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# ESTIMATION

UNIT-3/ ESTIMATION

Types & purpose, Approximate estimate of buildings – Bill of quality, factors to be considered, -

principles of measurement and billing, contingencies, measurement of basic materials like brick,

wood, concrete and unit of measurement for various items of work – abstract of an estimate.

Before understanding the construction of any project, it is essential to know it’s probable cost which is
worked out by estimating.

ESTIMATION - Definition

## An estimate is a computation or calculation of the quantities required and expenditure likely to be

incurred in the construction of a work.

The factors which have complicated the process of estimating are as follows:

2. Bye-laws of the local body
3. Changes in the living standard of people
4. Demand for improved services & furnishing required
5. Help from financial institution
6. Labour & market conditions of building materials.
7. Multi-storied building in towns & cities & wide range of building materials.

## In any construction activity the two basic things are involved.

1. Quantity Aspect
2. Quality Aspect

The quantity aspect is governed by the study and analysis of drawings, prepared with respect to the
design of the project, which leads to the quantum of work which helps to findout the qualities of various
materials required and the total labour force required. The quality aspect is governed through
specification of materials and workmanship.

An estimate is a forecast of its probable cost. The process of preparing an estimate is known as
estimating and includes:

## 1. Taking out quantities and

2. Abstracting

ACTUAL COST
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ESTIMATION

It is known at the completion of the work. The actual cost should not differ much from the estimated
cost worked out at the beginning.

PURPOSE OF ESTIMATING

1. To ascertain the necessary amount of money required by the owner to complete the proposed
work. For public construction works, estimates are required in order to obtain administrative
approval, allotment of funds and technical sanction.

## 2. To ascertain quantities of materials required in order to programme their timely procurement.

To procure controlled materials, if any, like cement, steel, etc, quantities of such materials are
worked out from the estimate of the work and attached with the application for verification.

3. To calculate the number of different categories of workers that are to be employed to complete
the work within the scheduled time of completion.

4. To assess the requirements of Tools, Plants and equipment required to complete the wok
according to the programme.

5. To fix up the completion period from the volume of works involved in the estimate.

6. To draw up a construction schedule and programme and also to arrange the funds required
according to the programming.

## 9. An estimate for an existing property is required for valuation.

TYPES OF ESTIMATES

## There are eight different types of stimate:

I. Detailed estimate

## IV. Revised estimate

V. Supplementary estimate

ESTIMATION

## b. Centre line method

I. DETAILED ESTIMATE

A detailed estimate provides schedule of all the possible items and an amount which is very near to the
final amount of the structure and the above is prepared for the following two purpose.

a. Execution process

## b. Obtaining technical sanction

The whole project is subdivided into various stages, the stages broken up into various items of work
having same specifications and rates.

## 2. Allowance of the contingencies to accommodate unforeseen expenditure on missed items,

variation in quality and or rate in different items.

## 3. Establishment charges for supervision.

4. Estimated amount for the service charges like water supply, drainage, sanitary arrangement and
electrical installation.

## The detailed estimate is comprised of:

1) General report

2) Specifications

3) Detailed drawings showing plans, elevation, sections, key plan, drainage layout, electrical
drawings, structural drawings, etc.

ESTIMATION

## ITEM NO. DESCRIPTION NO. LENGTH BREADTH HEIGHT OR QUANTITY TOTAL

OF WORK DEPTH

Second part of detailed estimate includes abstract of Estimated cost. This estimated cost is increased by
5% for any unforeseen expenditure which is called Contingencies. Other additional expenses like water
charges, contractor profit, insurance charges, purchase of tools and equipments for big projects, etc are
also calculated and added for arriving at final estimated cost.

ABSTRACT OF AN ESTIMATE

## 3. Creates a part of the tender document.

4. It is the basis of which percentage tenders are called after excluding the amounts of
contingencies.

5. The bills of work done are also prepared on the basis of abstract of estimate.

## 6. Comparative cost of different items of works can also be known.

7. The nomenclature of item provides concise description of the nature of the work, name of the
materials & quantities, workmanship, period of curing, consideration of land & lift, scaffolding,
shuttering, dewatering operation including all transport, tools and plants.

1. Earth work.

## 2. Brickwork or RCC work in foundation & plinth.

3. Damp-proof course.

4. Brickwork in superstructure.

## 5. RCC work in superstructure including centering & steel reinforcement.

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ESTIMATION

## 10. Terracing (weathering course and water proofing – flat tiles)

11. Painting & colour washing (Doors, windows, ventilators, grills and cemented surfaces)

## 12. Water supply and sanitation

13. Electrification

14. Miscellaneous (Overhead tank, sump, elevation finishes, platform, septic tank, compound wall
gate, etc)

## 1. Availability of local labour

2. Availability of materials

3. Location of site

4. Transportation of materials

5. Quantity of materials

## The reasons for this are:

1. Preliminary studies

2. Investment

3. Financial aspect

4. Tax schedule

5. Insurance

Approximate estimate preparation consists of multiplying the numbers of items or units in the proposed
structure by the known cost of a similar item or unit in a similar existing structure.
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ESTIMATION

## It involves the following two operations:

1. Fix up the unit and count the number of such units in the proposed work.

2. Fix up the unit cost by studying the actual cost of similar existing structure constructed in near
past.

The approximate cost of a building can be found by the use of any one of following six methods:

## c. Cubic rate or Cubic Metre Method

d. Typical-bay Method

## School building - Classroom

Hospial - Bed

Watertank - Litre

Apartment - Tenemant

Prison - Cell

## Office building/Hotel - Room

Approximate cost of structure = No. of service units in structure X Cost of corresponding service unit in
a similar existing structure

## B. PLINTH AREA / SQUARE METRE METHOD:

In this method the area of each floor in the proposed building is worked out in square metres.

Approximate cost of proposed building = Total area of all floors X Cost per Square Metre of a similar
existing building

ESTIMATION

## Following factors affect the Approximate cost:

1. Shape of Building: Cost of square building is less than the rectangular building.
Eg: 10mx10m=100sq.m, 20mx5m=100sq.m
Hence, the perimeter of a square building is less and hence the cost is less.
2. Spacing of columns: The spacing of columns affects the floor system and is considerably changed and
this afects the cost of structural members.

## 3. Change of Price level

4. Ceiling Height

5. Type of construction

6. Large openings

## 7. Location of the building

8. Nature of soil

9. Numbers of floors

## C. CUBIC RATE/ CUBIC METRE METHOD:

In this method the cost per cubic metre is used as a base for finding out the approximate cost of the
proposed building.

Approximate cost of proposed building = Total Cubical contents of proposed building X Cost per cubic
metre of a similar existing structure

The floor area is taken and multiplied by the floor height to get the cubical contents.

## D.TYPICAL BAY METHOD:

It is useful in case of buildings which have several similar bays. A bay is a space from centre to centre of
two successive columns.

A typical interior bay is selected and its total cost is worked out.

Approximate cost of building = Number of bays in the proposed building X cost of one bay.

ESTIMATION

## E. APPROXIMATE QUANTITIES METHOD:

In this method, the wall foundations are measured in linear measurements i.e., in running metres. The
approximate quantities of items such as excavation, foundation, concrete, brickwork upto plinth level
and damp proof course are computed per running length and with the help of rates of these items.
Similarly, the super structure is measured in running measurements and a suitable price per running
metre is built-up including brickwork inside and outside, finishing, wood work, etc.

## F. EMPIRICAL EQUATIONS FOR MATERIALS AND MANPOWER:

Following are the equations in which 'A' represents the plinth area of building Sq.m.

ESTIMATION

## III. QUANTITY ESTIMATE

It is a complete estimate showing quantities of all the items, required to complete the project. The
quantity of each individual item is worked out from the drawing and it is then multiplied with the rate
per unit for that item to find out the cost. In this type of estimate only bills of quantities are prepared for
all necessary items and when they are priced, gives the complete estimate of the project.

## IV. REVISED ESTIMATE

It is a detailed estimate for the revised quantities and rates of items of original estimate. It is necessary
due to the following reasons.

## 2. Expenditure of works exceed more than 10%.

3. Material deviations.

## 4. Sanctioned estimate is found more than the actual requirements.

V. SUPPLEMENTARY ESTIMATE

Some changes or additional works due to material deviation or a structural nature from the originally
approved design maybe thought necessary when the work is in progress, for all such items a detailed
estimate is prepared. It is to be attached with a detailed report describing the reasons for new

## VI. REVISED ESTIMATE AND SUPPLEMENTARY ESTIMATES DUE TO REDUCTION OF COST

When a certain section of a project costing not less than 5% of the total sanctioned cost of the project is
abandoned or deviation results in savings the estimate is revised.

## VII. COMPLETE ESTIMATE

A complete estimate is prepared after adding an estimated cost of all items of the project to the main
detailed estimate. It includes the cost of the land, cost of legal expenses required between the owner
and the contractors, engineering fees, architect’s fees, cost of supervision or works and a detailed
estimate with contingencies.

## VIII. ANNUAL MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR ESTIMATE

It is required to maintain the completed project for its proper function and estimate is prepared for the
same in the form of a detailed estimate. This includes items of renewal, replacement, repairs, etc.

ESTIMATION

## BILL OF QUANTITY (BoQ) & FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED

The bill of quantities (sometimes referred to as 'BoQ') is a document prepared by the cost consultant
(often a quantity surveyor) that provides project specific measured quantities of the items of work
identified by the drawings and specifications in the tender documentation. The quantities may be
measured in number, length, area, volume, weight or time. Preparing a bill of quantities requires that
the design is complete and a specification has been prepared.

The bill of quantities is issued to tenderers for them to prepare a price for carrying out the works. The
bill of quantities assists tenderers in the calculation of construction costs for their tender, and, as it
means all tendering contractors will be pricing the same quantities (rather than taking-off quantities
from the drawings and specifications themselves), it also provides a fair and accurate system for
tendering.

The contractor tenders against the bill of quantities, stating their price for each item. This priced bill of
quantities constitutes the tenderer's offer. As the offer is built up of prescribed items, it is possible to
compare both the overall price and individual items directly with other tenderers' offers, allowing a
detailed assessment of which aspects of a tender may offer good or poor value. This information can
assist with tender negotiations.

## The priced bill of quantities will also:

 Assist with the agreement of the contract sum with the successful tenderer.

## Standards for bills of quantities

It is very important that bills of quantities are prepared according to a standard, widely recognized
methodology. This helps avoid any ambiguities or misunderstandings and so helps avoid disputes arising
through different interpretations of what has been priced.

## Preparing bills of quantities

Bills of quantities can be prepared elementally or in works packages, by a process of 'taking off' which
involves identifying elements of construction works that can be measured and priced. See Taking off for

Bills of quantities are most useful to the contractor when they are prepared in work sections that reflect
likely sub-contract packages. This makes it easier for the contractor to obtain prices from sub-
contractors and is more likely to result in an accurate and competitive price.
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ESTIMATION

The bill of quantities should identify the different kinds of work required, but should not specify them as
this can lead to confusion between information in the bill of quantities and information in the
specification itself.

Disputes can occur where there is discrepancy between the bill of quantities and the rest of the tender
documents (for example where an item is included in the drawings and specification but not in the bill of
quantities), or where there has been an arithmetical error. Generally the priced bill of quantities will
take precedent, and the client will be responsible for their own errors or omissions, which may be
classified as relevant events (or compensation events) giving rise to claims for an extension of time and
loss and expense. However if an ambiguity or error is noticed by the contractor during the tender
process, it is best practice for them to tell the client, even if there may be some commercial advantage
to them not doing so.

Increasingly, software packages are available to assist in the preparation of preparation of bills of
quantities, and building information modelling systems can be used to produce bills of quantities from
information already contained within the model.

Bills of quantities are normally only prepared on larger projects. On smaller projects, or for alteration
work the contractor can be expected to measure their own quantities from drawings and schedules of
work. Schedules of work are 'without quantities' instructional lists that allow the contractor to identify
significant work and materials that will be needed to complete the works and to calculate the quantities
that will be required.

## Approximate bill of quantities

An approximate bill of quantities (or notional bill of quantities) can be used on projects where it is not
possible to prepare a firm bill of quantities at the time of tendering, for example if the design is
relatively complete, but exact quantities are not yet known. However this will tend to result in more
variations during construction and so less price certainty when the investment decision is made.

Some contracts allows for re-measurement of approximate quantities (for example, this is common on
cut and fill on roadworks). Here, quantities are simply revised and payments made accordingly without
the need to instruct a variation.

If an approximate quantity turns out not to have been a realistic estimate of the quantity actually
required, this may constitute a relevant event giving rise to claims for an extension of time and loss and
expense.

Approximate bills of quantities can also be used during the design process as a tool for controlling
design. They are then sometimes included in the tender documents as a guide with a caveat stating that
responsibility for measuring quantities lies with the contractor, and drawings and specifications take
priority over any description in the approximate bills (see Approximate quantities cost plan).

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ESTIMATION

1. Before starting any estimate of building, road and bridge, it should be seen that the plans are
fully dimensioned, inner and outer dimensions should be checked before starting the estimate
to avoid complications later on.

## 2. The estimate should be drawn sub-head-wise, to avoid omission of any item.

3. The nomenclature of every item should be according to the sanctioned schedule of rates to
avoid claims of the contractors later on.

4. All items should be calculated in units, according to which the payment is to be made (chapter
on, units)

5. A detailed report according to the sub-heads should be attached. This should be self-
explanatory giving complete information.

6. Detailed drawings should be attached with every detailed estimate, with north line on the plan.

7. Detailed specifications of every item should be attached so that the work should be carried out
accordingly & the specifications should be according to the latest edition of the P.W.D.
specifications.

8. In order to make the estimate a comprehensive one, provision of electric & water supply should

9. In the end of estimate, an abstract of cost giving cost of every sub-head and total cost should be
attached. A provision of contingencies & petty establishment @ 5% should be added in the end
of abstract of cost.

10. The rate per sq. meter should be worked out & it should be given in the end of abstract of the
building estimate. This helps in future reference.

11. In case of Road estimate, rate per Km. should also be worked out.

12. The road estimate should mention the special features of the alignment so followed & also
whether the soling is of bricks or of stone, should be mentioned in the report of estimate.

13. In case of bridges & culverts, rate per meter (width) to be worked out.

14. Current applicable premium above C.S.R. should be added before finding out the unit rate i.e.,
plinth or per km rate.

ESTIMATION

## RULES FOR MEASUREMENT

Measurement of works occupies a very important place in the planning and execution of any work or
project, from the time of the first estimate are made until the completion and settlement of payments.
The methods followed for the measurement are not uniform and the practices or prevalent differ
considerably in between the states. Even in the same state different departments follow different
methods. For convenience a uniform method should be followed throughout the country. The uniform
methods of measurement to be followed which is applicable to the preparation of the estimates and bill
of quantities and to the side measurement of completed works have been described below.

General Rules:

 Measurement shall be item wise for the finished items of work and the description of each
items shall be held to include materials, transport, labor, fabrication, hoisting, tools and plants,
over hands and other incidental charges for finishing the work to the required shape, size,
design and specifications.

 In booking dimensions the order shall be in the sequence of length, breadth and height or depth
or thickness.

 All works shall be measured not subject to following tolerances unless otherwise stated.

 Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 meter i.e. 1cm (1/ 211).
 Areas shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 sq.m (0.1 soft).
 Cubic contents shall be worked up to the nearest 0.01 cum(0.1cuft)
• Same type of work under different condition and nature shall be measured separately under
separate items.

• The bill of quantities shall fully describe the materials proportions and work-man ships and
accurately represent the work to be executed. Work which by its nature cannot be accurately
taken off or which requires site measurements shall be described as provisional.

• In case of structural concrete, brick work or stone masonry, the work under the following
categories shall be measured separately and the heights shall be described.

##  From first floor level Paper

 From plinth level to first floor level.
 From first level to second floor level and so on.
• The parapet shall be measured with the corresponding items of the story next below.

• Principle of units: The units of different works depend on their nature, size and shape. In general
the units of different item of work are based on the following principle.

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ESTIMATION

 Mass, voluminous and thick works shall be taken in cubic unit or volume. The
measurement of length, breadth, and height or depth shall be taken to compute the
volume cubic contents (cum).

 Shallow, thin and surface work shall be taken in separate units or in area. The
measurement of length and breadth or height shall be taken to compute the area (sq.m).

 Long and thin work shall be taken in linear or running unit and linear measurement shall
be taken (running meter).

##  Piece work, job work etc. taken in number

ELEMENTS OF ESTIMATING

## 1. F.P.S System : Foot Pound System

2. The Metric System : For civil engineering works the units which are commonly used are:

Metre(m) for length, Square metre(sq.m) for area, Cubic metre(cu.m) for volume, Kilogram for
Mass, Litre for Capacity.

## S.NO ITEMS OF WORK UNIT OF MEASUREMENT IN UNIT OF PAYMENT IN

SI UNITS SI UNITS

2. Concrete:

3. Stone Work:

4. Brick work:

## In foundation, super structure, Cu.m Per Cu.m

reinforced brick work, etc.

ESTIMATION

work,etc.

5. Roofing:

## Tiled roof, insulation layer, Tar Sq.m Per Sq.m

felting, Corrugated iron roof,
Asbestos cement sheet roof,
Centering and shuttering, form work,
etc.

## Plastering, pointing, dado, white Sq.m Per Sq.m

washing, distempering, painting,
varnishing, etc.

7. Woodwork:

## Doors & window frames, rafters, Cu.m Per Cu.m

beams, roof trusses, etc.

## Doors & window shutters, wood Sq.m Per Sq.m

work in partitions, plywood, etc.

## All furniture fittings like hinges, No. Per No.

Towerbolt, aldrops, hooks, ganz,
handles, etc

8. Steel work:

## Rolling shutter, steel doors/window Sq.m Per Sq.m

iron grill, collapsible gate, etc.

## Steel reinforcement bars, iron work Quintal Per quintal

in truss, bending of steel
reinforcement, gusset plate, rivets,
bolts, etc.

ESTIMATION

9. Flooring:

## All kinds of flooring like cement, Sq.m Per Sq.m

mosaic, marble, ceramic tiles,
granite, wood, etc.

## Railing, pipe, rain water, sanitary Metre Per Run metre

water pipe, ornamental cornices

11. Materials:

sizes

Drawings:

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ESTIMATION

The detailed drawings of plan, elevation and section, drawn to a scale are necessary to take the details
of measurements of various items of work.

Specifications:

The specifications gives the nature, quality and class of materials, their proportion, method of execution
and workmanship and the class of labor required. The cost of the work varies with its specifications. The
cement mortar with 1:3 is more costly than cement mortar with 1:6.

Rates:

The rates for various items of work, the rates of various materials to be used in construction, the wages
of different categories of labor should be available for preparing an estimate. The location of the work
and its distance of source of materials and cost of transport should be known. These rates may be
obtained from the Standard Schedule of Rates prepared by the engineering departments.

## An abstract of estimated cost to prepare an accurate estimate, a detailed estimate of quantities of

various items of work and an abstract estimate of the quantities and their unit rates are required.

METHODS OF ESTIMATING

## LONG WALL AND SHORT WALL METHOD:

This method is also called as separate or individual wall method. This is simple and it gives accurate
values. The following procedure is adopted.

1. The dimensions of long wall and short wall should be taken separately.

2. Irrespective of its lengths, the wall which is taken first is long wall and the wall which is taken next is
the short wall.

3. The center line of the wall of the building is considered for determining the center to center line
length of long walls and short walls.

4. The center to center to center length of long walls or short walls is obtained by adding half the width
of the wall to the internal length of either long wall or short wall.

5. Centre to center length of long wall = internal length of long wall + ½ width of the wall.

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ESTIMATION

6. Centre to center length of short wall = internal length of short wall + ½ width of the wall.

7. To determine the lengths of different quantities such as earthwork, c.c. bed in foundation, R.R.
Masonry etc., length of long wall = center 166 Construction Technology to center length of long wall +
width, the width is the respective width of the item in consideration.

8. Similarly length of the short wall = center to center length of the short wall – width, where the width
is the respective width of the item such as earthwork, c.c. bed etc.

## CENTRE LINE METHOD:

In the center line method, the sum of all the center line lengths of long walls and short walls are added
to get the total center line length. At the junctions of two walls, the length is present in both of the
walls. Hence half of the length of that width is to be subtracted from the total center line length.

## Length = Total center line length – ½ width x number of junctions.

***Refer to problems***

QUESTION BANK

PART-A (2 marks)

1. Briefly explain the various factors to be considered during preparation of a detailed estimate.

2. "To finalize the rate of an item, the analysis of rates is must". Justify the statement.

## 11. State the significance of principles of measurement and billing.

12. Give the details of estimation for lime concrete. Assume necessary data.

ESTIMATION

## PART-B (16 marks)

1. Elaborate in detail the types of estimate of buildings and requirements for preparing estimation.

2. Describe the principles of measurement and billing contingencies. State the measurement of
brick work.

3. Explain in detail the method of deriving detailed quantity of estimate for Cement Plastering and
iron works.

4. Chart out the general guidelines for preparing detailed estimate by using longwall and short wall
method.(Assume necessary data)

## 5. Chartout in detail the method of estimation for a framed RCC building.

6. Explain in detail the difference between center line method and long wall and short wall method
for estimation.

## (i) Bill of quantity

(ii) Contingencies

## 9. Discuss in detail the various types of estimate.

10. Discuss the various factors responsible for determining the rate of an item of work.