y-direction, then should the corresponding stress be xx or yy ?

Component Definitions

http://www.continuummechanics.org/stressintroduction.html 1/5

12/20/2017 Stress Introduction

y p p

complete stress state. Consider the object in

the 2-D example here that is being pulled in F

simple tension, though not in a direction

parallel to any global axis. Standard practice

is to (virtually) cut it perpendicular to the

global axes as shown. This first cut results in

an area with unit normal parallel to the global

F

x-axis. The force on this area contains both

normal and parallel components. The

F

stresses are defined as y Fy

Fx Fy

Fx

xx =

Ax

and xy =

Ax

x F

Note how the two subscripts on the stress variables match those on the force and area components with one

subscript coming from each.

Alternately, one could (virtually) cut the object horizontally to produce a surface with an outward normal in the y-

direction. This leads to

Fy Fx

yy = and yx =

Ay Ay

If a numerical example were worked out, one would notice an amazing result. It is that xy = yx . This will

always be true in order to maintain rotational equilibrium. This is discussed in more detail next.

Equilibrium

The complete (2D) stress state at a point is shown below. The key difference between the left and right figures

is the shear stresses. But they will be discussed later.

First, let's look at the normal stresses, xx and yy . Note how the x-normal stress, xx , is present on both the

left and right sides of each square in order to maintain horizontal equilibrium. These x-normal stresses

represent tension because they point out of the square. Tensile normal stresses have positive values, and

compressive normal stresses have negative values.

The y-normal stresses, yy , are also present on two surfaces, top and bottom, in order to maintain vertical

equilibrium. Like xx , yy is also drawn to represent tension, which is positive.

The difference between the left and right pictures is that yx in the left figure is replaced by xy in the right

figure. The left figure contains two shear stress values, xy , which rotates the square counter-clockwise, and yx

, which rotates the square clockwise. But if the two shear values are not equal, then the square will not be in

rotational equilibrium. The only way to maintain rotational equilibrium is for xy to be equal to yx . So there is no

need to have two separate variables. The right figure contains only one, xy .

syy syy

t

http://www.continuummechanics.org/stressintroduction.html

t 2/5

tyx txy

12/20/2017 Stress Introduction

yy yy

sxx y

Equilibrium sxx y

txy

tyx txy

syy syy

2-D Notation

Stress is in fact a tensor. Why? Because it obeys standard coordinate transformation principles of tensors. This

alone appears to be enough to make it so. It can be written in any of several different forms as follows. They are

all identical.

11 12 xx xy xx xy

= [ ] = [ ] = [ ]

21 22 yx yy yx yy

11 12 xx xy xx xy

= [ ] = [ ] = [ ]

12 22 xy yy xy yy

Setting xy = yx has the effect of making (requiring in fact) the stress tensors symmetric.

3-D Notation

All of the above conventions in 2-D also apply to the 3-D case. Notation for the 3-D case is as follows.

11 12 13 xx xy xz xx xy xz

= 21 22 23 = yx yy yz = yx yy yz

31 32 33 zx zy zz zx zy zz

But rotational equilibrium requires that xy = yx , xz = zx , and yz = zy . This also produces symmetric

tensors.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/stressintroduction.html 3/5

12/20/2017 Stress Introduction

Ref: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stress_in_a_continuum.svg

11 12 13 xx xy xz xx xy xz

= 22 23 = xy yy yz = xy yy yz

12

13 23 33 xz yz zz xz yz zz

1 Login

Sort by Oldest

Recommend Share

LOG IN WITH

OR SIGN UP WITH DISQUS ?

Name

Thank you for visiting this For $4.99, you receive two For $12.95, you receive two

webpage. Feel free to email formatted PDFs (the first for formatted PDFs (the first for

me if you have questions. 8.5" x 11" pages, the second 8.5" x 11" pages, the second

for tablets) of the complete for tablets) of the entire

Also, please consider visiting stress chapter. website.

an advertiser above. Doing so

http://www.continuummechanics.org/stressintroduction.html 4/5

12/20/2017 Stress Introduction

g

helps to cover website hosting Click here to see a sample Click here to see a sample

fees. page in each of the two page in each of the two

formats. formats.

Bob McGinty

bmcginty@gmail.com Email address to receive PDFs Email address to receive PDFs

Table of Contents

Stress Traction Vector

http://www.continuummechanics.org/stressintroduction.html 5/5

12/20/2017 Traction Vectors

Traction Vectors Search

Introduction

The traction vector, T, is simply the force

vector on a cross-section divided by that

cross-section's area.

F

T =

Area

absolutely a vector, not a stress tensor. So all

the usual rules for vectors apply to it. For Ref: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:stress_vector.svg

example, dot products, cross products, and

coordinate transforms can be applied.

The object below has a 400 mm2 cross sectional area and is being pulled in tension by a

4,000 N force (red) in the x-direction. So the (arbitrarily chosen) rightward pointing internal force

vector (blue) is

F = 4, 000 i N

y

F F F

x

http://www.continuummechanics.org/tractionvector.html 1/9

12/20/2017 Traction Vectors

1

T = ( ) 4,000 i N = 10.0 i MPa

2

400 mm

y

F F F

x

2

400 mm

2

A = = 462 mm

cos(30 )

1

T = ( ) 4,000 i N = 8.66 i MPa

2

462 mm

Note the direction of the traction vector is always the same as the internal force vector. Only its

magnitude changes with cut angle.

Normal and shear stresses are simply the components of the traction vector that are normal and parallel to

the area's surface as shown in the figure. Using n for the unit normal vector to the surface, and s for the

unit vector parallel to it, means that

= T n and = T s

It's very important to recognize that and here are each scalar values, not full tensors. This is the

natural result of the dot product operations involving T, n, and s . (Dot products produce scalar results.)

The normal and shear stress values here are scalars rather than tensors because they are only two

individual components of the full stress tensor.

s

n

Also, note that in 3-D, there are in fact an infinite

number of s vectors parallel to the surface each

http://www.continuummechanics.org/tractionvector.html 2/9

12/20/2017

number of s vectors parallel to the surface, each

Traction Vectors

n

having a different component in-and-out of the

page, so to speak. This is why it is common to

specify one parallel to the page and a second

T

perpendicular to it.

t s

Recall that the traction vector from the above example was

1

T = 4,000 i N = 8.66 i MPa

2

462 mm

n = (cos 30 , sin 30 , 0)

= T n = (8.66, 0, 0) (cos 30 , sin 30 , 0) = 7.5 MPa

s = ( sin 30 , cos 30 , 0)

= T s = (8.66, 0, 0) ( sin 30 , cos 30 , 0) = 4.33 MPa

The relationship between the traction vector and

stress state at a point results directly from setting A cosO A

http://www.continuummechanics.org/tractionvector.html T 3/9

12/20/2017

O

Traction Vectors

A

the sum of forces on an object equal to zero, i.e.,

imposing equilibrium.

T

O

y

xy A cos + yy A sin = Ty A

Tx

x

The area, A, cancels out of both sides leaving

txy

xx cos + xy sin = Tx

syy

xy cos + yy sin = Ty

A sinO

but cos and sin are the components of the unit normal to the surface, n = (cos , sin ) , that T is

acting on.

xx n x + xy n y = Tx T

xy n x + yy n y = Ty

O

Ty

Both equations can be summarized as

sxx Tx

y

T = n n = (cosO , sin O)

x

or in tensor notation as

txy

Ti = ij n j

syy

The above equations are very useful, compact,

matrix and tensor notation representations of the

equilibrium equations. The full equations, in 3-D, are

xx n x + xy n y + xz n z = Tx

yx n x + yy n y + yz n z = Ty

zx n x + zy n y + zz n z = Tz

The tensor notation term, ij n j , leads to nine separate stress components. For example, both xz and

zx are present above, and both are always equal. This is in fact common in all equations involving stress

and strain.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/tractionvector.html 4/9

12/20/2017 Traction Vectors

Given the stress tensor (in MPa)

50 10 30

= 10 95 20

30 20 15

= (0.400, 0.600, 0.693)

Tx 50 10 30 0.400 46.79

Ty = 10 95 20 0.600 = 74.86

Tz 30 20 15 0.693 34.40

If the area is 100 mm2, then the force on it would be F = 4, 679 i + 7, 486 j + 3, 440 k N .

Stress Transforms

This section introduces an aspect of coordinate transformations of stress tensors that is a subset of the

general case, which comes later. It does so by combining different equations involving the traction vector.

Recall that the normal and shear stresses on a surface are related to the traction vector by

= T n and = T s

Recall that the normal and shear stresses here are just scalar quantities on the surface, not a full stress

tensor.

But we also saw that the traction vector is related to the full stress tensor by

T = n

= n n and = s n

= ij n i n j and = ij si n j

http://www.continuummechanics.org/tractionvector.html 5/9

12/20/2017 Traction Vectors

These represent very useful relationships between the stress tensor in the global coordinate system and

the normal and shear stress components at any other orientation.

50 10 30

= 10 95 20

30 20 15

n = (0.400, 0.600, 0.693). This time, calculate the normal and shear stresses on this

surface.

= 10 95 20 0.600

30 20 15 0.693

= 87.47MPa

In order to compute a shear stress, we first need a specific one of an infinite number of unit

vectors parallel to the surface. Let's choose s = (0.832, 0.555, 0.000). A dot product will

verify that this vector is perpendicular to n.

= 10 95 20 0.600

30 20 15 0.693

= 2.62MPa

So there is very little shear on this face in the given s direction. But this doesn't mean that there

is no shear on the face at all. To see this, choose a second direction parallel to the surface and

perpendicular to the first s. Obtain this by crossing the unit normal vector with the first tangential

vector.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/tractionvector.html 6/9

12/20/2017 Traction Vectors

So the shear in the direction perpendicular to the first is

= 10 95 20 0.600

30 20 15 0.693

= 36.33MPa

So there is a good bit of shear stress in this perpendicular direction. And the negative value

indicates that it is in the direction opposite of the s direction.

Transformation Tip

This transformation "trick" could be used to compute the normal and shear stresses on all six

faces of a cube at any random orientation, and in the process, perform a complete coordinate

transformation of a stress tensor. But it's actually easier to do = Q Q just as is the

T

But the opposite is also true. The stress tensor can be replaced with the strain tensor to obtain

normal = n n and /2 = s n

Or in tensor notation as

normal = ij n i n j and /2 = ij si n j

This works because since both stress and strain are tensors, then any math operation that

applies to one also applies to the other.

For a quick math review, note that si n j in the above equations can be interpreted as a diadic product of

the two vectors, s n. And then this result is "double dotted" with the stress or strain tensor to obtain the

final scalar shear value. So the calculation could be written as

= s n = : (s n)

(The same could also be done to compute the normal stress as well.)

This diadic product for shear arises so often in metal plasticity that it is represented by the single letter p,

and named the Schmidt tensor after the engineer who studied metal plasticity in the early 1900's.

s1 n 1 s1 n 2 s1 n 3

p = s n = s2 n 1 s2 n 2 s2 n 3

http://www.continuummechanics.org/tractionvector.html 7/9

12/20/2017 Traction Vectors

s3 n 1 s3 n 2 s3 n 3

Before closing, recall one more time that the force on a

cross-section is

F = T dA = n dA

1 Login

Sort by Oldest

Recommend Share

LOG IN WITH

OR SIGN UP WITH DISQUS ?

Name

B j hK

http://www.continuummechanics.org/tractionvector.html 8/9

12/20/2017 Traction Vectors

Brajesh Kumar 3 months ago

Sir i have confusion in this sentence."And the negative value indicates that it is in the direction opposite

of the s direction." What will be the opposite direction since the two directions of shear stress are

perpendicular.

Reply Share

Thanks for the interest, Brajesh. The "s" is a vector with direction: 0.385i0.576j+0.721k. The

fact that this led to a negative shear value (tau = -36.33 MPa) means that the net shear force on

the face is in a direction opposite to the "s" vector direction. Or in other words, the shear stress,

resulted from a shear force in the opposite direction.

Reply Share

Thank you for visiting this For $4.99, you receive two For $12.95, you receive two

webpage. Feel free to email formatted PDFs (the first for formatted PDFs (the first for

me if you have questions. 8.5" x 11" pages, the second 8.5" x 11" pages, the second

for tablets) of the complete for tablets) of the entire

Also, please consider visiting stress chapter. website.

an advertiser above. Doing so

Click here to see a sample Click here to see a sample

helps to cover website

page in each of the two page in each of the two

hosting fees.

formats. formats.

Bob McGinty

Email address to receive PDFs Email address to receive PDFs

bmcginty@gmail.com

Table of Contents

Stress Introduction Energetic Conjugates

http://www.continuummechanics.org/tractionvector.html 9/9

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

Energetic Conjugates Search

Introduction

This page introduces several definitions of stress. A key discriminator among the different stress tensors is

whether they report stress in a material's undeformed, and especially unrotated state, (the reference

configuration), or in its deformed and rotated state, (the current configuration).

It is interesting that most, perhaps even all, stress definitions can be paired with a corresponding strain

tensor. They come in pairs such that the product of the two will give strain energy, hence the name of this

page. This does not mean that the corresponding pairs must be used together when performing structural

analyses. But they must be when computing strain energy density.

It's been claimed that among the many

different strain definitions, no one is

necessarily superior to another. They are all

just different, each having pros and cons for a

given application. However, I don't believe that

is the case for stress. For stresses, the Cauchy

or True Stress definition appears to be head-

and-shoulders more relevant, physical,

justified, etc, over other definitions.

deformed configuration". So the object has

rotated and deformed. And as it has deformed,

its cross-sectional area has changed from the

undeformed configuration. But it is this rotated

and deformed condition that is in final

equilibrium, not the reference configuration.

other stress definitions have some kind of sub

or superscripts to indicate what they are.

A very-flimsy diving board is an excellent example of a loading condition that supports this argument. The

deformed shape is in equilibrium, not the reference shape. So equilibrium equations involving stresses

should be written in terms of the deformed shape, so the Cauchy stress is the natural choice.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 1/17

Work, Energy, and Power

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

It is well known that work is the dot-product of force and displacement according to

W = F dx

and power is the time-derivative of work, which can be obtained by first taking an infinitesimal amount of

work, dW = F dx, and dividing through by dt to obtain

dW dx

P = = F

dt dt

P = F v

For mechanics calculations, it is often desirable to calculate work and energy in terms of stress and strain

rather than force and displacement. Likewise, calculations of power are made in terms of stress and strain-

rate instead of force and velocity. The following derivation shows how the quantities are related.

Begin by considering the power generated by forces, both external and internal, acting on an object and

moving it at velocity, v . The external forces will be expressed as traction vectors, T, acting on the outer

surface of the object. The traction vectors must be integrated over the outer surface to obtain force. The

internal forces will be represented by f , having dimensions of force/volume. They arise due to mechanisms

such as gravity, accelerations, magnatism, etc. The total force acting on the object will be

Total Force = T dA + f dV

External Internal

Forces Forces

The power generated by the forces is computed by simply performing dot-products with the velocity vector,

v.

Power = T v dA + f v dV

Note that v need not be constant over the volume (or surface). It can vary due to deformations, rotations,

and/or vibrations. Nevertheless, the equation remains correct.

This result can be partitioned into the power associated with motion (involving the velocity vector, v ), and

that associated with deformations (stresses and strains). This is accomplished in a few steps as follows.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 2/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

Power = ( n) v dA + f v dV

Then apply the divergence theorem to the first term containing the surface integral to transform it into a

volume integral.

Power = ( v) dV + f v dV

Power = ( ) v dV + : v dV + f v dV

The above step is not at all intuitive using matrix notation, but is easily verified with tensor

notation. The term, ( v) is expressed in tensor notation as (ij vi ),j . Applying the

product rule gives

(ij vi ),j = ij ,j vi + ij vi ,j

( v) = ( ) v + : v

The term is key here because it also appears in the equilibrium equation: + f . This

= a

Power = ( a f ) v dV + : v dV + f v dV

Power = a v dV f v dV + : v dV + f v dV

Note that the two f v dV terms cancel each other, leaving only

P dV + dV

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 3/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

Power = a v dV + : v dV

And the term is in fact the time derivative of Kinetic Energy: . So it can be

1

a v dV (v v) dV

2

written as

d 1

Power = ( (v v) dV ) + : v dV

dt 2

Or simply

d

Power = (Kinetic Energy) + : v dV

dt

d

Power = (Kinetic Energy) + : L dV

dt

d

Power = (Kinetic Energy) + : D dV + : W dV

dt

But : W is identically zero because is symmetric and W is antisymmetric. This leaves the final

result.

d

Power = (Kinetic Energy) + : D dV

dt

The total power has now been partitioned into two contributing parts: (i) bulk motion, and (ii) deformations.

The bulk motion is represented by kinetic energy, of which the velocity vector, v , is the key. Deformations

are represented by strain energy density, and its rate of change is computed by energetically conjugate

pairs of stresses and strain-rates.

We will focus on the deformation component of the total power in order to identify additional pairs of

energetically conjugate stresses, strains, and strain-rates. We already have the Cauchy stress and the rate

of deformation tensor as our first energetically conjugate pair. This is logical because both are related to

Definition of the 1st Piola Kirchhoff stress starts from the Cauchy stress and rate of deformation tensor

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 4/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

Definition of the 1st Piola Kirchhoff stress starts from the Cauchy stress and rate of deformation tensor.

P = : D dV

But

1

T

D = (L + L )

2

1

T

P = : L + : L dV

2

P = : L dV

and L , so substitute

1

= F F

1

P = : (F F ) dV

1

P = : (F F ) J dVo

Once again, converting everything to tensor notation helps to better understand how to regroup

components.

1

P = ij F ik F J dVo

kj

Rearrange to get

1

P = ij F F ik J dVo

kj

1 T

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html F F 5/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

and take the transpose of the transpose of Fkj to get Fjk .

1 T

T

P = J ij F

F

jk ik dVo

PK1

P = : F dVo

where

PK1 T

= J F

The important result here is that the resulting P K 1 definition is NOT symmetric because, while it is

postmultiplied by FT , it is not premultiplied by a corresponding F1 to make the result symmetric. So

this is not a popular stress tensor to use.

The derivation of the 2nd Piola Kirchhoff stress is similar to that of the 1st. Once again, start with the

Cauchy stress and the rate of deformation tensor.

P = : D dV

.

T 1

D = F E F

T 1

P = : (F E F ) dV

T 1

P = : (F E F ) J dVo

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 6/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

Once again, converting everything to tensor notation helps to better understand how to regroup

components.

T 1

P = ij F E mn F J dVo

im nj

Rearrange to get

1 T

P = J F ij F E mn dVo

mi jn

PK2

P = : E dVo

where

PK2 1 T

= J F F

PK2

is symmetric and is a popular stress tensor. It is conjugate to E

for power calculations, and

conjugate to E for energy.

PK2

is in the reference configuration. Let's plug in the polar decomposition to see this more clearly.

Substitute U1 R T for F1 . Recall that R 1 = R T .

1 T T 1

= U

This produces

PK2 1 T 1

= J U R R U

This result is not necessarily useful for calculating P K 2 because it requires a polar decomposition be

performed that is otherwise not useful, but it does give insight into the stress definition. For example, the

R term rotates the Cauchy stress from the current configuration back to the reference

T

R

configuration. This will be demonstrated in examples following the section on engineering stress.

Additional Relationships

Recall the energetically conjugate pairing of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress and Green strain

tensor.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 7/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

PK2

P = : E dVo

PK2

W = : dE

where W is the strain energy per unit volume. (Volume is length3, hence the three

apostrophes.)

Engineering Stress

Engineering stress is simply force over initial area.

Fnormal Fparallel

Eng = and Eng =

Ao Ao

But I don't know how to extend these definitions to the case of large rotations.

Stress Examples

Examples here will compare Cauchy stress, 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress, and engineering stress. The

examples will use incompressible rubber, so J = 1.

A rubber test sample is stretched in tension as shown in the figure. It is incompressible, so the

volume must remain constant.

Lo Ao = LF AF

y

Rearrange to get

Ao LF

=

AF Lo

related to the engineering strain as follows

F x

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 8/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

LF

= 1 + Eng

Lo

So therefore

Ao

= 1 + Eng

AF

This relationship will be used to relate the different stress terms. For starters, since in this case,

the tensile force is the product of ( AF ) and also the product of (Eng Ao ) , the two terms can

be equated to give

AF = Eng Ao

Ao

=

Eng AF

= Eng (1 + Eng )

So when the strains are small, the Cauchy stress and engineering stress are the same for all

practical purposes. But as an object is stretched significantly so that its cross-sectional area

decreases, the Cauchy stress will become greater than the engineering stress. Likewise, under

compression, the opposite case exists. Under compression, the Cauchy stress is less (in

absolute value) than the engineering stress.

Relating the Cauchy stress and 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress requires computing F and then

relating the two through

PK2 1 T

= J F F

(1 + Eng ) 0 0

1/2

F = 0 (1 + Eng ) 0

1/2

0 0 (1 + Eng )

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 9/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

Its inverse is

1

(1 + Eng ) 0 0

1 1/2

F = 0 (1 + Eng ) 0

1/2

0 0 (1 + Eng )

This leads to

PK2

=

2

(1 + Eng )

and

Eng

PK2

=

1 + Eng

So the deviation of the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress from the engineering stress is just the opposite

of the Cauchy stress. When the Cauchy stress is greater than the engineering stress, then P K 2

is less than Eng , and vice-versa.

The graph below assumes that Eng = E Eng with E = 1 MPa, roughly the stiffness of natural

rubber, at least at smaller strains.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 10/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

Recall the example from the page on true strains where the object is stretched and rotated. This

time, we will use it to compare stresses in the presence of large rigid body rotations. Engineering

stress is not included since it loses meaning in the presence of rotations.

y F

F

x F

F

Time

First, the Cauchy stress is simple. The final stress state consists entirely of a normal y-

component because the y-direction is the direction of the tensile force. So the final Cauchy

stress tensor would look like

0 0 0

= 0 F /A 0

0 0 0

The deformation gradient must be determined in order to calculate the 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff

stress. The deformation gradient is most easily computed here by taking advantage of the polar

decomposition once again. This time

(1 + Eng ) 0 0

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 11/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

1/2

U = 0 (1 + Eng ) 0

1/2

0 0 (1 + Eng )

0 1 0

R = 1 0

0

0 0 1

0 1 0 (1 + Eng ) 0 0

R U = 1 1/2

F = 0 0 0 (1 + Eng ) 0

1/2

0 0 1 0 0 (1 + Eng )

1/2

0 (1 + Eng ) 0

= (1 + Eng ) 0 0

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 12/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

1/2

0 0 (1 + Eng )

The inverse of F is

1

0 (1 + Eng ) 0

1 1/2

F = (1 + Eng ) 0 0

1/2

0 0 (1 + Eng )

F /A

0 0

2

(1+ Eng )

PK2 1 T

= J F F =

0 0 0

0 0 0

The 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress has a nonzero component in the normal-x location because the

force acts on the object in a direction that was initially in the x-direction.

The term amounts to being /(1 + Eng )2 , but could also be written as Eng /(1 + Eng ) for

this simple tension case.

PK2

is less than while E

is greater than D by just the right amount such that PK2

: E is

exactly equal to : D. Each pair is energetically conjugate.

We've talked about Hooke's Law relating stress and strain in the section on tensor notation.

Recall that

1

= [(1 + ) I tr()]

E

But we glossed over the issue of which stress and strain tensors should be used in the equation.

The answer is deceptively simple... in most cases. This is because linear elasticity only applies

to very small strains, typically <1%. And now we've seen that all stress definitions are

equivalent, as well all strain definitions, when the strains are small. So it doesn't really matter, in

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 13/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

equivalent, as well all strain definitions, when the strains are small. So it doesn t really matter, in

fact.

However, there is a gotcha. It is, as usual, rotations. In the presence of large rotations, the

proper pairing of stress and strain is critical. Recall the earlier example of the object rotating

while being stretched.

y F

F

x F

F

Time

Of course, the level of stretching here is too large to be considered linear elastic. But it serves

the purpose for this discussion of rotations.

It is easy, and perfectly correct, to write the equation in terms of PK2 and E as

1

PK2 PK2

E = [(1 + ) I tr( )]

E

This will work no matter the level or rotation. Just be careful that E is strain and E is the elastic

modulus.

1

PK2 PK2

E = [(1 + ) I tr( )]

E

Likewise, one could write Hooke's Law in terms of and True (as long as True is computed in

the current orientation).

1

True = [(1 + ) I tr()]

E

But guess what. The one thing that cannot be done (at least correctly) is to write it in terms of

and True (= D ).

To see this, consider a slight alternative of the above figure. Think of the object as first being

stretched in the x-direction, and then being held at a constant length. This produces a stress in

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 14/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

the x-direction that is constant while the object is held at constant length. And note that True (

= D ) is zero as a result.

So far, so good. But the problem arises when the now-stretched object starts to rotate from a

horizontal to vertical orientation. The Cauchy stress starts in the x-normal component, but

transitions to the y-normal component as the object rotates. So there are definitely non-zero

components in because the components of are changing with time. But there is no D at all

because the object is not stretching; it is only rotating.

So here we have a major problem in that is not zero while D is zero. This leads to the issue

of corotational derivatives, which address this disparity. We will cover them in more detail a little

later.

1 Login

Sort by Oldest

Recommend 1 Share

LOG IN WITH

OR SIGN UP WITH DISQUS ?

Name

Thank you very much Dr. McGinty for this useful page. I have a question about relating divergence of

sigma and v production to two separate terms in "Work, Energy, and Power" section ate the top of the

page. You presented divergence of dot product of stress tensor and velocity v as (ij.vi),j but I think it

must be corrected as (ijvj),i. Is it right or I am mistaking somewhere? and if the second term is correct

what happens to the remains of the equations. bests

Reply Share

Thanks for your interest Hamed. I see your point about the subscripts. If sigma were not

symmetric, then what you say would be absolutely necessary. But since it is symmetric, I took

advantage of that to swap the "i" and "j" due to personal preference. In this special case, you

would get the same answer either way because of the fact that sigma is indeed symmetric.

Reply Share

Dear Bob,

This is the best tutorial I have ever leaned regarding to the Continuum Mechanics. Thank you for

providing these. I have a question in "Work, Energy, and Power" section, you wrote that: "The external

forces will be expressed as traction vectors, T, acting on the outer surface of the object. The traction

vectors must be integrated over the outer surface to obtain force." But from the previous chapter "Home

> Stress > Traction vector" you have mentioned that "The traction vector, T, is simply the force vector on

a cross-section divided by that cross-section's area." I am quite confused, why we integrate over the

outer surface area of the deformable body, not the cross-section area.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 15/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

Best regards,

Wandy

Reply Share

Wandy - Here's why you don't integrate the traction vectors over a cross-section. It's because a

cross-section cuts through an object, so it is in the interior, which is not where the external traction

vectors are acting. The traction vectors are all on the outer surface, so it is the outer surface area

that you must integrate over. Compare the traction vectors to pressure that is acting on the outer

surface of an object. You would then need to integrate the pressure over the outer surface to get

the net force. We're doing essentially the same thing here with traction vectors. Bottom line, a

traction vector is a force per unit area. It doesn't matter whether that unit area is internal like a

cross-section, or external like surface area.

Reply Share

Thanks, here is what I understand after you enlightening me: the external traction vector

(surface-area) is related to the pressure (whatever positive or negative) acting on the

configuration's outside surface and lead to the external work; while the internal traction

vectors (cross-area) which is something related to stress and resulting to the internal work

inside the body.

Reply Share

One correction. A traction vector is more than just pressure because, while

pressure only acts normal to a surface, a traction vector can act in any direction on

a surface.

Reply Share

Yep, thx

Reply Share

Thank you for this great resource, Dr. McGinty. I had a question about the partial derivatives in the

divergence operator- How do I know if the derivatives are with respect to the reference configuration or

the current configuration i.e. d/dX or d/dx?

While it is implicit when you substitute L for the divergence of the velocity field (which is with respect to

the current configuration), how would I know in an arbitrary situation?

Reply Share

Anup - It is standard practice for derivatives for the deformation gradient, F, to be with respect to the

reference coordinates just as you noted that it is standard for derivatives for the velocity gradient, L, to be

with respect to the current configuration. And like you say, it should be written explicitly as d/dX or d/dx,

which would be clear. The main problem arises when someone writes x_i,j. In this case it is not clear

whether derivative w.r.t the j coordinate is in the ref or current configuration. In such cases, it must be

determined from context, i.e., ref config if talking about F and current config if talking about L.

Reply Share

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 16/17

12/20/2017 Energetic Conjugates

Reply Share

Thank you for visiting this For $4.99, you receive two For $12.95, you receive two

webpage. Feel free to email formatted PDFs (the first for formatted PDFs (the first for

me if you have questions. 8.5" x 11" pages, the second 8.5" x 11" pages, the second

for tablets) of the complete for tablets) of the entire

Also, please consider visiting stress chapter. website.

an advertiser above. Doing so

Click here to see a sample Click here to see a sample

helps to cover website

page in each of the two page in each of the two

hosting fees.

formats. formats.

Bob McGinty

Email address to receive PDFs Email address to receive PDFs

bmcginty@gmail.com

Table of Contents

Traction Vectors Stress Transformations

http://www.continuummechanics.org/energeticconjugates.html 17/17

12/20/2017 Stress Transformations

Stress Transformations Search

Introduction

As with strain, transformations of stress tensors follow the same rules of pre and post multiplying by a

transformation or rotation matrix regardless of which stress or strain definition one is using. The only

difference is that the full shear values, ij , are used in stress tensors and their transformations, not the half

shear values, /2, used in strain tensors.

This page will cover coordinate transformations and rotations in 2-D and 3-D.

Coordinate transforms represent rotations of the

coordinate system while the object is held

constant. The common application of coordinate A cosO A

transforms is to rotate the coordinate system to

find the principal directions of the stress tensor. O

The governing equations are derived by

summing forces on differential objects. The

sxx t' s'

sketch here demonstrates this for the (relatively)

simple 2-D case. y

x

txy

syy

A sinO

xx A cos + xy A sin = A cos A sin

xy A cos + yy A sin = A sin + A cos

xx cos + xy sin = cos sin

http://www.continuummechanics.org/stressxforms.html 1/6

12/20/2017 Stress Transformations

xy cos + yy sin = sin + cos

This represents two simultaneous equations with two unknowns, and . Solving the equations gives

the well-known 2-D stress transformation equations.

2 2

= xx cos + yy sin + 2 xy sin cos

2 2

= (yy xx ) sin cos + xy (cos sin )

This gives the normal and shear stresses on any face and is, in fact, the exact same result as obtained on

the earlier page on traction vectors, except this is 2-D, of course. The complete transformed 2-D stress

state is obtained by evaluating these two equations, plus one additional equation for normal stress at

+ 90 .

2 2

xx = xx cos + yy sin + 2 xy sin cos

2 2

yy = xx sin + yy cos 2 xy sin cos

2 2

xy = (yy xx ) sin cos + xy (cos sin )

xx xy cos sin xx xy cos sin

[ ] = [ ][ ][ ]

xy yy sin cos xy yy sin cos

The leading and trailing matrices are the familiar Q matrix and its transpose. The complete set of

equations can be written simply as

T

= Q Q

1 2

If the stress tensor in a reference coordinate system is [ ] , then in a coordinate system

2 3

rotated 50, it would be written as

xx xy cos 50 sin 50 1 2 cos 50 sin 50

[ ] = [ ][ ][ ]

xy yy sin 50 cos 50 2 3 sin 50 cos 50

http://www.continuummechanics.org/stressxforms.html 2/6

12/20/2017 Stress Transformations

4.143 0.638

= [ ]

0.638 0.143

The stress state has not changed at all. Only the values of the individual components are

different because the orientations of the coordinate systems are different.

Tensor Notation

mn = mi nj ij

As usual, tensor notation provides extra insight into the process. This time, the insight comes from the

subscripts on the lambdas. Each lambda effectively pairs up a subscript on with one on . This is true

regardless of the rank of the tensor.

Once again, the rules don't change, only the particulars do.

T

= Q Q mn = mi nj ij ij = cos(x , xj )

i

Q11 Q12 Q13 xx xy xz

xx xy xz

Q11 Q21 Q31

xy yy yz = Q21 Q22 Q23 xy yy yz Q12 Q22 Q32

xz yz zz

Q31 Q32 Q33 xz yz zz Q13 Q23 Q33

http://www.continuummechanics.org/stressxforms.html 3/6

12/20/2017 Stress Transformations

Rotations

Rotations are the process in which the object rotates while the coordinate system remains fixed. The

rotation matrix, R , is usually computed from a polar decomposition. The rotated stress tensor is calculated

as

T

= R R

R 11 R 12 R 13 xx xy xz

xx xy xz

R 11 R 21 R 31

xy yy yz = R 21 R 22 R 23 xy yy yz R 12 R 22 R 32

xz yz zz R 31 R 32 R 33 xz yz zz R 13 R 23 R 33

In 2-D, the rotation matrix is the transpose of the coordinate transformation matrix.

R = [ ] Q = [ ]

sin cos sin cos

2 2

xx

= xx cos + yy sin 2 xy sin cos

2 2

yy = xx sin + yy cos + 2 xy sin cos

2 2

xy

= (xx yy ) sin cos + xy (cos sin )

http://www.continuummechanics.org/stressxforms.html 4/6

12/20/2017 Stress Transformations

xy

(xx yy ) s cos + xy (cos sin )

Take the coordinate transformation example from above and this time apply a rigid body rotation

of 50 instead of a coordinate transformation.

1 2

If the stress tensor in a reference coordinate system is [ , then after rotating 50, it would

]

2 3

be

xx xy cos 50 sin 50 1 2 cos 50 sin 50

[ ] = [ ][ ][ ]

xy yy sin 50 cos 50 2 3 sin 50 cos 50

0.204 1.332

= [ ]

1.332 3.796

The stress state has not changed at all. Only the values of the individual components are

different because the object has rotated relative to the global coordinate system.

Start with the above rotation equation.

T

= R R

T T T

R R = R R R R

1

= R

T

R R =

The process of transforming a coordinate system back to its original orientation is exactly the same. The

equation to do this is

T

= Q Q

http://www.continuummechanics.org/stressxforms.html 5/6

12/20/2017 Stress Transformations

1 Login

Sort by Oldest

Recommend 3 Share

LOG IN WITH

OR SIGN UP WITH DISQUS ?

Name

Thank you for visiting this For $4.99, you receive two For $12.95, you receive two

webpage. Feel free to email formatted PDFs (the first for formatted PDFs (the first for

me if you have questions. 8.5" x 11" pages, the second 8.5" x 11" pages, the second

for tablets) of the complete for tablets) of the entire

Also, please consider visiting stress chapter. website.

an advertiser above. Doing so

Click here to see a sample Click here to see a sample

helps to cover website

page in each of the two page in each of the two

hosting fees.

formats. formats.

Bob McGinty

Email address to receive PDFs Email address to receive PDFs

bmcginty@gmail.com

Table of Contents

Energetic Conjugates Principal Stresses

http://www.continuummechanics.org/stressxforms.html 6/6

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

Principal Stresses & Search

Invariants

home > stress > principal stress

Introduction

This page covers principal stresses and stress invariants. Everything here applies regardless of the type of

stress tensor.

Coordinate transformations of 2nd rank tensors were discussed on this coordinate transform page. The

transform applies to any stress tensor, or strain tensor for that matter. It is written as

T

= Q Q

Everything below follows from two facts: First, the tensors are symmetric. Second, the above coordinate

transformation is used.

In 2-D, the transformation equations are

2 2

xx = xx cos + yy sin + 2 xy sin cos

2 2

yy = xx sin + yy cos 2 xy sin cos

2 2

xy = (yy xx ) sin cos + xy (cos sin )

The full shear stress values are used, unlike strain transformations, which use half values for shear strain,

i.e., (/2).

This page performs full 3-D tensor transforms, but can still be used for 2-D problems.. Enter values in the

upper left 2x2 positions and rotate in the 1-2 plane to perform transforms in 2-D. The screenshot below

shows a case of pure shear rotated 45 to obtain the principal stresses. Note also how the Q matrix

transforms.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 1/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

The figure below shows the stresses corresponding to the pure shear case in the tensor transform

webpage example. The blue square aligned with the axes clearly undergoes shear. But the red square

inscribed in the larger blue square only sees simple tension and compression. These are the principal

values of the pure shear case in the global coordinate system.

tyx

s2 s1

txy txy

y

s1 s2

x tyx

In 2-D, the principal stress orientation, P , can be computed by setting xy = 0 in the above shear

equation and solving for to get P , the principal stress angle.

2 2

0 = (yy xx ) sin P cos P + xy (cos P sin P )

Thi i

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 2/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

This gives

2xy

tan(2P ) =

xx yy

cos P sin P

Q = [ ]

sin P cos P

Inserting this value for P back into the equations for the normal stresses gives the principal values. They

are written as max and min , or alternatively as 1 and 2 .

2

xx + yy xx yy

2

max , min = ( ) + xy

2 2

T

with Q based on P .

Principal stresses can be written as 1 , 2 , and 3 . Only one subscript is usually used in this

case to differentiate the principal stress values from the normal stress components: 11 , 22 ,

and 33 .

Start with the stress tensor

50 30

= [ ]

30 20

2 30

tan(2P ) =

50 (-20)

syy = -20

txy = 30

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 3/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

xy

P = 20.3

y

The principal stresses are

x sxx = 50

2

50 20 50 + 20

2

max , min = ( ) + (30)

2 2

The only limitation to using these equations for principal values is that it is not known which one

applies to 20.3 and which applies to 110.3. That's why an attractive alternative is

11 12

cos(20.3 ) sin(20.3 ) 50 30 cos(20.3 ) sin(20.3 )

[ ] = [ ][ ][ ]

12 22 sin(20.3 ) cos(20.3 ) 30 20 sin(20.3 ) cos(20.3 )

61.1 0.0

= [ ]

0.0 31.1

This confirms that the 61.1 principal stress value in the 11 slot is indeed 20.3 from the X-axis.

The 22 value is 90 from the first.

Coordinate transforms in 3-D are

q 11 q 12 q 13 11 12 13 q 11 q 21 q 31

11 12 13

=

12 q 21 q 22 q 23 12 22 23 q 12 q 22 q 32

22 23

q 31 q 32 q 33 13 23 33 q 13 q 23 q 33

13 23 33

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 4/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

The second Q matrix is once again the transpose of the first.

And this page calculates principal values (eigenvalues) and principal directions (eigenvectors).

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 5/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

It's important to remember that the inputs to both pages must be symmetric. In fact, both pages enforce

this.

24 0 0

= 0 125 0

0 0 433

The maximum shear stress at any point is easy to calculate from the principal stresses. It is

simply

max min

max =

2

This applies in both 2-D and 3-D. The maximum shear always occurs in a coordinate system

orientation that is rotated 45 from the principal coordinate system. For the principal stress

tensor above

24 0 0

= 0 125 0

0 0 433

The max and min principal stresses are in the 33 and 11 slots, respectively. So the max shear

orientation is obtained by rotating the principal coordinate system by 45 in the (1 3) plane.

max min

max =

2

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 6/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

= (433 24)/2

= 204

The manual way of computing principal stresses is to solve a cubic equation for the three principal values.

The equation results from setting the following determinant equal to zero. The values, once computed,

will equal the principal values of the stress tensor.

12 13

11

12 22 23 = 0

13 23 33

2

(11 )[(22 )(33 ) ]

23

12 [12 (33 ) 23 13 ] +

Invariants

...and expanded out even further to give

3 2 2 2 2

(11 + 22 + 33 ) + (11 22 + 22 33 + 33 11 )

12 13 23

2 2 2

(11 22 33 11 22 33 + 212 13 23 ) = 0

23 13 12

No matter what coordinate transformation you apply to the stress tensor, its principal stress had

better be the same three values. And the only way for this to happen in the above equation is for

the equation itself to always be the same, no matter the transformation. This means that the

combinations of stress components, which serve as coefficients of the 's, must be invariant

under coordinate transformations. Their values must not change. And that's why they are called

invariants.

3 2

I1 + I2 I3 = 0

where

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 7/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

where

I1 = 11 + 22 + 33

2 2 2

I2 = 11 22 + 22 33 + 33 11

12 13 23

2 2 2

I3 = 11 22 33 11 22 33 + 212 13 23

23 13 12

Although probably not initially apparent, the invariants are actually familiar quantities.

I1 = tr()

12 13 23

11 11 22

I2 = + +

12 22 13 33 23 33

I3 = det()

I1 = kk

1 2

I2 = [(kk ) ij ij ]

2

I3 = ijk i1 j2 k3

I3 is in tensor notation, but no one should actually calculate a determinant based on tensor notation rules

because it is very inefficient.

The physical interpretation of the invariants depends on what tensor the invariants are computed

from. For any stress or strain tensor, I1 is directly related to the hydrostatic component of that

tensor. This is universal.

I2 tends to be related more to the deviatoric aspects of stress and strain. For stress tensors, it is

closely related to the von Mises stress.

Finally, I3 does not seem to have any physical significance as the determinant of a stress or

strain tensor. But it does when applied to the deformation gradient. In that case, I3 = VF /Vo ,

the ratio of deformed to initial volume, which is 1 for incompressible materials like rubber.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 8/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

Invariant Example

This example will start with a random stress tensor and demonstrate that the invariants are

indeed invariant under coordinate transformations. Start with the stress tensor

50 30 20

= 30 20 10

20 10 10

I1 = 50 + (20) + 10

= 40

2 2 2

I2 = (50)(20) + (20)(10) + (10)(50) (30) (20) (10)

= 2, 100

I3 = det()

= 28, 000

Now rotate the coordinate system by some random amount shown in the screenshot.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 9/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

= 10.6 34.6 03.5

27.3 3.5 43.7

= 40

2 2 2

I2 = (30.8)(34.6) + (34.6)(43.7) + (43.7)(30.8) (10.6) (27.3) (3.5)

= 2, 100

I3 = det()

= 28, 000

Just for grins... Let's compute the principal stresses and then recompute the invariants to

demonstrate again that they are invariant.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 10/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

65.5 0 0

= 0 37.1 0

0 0 11.5

Curiously, the two different starting points lead to the principal values being listed in different

orders. This is typical and has no special meaning. The final, physical answer is the same. The

Q will accommodate the different listing orders.

Finally, calculating the invariants one last time using the principal values gives

= 40

= 2, 100

I3 = det( ) = (65.5)(37.1)(11.5)

= 28, 000

And so it works again. Note how the invariant calculations are rather simple when all the off-

diagonal terms are zero. The determinant is especially easy.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 11/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

g p y y

2-D Invariants

In the 2-D world, there are only two invariants.

I1 = tr() = 11 + 22

2

I2 = det() = 11 22

12

In 2-D, things are just simple enough to directly prove the invariance of invariants. We'll prove it

for I1 here. Recall the transformation equations are

2 2

xx = xx cos + yy sin + 2xy sin cos

2 2

yy = xx sin + yy cos 2xy sin cos

2 2

xy = (yy xx ) sin cos + xy (cos sin )

So xx +

yy is

2 2

xx + yy = xx cos + yy sin + 2xy sin cos +

2 2

xx sin + yy cos 2xy sin cos

and the shear terms cancel, while the normal stress terms combine to give

2 2 2 2

xx

+ yy

= xx (cos + sin ) + yy (sin + cos )

= xx + yy

So it works again.

Here's how to compute the roots of a cubic equation... applied to principal values. Start with

3 2

I + I I 0

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 12/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

3 2

I1 + I2 I3 = 0

Recall that the resulting s will be the principal values of the stress or strain tensor... and the

invariants will need to be calculated up front.

2 3

3I2 I 2I 9I1 I2 + 27I3

1 1

Q = R =

9 54

R

1

= cos ( )

3

Q

1

1 = 2 Q cos( ) + I1

3 3

+ 2 1

2 = 2 Q cos( ) + I1

3 3

+ 4 1

3 = 2 Q cos( ) + I1

3 3

Note that minus signs are easily confused here because they are present in the original cubic

invariant equation being solved.

Ref: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CubicFormula.html

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 13/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

Summary

This principle of invariant quantities under

coordinate transformations is in fact universal across all matrices that are symmetric and being

transformed according to

T

A = Q A Q

And recall that the product of any matrix with its transpose is always a symmetric result, so this result

would qualify. This is especially relevant to FT F , whose invariants are used in the Mooney-Rivlin Law of

rubber behavior. Mooney-Rivlin's Law and coefficients will be discussed on this page. As an added teaser,

we will see that the 3rd invariant of F F for rubber always equals 1 because rubber is incompressible.

T

So not only is it a constant, independent of coordinate transformations, but it is even a constant value,

always equal to 1, independent of coordinate transformations and the state of deformation.

1 Login

Sort by Oldest

Recommend Share

LOG IN WITH

OR SIGN UP WITH DISQUS ?

Name

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 14/15

12/20/2017 Principal Stresses

webpage. Feel free to email formatted PDFs (the first for formatted PDFs (the first for

me if you have questions. 8.5" x 11" pages, the second 8.5" x 11" pages, the second

for tablets) of the complete for tablets) of the entire

Also, please consider visiting stress chapter. website.

an advertiser above. Doing so

Click here to see a sample Click here to see a sample

helps to cover website

page in each of the two page in each of the two

hosting fees.

formats. formats.

Bob McGinty

Email address to receive PDFs Email address to receive PDFs

bmcginty@gmail.com

Table of Contents

Stress Transforms Hydro & Deviatoric Stresses

http://www.continuummechanics.org/principalstress.html 15/15

12/20/2017 Hydrostatic & Deviatoric Stresses

Hydrostatic & Deviatoric Search

Stresses

home > stress > hydrostatic stress

Introduction

This page introduces hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses. The two are subsets of any given stress tensor,

which, when added together, give the original stress tensor back. The hydrostatic stress is related to

volume change, while the deviatoric stress is related to shape change.

Hydrostatic Stress

y

Hydrostatic stress is simply the average of the three normal

stress components of any stress tensor. s Hyd

11 + 22 + 33

Hyd =

3

s Hyd s Hyd

There are many alternative ways to write this.

1 1 1 s Hyd

Hyd = tr() = I1 = kk

3 3 3

x

It is a scalar quantity, although it is regularly used in tensor

form as

Hyd 0 0

Hyd = 0 Hyd 0

0 0 Hyd

http://www.continuummechanics.org/hydrodeviatoricstress.html 1/6

12/20/2017 Hydrostatic & Deviatoric Stresses

50 30 20

= 30 20 10

20 10 10

50 + (20) + 10

Hyd = = 13.3

3

13.3 0 0

Hyd = 0 13.3 0

0 0 13.3

This could not be simpler. Hydrostatic stresses do not change under coordinate transformations. This is

easily accepted in light of the fact that Hyd is a function of I1 . Also

Hyd 0 0

Hyd = 0 Hyd 0

0 0 Hyd

contains equal amounts of stress in all three directions. And since the tensor does not change under any

transformation, this means that no shear stresses ever arise, so every direction is a principal direction with

Hyd stress.

Pressure is simply the negative of hydrostatic stress. The negative aspect is often confusing. It is why we

talk about atmospheric pressure as 30 inches of Hg, a positive number, even though atmospheric pressure

(11 + 22 + 33 )

http://www.continuummechanics.org/hydrodeviatoricstress.html 2/6

12/20/2017 Hydrostatic & Deviatoric Stresses

(11 + 22 + 33 )

P = Hyd =

3

P 0 0

Hyd = 0 P 0

0 0 P

Of course, it is rare to talk about pressure unless the hydrostatic stress is compressive, which corresponds

to a positive pressure.

Also, unless one is working with boundary layer flows over aircraft, automobiles, etc, then the stress state

in the air is one of hydrostatic stress alone, without any shear stresses. And the hydrostatic stress is

compressive, which is a positive pressure.

This is almost a nontopic because hydrostatic stresses usually have no impact on incompressible materials

at all, so there is very little to discuss. This also means that one cannot determine the hydrostatic stress

based on strain or a deformation gradient. And this is why finite element programs often fudge by making

the incompressible material ever-so-slightly compressible.

Deviatoric Stress

Deviatoric stress is what's left after subtracting out the hydrostatic stress. The deviatoric stress will be

represented by . For example

= Hyd

1

ij = ij ij kk

3

ij = ij + P ij

Given the following stress tensor

http://www.continuummechanics.org/hydrodeviatoricstress.html 3/6

12/20/2017 Hydrostatic & Deviatoric Stresses

50 30 20

= 30 20 10

20 10 10

50 + (20) + 10

Hyd = = 13.3

3

13.3 0 0

Hyd = 0 13.3 0

0 0 13.3

Subtracting the hydrostatic stress tensor from the total stress gives

= 30 20 10 0 13.3 0 = 30.0 33.3 10.0

20 10 10 0 0 13.3 20.0 10.0 3.3

Note that the result is traceless. Its first invariant equals zero. Or put another way, the

hydrostatic stress of a deviatoric stress tensor is zero.

An interesting aspect of a traceless tensor is that it can be formed entirely from shear components. For

example, a coordinate system transformation can be found to express the deviatoric stress tensor in the

above example as shear stress exclusively. In the screenshot here, the above deviatoric stress tensor was

input into the webpage, and then the coordinate system was rotated until the following stress tensor was

obtained.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/hydrodeviatoricstress.html 4/6

12/20/2017 Hydrostatic & Deviatoric Stresses

1 Login

Sort by Oldest

Recommend 4 Share

LOG IN WITH

OR SIGN UP WITH DISQUS ?

Name

How to find the coordinate transformation which will transform a traceless deviatoric stress tensor to one

having shear components only?

Reply Share

I think the only way to do that is iteratetively. You can try to iterate with this webpage:

http://www.continuummechani...

On the other hand, going backwards (from shears to traceless principals) can be done by first entering

the tensor containing only shear strains into this form:

http://www.continuummechani...

to compute principal values and the eigenvectors, which combine to form the coordinate xform matrix.

Reply Share

Thank you for visiting this For $4.99, you receive two For $12.95, you receive two

webpage. Feel free to email formatted PDFs (the first for formatted PDFs (the first for

http://www.continuummechanics.org/hydrodeviatoricstress.html 5/6

12/20/2017 Hydrostatic & Deviatoric Stresses

ebpage ee ee to e a ( (

me if you have questions. 8.5" x 11" pages, the second 8.5" x 11" pages, the second

for tablets) of the complete for tablets) of the entire

Also, please consider visiting stress chapter. website.

an advertiser above. Doing so

Click here to see a sample Click here to see a sample

helps to cover website

page in each of the two page in each of the two

hosting fees.

formats. formats.

Bob McGinty

Email address to receive PDFs Email address to receive PDFs

bmcginty@gmail.com

Table of Contents

Principal Stresses Von Mises Stress

http://www.continuummechanics.org/hydrodeviatoricstress.html 6/6

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

Von Mises Stress Search

Introduction

Von Mises

Yield Surface

The von Mises stress is often used in determining

whether an isotropic and ductile metal will yield Hydrostatic

Axis

when subjected to a complex loading condition.

This is accomplished by calculating the von Mises

stress and comparing it to the material's yield Von Mises

Yield Curve

stress, which constitutes the von Mises Yield

Criterion.

ductile metals that works for any complex 3-D

loading condition, regardless of the mix of plane

(Deviatoric Plane)

normal and shear stresses. The von Mises stress

does this by boiling the complex stress state down

into a single scalar number that is compared to a

metal's yield strength, also a single scalar

numerical value determined from a uniaxial tension ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Yield_surfaces.svg

test (because that's the easiest) on the material in

a lab.

It should be noted that this is not an exact science like, say F = m a. It is an empirical process, with

inherent error and deviations. In fact, there is no hard & fast rule saying that metals must yield according to

von Mises yield criteria. It is as much a coincidence as anything. Nevertheless, it does work very well and

remains the method of choice a full century after it was first proposed.

History

The defining equation for the von Mises stress was first proposed by Huber [1] in 1904, but apparently

received little attention until von Mises [2] proposed it again in 1913. However, Huber and von Mises'

definition was little more than a math equation without physical interpretation until 1924 when Hencky [3]

recognized that it is actually related to deviatoric strain energy.

In 1931, Taylor and Quinney [4] published results of tests on copper, aluminum, and mild steel

demonstrating that the von Mises stress is a more accurate predictor of the onset of metal yielding than the

maximum shear stress criterion, which had been proposed by Tresca [5] in 1864 and was the best

predictor of metal yielding to date. Today, the von Mises stress is sometimes referred to as the Huber-

Mises stress in recognition of Huber's contribution to its development. It is also called Mises effective

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 1/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

Technical Background

A complete understanding of the von Mises stress requires an understanding of hydrostatic and deviatoric

components of stress and strain tensors, Hooke's Law, and strain energy density. The hydrostatic and

deviatoric stresses and strains have already been reviewed. And Hooke's Law has already been touched

on here and here, but will need to be discussed in additional detail on this page as well.

Strain energy density will also be introduced here.

Recall that any stress tensor can be decomposed into the sum of hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses as

follows

1

ij = ij kk + ij

3

where 1

3

ij kk is the hydrostatic term and is the deviatoric stress.

1

ij = ij kk + ij

3

1

ij kk

3

Hooke's Law

We've seen that Hooke's Law can be written as

1

ij = [(1 + )ij ij kk ]

E

xx xy xz xx xy xz hyd 0 0

1

xy yy yz = (1 + ) xy yy yz 3 0 hyd 0

E

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 0 0 2/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

xz yz zz xz yz zz 0 0 hyd

1

xx = [xx (yy + zz )]

E

1

yy = [yy (xx + zz )]

E

1

zz = [zz (xx + yy )]

E

1 + 1 + 1 +

xy = xy yz = yz xz = xz

E E E

for the shear terms. The shear terms are more commonly written as

xy yz xz

xy = yz = xz =

G G G

where

E

xy = 2xy yz = 2yz xz = 2xz and G =

2(1 + )

1

ij = [(1 + )ij ij kk ]

E

1

ij ij = [(1 + )ij ij kk ] ij

E

This simplifies to

(1 2 )

kk = kk

E

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 3/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

1

ij

3

1 (1 2 )

ij kk = ij kk

3 3E

This results in an equation relating the hydrostatic stress and strain values.

Now subtract the above equation from the original Hooke's Law equation to get

1 (1 + ) (1 2 )

ij ij kk = ij ij kk ij kk

3 E E 3E

(1 + ) 1 1 2

= ij ( + ) ij kk

E E 3

(1 + ) 1 (1 + )

= ij ij kk

E 3 E

(1 + ) 1

= (ij ij kk )

E 3

The remarkable result is that both sides of the equation contain a deviatoric tensor result. The equation

can be summarized as

(1 + )

ij = ij

E

(1+)

But is , so the equation can be further simplified to

1

E 2G

1

ij = ij

2G

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 4/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

So the deviatoric stress and strain are directly proportional to each other. The amazing thing here is that

this is always true for Hooke's Law, always, even for the normal strain components.

ij = 2 G ij

Suppose you have a material with Poisson's ratio, = 0.5 , and elastic modulus, E = 15 M P a

.

For the stress tensor below, use Hooke's Law to calculate the strain state. Then get the

deviatoric stress and strain tensors and show that they are proportional to each other by the

factor 2G.

8 2 4

= 2 6 6

4 6 4

Note that this stress tensor clearly has a significant amount of hydrostatic stress. It is

6 0 0

Hyd = 0 6 0

0 0 6

Hooke's Law is

xx xy xz 8 2 4 6 0 0

1

xy yy yz = (1 + 0.5) 2 6 6 3 (0.5) 0 6 0

15

xz yz zz 4 6 4 0 0 6

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 5/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

12 3 6 9 0 0

1

= 3 9 9 0 9 0

15

6 9 6 0 0 9

= 0.2 0.0 0.6

0.4 0.6 -0.2

Note that this strain tensor is already deviatoric. This is because we used = 0.5 for the

Poisson's Ratio, which is the value used for incompressible materials. So we obtained an

incompressible, non-hydrostatic strain tensor as a result.

E 15MPa

G = =

2(1 + ) 2(1 + 0.5)

= 5MPa

So 2 G equals

2 2 4

2G = 2 0 6

4 6 -2

8 2 4 6 0 0 2 2 4

Hyd = 2 6 6 0 6 0 = 2 0 6

4 6 4 0 0 6 4 6 -2

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html2 G 6/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

So it does indeed satisfy = 2 G . Although this was an example with an incompressible

Strain energy density, W, has units of Energy / Volume and is

W = : d

1

W = :

2

1 1

: = [xx xx + yy yy + zz zz + 2(xy xy + yz yz + xz xz )]

2 2

and = Hyd +

, these identities can be substituted into the equation to

obtain

1 1

W = : = (Hyd + ) : (Hyd + )

2 2

1 1 1 1 1

W = : = Hyd : Hyd + Hyd : + : Hyd + :

2 2 2 2 2

But (Hyd : ) and ( : Hyd ) are zero! This is because the double-dot product of any hydrostatic tensor

with a deviatoric tensor is always zero. So the equation reduces to

1 1 1

W = : = Hyd : Hyd + :

2 2 2

hydrostatic deviatoric

This shows that strain energy can be partitioned into hydrostatic and deviatoric components.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 7/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

The von Mises stress is directly related to the deviatoric strain energy term in the above equation.

1

W = :

2

1

=

2G

1

W = :

4G

So the deviatoric part of the strain energy density is directly related to the double dot product of the

deviatoric stress with itself. Note the similarity to Kinetic Energy, K E = 2 M v2 , a spring's internal energy,

1

, electrical power, P , and any other form one can think of.

1 2 2

E = Kx = RI

2

It is finally time to introduce an equivalent or effective stress that will turn out to be proportional to the von

Mises stress, though about 20% low. Use the symbol Rep for representative stress to represent this

stress value. And it is a scalar stress value, not a tensor! The defining equation for Rep is

1

2

W = (Rep )

4G

The form of the equation is deliberately chosen to be the scalar equivalent of the one above. Setting them

equal to each other (since both are equal to W') gives

1 1

2

W = (Rep ) = :

4G 4G

Clearly Rep is intended to be the scalar stress value that gives the same deviatoric strain energy as the

actual 3-D stress tensor. Cancelling 4 G from both sides gives

Rep = :

The final step is one of simple convenience. It is motivated by the simplest straight-forward case of uniaxial

tension. To see it, calculate Rep for this case. The stress state for uniaxial tension is

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 8/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

0 0

= 0 0 0

0 0 0

1

3

2

0 0

3

= 0 0

3

0 0

3

So

: equals 2 2 /3. And therefore

2

Rep = : =

3

And therein lies the frustration. The representative stress for uniaxial tension is not equal to the uniaxial

tension stress, , but is instead about 82% of it. This is terribly inconvenient, but the fix is simple. Simply

scale the representative stress up until it equals the uniaxial tension stress. This is done by simply

multiplying Ref by 3/2 .

This is acceptable because anything proportional to : will still reflect the relationship to deviatoric

strain energy. It will just be scaled up some. The final result is the von Mises stress.

3

VM = :

2

Alternate Forms

Algebraic manipulation of the above equation gives many other equivalent forms. They are summarized

here.

1 2 2 2 2 2 2

VM = [(xx yy ) + (yy zz ) + (zz xx ) ] + 3 (xy + yz + zx )

2

2 2 2 2 2 2

VM = xx + yy + zz xx yy yy zz zz xx + 3 (xy + yz + zx )

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 9/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

3 1 3

2

VM = ij ij (kk ) VM = ij ij

2 2 2

2 2 2

VM = xx + yy xx yy + 3 xy

One can (relatively) easily obtain other equations for von Mises stress thru tensor manipulations

of the equation based on deviatoric values. Starting with

3

VM = ij ij

2

1

ij = ij ij kk

3

3 1 1

VM = (ij ij kk ) (ij ij kk )

2 3 3

3 2 1

2

VM = (ij ij ij ij kk + ij ij (kk ) )

2 3 9

3 1

2

VM = ij ij (kk )

2 2

The other forms listed above can be obtained by expressing this explicitly in terms of xx xy

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 10/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

The other forms listed above can be obtained by expressing this explicitly in terms of xx , xy ,

xz , etc.

We've already seen during the derivation above that for uniaxial tension, the von Mises stress equals the

uniaxial tension stress. But this is also (almost) true for compression as well. The only issue is that for

compression, the numerical value of the compressive stress will be negative, but the von Mises stress is

always positive because it is a square-root of a sum of stress values squared. So when one is reading a

von Mises stress of say, 10 MPa, it is impossible to know from this alone if the object is undergoing tension

or compression. One can look at the principal stress values to determine this.

Actually, some FEA post-processors will make color stress contours of a quantity call signed von Mises

stress. This has the same absolute value as the conventional von Mises stress, but the +/- sign is

determined by checking the sign of the hydrostatic stress. If it is negative, then the signed von Mises stress

is also negative.

The case of pure shear stress is most interesting. One can see from the equations above that for a pure

shear stress, xy , the von Mises stress is

VM = 3

So if a metal yields in uniaxial tension (or compression) at = 500MPa, then it will also yield in shear

at a stress that is only 58% of this, or = 290MPa.

Graphical Representations

Here again is the sketch at the top of the page. It shows a bounding surface in a 3-D principal stress

coordinate system where the von Mises stress is a constant value. (This is the so called High-Westerguard

Space.) It is based on the fact that any stress state can be converted into its principal values and

compared to this sketch. If the resulting principal stress point in the coordinate system is within the

cylinder, then the material has not yielded. If it is on the surface, then the material has yielded. And if it is

outside the cylinder, it means that you did an elastic analysis of a situation that cannot in fact be correct

because yielding would have long since taken place.

Von Mises

Yield Surface

Hydrostatic

Axis

Von Mises

Yield Curve

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 11/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

plane

(Deviatoric Plane)

ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Yield_surfaces.svg

The remarkable result is that if you look down the 1 = 2 = 3 axis, the cross-section of the cylinder is a

perfect circle. Note that the hydrostatic stress in this situation does not show up at all.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 12/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

Experimental Data

The figure here presents experimental data confirming that ductile metals yield much more consistently at

prescribed von Mises stress levels regardless of the the loading state than at any other criteria.

The graph represents a slice through the 1 2 plane with 3 = 0. Since the cylinder is cut at an angle,

it appears to be an ellipse in this situation. It is in fact still a circle. We are just looking at it at an angle.

Recall that the shear stress criterion was first proposed by Tresca in 1864, and this act is considered to

represent the birth of the field of metal plasticity research.

The one exception here is the cast iron metal. It yields, fractures in fact, at a constant maximum principal

stress criterion. This signifies that the iron is brittle and behaves more like glass than a ductile metal.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 13/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

Note that the correlation here is not perfect. This is a consequence of the fact that the so-called von Mises

Yield Criterion is NOT a law of nature. It is more of a convenient coincidence. It is a consequence of

dislocation movement on millions and billions of planes of atoms sliding over each other at the atomic

scale. Those planes of atoms are all randomly oriented, and the resulting response at the macroscale is....

the von Mises yield criterion.

We've seen how the von Mises stress is "the stress" when worrying about metal yielding and

plasticity. Recall that it is

3

VM = :

2

The next question is, "Is there a strain analog to the von Mises stress?" The answer is yes. It is

the effective strain, or sometimes the Mises effective strain. It is

2

eff = :

3

Note that it is 2/3, not 3/2. This arises because the strain tensor for uniaxial tension of an

incompressible material (which includes the plastic part of the total deformation of a metal) is

0 0

True =

0 0

2

0 0

2

and : in this case gives 3 2 /2. So it is necessary to multiply by 2/3 in order to make eff

equal to the uniaxial tension strain.

This makes it possible to more fairly compare the stress and strain states of two different

deformation modes, say tension versus shear. In fact, in a perfectly isotropic metal, plots of

effective stress versus effective strain will be indistinguishable in the plastic region regardless of

the deformation mode. Although in reality, metals usually become increasingly anisotropic after

yielding.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 14/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

References

1. Huber, M.T. (1904) Czasopismo Techniczne, Lemberg, Austria, Vol. 22, pp. 181.

2. Von Mises, R. (1913) "Mechanik der Festen Korper im Plastisch Deformablen Zustand," Nachr. Ges.

Wiss. Gottingen, pp. 582.

3. Hencky, H.Z. (1924) "Zur Theorie Plasticher Deformationen und der Hierdurch im Material

Hervorgerufenen Nachspannungen," Z. Angerw. Math. Mech., Vol. 4, pp. 323.

4. Taylor, G.I., Quinney, H. (1931) "The Plastic Distortion of Metals," Phil. Trans. R. Soc., London, Vol.

A230, pp. 323.

5. Tresca, H. (1864) "Sur l'Ecoulement des Corps Solides Soumis a de Fortes Pressions," C. R. Acad.

Sci., Paris, Vol. 59, pp. 754.

6. Dowling, N.E. (1993) Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Prentice Hall.

1 Login

Sort by Oldest

Recommend 2 Share

LOG IN WITH

OR SIGN UP WITH DISQUS ?

Name

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 15/16

12/20/2017 Von Mises Stress

webpage. Feel free to email formatted PDFs (the first for formatted PDFs (the first for

me if you have questions. 8.5" x 11" pages, the second 8.5" x 11" pages, the second

for tablets) of the complete for tablets) of the entire

Also, please consider visiting stress chapter. website.

an advertiser above. Doing so

Click here to see a sample Click here to see a sample

helps to cover website

page in each of the two page in each of the two

hosting fees.

formats. formats.

Bob McGinty

Email address to receive PDFs Email address to receive PDFs

bmcginty@gmail.com

Table of Contents

Hydro & Deviatoric Stresses Corotational Derivatives

http://www.continuummechanics.org/vonmisesstress.html 16/16

12/20/2017 Corotational Derivatives

Corotational Derivatives Search

Introduction

We talked at the bottom of the energetic conjugates page about how certain pairs of F

stress and strain tensors can be used together in Hooke's Law, but that and D

should not be used together in the rate form.

This is because the Cauchy stress and rate of deformation tensor behave

incompatibly in the presence of rigid body rotations like that shown at the right. It is

probably easiest to understand the situation where the object has been stretched to y

a fixed amount that is then held constant while it continues to rotate.

changing with time, and therefore 0. However, the rate of deformation tensor is

zero because no deformations are taking place, only rotations. So there is a clear

mismatch occurring between the two tensors, which would otherwise be ideally x

suited to each other.

Start with the most general form of linearized material behavior. This is

PK2

= C : E

The stiffness tensor, C , is 3x3x3x3 and can represent any material behavior, isotropic or orthotropic, as long as it is linear. The 2nd Piola-

Kirchhoff stress and Green strain tensors are paired together because of their compatibility, i.e., both are defined in the reference

configuration. (It is also convenient that the two are energetic conjugates, although this is not critical if the strains are small.)

The next step is to substitute the transformation from Cauchy stress to 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress. This gives

1 T

JF F = C : E

1

T

= F (C : E) F

J

1

J T T

= ( ) F (C : E) F + F (C : E) F +

2

J J

1 1 T

T

F (C : E ) F +

F (C : E) F

J J

http://www.continuummechanics.org/corotationalderivative.html 1/5

12/20/2017 Corotational Derivatives

J T

T T T

tr(D) = F = L F F = F L E = F D F

J

to get

1 1

T T

= tr(D) F (C : E) F + L F (C : E) F +

J J

1 1

T T T T

F (C : (F D F)) F + F (C : E) F L

J J

This big equation can be shortened by recognizing that many of the terms contain J

1

F (C : E) F

T

, which is just the Cauchy stress, .

1

T T T

= tr(D) + L + L + F (C : (F D F)) F

J

1

T T T

L L = tr(D) + (F F C F F ) : D

J

The term involving tr(D) is usually neglected because the trace is negligibly small in most cases. In fact, it is identically zero for

incompressible materials.

The term involving C represents a rigid body rotation of the stiffness tensor. The constituants include 1

(F F C F

T

F

T

) and are

J

replaced by C .

o

The left hand side (LHS) is called the Lie Derivative and represented by multiply symbols. Two of these are and . Of these, is

o

preferred because is usually used for something else. That something else is the so-called Jaumann derivative, which is very closely

related and will be discussed shortly.

= C : D

If the object is rotating, but not deforming, then D = 0 , and this leaves

T

= L L = 0 when D = 0

Now we see what it takes to compensate for the fact that 0. It is the two terms involving the velocity gradient, L . Furthermore, since

D = 0, then L reduces to W because L = D + W . This leaves

T

= W W = 0 when D = 0

o

But WT = W because W is antisymmetric. And the resulting formula has another specific name. It is the Jaumann derivative, .

o

= W + W = 0 when D = 0

Although the Lie derivative appears to be most general, the Jaumann derivative seems to be the most popular. For example, it is common

to see

http://www.continuummechanics.org/corotationalderivative.html 2/5

12/20/2017 Corotational Derivatives

o

= C : D

The apostrophe is often dropped, although it is understood from the context that C must in fact be C .

o

It's important not to confuse with , or even . The symbol is still the Cauchy stress, and is still its time derivative. The

terms with the spin tensor simply compensate for the rate of change of the Cauchy stress when rigid body rotations are present.

This topic has many different names. for example, the Jaumann derivative is also called the Jaumann stress rate, or simply the

Jaumann rate. And both the Jaumann derivative and Lie derivative fall under the category of corotational derivatives, or

corotational stress rates, or simply corotational rates.

And finally, there is the issue of objectivity. The rate of deformation tensor is objective because its computation is still correct in

o o

the presence of rotations. is not considered objective because C : D . But is objective because = C : D . So the

terms objective stress rates, or simply objective rates also turn up.

cos sin

R = [ ]

sin cos

so R

is

sin cos

R = [ ]

cos sin

And R T is

T

cos sin

R = [ ]

sin cos

T

sin cos cos sin

W = R R = [ ][ ]

cos sin sin cos

0 1

= [ ]

1 0

20 0

= [ ]

0 0

http://www.continuummechanics.org/corotationalderivative.html 3/5

12/20/2017 Corotational Derivatives

T

= R R

= [ ][ ][ ]

sin cos 0 0 sin cos

2

20 cos 10 sin(2)

= [ ]

2

10 sin(2) 20 sin

20 sin(2) 20 cos(2)

= [ ]

20 cos(2) 20 sin(2)

Even though the material is not deforming, the stress tensor is clearly changing with time, and 0. So now compute W

and W in order to calculate the Jaumann derivative.

2

0 1 20 cos 10 sin(2)

W = [ ][ ]

2

1 0 10 sin(2) 20 sin

2

10 sin(2) 20 sin

= [ ]

2

20 cos 10 sin(2)

And

2

20 cos 10 sin(2) 0 1

W = [ ][ ]

2

10 sin(2) 20 sin 1 0

2

10 sin(2) 20 cos

= [ ]

2

20 sin 10 sin(2)

2 2

20 sin(2) 20 cos(2) 10 sin(2) 20 sin 10 sin(2) 20 cos

W + W = [ ] [ ] + [ ]

2 2

20 cos(2) 20 sin(2) 20 cos 10 sin(2) 20 sin 10 sin(2)

0 0

= [ ]

0 0

The key purpose of this example was not to show that one should always get a zero result, because one should not always. The purpose of

this example was to show that if no deformation is taking place at a given instant, then the Jaumann derivative is zero, even though 0.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/corotationalderivative.html 4/5

12/20/2017 Corotational Derivatives

1 Login

Sort by Oldest

Recommend 2 Share

LOG IN WITH

OR SIGN UP WITH DISQUS ?

Name

Hi,

Good explanation. There is one thing I don't understand though. You wrote that you can replace L's with W's if D = 0, which results in the

commonly used expression for the Jaumann rate of Cauchy stress. However, this expression is generally used in the analyses even if

sigma^triangle /= 0 and D /= 0. What is the point of the replacing L with W if it requires D = 0, i.e. no stretch is allowed?

Reply Share

John, I think you understand it exactly right because I think it's confusing too. It appears to be an acceptable approximation to do so and

people choose to live with it. It's probably fine in problems that have large rotations, but small deformations. For example, a metal object

that is rotating, but only deforming elastically (not plastic), would probably have very small D values and large W values. So the difference

between W and L would be acceptably small.

1 Reply Share

Thank you for visiting this webpage. For $4.99, you receive two formatted For $12.95, you receive two formatted

Feel free to email me if you have PDFs (the first for 8.5" x 11" pages, the PDFs (the first for 8.5" x 11" pages, the

questions. second for tablets) of the complete second for tablets) of the entire

stress chapter. website.

Also, please consider visiting an

advertiser above. Doing so helps to Click here to see a sample page in Click here to see a sample page in

each of the two formats. each of the two formats.

cover website hosting fees.

Bob McGinty Email address to receive PDFs Email address to receive PDFs

bmcginty@gmail.com

Table of Contents

Von Mises Stress Equilibrium

http://www.continuummechanics.org/corotationalderivative.html 5/5

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

Equilibrium Search

Introduction

This page is all about F = m a, except we will express the forces as stresses acting on differential

sized areas. The first example will be 2-D, to minimize the complexity. Then the equations will be

developed in 3-D, and also presented in cylindrical coordinates.

Following development of the equations, applications will be presented that involve Airy stress functions

and tire mechanics. Finally, the equilibrium equations are used to develop expressions for the speed of

stress waves in steel, aluminum, and rubber.

2-D Equilibrium

The 2-D differential object is shown in the sketch at the right. The idea is to sum all the forces on it and set

them equal to m a. This can be done one component at a time, so start with the x-direction. The forces

consist of

direction

syy + jsyy dy jtxy

acting on face dx in the x

j y txy + dy

xy

direction

j y

txy + jtxy dx

xx +

xx

dx acting on face dy

sxx y

j x

x

in the +x direction

x sxx + jsxx dx

xy

txy j x

xy + dy acting on face dx

y

Plus "body forces". These include

any forces due to gravity,

magnetism, etc, and are summarized simply as fx dxdy where fx is force per unit mass

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 1/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

v x v x

Acceleration is simply ax , although it is perfectly permissible to use the material derivative: t

+ vx

x

.

xx xy

xx dy xy dx + (xx + dx) dy + (xy + dy) dx + fx dxdy = dxdy ax

x y

xx xy

+ + fx = ax

x y

yy xy

+ + fy = ay

y x

It is interesting how the equations tie together changes in all the different stress components, making them

interdependent on each other.

An object is said to be in equilibrium when the right hand sides (RHS) of the equations are zero.

3-D Equilibrium

The process in 3-D is the same in principle, only there are more components involved. Performing the

same exercise of summing forces in the x-direction and setting them equal to the x-direction acceleration

goes as follows. (This time, an x1 , x2 , x3 coordinate system is used.)

11

11 + dx 1 acting on face

x 1

dx 2 dx 3 in the +x direction

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 2/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

21

21 + dx 2 acting on face

x 2

dx 1 dx 3 in the +x direction

31

31 + dx 3 acting on face

x 3

dx 1 dx 2 in the +x direction

where fx is force per unit mass

dx 1 dx 2 dx 3 .

v x v x

Acceleration is simply ax , although it is perfectly permissible to use the material derivative: + vx .

t x

11 21 31

dx 1 dx 2 dx 3 + dx 1 dx 2 dx 3 + dx1 dx2 dx3 + fx = dx1 dx2 dx3 ax

x1 x2 x3

11 21 31

+ + + fx = ax

x1 x2 x3

11 12 13

+ + + fx = ax

x1 x2 x3

11 12 13

+ + + fx = ax

x1 x2 x3

21 22 23

+ + + fy = ay

x1 x2 x3

31 32 33

+ + + fz = az

x1 x2 x3

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 3/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

t s s tte at a d te so otat o as

+ f = a ij,j + fi = ai

v v

+ f = ( + v ) ij,j + fi = (vi,t + vk vi,k )

t x

z

The equilibrium equations in cylindrical coordinates contain several additional terms, such as r

and r

,

that further complicate matters.

1 1 r rz

(rrr ) + + + fr = ar

r r r z r

1 1 z r

(rr ) + + + + f = a

r r r z r

1 1 z zz

(rrz ) + + + fz = az

r r r z

Centripetal Acceleration

It is possible to get a quick, rough estimate of the circumferential stress level in a tire undergoing

axisymmetric centripetal forces during a high speed limit test. The radial acceleration equation is

1 1 r rz

(rrr ) + + + fr = ar

r r r z r

2

V

ar =

r

The other terms are expected to be negligible, except /r. Setting these two equal to each

other gives

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 4/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

2

V

=

r r

This simplifies to

2

= V

So for a tire spinning at 200 kph (= 55.55 m/s), with rubber density equal to 1,150 kg/m3, the

circumferential stress should be around

3 2

= (1150kg/m )(55.55m/s) = 3, 500, 000Pa = 3.5MPa

For the steel in the NSTs, the density is 7,800 kg/m3, and the circumferential stress should be

around

3 2

= (7800kg/m )(55.55m/s) = 24, 000, 000Pa = 24MPa

The fact that the tire is actually a nonhomogeneous composite probably makes the actual values

significantly different from these estimates.

This example relates interply shear strain, xz , which is present between the steel belts and

peaks at the belt edge, to intraply shear stress, xy , in the plane of the belts.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 5/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

xx xy xz

+ + + fx = ax

x y z

Assume that several terms in the equation are negligible, leaving only

xy xz

+ = 0

y z

The interply rubber layer develops shear, called xz . Therefore the shear stress is

xz = Gxz

Now focus on the top belt. The shear stress, xz , in the shear layer is the shear stress on the

bottom surface of the belt. But the shear stress on the top is near zero. So the change in shear

stress through the thickness of the belt is

= = = ( ) xz

z D D D

xy G

( ) xz = 0

y D

So the intraply shear in the belt can be related to the interply shear strain as

G

xy = ( ) xz dy

D

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 6/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

Granted, this equation my not be very useful by itself. But it is essential to the general analytical

solution for the stresses and strains in the belts.

The use of Airy Stress Functions is a powerful technique for solving 2-D equilibrium elasticity problems.

The approach will be presented here for the special case of no body forces.

First, note that in 2-D equilibrium (a = 0 ), and in the absence of body forces (f = 0 ), the equilbrium

equations reduce to

xx xy yy xy

+ = 0 + = 0

x y y x

Next, propose that a scalar function, , exists (the Airy stress function) and is related to the 2-D stress

components by the following cleverly chosen relationships.

2 2 2

xx = yy = xy =

2 2

y x x y

Then, substituting the above relationships into the equilibrium equations gives a remarkable result.

2 2

( ) ( ) = 0

2

x y y x y

2 2

( ) ( ) = 0

2

y x x x y

The remarkable result here is that the equilibrium equations are always satisfied regardless of the choice

of . So any choice of is the solution to a problem (well almost, more on this in a moment). But which

problem? Indeed, when one works with Airy stress functions, one can find oneself with a solution, but not

know what problem it is a solution to!

Take for example, = 12 Ay 2 . This is the solution to something. But what? To find out, take the partial

derivatives to determine the stress fields. This leads to

2

1

2

xx = ( Ay ) = A

2

y 2

Therefore, this is easily recognized as a simple case of uniaxial tension in the x direction. Likewise, letting

= Bxy leads to a state of uniform pure shear in which xy = B.

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 7/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

It is perhaps worth noting that Airy stress functions have been used extensively in the field of Fracture

Mechanics.

Nevertheless, nothing is quite THAT easy. There is one limitation on the choice of that results from the

facts that the solutions are restricted to isotropic materials, the strains are related to stresses through

Hooke's Law, and they must make physical sense, e.g., the strains cannot be so negative that the material

folds back on itself. The limitation is that must satisfy the Biharmonic Equation. It is

4 4 4

+ 2 + = 0

4 2 2 4

x x y y

and is abbreviated 4 = 0. It is not at all intuitive why the restrictions lead to the biharmonic equation,

and there is a great deal of tedious algrebra required to show it, but it is indeed the case. Any function

satisfying 4 = 0 is guaranteed to produce stress and strain fields that are in equilibrium for an isotropic

solid not subjected to body forces.

Note that any polynomial of degree 3 or less in x and y is automatically a solution of the biharmonic

equation because the equation contains 4th order derivatives.

Polar Coordinates

2

2

1 1

( (r ) + ) = 0

2 2

r r r r

2 2

1 1 1

rr = + = r = ( )

2 2 2

r r r r r r

P on an infinite solid can be

)

solved with Airy stress functions in

N/m

(

polar coordinates. The stress P'

function in this case is

P

= r cos

0

r

Th f ti b i t d i th

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 8/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

The function can be inserted in the

biharmonic equation to verify that it

is indeed a solution. The stress

components obtained from

differentiating the stress function

are therefore a valid solution to a

particular problem. But which one? To determine that, first evaluate the stresses.

2

1 1

rr = +

2 2

r r r

2P

= cos

r

2

= = 0

2

r

1

r = ( ) = 0

r r

This stress field results from a distributed line load of zero width. This can be varified by

computing the net vertical force due to the radial stress using

/2

/2

where the cos term gives the vertical component of force due to the radial stress. Substituting

the expression for rr into the equation and integrating gives

/2

2P

Vertical Load / Length = ( cos ) cos rd

/2

r

/2

2P

2

= cos d

/2

= P

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 9/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

It turns out that the equilibrium equation is very useful to the estimation of the speed of stress waves in

materials. The process starts by pulling in a few seemingly unrelated topics. For starters, recall that the

wave equation is

2 2

u 1 u

=

2 2 2

x c t

where u represents displacement, and c is the speed of the stress waves in the material - effectively the

speed of sound in the material. (And this is the focus of this discussion.)

xx xy xz

+ + + fx = ax

x y z

and neglect the shear and body force terms, leaving only

xx

= ax

x

And now substitute several relationships. Begin by noting that ax just like in the wave equation.

u

= 2

t

xx = Exx

for the case of uniaxial tension. But then, xx is related to the displacements through

u

xx =

x

Again, this is for the simple case of uniaxial tension. So stress can be related to displacements by

u

xx = Exx = E

x

And

2

xx u

= E

2

x x

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 10/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

2 2

u u

E =

2 2

x t

Or

2 2

u 1 u

=

2 2

x (E/) t

Now the big finish.... Comparing this to the wave equation shows that

E E

2

c = or c =

And that is the relationship for the speed of a uniaxial stress wave through a material, its speed of sound!

3

For steel, E = 200(10) Pa

9

and = 7, 800kg/m . So this gives

9

E 200(10) Pa

c = = = 5km/s = 5m/ms

3

7, 800kg/m

3

For aluminum, E = 70(10) Pa

9

and = 2, 800kg/m . So this gives

9

E 70(10) Pa

c = = = 5km/s = 5m/ms

3

2, 800kg/m

By coincidence, the speed of sound through both steel and aluminum is the same.

3

For rubber with E 6

= 1(10) Pa and = 1, 150kg/m . So this gives

6

E 1(10) Pa

c = = = 29m/s = 0.03m/ms

3

1, 150kg/m

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 11/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

But we're not done! Take a look at shear waves. This time, bring up the following equilibrium equation

yx yy yz

+ + + fy = ay

x y z

yx

= ay

x

2

Begin by substituting ay =

v

2

just like in the wave equation.

t

And relate xy to xy by

xy = Gxy

v

xy =

x

v

xy = Gxy = G

x

And

2

xy v

= G

2

x x

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 12/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

2 2

v v

G =

2 2

x t

Or

2 2

v 1 v

=

2 2

x (G/) t

G G

2

c = or c =

So for shear waves their speed depends on the shear modulus, G, not the elongation modulus, E. For

incompressible materials, i.e., rubber, the shear modulus is one-third of the tension modulus, so shear

waves propagate through rubber at 1/3 , or 58% of the speed of uniaxial tension waves. For metals, the

shear modulus is about 38% of the tension modulus. This translates to their shear wave speeds being 61%

of their tension wave speeds.

And finally, there are plane wave speeds. These are cases where the cross-sections of the objects are

very large and hold the lateral strains constant at zero while the object undergoes tension/compression.

This doesn't really apply to rubber because volume changes are involved.

To see what happens, go back to Hooke's Law for stress in terms of strain

E

ij = [ij + ij kk ]

(1 + ) (1 2 )

E

= [ + ]

(1 + ) (1 2 )

which simplifies to

E (1 )

=

(1 + )(1 2 )

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 13/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

You can see that for rubber with = 0.5, the stress required to generate any strain is infinite due to the

(1 2 ) term in the denominator. This is because rubber is incompressible.

u

E (1 ) u

=

(1 + )(1 2 ) x

And

2

E (1 ) u

=

2

x (1 + )(1 2 ) x

2 2

E (1 ) u u

=

2 2

(1 + )(1 2 ) x t

(1 ) E

c = ( )

(1 + )(1 2 )

So for metals with = 1/3, the plane wave speed is 22% greater than the uniaxial tension case. And for

incompressible rubber with = 1/2, the speed would theoretically be infinite, which is of course

impossible. This occurs because compression from a plane wave must result in a volume change, which

would theoretically propagate at infinite speed in an incompressible material.

rubber is actually compressible and its bulk modulus is approximately 1,000 MPa. For the plane wave,

xx = K xx because yy = zz = 0. This leads to

K

c =

K 1, 000E6Pa

c = = = 930m/s = 0.93m/ms

3

1, 150kg/m

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 14/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

Keep in mind that this is only an approximation based on an estimate of the bulk modulus. Nevertheless,

the speed is still much less than that in metals.

1 Login

Sort by Oldest

Recommend Share

LOG IN WITH

OR SIGN UP WITH DISQUS ?

Name

my first question is, in the equilibrium equation, xx/x, x in x is X(reference) or x (deformed).

second question: in topic Equilibrium and the Speed of Stress Waves, the x in xx=u/x is X(reference)

or x (deformed). because in in deformation gradient topic x in x is X(reference). please clarify it. it will be

better to follow consistence notations.

And my third question : what is u here? Is it x-X ?

Reply Share

The equations are in x (deformed) coordinates because that is the state the object would be in for

ilib i It i ti ilib i

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html

i th f t t b if it it ld 't dt 15/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

equilibrium. It is not in equilibrium in the reference state because if it were, it wouldn't need to

move/deform, but it obviously does, even if only a tiny amount. You are right about u = x - X.

Reply Share

thanx for your prompt reply, but still i have some question that in the equation xx=Exx=Eu/x,

if x is reference not deformed as per strain formulation by deformation gradient (x/X = X/X +

u/X). here strain is derived from u/X(reference).

if my above statement is true than how E2u/x2 = 2u/t2 is true because here x deformed as

per your statements. please reply. thanx

Reply Share

The equilibrium equations are good in any general case. However, Hooke's Law (xx=Exx) is only

useful when strains are relatively small. Usually so small that differences between the reference and

deformed configurations are negligible, so it doesn't matter which one is used: "X" or "x". Also, metals will

yield when strains are large and no longer follow xx=Exx anyway. So the wave equations derived here

really are only good for small strains.

Reply Share

webpage. Feel free to email formatted PDFs (the first for formatted PDFs (the first for

me if you have questions. 8.5" x 11" pages, the second 8.5" x 11" pages, the second

for tablets) of the complete for tablets) of the entire

Also, please consider visiting stress chapter. website.

an advertiser above. Doing so

Click here to see a sample Click here to see a sample

helps to cover website

page in each of the two page in each of the two

hosting fees.

formats. formats.

Bob McGinty

Email address to receive PDFs Email address to receive PDFs

bmcginty@gmail.com

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 16/17

12/20/2017 Equilibrium

Table of Contents

Corotational Derivatives Material Behavior

http://www.continuummechanics.org/equilibrium.html 17/17