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“Delhi Transco Limited, Patparganj”

Rakshit Joshi(14BEE0029)



I express my gratitude to the management of “Delhi

Transco Limited” for providing me with this opportunity
to undergo training in this esteemed organization.

I would like to thanks Shri Yash Pal(Assistant Manager), Shri

Ghan Shyan(Junior Engineer), Delhi Transco
Limited,Patparganj,New Delhi for their valuable
suggestions and guidance throughout my training period.

I also like to thank the entire staff of “Delhi Transco

Limited” for making my brief stay in Substation a
memorable one.


Delhi Transco Limited is the State Transmission Utility for the National Capital Territory of
Delhi. It is responsible for the transmission of power at 220 kV and 400 kV level and for
upgrading, operating and maintaining the high voltage network.
1.1 History of Electricity in Delhi
The position is that as per available records, the first diesel Power Station was established in
Delhi in the year 1905 when private English Company by name M/s. John Fleming was given
permission to generate electricity under the provisions of the Indian Electricity Act 1903. The
above mentioned Company was given the responsibility both of generation and distribution of
power in a limited manner. That Company after obtaining license under the provisions of
Electricity Act 1903 had set up a small 2 MW Diesel set at Lahori Gate in Old Delhi.
Later on, this very Company was converted as Delhi Electricity Supply and Traction Company.
In the Year 1911, the power generation was augmented by Steam Generation Station. In the year
1932, the management of Central Power House was handed over to New Delhi Municipal
Committee (NDMC).
In the field of power generation and distribution, a major breakthrough was achieved in 1939
when Delhi Central Electricity Power Authority (DCEPA) was established. This Company was
responsible for the supply of power to the areas covered by Local bodies namely the Municipal
Committees of Delhi, West Delhi and South Delhi, the Notified Area Committees of Red fort,
Civil Lines, Mehrauli, Najaf Garh, and the District Board of Delhi.
The supply of electricity to the Municipal Committees of Delhi-Shahdara and the Notified Area
of Narela was done by different private agencies. In 1947 DCEPA took over a Private Limited
Company by name Delhi electric Supply & traction Company Limited.
1.2 Formation of Delhi State Electricity Board (DSEB)
In the year 1951 the Delhi State Electricity Board (DSEB) came into existence and the
responsibility of generation and distribution of electricity was taken over by DSEB from
1.3 Formation of Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking (DESU)
After the promulgation of the Delhi Municipal Corporation Act 1957, the DSEB was dissolved
and the functions of DSEB were taken over by Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking (DESU),
which came into existence in 1958. After the formation DESU, the generation and distribution of
electricity to all the areas of Delhi came under DESU.
1.4 Formation of Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB)
The Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi vides notification No. F.11 (10)/92-
LSG /PF (II) dated 24.02.1997, issued under the Electricity (Supply) Act, 1948, constituted a
separate Electricity Board, i.e. the Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB) for the NCT of Delhi w.e.f.
24.02.1997 for the purpose of generation and distribution of power to the entire area of NCT of
Delhi except the areas falling within the jurisdiction of NDMC and Delhi Cantonment Board.
1.5 Formation of Delhi Transco Limited (DTL)
On July 1, 2002, The Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB) was unbundled into six successor companies:
 Delhi Power Supply Company Limited (DPCL)- Holding Company
 Delhi Transco Limited (DTL) – TRANSCO.
 Indraprastha Power Generation Company Limited (IPGCL) – GENCO.
 BSES Rajdhani Power Limited (BRPL) – DISCOM.
 BSES Yamuna Power Limited (BYPL) – DISCOM.
 North Delhi Power Limited (NDPL) - DISCOM.

The DTL is wholly owned by the Delhi Government. Delhi Transco Limited is a 'State
Transmission Utility of the National Capital of Delhi'.
DTL has been responsibly playing its role in establishing, upgrading, operating and maintaining
the EHV (Extra High Voltage) network. DTL has also been assigned the responsibility of running
the State Load Dispatch Centre which is an apex body to ensure integrated operations of power
systems in Delhi.

1.6 Future Plans

The Commonwealth Games are scheduled to be held in 2010 in Delhi and the electricity is one
of the most important requirements for creating infrastructure for such a mega event. Delhi
Transco Ltd has geared up to strengthen its network to fulfil the demand. They aim following
capacity addition up to the financial year 2011-12.
Parameters 400KV Level 220KV Level
Transmission Capacity (in MVA) 9000 14000
Transmission Lines (length in Ckt. Km.) 281 849
In the 11th Plan ending 2011-12 the transmission capacity is proposed to be augmented to meet
the future requirements. Under 400 KV systems, it is proposed to establish new Sub Stations at
Mundrika, South-East Delhi near Mandi village and East Lodi Road with a capacity of 630 MVA
each by DTL and also increase the capacity of existing sub-Station at Maharani Bag by 630 MVA
b Power Grid Corporation of India Limited. Similarly, under 220 KV systems, augmentation and
new addition in capacity to the tune of 1660 MVA under the existing Sub Stations is proposed.
Further, new Sub Station at DSIDC Bawana-II (320MVA), Chandrawal (200 MVA), Jhatikara
More (320 MVA), Ridge Valley (320 MVA), Rohini-II (480 MVA), Sultanpuri (320 MVA),
Electric lane (200 MVA), Trauma Centre (200 MVA), Wazirpur Industrial Area (320 MVA)
and IGI Airport (320 MVA ) are proposed to be established. Thus, the capacity of 2520 MVA
and 5940 MVA will be added in the 400 KV system and 220 KV system, respectively. To sum
up, by 2011-12 transformation capacity of 8460 MVA will be added and a total capacity of 19485
MVA will be available to Delhi.
1.7 Power Arrangements of Delhi
DTL had been arranging power from various sources for all the five distribution licensees since 1
July 2002. Keeping in mind the Commonwealth Games 2010 it has signed Power Purchase
Agreements for more than 9000 MW of power. This arrangement continued till 31 March 2007.
From 1 April 2007 onwards all the distribution agencies are directly purchasing power and the
entire long and short term Power Purchase Agreements have been transferred to these agencies
by Delhi Electricity Regulatory Commission (DERC) on the basis of their consumption. Now it
is the responsibility of the distribution companies to arrange power for their respective areas.
However a Power Procurement Group has been formed to coordinate the procurement and sale
of power which is headed by a DTL Officer. Now DTL is responsible only for efficient
transmission of power.
1.8 Power Supply Position in Delhi over the Years
There has been considerable improvement in the power supply position at the end of five years
of restructuring of power sector of Delhi. The peak demand is increasing every year while the
load shedding has reduced tremendously. DTL have met a highest ever peak demand of 4030
MW in 11 June 2007.
2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007-
03 04 05 06 07 08
Peak Demand met in MW 3097 3289 3490 3626 3736 4030
Energy consumption in MUs 19686 20385 20810 21184 21977 22372
Shedding, in MUs 450 229 176 322 411 136
Shedding as %age of Energy
2.29% 1.12% 0.84% 1.50% 1.87% 0.61%
Transmission losses (in %age) 3.84 % 1.69% 1.30% 0.72% 0.83% 0.95%

1.9 Cares for Environment

DTL operates its obligations in a clean, green pollution free environment and, has been providing
more green coverage to the National Capital. It is spreading awareness among the masses to use
eco-friendly electrical appliances. DTL is also introducing Energy Conservation Building Code
in Delhi to maximize the use of natural resources and minimize the use, of electricity. Its
proposed corporate office at 400 KV Sub Station Maharani Bag will be a Green Building. The
building is aimed to be a Platinum Rated Green Building. More than one lac sq meter land has
been identified for plantation in the ensuing year.
1. Mother dairy
2. Shakarpur
3. CBD Shahdra
4. Karkardoma-I
5. Karkardoma-II
6. Twin Tower-1
7. Preet Vihar
8. Guru Angad Nagar-II
9. Geeta Colony
17. Guru Angad Nagar-I
18. 33/11KV 20 MVA TX.
19. 33/11KV 16 MVA TX.
1. National Dairy-I
2. DVB Staff Quarters-II
3. Commercial Practice
4. Ganesh Nagar Complex
5. Local Transformer-II
6. Shakarpur Kiosk
7. National Dairy-II
8. Capacitor Bank 5.04 MVAR
9. Nirman Vihar
10. IDC Mother Dairy
11. Preet Vihar
12. Local Transformer
13. DVB Staff Quarter-I
14. Renny Well
2. Transmission and Distribution in India
2.1 Transmission
Transmission of electricity is defined as bulk transfer of power over a long distance at high
voltage, generally of 132kV and above. In India bulk transmission has increased from 3,708ckm
in 1950 to more than 165,000ckm today(as stated by Power Grid Corporation of India). The
entire country has been divided into five regions for transmission systems, namely, Northern
Region, North Eastern Region, Eastern Region, Southern Region and Western Region. The
Interconnected transmission system within each region is also called the regional grid.

The transmission system

planning in the country, in the
past, had traditionally been
linked to generation projects
as part of the evacuation
system. Ability of the power
system to safely withstand a
contingency without
generation rescheduling or
load-shedding was the main
criteria for planning the
transmission system. However,
due to various reasons such as
spatial development of load in the network, non-commissioning of load center generating units
originally planned and deficit in reactive compensation, certain pockets in the power system
could not safely operate even under normal conditions. This had necessitated backing down of
generation and operating at a lower load generation balance in the past. Transmission planning
has therefore moved away from the earlier generation evacuation system planning to integrate
system planning.

While the predominant technology for electricity transmission and distribution has been
Alternating Current (AC) technology, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology has also
been used for interconnection of all regional grids across the country and for bulk transmission
of power over long distances.

Certain provisions in the Electricity Act 2003 such as open access to the transmission and
distribution network, recognition of power trading as a distinct activity, the liberal definition of
a captive generating plant and provision for supply in rural areas are expected to introduce and
encourage competition in the electricity sector. It is expected that all the above measures on
the generation, transmission and distribution front would result in formation of a robust
electricity grid in the country.
2.2 Distribution
The total installed generating capacity in the country is over 148,700MW and the total number
of consumers is over 144 million. Apart from an extensive transmission system network at
500kV HVDC, 400kV, 220kV, 132kV and 66kV which has developed to transmit the power from
generating station to the grid substations, a vast network of sub transmission in distribution
system has also come up for utilization of the power by the ultimate consumers.

However, due to lack of adequate investment on transmission and distribution (T&D) works, the
T&D losses have been consistently on higher side, and reached to the level of 32.86% in the
year 2000-01.The reduction of these losses was essential to bring economic viability to the
State Utilities.

As the T&D loss was not able to capture all the losses in the net work, concept of Aggregate
Technical and Commercial (AT&C) loss was introduced. AT&C loss captures technical as well as
commercial losses in the network and is a true indicator of total losses in the system.

High technical losses in the system are primarily due to inadequate investments over the years
for system improvement works, which has resulted in unplanned extensions of the distribution
lines, overloading of the system elements like transformers and conductors, and lack of
adequate reactive power support.

The commercial losses are mainly due to low metering efficiency, theft & pilferages. This may
be eliminated by improving metering efficiency, proper energy accounting & auditing and
improved billing & collection efficiency. Fixing of accountability of the personnel / feeder
managers may help considerably in reduction of AT&C loss.

With the initiative of the Government of India and of the States, the Accelerated Power
Development & Reform Programme (APDRP) was launched in 2001, for the strengthening of
Sub – Transmission and Distribution network and reduction in AT&C losses.

The main objective of the programme was to bring Aggregate Technical & Commercial (AT&C)
losses below 15% in five years in urban and in high-density areas. The programme, along with
other initiatives of the Government of India and of the States, has led to reduction in the overall
AT&C loss from 38.86% in 2001-02 to 34.54% in 2005-06. The commercial loss of the State
Power Utilities reduced significantly during this period from Rs. 29331 Crore to Rs. 19546 Crore.
The loss as percentage of turnover was reduced from 33% in 2000-01 to 16.60% in 2005-06.

The APDRP programme is being restructured by the Government of India, so that the desired
level of 15% AT&C loss could be achieved by the end of 11th plan.

2.3 Mission- Power for ALL by 2012

The Government of India has an ambitious mission of POWER FOR ALL BY 2012. This
mission would require that the installed generation capacity should be at least 200,000 MW by
2012 from the present level of 144,564.97 MW. Power requirement will double by 2020 to

2.3.1 Objectives
 Sufficient power to achieve GDP growth rate of 8%
 Reliable power
 Quality power
 Optimum power cost
 Commercial viability of power industry
 Power for all

2.3.2 Strategies
 Power Generation Strategy with focus on low cost generation, optimization of capacity
utilization, controlling the input cost, optimization of fuel mix, Technology up gradation
and utilization of Non Conventional energy sources.

 Transmission Strategy with focus on development of National Grid including Interstate

connections, Technology up gradation & optimization of transmission cost.

 Distribution strategy to achieve Distribution Reforms with focus on System up gradation,

loss reduction, theft control, consumer service orientation, quality power supply
commercialization, Decentralized distributed generation and supply for rural areas.

 Regulation Strategy aimed at protecting Consumer interests and making the sector
commercially viable.

 Financing Strategy to generate resources for required growth of the power sector.

 Conservation Strategy to optimize the utilization of electricity with focus on Demand

Side management, Load management and Technology up gradation to provide energy
efficient equipment / gadgets.

Benjamin Franklin is known for his discovery of electricity. Born in 1706, he began studying
electricity in the early 1750s. His observations, including his kite experiment, verified the nature
of electricity. Between 1750 and 1850 there were many great discoveries in the principles of
electricity and magnetism by Volta, Coulomb, Gauss, Henry, Faraday, and others. It was found
that electric current produces a magnetic field and that a moving magnetic field produces
electricity in a wire. This led to many inventions such as the battery (1800), generator (1831),
electric motor (1831), telegraph (1837), and telephone (1876), plus many other intriguing

In 1879, Thomas Edison invented a more efficient light bulb, similar to those in use today. In
1882, he placed into operation the historic Pearl Street steam–electric plant and the first direct
current (dc) distribution system in New York City, powering over 10,000 electric light bulbs.
Initially each distribution centre was limited to a service range of a few blocks because of the
inefficiencies of transmitting direct current. Voltage could not be increased or decreased using
direct current systems, and a way to transport power longer distances was needed.

To solve the problem of transporting electrical power over long distances, George Westinghouse
developed a device called the “transformer.” The transformer allowed electrical energy to be
transported over long distances efficiently. This made it possible to supply electric power to
homes and businesses located far from the electric generating plants. The application of
transformers required the distribution system to be of the alternating current (ac) type as opposed
to direct current (dc) type.


Electric power systems are real-time energy delivery systems. Real time means that power is
generated, transported, and supplied the moment we turn on the light switch. Electric power
systems are not storage systems like water systems and gas systems.
Figure-2.1Transmission,Generation & Distribution Processes
Instead, generators produce the energy as the demand calls for it. The system starts with
generation, by which electrical energy is produced in the power plant and then transformed in the
power station to high-voltage electrical energy that is more suitable for efficient long-distance
transportation. The power plants transform other sources of energy in the process of producing
electrical energy.

High-voltage (HV) power lines in the transmission portion of the electric power system
efficiently transport electrical energy over long distances to the consumption locations. Finally,
substations transform this HV electrical energy into lower-voltage energy that is transmitted over
distribution power lines that are more suitable for the distribution of electrical energy to its
destination, where it is again transformed for residential, commercial, and industrial


The first term or concept to understand is voltage. Voltage is the potential energy source in an
electrical circuit that makes things happen. It is sometimes called Electromotive Force or EMF.
The basic unit (measurement) of electromotive force (EMF) is the volt. The volt was named in
honour of Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (1745–1827), the Italian physicist who
also invented the battery.
Voltage is the electric power system’s potential energy source. Voltage does nothing by itself but
has the potential to do work. Voltage is a push or a force. Voltage always appears between two
points. Normally, voltage is either constant (i.e., direct) or alternating. Electric power systems are
based on alternating voltage applications. In water systems, voltage corresponds to the pressure
that pushes water through a pipe. The pressure is present even though no water is flowing.

Current is the flow of electrons in a conductor (wire). Electrons are pushed and pulled by voltage
through an electrical circuit or closed-loop path. The electrons flowing in a conductor always
return to their voltage source. Current is measured in amperes. Voltage always tries to push or
pull current. Therefore, when a complete circuit or closed-loop path is provided, voltage will
cause current to flow. The resistance in the circuit will reduce the amount of current flow and
will cause heat to be provided. The potential energy of the voltage source is thereby converted
into kinetic energy as the electrons flow. The kinetic energy is then utilized by the load (i.e.,
consumption device) and converted into useful work.
Voltage by itself does not do any real work. Current by itself does not do any real work.
However, voltage and current together can produce real work. The product of voltage times
current is power. Power is used to produce real work. The basic unit (measurement) of power is
the watt (W).Electrical power can be used to create heat, spin motors, light lamps, and so on. The
fact that power is partly voltage and partly current means that power equals zero if either voltage
or current are zero.

Electrical energy is the product of electrical power and time. The amount of time a load is on
(i.e., current is flowing) times the amount of power used by the load (i.e., watts) is energy. The
measurement for electrical energy is watt-hours (Wh). The more common units of energy in
electric power systems are kilowatt-hours (kWh, meaning 1,000 watt-hours) for residential
applications and megawatt-hours (MWh, meaning 1,000,000 watt-hours) for large industrial
applications or the power companies themselves.

dc Voltage and Current

Direct current (dc) is the flow of electrons in a circuit that is always in the same direction. Direct
current (i.e., one-direction current) occurs when the voltage is kept constant. The electrons leave
the negative terminal of the battery and move through the circuit toward the positive terminal of
the battery.

ac Voltage and Current

When the terminals of the potential energy source (i.e., voltage) alternate between positive and
negative, the current flowing in the electrical circuit likewise alternates between positive and
negative. Thus, alternating current (ac) occurs when the voltage source alternates. Voltage
increasing from zero to a positive peak value, then decreasing through zero to a negative value,
and back through zero again, completing one cycle. In mathematical terms, this describes a sine
wave. The sine wave can repeat many times in a second, minute, hour, or day. The length of time
it takes to complete one cycle in a second is called the period of the cycle.
Frequency is the term used to describe the number of cycles in a second. The number of cycles
per second is also called hertz. Direct current (dc) has no frequency therefore, frequency is a
term used only for ac circuits.
Figure-2.2 Alternating current (ac voltage)

Figure-2.3 Direct current (dc voltage)


A sub-station may be defined as an assembly of apparatus which is installed to control
transmission and distribution of electric power.

A sub-station may be required to perform one or more of the following functions-
 Switching Operation (switch off or on power lines)
 Voltage Transformation (step-up or step-down voltages)
 Power converting operation (converting ac into dc and vice-versa)
 Frequency Operation (convert frequency from higher to lower and vice versa)
 Power Factor Correction Operation (improve the power factor by installing synchronous
condensers at the end of the lines)


I. Outdoor sub-station
II. Indoor sub-station

Outdoor sub-station
In this type of sub-station, the sub-station equipments are installed in open yard. Followings are
the advantages of an outdoor sub-station-
 The fault location is easier. Since all the equipments are within the view.
 The extension of the installation is easier.
 The time required for the erection of sub-station is less.
 Less amount of building materials are required.
Indoor sub-station
In this type of sub-station, installation of electrical equipments made within the buildings of sub-
station. Indoor sub-stations are usually suitable for a voltage up to 11 KV, but can be erected for
33 KV and 66 KV. Followings are the advantages of an indoor sub-station-
 Faulty section can be re installed without abrupting the supply of other sections.
 Minimum fire risk.
 Chance of complete shut-down is very rare.


A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through
inductively conductors — the transformer's coils. Except for air-core transformers, the
conductors are commonly wound around a single iron-rich core, or around separate but
magnetically-coupled cores. A varying current in the first or "primary" winding creates a
varying magnetic field in the core (or cores) of the transformer. This varying magnetic
field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the "secondary" winding. This
effect is called mutual induction.
Figure-3.1 Transformer
If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and
electrical energy will flow from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an
ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (VS) is in proportion to the
primary voltage (VP), and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary to the
number of turns in the primary as follows:

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating current
(AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making NS greater than NP, or "stepped down" by
making NS less than NP. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling
transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to
interconnect portions of national power. All operate with the same basic principles, although the
range of designs is wide. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in
some electronic circuits, transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed
for household ("mains") voltage. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission,
which makes long distance transmission economically practical.

Transformer Windings

Power transformers
consist of two or
more windings for
each phase and these
windings are usually wound around an iron core. The iron core improves the efficiency of the
transformer by concentrating the magnetic field and reduces transformer losses. The high-voltage
and low-voltage windings have a unique number of coil turns. The turns ratio between the coils
dictates the voltage and current relationships between the high- and low-voltage sides. Power
transformers are used to convert high voltage power to low-voltage power and vice versa. Power
can flow in both directions: from the high-voltage side to the low-voltage side or from the low-
voltage side to the high-voltage side. Generation plants use large step-up transformers to raise the
voltage of the generated power for efficient transport of power over long distances. Then step-
down transformers convert the power to sub transmission or distribution voltages, for further
transport or consumption. Distribution transformers are used on distribution lines to further
convert distribution voltages down to voltages suitable for residential, commercial, and industrial
Figure-3.3 Step-down Transformer
Figure-3.4 Distribution power Transformer
Instrument Transformers
Voltage transformers
Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument
transformer, used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. They are designed to
present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to
accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be
operated at a lower potential. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or
120 Volts at rated primary voltage, to match the input ratings of protection relays.

voltage VT

transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1, H2 (sometimes
H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1, X2, and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. Sometimes
a second isolated winding (Y1, Y2, Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer.
The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. The low side
(secondary) is usually phase to ground.
The terminal identifications (H1, X1, Y1, etc.) are often referred to as polarity. This applies to
current transformers as well. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the
same polarity and phase. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper
operation of metering and protection relays.

While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary, modern meters
eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. VTs are typically used in circuits
where the system voltage level is above 600 V. Modern meters eliminate the need of VT's since
the voltage remains constant and it is measured in the incoming supply.
Current Transformers
In electrical engineering, a current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents.
Current transformers are also known as instrument transformers. When current in a circuit is too
high to directly apply to measuring instruments, a current transformer produces a reduced current
accurately proportional to the current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to
measuring and recording instruments. A current transformer also isolates the measuring
instruments from what may be very high voltage in the primary circuit. Current transformers are
commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry.
Taps (or connection points to the coil) are used to allow options for various turns ratio scale
factors to best match the operating current to the instruments current requirements. Most CTs are
located on transformer and circuit breaker bushings.

Bushing CT

External high-
voltage CT
Bushings are used on transformers, circuit breakers, and many other types of electric power
equipment as connection points. Bushings connect outside conductors to conductors inside
equipment. Bushings provide insulation between the energized conductor and the grounded
metal tank surrounding the conductor. The conductors inside the bushings are normally solid
copper rods surrounded by porcelain insulation. Usually an insulation dielectric such as oil or gas
is added inside the bushing between the copper conductor and the porcelain housing to improve
its insulation properties. Mineral oil and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas are common dielectric
materials used to increase insulation. Transformers have large bushings on the high-voltage side
of the unit and small bushings on the low-voltage side.
The part of the bushing that is exposed to the outside atmosphere generally has skirts to reduce
unwanted leakage currents. The purpose of the skirts is to increase the leakage current distance in
order to decrease the leakage current.
Cleanliness of the outside porcelain is also important. Contaminated or dirty bushings can cause
arcing that can result in flashovers, especially during light rain or fog conditions.

It is important for electric utility companies to provide their customers with regulated or steady
voltage all the time, otherwise several undesirable conditions might occur. Customer service
problems can occur if voltages are too high or too low. For example, low voltage can cause
motors to overheat and burn out. High voltages can cause light bulbs to burn out too often or
cause other appliance issues. Utility companies use voltage regulators to keep the voltage level
within an acceptable or controlled range or bandwidth. Voltage regulators are similar to
transformers. Regulators have several taps on their windings that are changed automatically
under load conditions by a motor-driven control system called the load tap changer or LTC.

Figure-3.9 Three-
phase regulator

Figure-3.10 Single-
phase regulator
The purpose of a
circuit breaker is to
interrupt current
flowing in the line,
transformer, bus, or
other equipment when a problem occurs and the power has to be turned off. Current interruption
can be for normal load current, high-fault current (due to a short-circuit current or problem in the
system) or simply tripped by protective relaying equipment in anticipation of an undesirable
event or disturbance. A breaker accomplishes this by mechanically moving electrical contacts
apart inside an interrupter, causing an arc to occur that is immediately suppressed by the high-
dielectric medium inside the interrupter. Circuit breakers are triggered to open or close by the
protective relaying equipment using the substation battery system.
The most common types of dielectric media used to extinguish the arc inside the breaker
interrupter are listed below:
_ Oil (clean mineral)
_ Gas (SF6 or sulphur hexafluoride)
_ Vacuum
_ Air
Compared to fuses, circuit breakers have the ability to open and close repeatedly, whereas a fuse
opens the circuit one time and must be replaced. Fuses are single-phase devices, whereas
breakers are normally gang operated three-phase devices. Breakers can interrupt very high
magnitudes of current. They can close into a fault and trip open again. They can be controlled
remotely. They need periodic maintenance.
Depending on the types of dielectric medium used circuit breakers are of four types-
 Oil Circuit Breaker
 Gas(SF6) Circuit Breaker
 Vacuum Circuit Breaker
 Air circuit Breaker

Oil Circuit Breaker

The oil circuit breaker (sometimes called OCB) interrupts arcs in clean mineral oil. The oil
provides a high resistance between the opened contacts to stop current flow. The interrupting
contacts are inside the oil filled tanks. Oil circuit breakers have the ability to be used in systems
that range from low to very high voltage. Oil has a high dielectric strength compared to air. The
main disadvantage of using oil is the environmental hazard if spilled. A maintenance concern for
oil breakers is that the oil becomes contaminated with gases during arc suppression. The oil must
be filtered or replaced periodically or after a specified number of operations to ensure the oil has
a high dielectric strength.
Figure-3.11 Oil circuit breaker
Gas (SF6) Circuit Breaker
Sulphur hexafluoride gas breakers (sometimes called SF6 or GCBs) have their contacts enclosed
in a sealed interrupting chamber filled with SF6 gas. SF6 gas is a non-flammable inert gas that
has a very high dielectric strength, much greater than oil. Inert gases are colourless, odourless,
and tasteless, and form other chemical compounds with difficulty. These properties enable the
breaker to interrupt current quickly and maintain relatively small equipment dimensions. The
operating disadvantage of using SF6 gas circuit breakers is that the gas turns to liquid at –40°C.
Maintaining correct gas pressure is also an operational concern. Heaters are usually wrapped
around the interrupter chambers in cold weather environments to maintain proper temperature
and pressure.
3.12 Gas
Figure-3.13 Interrupter contacts

Vacuum Circuit Breaker

Vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs) extinguish the arc by opening the contacts in a vacuum.
(Vacuum has a lower dielectric strength than oil or gas, but higher than air.) These circuit
breakers are smaller and lighter than air circuit breakers. The contacts are enclosed in an
evacuated bottle where no rated current can flow when the contacts separate. When the breaker
opens, the arc is put out simply and quickly.

Air circuit Breaker

Since the dielectric strength of air is much less than oil or SF6 gas, air breakers are relatively
large and are usually found in lower-voltage installations. The very high voltage air-blast circuit
breaker is another type of circuit breaker that is used for sub-transmission voltages. Air-blast
breakers direct a compressed blast of air across the interrupting contacts to help extinguish the
arc. Most air-blast circuit breakers are considered old or obsolete and have been replaced.
circuit breaker

Lightning arresters are designed to limit the line-to-ground voltage in the event of lightning or
other excessive transient voltage conditions. Some of the older gap-type lightning arresters
actually short-circuited the line or equipment, causing the circuit breaker to trip. The breaker
would then reclose when the transient overvoltage condition was gone. The lightning arrester
protects the equipment near the lightning arrester from experiencing high-voltage transient
conditions. The newer lightning arresters use gapless metal oxide semiconductor materials to
clamp or limit the voltage. These newer designs offer better voltage control and have higher
energy dissipation characteristics.
Figure-3.16 Lightning arrester

The purpose of the electrical bus
in substations is to connect
equipment together. A bus is a
conductor, or group of
conductors, that serves as a
common connection between
two or more circuits. The bus is

supported by station post insulators. These insulators are mounted on the bus structures.
Figure-3.17 A typical electrical bus

Capacitors are used to improve the operating efficiency of electric power systems and help
transmission system voltage stability during disturbances. Capacitors are used to cancel out the
lagging current effects from motors and transformers. Capacitors can reduce system losses and
help provide voltage support. Another benefit of capacitors is that they can reduce the total
current flowing through a wire, thus leaving capacity in the conductors for additional load.
Capacitor banks can be switched manually, automatically, locally or remotely. For example,
system control centre operators commonly switch substation capacitor banks on and off to meet
load requirements or system stability reactive demand requirements. Providing capacitive
support maintains good system voltage and reduces system losses.

Figure-3.18 Substation capacitor bank

Conductor material, type, size, and current rating are key factors in determining the power
handling capability of transmission lines, distribution lines, transformers, service wires, and so
on. A conductor heats up when current flows through it due to its resistance. Conductors are rated
by how much current causes them to heat up to a predetermined amount of degrees above
ambient temperature. The amount of current that causes the temperature to rise depends on the
conductor material and size. The conductor type determines its strength and application in
electric power systems.

Conductor Types
The most common power line conductor types are-
Solid- Solid conductors are typically smaller and stronger than stranded conductors. Solid
conductors are usually more difficult to bend and are easily damaged.
Stranded- Stranded conductors have three or more strands of conductor material twisted
together to form a single conductor. Stranded conductors can carry high currents and are usually
more flexible than solid conductors.
Aluminum Conductor Steel-Reinforced (ACSR)- To add strength to aluminum
conductors, steel strands that are used as the core of aluminum stranded conductors. These high-
strength conductors are normally used on long span distances, for minimum sag applications.


The protection of power system equipment is accomplished by protective relaying equipment
that is used to trip circuit breakers, reclosers, motorized disconnect switches, and self-contained
protection devices. The objective of system protection is to remove faulted equipment from the
energized power system before it further damages other equipment or becomes harmful to the
public or employees.
System protection protects power system equipment from damage due to power faults and/or
lightning. System protection uses solid-state and electromechanical protective relays to monitor
the power system’s electrical characteristics and trip circuit breakers under abnormal conditions.
Also, the protective relays initiate alarms to system control, notifying operators of changes that
have occurred in the system. The control operators react to these incoming alarms from the
system protection equipment. Another means for providing equipment protection is proper
grounding. Effective or proper grounding can minimize damage to equipment, cause protective
relays to operate faster (i.e., open circuit breakers faster), and provides additional safety for
System protection, often called protective relaying, is composed of relay devices in substations
that monitor the power system’s voltages and currents through the CTs and PTs and are
programmed to initiate “trip” or “close” signals to circuit breakers if the thresholds are exceeded.
System control operators are then alarmed of the new conditions. The relays, trip signals, circuit
breaker control systems, and the system control equipment are all battery powered. Therefore,
the entire system protection operation is functional should the main ac power system be out of
Protective Relays
A protective relay is a device that monitors system conditions (amps, volts, etc., using CTs and
PTs) and reacts to the detection of abnormal conditions. The relay compares the real-time actual
quantities against preset programmable threshold values and sends dc electrical control signals to
trip circuit breakers or other opening devices in an effort to clear an abnormal condition on the
equipment it is protecting. When system problems are detected and breakers are tripped, alarm
indications are sent to system control and sometimes other protection operations are initiated. As
a result, equipment may be de-energized, taken off line, and consumers will be out of power with
minimal equipment damage. The operation of protective relays is the stabilizing force against the
unwanted destabilizing forces that occur in electric power systems when something happens,
such as unanticipated power faults and lightning strikes.
Protective relays are manufactured as two types: electromechanical and solid state.
Electromechanical relays are composed of coils of wire, magnets, spinning disks and moving
electrical switch contacts, and are very mechanical in nature. Solid-state relays are electronic and
have no moving parts. Most utilities are now installing the more modern solid-state relays.
Substation protection is generally accomplished using differential relays. Differential relays are
used to protect major transformers and buses from faults.
Differential Relays
Differential relays are generally used to protect buses, transformers, and generators. Differential
relays operate on the principle that the current going into the protected device must be equal to
the current leaving the device. Should a differential condition be detected, and then all source
breakers that can feed fault current on either side of the device are tripped.
Transformer Differential Relays
Current transformers (CTs) on both the high side and low side of the transformer are connected
to a transformer differential relay. Matching CTs are used to compensate for the transformer
windings turns ratio. Should a differential be detected between the current entering the
transformer and exiting the transformer after adjusting for small differences due to losses and
magnetization, the relay trips the source breaker(s) and the transformer is de-energized
Bus Protection Schemes
Bus differential relays are used to protect the bus in a substation. The current entering the bus
(usually exiting the power transformer) must equal the current leaving the bus. Line-to-ground
faults in the bus will upset the current balance in the differential relay and cause the relay
contacts to close, thus initiating trip signals to all source breakers.
Over and Under Voltage Relays
Another application of system-protective relays is the monitoring of high and low bus voltage.
For example overvoltage relays are sometimes used to control (i.e., turn off) substation capacitor
banks, whereas under voltage relays are sometimes used to switch on substation capacitor banks.
Over- and under voltage relays are also used to trip breakers due to other abnormal conditions.
Buchholz relay
In the field of electric power distribution and transmission, a Buchholz relay is a safety device
mounted on some oil-filled power transformers and reactors, equipped with an external overhead
oil reservoir called a conservator. The Buchholz Relay is used as a protective device sensitive to
the effects of dielectric failure inside the equipment.

Depending on the model, the relay has multiple methods to detect a failing transformer. On a
slow accumulation of gas, due perhaps to slight overload, gas produced by decomposition
of insulating oil accumulates in the top of the relay and forces the oil level down. A float
switch in the relay is used to initiate an alarm signal. Depending on design, a second float may
also serve to detect slow oil leaks.

If an arc forms, gas accumulation is rapid, and oil flows rapidly into the conservator. This flow of
oil operates a switch attached to a vane located in the path of the moving oil. This switch
normally will operate a circuit breaker to isolate the apparatus before the fault causes additional
damage. Buchholz relays have a test port to allow the accumulated gas to be withdrawn for
testing. Flammable gas found in the relay indicates some internal fault such as overheating
or arcing, whereas air found in the relay may only indicate low oil level or a leak.


1. Basic Electrical Engineering, D.P Kothari, I.J Nagrath.

2. Electrical Power Substations Engineering, John D. Mc Donald.
3. Electric Power System Basics For the Nonelectrical Professional,
Steven W. Blume.
4. www.delhitransco.gov.in.
5. www.google.com