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Control of Wind Turbine based of PMSG Connected to Water Pumping

System in South of Algeria

A. Harrouz1, A. Dahbi3, O. Harrouz2, and A. Benatiallah1


1
Department of hydrocarbon and renewable energy,
Laboratoire d'Energie, Environnement et Systme d'Informations (LEESI)
University d'Adrar (01000), Algeria
harrouz.onml@gmail.com
2
Institute of Natural Sciences and Agri-food Bordeaux (ISNAB) - Bordeaux, France
harrouz@isnab.fr
3
Research Unit of Renewable Energy in Medium Sahara
Adrar (CDER), Algeria
Dahbi_j@yahoo.fr

Abstract This paper proposes a control technique of the figure below. The annual mean of the wind speed
water pumping system based on wind turbine generator reaches over than 6m/s [4]. Which allows supplying
in an isolated area. The turbine is used to drive the electrical energy to remote areas (Forages, Kessour),
PMSG in order to feed an isolated load composed of a where the connection to the grid is not possible or
DC motor and a hydraulic centrifuge pump. The very expensive [3].
considered load receives the required active power from
the DC generator. The models of the wind turbine, the
PMSG Generator and the DC motor are developed and
used in the control scheme. The performances of the
turbine, the PMSG and the DC motor are analyzed.
Simulation results have proven good performances and
verified the validity of the proposed pumping system.

Keywords-control strategies; energy conversion; wind


energy; water pumping system; PMSG.

I. INTRODUCTION
The research for wind power industry started to be
improved in the last century, mainly due to the oil
crisis and environment pollution. The electrical power
produced by the wind turbine is proportional with its
size [2].The growing interest in wind turbine
applications and the fast development of power
electronics allow the manufacturers to find the most Fig.1. The new power generation central, first of its kind at
suitable and low cost technologies to realize them. In national level, has a capacity of 10 megawatts, is located on a
this case, the used generator can be double fed surface of 30 hectares in the zone of Kabertene, 72km north of
the Willaya of Adrar. It is constituted by 12 wind turbines with
induction generator or a PMSG. The advantages of an output of 0.85MW each.
PMSG over induction generators are the high
efficiency and reliability, more than that, there is no
need of external excitation which decreases Joule The turbines of small and medium powers in three
losses, smaller in size and easy to control [1], [2]. range [5]:
Actually, the PMSG has become a more attractive
solution to use it in variable speed wind turbine
applications. Micro-wind turbines: a range of nominal power
In Algeria, before the project of Kabertene (in of 20 W to 500 W.
Adrar) wind power connected to grid, the wind energy Mini wind turbines: a range of nominal power of
was only used for pumping water; the first experience 500 W to 1 kW.
of pumping water with wind turbine in Africa was Small Wind: from 1 kW to 100 kW.
conducted in 1957 in Adrar "Ksar Ouled Aroussa" for
irrigation of 50 hectares [3]. The wind resource in
Algeria varies greatly from one location to another. In our study, water pumping system used a wind
This is mainly due to a very diverse topography and turbine based on PMSG which supplies DC motor to
climate. generate the torque required to the centrifuge
hydraulic [6], fig.2.
The region of Adrar, in South Algeria, presents an
excellent potential of wind energy as it is shown in
S: differential operator
vds ,vqs :d-q axis stator voltage
ids ,iqs : d-q axis stator current
L d L q : d-q axis inductance
Rs : stator resistance
: electric pulsation
:f magnetic flux of permanent magnet

The electromagnetic torquee is expressed as:

3
Fig.2. Wind turbine pumping syystem [2]. T em = p ( L q L d ) i d s i q s + i q s f (6)
2
Where
II. MODELLING OF WIND TUR
RBINE PUMPING p: number of poles pairs.
SYSTEM
By using the vector controll, q-axis is aligned with
A. Turbine model the magnetic flux, then
The wind turbine collects the kinnetic energy of the 3 (7)
T em = p .i q s f = K .i q s
wind and converts it into a torquee which turns the 2
blades of the rotor [6]. The evoluution of the used
power coefficient is given by the following relation The q-axis current componnent can be used for the
[7]: speed control of the generatorr, and d-axis current is
set to zero [8].
C 5
C

C p ( , ) = C 1 2 C 3 C 4 e i + C 6 C. DC Motor model
i
(1)
1 1 0.035 In this work, DC machinee is operated in motor
= mode different relations used inn their models.
i + 0.008 3 + 1
Applied to the machine phhase, the Ohms law
describing the armature windinng and the field winding
are respectively given by relatioons below:
1 (2)
Pm = C p ( ) A V 13
2

Ldia
The tip-speed ratio is defined as:
Vma = K. w +R.ia + dt
tR
= t (3) (8)
V 1 V = R . i + Ldif
Where, mf f
dt
A: blade swept area [m2]
: specific density of air [kg/m3] The electromagnetic torque is given by:
V1 : wind speed [m/s]
Rt : radius of the turbine blade[m] T M = Kia (9)
t: rotating speed [rpm]
C p : coefficient of power conversionn
After the gearbox, the mecchanical system can be
described as following relatioons, where Tt and Ta
The mechanical torque of the wiind turbine system represent respectively the inpuut wind torque and the
can be described by the following eqquation: torque before the gearbox:
Pm 1 C p ( , )
Tt = = R 3 V 2 (4) Ld t
t 2 Tt T a = Jt + f f t (10)
dt
Before the gearbox, the mechanical dynamics
B. PMSG model system can be described by relaation (11) where Tb and
Tg represents respectively the torque after the gearbox
The voltage equation of the PMS SG is expressed at and the produced generator torqque:
synchronous reference frame by [7]::
Ld g
vds Rs +SLd Lq ids 0 Tb T g = J g
dt
+ f gg (11)
v = L + i + (5)

qs d Rs SLq qs .f The transmission gear-box ratio
r is defined as:
Where:
g (12) With:
G =
t 2Sa Sb Sc
Usa = Vdc
3
D. Model Of PWM Rectifier 2Sb Sa Sc
Usb = Vdc (17)
Contrary to the traditional rectifiers, PWM 3
rectifiers are controlled by opening and closing 2Sc Sa Sb
semiconductors in a way allows obtaining the Vdc Usc =
imposed references according to needs. Thus, we have 3
a total control of the converter [9] [10]. Finally, we deduce the equation from coupling the
This rectifier is controlled to keep the voltage of AC and DC sides:
the continuous bus at a wished value of reference, by
using a closed loop control, as it is shown in Fig.3. dVdc
C. = ( Sa .ia + Sb .i b + Sc .ic ) I L (18)
dt

E. Modelling of Hydraulic pump


The centrifugal pump model can be described by
Knowing the mechanical characteristics illustrated in
relation (19):

h = a 0 2 a 1 Q a 2Q 2
(19)

The hydraulic power PH and the torque of the


centrifugal pump can be given respectively by (20)
and (21):
Fig.3. Basic topologies of a rectifier of voltage
P H = gH
(20)
T r = . m 2 + T s
We can simplify modelling and reduce the time of (21)
simulation by modelling the rectifier with ideal
switches, these switches being complementary; their The mechanical model of the electric motor and the
state is defined by the following function [11]: centrifugal pump can be described by (22).
S j
= { + 1 ,S
1 ,S
j

j
= 1
= +1
(13)
T M em = J m p .
d m
+f mp . m + T r (22)
The simple input voltages and the output current dt
can be written in function of Sj, Vdc and the input
III. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
currents isa, isb, isc.
i sa + i sb + i sc = 0 (14) 12

10

The compound input voltages of the rectifier can be 6

described by:
W(rad/s)

U S ab = ( S a S b ) *V d c 2

U S b c = ( S b S c ) *V d c
(15)
0

U S c a = ( S c S a ) *V d c -2
0 1 2 3 4 5
t(s)
6 7 8 9 10

Fig.4 Rotor speed of generator PMSG


Voltage equations of the three-phase system 250

balanced without connection to neutral point can be 200

written as follows:
150
V dc (V )

v sa i sa i sa Usa
100

= d 50

v sb R s i sb + Ls dt i sb + Usb (16) 0

v sc i sc i sc Usc -50
0 1 2 3 4 5
t(s)
6 7 8 9 10

Fig.5 DC bus voltage


140
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Firstly, the motor is at stopped, when the wind speed in a future issue of this journal. Content is final as presented,
is sufficient, the electromagnetic torque response with the exception of pagination, 2013.
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IV. CONCLUSION

In this work a pitched power control for wind


turbine water pumping system based on DC machine
is developed and simulated. When the power control
scheme is applied to proposed wind turbine pumping
system, both generator and turbine torques are
adapted to the load power when the wind varies.
Simulation results have shown the good performances
of the proposed control system. These promising
results open the possibility for the reconstitution of
the proposed scheme to be set up for an on-line
implementation.

V. REFERENCES

[1] A. Harrouz, A. Benatialah and O. Harrouz," Direct Power


Control of a PMSG Dedicated to Standalone Wind Energy
Systems, Journal "IEEE Xplore, Eighth International
Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and
Renewable Energy, March 27-30, 2013, Monaco, France,
2013.