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# Mahendra Engineering College, Mahendrapuri

## Sr.Lecturer / Mechanical Engineering Dept.

Name :_____________________________

## Reg. No. :_____________________________

Dept. :_____________________________
ME1307 METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENT LAB

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

## Checking the limits of dimensional tolerances using comparators (Mechanical /

Pneumatic / Electrical)

## 8. Measurement of Displacement (Strain Gauge / LVDT / Wheatstone Bridge)

9. Measurement of Force

## 11. Measurement of Vibration / Shock

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3
ME1204 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY LAB 0 0 3 100

## (Common to Mechanical, Mechatronics and Automobile)

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

## 4. Determination of friction factor for a given set of pipes.

5. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of centrifugal pump / submergible

pump

## 9. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristics curves of Francis turbine.

10. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of Kaplan turbine.

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1. Determination of the Coefficient of discharge of given Orifice meter.
Aim:
To Determine the coefficient of discharge for the given orifice meter.

Apparatus Required:
i) An orifice meter fitted in the horizontal pipe line.
ii) A U tube manometer to measure the pressure difference across the orifice meter.
iii) Measuring tank and Stop watch to measure the flow rate.

Experimental Procedure:
i) The orifice meter is selected.
ii) Uniform flow rate is achieved by means of adjusting the flow control valves fitted in the pipe
line.
iii) The pressure difference across the manometer limbs is observed
iv) The time required for 10 cm rise of water level in the collecting tank is taken using the stop
watch
v) The above procedure is repeated by varying the flow rate and the corresponding pressure
difference and time taken for 10 cm rise also taken.

Formula:
AR
1.) Actual Discharge =
T

2.g .dH
2.) Theoretical Discharge = AB2 1 B4

Qact
3.) Flow meter constant =
Qthe

Where
A- Area of the Collecting Tank in mm2
R- is the rise of water level in the collecting tank – 100 mm
T- Time taken for 10 cm rise in the collecting tank in sec.
B- Throat Diameter ratio
dH- Equivalent Pressure drop

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Tabulation: I
Orifice meter
Sl. No. Experiment Manometer Reading in Total Time taken Actual Theoretical Flow Square
on Head for 10 cm Discharge Discharge meter root of dH
rise Constant
Units H1 H2 m3
m of water m of water m of Sec. m 3
sec m of water
25 mm diameter water sec

5
40 m m Diameter

10

6
Calculation:

7
Graph:

A graph is plotted down between square root of the dH taken in Y-axis and Actual discharge X-

axis.

Result:

The Co efficient of discharge of the given orifice meter is calculated the values are plotted

in the graph.

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2. Determination of the Coefficient of discharge of given Venturi meter.

Aim:

## To Determine the coefficient of discharge for the given Venturi meter.

Apparatus Required:

## i) An Venturimeter fitted in the horizontal pipeline.

ii) A U tube manometer to measure the pressure difference across the Venturi meter.
iii) Measuring tank and Stop watch to measure the flow rate.

Experimental Procedure:
i) The Venturi meter is selected.
ii) Uniform flow rate is achieved by means of adjusting the flow control valves fitted in the
pipeline.
iii) The pressure difference across the manometer limbs is observed
iv) The time required for 10 cm rise of water level in the collecting tank is taken using the stop
watch
v) The above procedure is repeated by varying the flow rate and the corresponding pressure
difference and time taken for 10 cm rise also taken.
Formula:
AR
1.) Actual Discharge =
T

2.g .dH
2.) Theoretical Discharge = AB 2 1 B4

Qact
3.) Flow meter constant =
Qthe

Where
A- Area of the Collecting Tank in mm2
R- is the rise of water level in the collecting tank – 100 mm
T- Time taken for 10 cm rise in the collecting tank in sec.
B- Throat Diameter ratio
dH- Equivalent Pressure drop

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Tabulation: I
Venturimeter.
Sl. No. Experiment Manometer Reading in Total Time taken Actual Theoretical Flow Square
on Head for 10 cm Discharge Discharge meter root of dH
rise Constant
Units H1 H2 m3
m of water m of water m of Sec. m 3
sec m of water
25 mm diameter water sec

5
40 m m Diameter

10

10
Calculation:

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Graph:

A graph is plotted down between square root of the dH taken in Y-axis and Actual discharge X-

axis.

Result:

The Co efficient of discharge of the given Venturimeter is calculated the values are plotted in the

graph.

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3.Determination of friction factor for a given set of pipes.

Aim:

## To determine the friction factor of flow through Pipe.

Experimental Procedure:

1. The required pipe diameter is selected. The pressure tapings of the required pipeline is

## connected to the manometer by opening the appropriate pressure cork.

2. The flow control valve is opened, the water is allowed to flow through pipe line

## 3. The flow rate is adjusted by varying the flow control vales

4. The Time taken for the 10 cm rise in the collecting tank is noted.

## 5. The experiment is repeated for the different flow rates.

Formula:

AR
1. Actual Discharge Q =
T

Q
2. Flow Velocity V =
A

2.g .dH
3. Darcy Constant f =
4 LV 2

2.828V
4. Chezy’s Constant C =
H .d

Where

## A- Area of the collecting tank in mm2

R- Rise of water level in the collecting in cm.
Q- Actual Discharge in mm3/sec
H- Head lost due to friction in m of water
D- Diameter of the pipe in mm
V- Flow velocity in mm/sec
L- length of the pipe in mm

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Sl.No. Pipe Manometer Reading Total Head Time Taken for Flow Friction Factor
Diameter 10 cm rise Discharge Pipe area Velocity
mm3
Units H1 H2 H3 m of water sec /sec mm2 mm/sec Darcy Chezy
1.
2.
20 mm Diameter

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
25 mm diameter

8.
9.
10.

Tabulation : I

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Calculation:

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Graph:

## Total Head Vs Friction Factor (chezy)

Inference:

Result:

The experiment is conducted for Different Pressure drops and darcy and chezy’s contants are

## calculated for the 25 and 20 mm diameter pipes.

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4. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of centrifugal pump

Aim:

To conduct a test on a single stage centrifugal pump to study the performance characteristics.

Experimental Procedure:

## ii.) Vacuum gauge reading in mm of Hg.

iii.) The level difference between the pressure gauge and vacuum gauge

6.) Several sets of readings are taken by varying the load from maximum at shut off to minimum

Formula:

## 1.) Area of the collecting tank A = L X B in mm2

AR
2.) Discharge Q = mm3/sec
T

## 5.) Input to Pump = motor efficiency X 30 / T

OutputPower
6.) Overall efficiency = InputPower X 100

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Where

## t – Time taken for the 10 cm rise in the collecting tank in sec.

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Tabulation - I

Centrifugal Pump

Sl.No Pressure Vacuum Total Time 10 cm Actual Time taken for 10 Input Output Efficiency
gauge gauge Head rise Discharge rev in the energy
Units kg/cm2 mm of Hg m of Sec mm3/sec sec kW kW %
water
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

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Calculation:

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Graph:

## Total Head Vs Efficiency

Inference:

Result:

The performance of centrifugal pump at various head and discharge are studied

i) Maximum efficiency =

## ii) Maximum discharge =

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5. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of submersible pump

Aim:

## To conduct a test on a submersible pump to obtain the pump characteristics.

Description:

The vertical submersible pump is a multistage pump with each set made of a mixed flow impeller

with axial diffuser assembly. The shaft of pump is connected to a motor, which is housed on the bottom of

the pump. The pump and motor assembly is fully submerged in the water. An integral foot valve is at the

bottom of the pump assembly. The submersible pump is used to lift the water from bore wells.

The test rig consists of a 3 stage submercible pump driven by a 3 hp motor (440 volts / 3 supply)

and suitable pipe lines. A pressure gauge is fitted in the delivery pipe line to control the flow rate. An

energy meter and a stop watch are provided to measure the input to the motor and collecting tank to

measure the actual discharge from these values we can calculate the efficiency of the pump against

## different pressure levels.

Experimental Procedure:

## a.) The pressure gauge reading in kg/mm2

b.) The distance between the water level and the pressure gauge – Hs m

## d.) Time taken for the 10 cm in the collecting tank t sec.

Take 5 – 6 sets of readings by varying the delivery head using the delivery valve

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Tabulation I

Submesible Pump

Sl. No. Pressure gauge Total head Time taken Time taken
reading for 10 cm rise Discharge for 10 rev Input Output Efficiency
‘t’ ‘Q’ ‘T’

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Formula:

## 4.) Input to the motor = (3600/200) X (10/T) kW

5.) Input to the pump = 0.8 X (Input to the motor) = 0.8 X 180 / T kW

Calculation:

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Graph:

## ii) Total Head Vs Efficiency

Inference:

Result:

The Performance Test on the Submersible Pump and corresponding graph’s were drawn.

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6. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of reciprocating pump.

Aim:

## To study the characteristics of a reciprocating pump at variable speed

Description:

The Reciprocating pump is a positive displacement type pump and consists of a piston or a

plunger working inside a cylinder. The cylinder has two valves one allowing water into the cylinder from

suction pipe and the other discharging water from the suction pipe and the other discharging water from

## a) Piston Stroke L = 44.5 mm

b) Piston Diameter d = 38 mm

## c) Diameter of Suction pipe = 25mm

d) Delivery Pipe = 18 mm

An Energy meter is provided to determine the input power to the motor. The pump is belt driven

by the motor. The pump can be run at four different speeds by the use of V-belt and the differential pulley

system. Special arrangement is provided for quick alteration of speed. The belt can be put in different

grooves of the pulleys for different speeds quickly by loosening the belt. A set of pressure gauge and

## vacuum gauges are provided along with the required pipelines.

Experimental procedure:

## 5. Note down the following reading.

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a. The speed of the pump (n)

Formula:

= 21.6 / T kW

Where

## t = Time taken for 10 cm rise in the collecting tank

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Tabulation : I

Reciprocating Pump

Sl.No Pressure Vacuum Total Head Time for Discharge Time taken
gauge gauge H 10 cm rise ‘Q’ for 10 rev Input Output Efficiency

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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Calculation:

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Graph:

## ii) Total Head Vs Efficiency

Inference:

Result:

The Performance characteristics of the reciprocating pump are studied and Performance curves

were drawn.

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7. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of Gear pump.

Aim:

## To study the characteristics of a gear pump at constant speed.

Description:

The gear pump is a positive displacement pump and consists of a pair of spur gears meshed with

each other and housed closely in a casing. One gear is fitted with external shaft that is coupled to an AC

motor (1440 RPM). In the oval shaped pump casing, the two involute curved double helical gear wheels

are mounted on shafts. These gears lock during rotation in the suction chamber and as they rotate, the

liquid between the pump casing and space between the teeth is transferred to the delivery chamber.

The test pump is coupled to a 1 HP AC motor (220volts, single phase). A suitable switch is

provided to operate the pump. The pump sucks oil from a reservoir and delivers to a collecting tank that’s

is provided with an overflow arrangement. The collected oil is then transferred back to the reservoir

through a ball valve. Suitable pressure and vacuum gauges are fitted in the pipelines to measure the

suction and delivery head. A modified gate valve is fitted at the delivery side to prevent complete shut off.

An energy meter with a stopwatch is provided to measure the both input and output power.

Note: Regular Diesel oil can be used as test oil in the pump test rig. This is economical and widely

available.

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Experimental Procedure:

1. Fill the supply tank with oil to the required height say three fourth of the tank.

## ii.) Time taken for 10 rev. in the energy meter – T secs

iii.) Time taken for the 10 cm rise in the collecting tank – t secs

iv.) The difference in level between the pressure and vacuum gauge – X m

Formula:

## 2.) Discharge = AR/t = 0.09 X 0.1/t

( P  V ) x10
3.) Total Head H =  X m of water. Sp. Gravity = 0.83
Oil _ sp. _ gravity

## 3600 x10 x0.8

5.) Input to the pump = kW
1200 xT

## 6.) Efficiency = (Output / Input)x100 %

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Tabulation: I
Gear Pump
Sl.No Pressure Vacuum Total Head Time for Discharge Time taken
gauge gauge H 10 cm rise ‘Q’ for 10 rev Input Output Efficiency

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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Calculation:

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Graph:

## Total head Vs Efficiency

Inference

Result:

The Performance test on the gear pump was conducted and Performance curves were drawn from

the curve the maximum efficiency of the pump is ____________ at a total head of ______________.

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8. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of Pelton wheel.

Aim:
To study the characteristics of Pelton wheel turbine.
Description:
Pelton turbine is an impulse turbine, used to utilize high heads for generation of electricity. All the
available pressure head is converted into kinetic head by means of a spear and nozzle arrangement. The
water leaves the nozzle in a jet formation. The jet of water then strikes the buckets of the Pelton wheel
runner. These buckets are in the shape of double cups, joined at the middle portion in a knife-edge. The jet
strikes the knife edge of the buckets with least resistance and shock. Then the jet glides along the path of
the cup, and the jet is deflected through more than 160 to 170 deg. While passing along the buckets, water
is deflected causing a change in momentum of the water jet and hence an impulsive is supplied to the
cups. As a result, the cups attached to the runner moves, which in turn rotate the shaft. The specific speed
of the Pelton wheel varies from 10 to 100.
The Pelton wheel is supplied with water under high pressure by a centrifugal pump the water
flows through a venturimeter to the Pelton wheel. A gate valve is used to control the flow rate to the
turbine. The venturimeter with pressure gauges connected is used to determine the flow rate of water in
the pipe. The nozzle opening can be increased or decreased by opening the spear wheel at the entrance
side of the turbine.
The turbine is loaded by applying the dead weights on the brake drum. This is done by placing the
weights on the weight hanger. The inlet head is read from the pressure gauge. The speed of the turbine is
measured with a tachometer.

Experimental Procedure:
1. Keep the nozzle opening at about 3/8th open position.
2. Prime the pump if necessary
3. Close the delivery gate valve completely and start the pump.
4. After the motor starter has changed to delta mode and the motor is running at normal speed, open
the delivery gate valve until the venturimeter pressure gauges indicate a differential pressure of
about 0.6 to 0.06 kg/cm2. This corresponds to the design flow rate.
5. Note the turbine inlet pressure in the pressure gauge fixed in the nozzle bend. If the pressure is
higher or lower than 4.6 kg/cm2 (design head is 46m of water), adjust the delivery gate valve
and/or nozzle opening to set to design inlet pressure. At the same time ensure that the flow rate

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does not exceed the design value as large flow rates (indicated by larger pressure differences in the
venturimeter pressure gauges) will overload the motor.
6. Note speed of the turbine.
7. Note the venturimeter pressure gauge readings
8. Load the turbine by adding weights to the hanger.
9. Repeat the experiment for different loads.
For constant speed tests, at lower loads the flow rate and inlet pressure is reduced by closing the
delivery gate valve.

Formula:
2 gdH
1. Discharge Q = Cd. A . B2 1  B 4 m3/sec

## 2. Total Head H = G x 10 m of water

3. Input = g x Q x H kW
De N (T  9.81)
4. Output = kW
60  1000
Output
5. Efficiency = Input  100%

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Tabulation: I
Pelton Wheel

Sl. Inlet Total Venturimeter Difference Flow Speed Weight Spring Net Output Input Efficiency
No Pressure Head Pressure in Pressure rate balance Weight 
P H Kg/cm2 dH Q N T1 T2 T
Units Kg/cm2 m of P1 P2 Kg/cm2 m3/sec rpm kg kg kW kw %
water
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

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Calculation:

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Graph:
Speed Vs Efficiency
Speed Vs Output
Speed Vs Input

Inference:

Result:
Thus the performances of the Pelton turbine at various speeds are studied from the graph.
Design speed =
Maximum Efficiency =

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9. Francis Turbine
Aim:
To Study the characteristics of Francis turbine.
Description:
Francis turbine is a reaction turbine, used in dams and reservoirs of medium height to convert
hydraulic energy into mechanical energy and subsequently into electrical energy. Francis turbine is a
radial inward flow reaction turbine. This has the advantage of centrifugal forces acting against the flow,
thus reducing the tendency of the turbine to over speed. Francis turbines are best suited for medium heads
say 40m to 300m. The specific speed ranges from 25 to 300.
The turbine test rig consists of a 3.72 kW (5 HP) turbine supplied with water from a suitable 15
HP centrifugal pump through suitable pipelines, sluice valve and a flow measuring venturimeter. The
turbine consists of a cast-iron body with a volute casing and a gunmetal runner consisting of two shrouds
with aerofoil shaped curved vanes in between. The runner is surrounded by a ring of adjustable gunmetal
guide vanes. These vanes can be rotated about their axis by a hand wheel and their position is indicated by
a pair of dummy guide vanes fixed outside the turbine casing. At the outlet, a draft tube is provided to
increase the net head across the turbine. The runner is attached to an output shaft with a brake drum to
absorb the energy produced.
Water under pressure from pump enters through the guide vanes into the runner while passing
through the spiral casing and guide vanes; a portion of the pressure energy is converted into kinetic
energy. Water thus enters the runner at high velocity and as it passes through the runner vanes, the
remaining pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy. Due to the curvature of the vanes, the kinetic
energy is transformed into mechanical energy and hence the runner rotates. The water from the runner is
then discharged into the tailrace. The discharge through the runner can be regulated by operating guide
vanes also.
The flow through the pipe lines into the turbine is measured with the venturimeter fitted in the
pipe line. The venturimeter is accompanied with pressure gauges. The net pressure difference across the
turbine inlet and exit is measured with a pressure gauge and vacuum gauge. The turbine output torque is
determined with a rope brake. A tachometer is used to measure the rpm.
Experimental Procedure:
1. Keep the guide vanes at required opening (say 3/8th)
2. Prime the pump if necessary
3. Close the main sluice valve and then start the pump

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4. Open the sluice valve for required discharge when the pump motor switches from star to delta
mode.
5. Load the turbine by adding weights in the weight hanger. Open the brake drum cooling water gate
valve for cooling the brake drum.
6. Measure the turbine speed with tachometer.
7. Note the pressure gauge and vacuum gauge readings.
8. Note the venturimeter pressure gauge readings.
9. Repeat the experiments for other loads.
10. for constant speed tests, main sluice valve has to be adjusted to vary the inlet head and discharge
for varying loads (at a given guide opening position)
11. The experiment can be repeated for other guide vane positions.

Formula:
1. Pressure difference across venturimeter = (P1- P2) x 10 m of water.
2. Discharge Q = 0.0131 dH

## 3. Venturimeter inlet diameter Dd = 100 mm

4. Throat diameter B = 0.6
2 x9.81xdH
5. Discharge Q = Cd x Ax B2x
1 B4
Where Cd = Coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter = 0.98

46
V
6. Total Head H = 10 x(G  ) m of water
760
Where G – Turbine Pressure gauge reading in kg/cm2
V – Turbine vacuum gauge reading in mm of Hg
1000  Q  H
7. Input Power = hp
75
= 9.81  Q  H kW
3.14  D  N  T
8. Output Power = Hp
75  60
3.14  D  N  T
= kW
102  60
Output
9. Turbine Efficiency = Input  100%

## Brake Drum Diameter= 0.30m

Rope diameter = 0.015m
Equivalent diameter = 0.315m
Hanger Weight T0 = 1kg
Weight T1 = T1 kg
Spring Balance Reading = T2 kg
Resultant load T =(T1-T2+T0) kg

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Sl. Inlet Vacuum Total Venturimeter Difference in Flow Speed Weight Spring Net Output Input Efficiency
No Pressure gauge Head Pressure Pressure rate balance Weight 
P V H Kg/cm2 DH Q N T1 T2 T

## Unit Kg/cm2 mm of Hg m of P1 P2 m of water mm3 rpm kg kg kg kW kW %

water sec

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Tabulation:I

48
Francis Turbine

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Calculation:

50
Graph:
Speed Vs Output Power
Speed Vs Efficiency
Speed Vs Discharge

Inference:

Result:

Thus the Performance test on the Francis turbine is conducted and the following observations are

## ii. Maximum discharge =

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10.Roto meter
Aim:
To determine the flow meter constant for the given roto meter.

Apparatus Required:
1. Roto meter
2. Piping system
3. Stop watch and collecting tank
4. Pump

Experimental Procedure:
1. Open the inlet gate valve to allow flow through the roto meter
2. Collect the water in the collecting for 20 cm rise and note down the time taken for the rise
using the stopwatch.
3. Note down the roto meter reading.
4. Repeat the above mentioned procedure to collect at least six set of readings

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Tabulation: I
Calibration of Roto meter.

## Sl.No. Time taken for 20 Actual Roto meter Coefficient of

cm Discharge reading Discharge
Units Sec Mm3/sec mm3/sec
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

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Calculation:

55
Graph:
Actual Discharge Vs Coefficient of Discharge.

Inference:

Result:

Thus the calibration of roto meter has been done and results are tabulated.

The average Coefficient of Discharge for the given roto meter =________

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