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MODERN MARINE

ENGINEER'S MANUAL
Volume I

THIRD EDITION
EVERETT C. HUNT, Editor-in-Chief
Consulting Engineer

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS
Gus Bourneuf Jr. Ronald A. leva
American Bureau of Shipping Ashland Chemical Company

Boris S. Butman Cynthia Lakis


United States Merchant American Bureau of Shipping
Marine Academy
W a It er M . M acIean
Roger Butturini United ~tates Merchant
Engineering Technical Associates Manne Academy
. William D. Marscher
. Donald A. Dalley Mechanical Solutions, Inc.
Manne Management Systems, Inc.
William J. Sembler
Paul A. Dupuy United States Merchant
General Electric Company Marine Academy

James A. Harbach Eugene D. Story


United States Merchant Marine Management
Marine Academy Systems, Inc.

Joseph Tiratto
Joseph Tiratto and Associates
Copyright © 1999 by Cornell Maritime Press, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any


manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of
brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For
information, address Cornell Maritime Press, Inc., For the Regiment of Midshipmen
Centreville, Maryland 21617. at Kings Point, New York

In memory of Jay

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Modern marine engineer's manual. - 3rd ed. / Everett C. Hunt, editor


-in-chief; contributing editors, Gus Bourneuf, Jr .... [et al.]
p. em.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-87033-496-4
1. Marine engineering. I. Hunt, Everett C., 1928-
II. Bourneuf, Gus.
VM600.M65 1999
623.8'7-dc21 99-14987
CIP

Manufactured in the United States of America


First edition, 1941. Third edition, 1999
Contents

FOREWORD : xv

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION : xvii

PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION : xix

CHAPTER 1

Thermal Sciences and Engineering


James A. Harbach
Thermodynamics 1-1
Fluid Mechanics 1-28
Heat Transfer 1-35
Review 1-47
References 1-47

CHAPTER 2

Engineering Materials
Walter M. Maclean
Engineering Material Requirements 2-1
Engineering Material Types 2-3
Engineering Material Manufacturing Processes 2-41
Material Properties and Performance 2-46
Review 2-67
References 2-68
Acknowledgments 2-69

vn
viii CONTENTS CONTENTS IX

CHAPTER 3 Boiler Operation and Maintenance 5-80


Review 5-103
Steam Power Plants
References 5-105
J ames A. Harbach
Acknowledgments 5-105
Ideal Vapor Cycles 3-1
Actual Marine Steam Power Plants 3-7
CHAPTER 6
Steam Power Plant Systems 3-21
Steam Power Plant Operating Procedures 3-31 Marine Steam Turbines
Emergency Operations 3-38 Everett C. Hunt
Review 3-42 History of Steam Turbines 6-1
References 3-43 Steam Turbine Classifications 6-2
Acknowledgments 3-43 Steam Turbine Principles 6-4
Steam Turbine Performance 6-18
CHAPTER 4 Turbine Bucket Considerations 6-20
Steam Conditions 6-25
Bearing Application and Lubrication
Steam Turbine Construction 6-25
William D. Marscher
Steam Turbine Controls 6-37
Introduction 4-1
Tests and Inspections 6-39
Bearing Selection 4-2
Rotor Vibration Modes and Amplitude 6-44
Bearing Lubricants and Lubrication Systems 4-37
Propulsion Turbine Operation 6-45
Bearing Installation and Maintenance 4-59
Propulsion Steam Turbine Operating Problems 6-48
Bearing System Condition Monitoring and Troubleshooting 4-68
Turbine-Generator Sets 6-57
Closure 4-85
Review 6-58
Additional Information 4-85
References 6-59
Review 4-86
Acknowledgments 6-60
References 4-88
Acknowledgments 4-90
CHAPTER 7

Gas Turbines
CHAPTER 5 Paul A. Dupuy

Steam Generation Introduction 7-1


James A. Harbach Principles of Gas Turbines 7-8
Boiler Types 5-1 Performance 7-19
Combustion of Fuel Oil 5-13 Propulsion Gas Turbines 7-30
Boiler Components and Construction 5-26 Auxiliary Gas Turbines 7-94
Boiler Automation Systems 5·49 Review 7-104
x CONTENTS CONTENTS xi

References 7-106 Gear Problems 9-47


Acknowledgments 7-107 Gear Inspection and Repair Using a Plastic Hone 9-49
Propulsion Line Shaft 9-51
CHAPTER 8 Propulsion Clutches 9-58
Booster Motor and Tunnel Gear 9-61
Petroleum Fuels
Review 9-64
Everett C. Hunt and Ronald A. leva
References 9-65
Introduction 8-1
Acknowledgments 9-65
Marine Fuel Properties 8-3
Marine Bunker Industry 8-9
CHAPTER 10
Safety Considerations During Bunkering 8-14
Fuel Analysis 8-18 Heat Exchangers and Desalination
Emissions Testing and Control 8-25 Everett C. Hunt
Mechanical Fuel Treatment 8-30 Heat Exchanger Performance 10-1
Chemical Fuel Treatment 8-34 Heat Exchangers 10-4
Gas Turbine Fuels 8-36 Heat Exchanger Monitoring 10-19
Fuel Oil Systems 8-38 Heat Exchanger Operation 10-24
Operational Problems in a Diesel Engine Fuel Oil System 8-39 Heat Exchanger Maintenance 10-25
Summary Approach to Shipboard Fuel Problems 8-39 Desalination Systems 10-27
Review 8-44 Reverse Osmosis Desalination 10-38
References 8-44 Review 10-43
Acknowledgments 8-45 References 10-44
Acknowledgments 10-45
CHAPTER 9
CHAPTER 11
Mechanical Transmission Systems
Everett C. Hunt Piping Components and Systems
Introduction 9-1 William J. Sembler
Reduction Gears 9-3 Pipe 11-1
Gear Nomenclature 9-8 Tubing 11-4
Reduction Gear Principles 9-13 Hose 11-5
Gear Tooth Loading and Stresses 9-18 Connections 11-8
Propulsion Reduction Gear Construction 9-21 Fittings 11-24
Lubricating Oil System 9-34 Pipe Bends 11-31
Transmission System Monitoring 9-36 Valves 11-33
Gear Alignment 9-38 Orifices 11-97
rii CONTENTS CONTENTS xiii

Strainers 11-100 References 13-87


Steam Traps 11-105 Acknowledgments 13-88
Insulation 11-113
Jacketed Pipe 11-114 CHAPTER 14
Installation 11-116
Computerized Maintenance Management
Valve Maintenance 11-122
Eugene D. Story and Donald A. Dailey
Piping Design 11-128
Introduction 14-1
Review 11-159
Planning a System 14-2
References 11-160
System Hardware 14-6
Acknowledgments 11-162
System Applications 14-8
Database Development 14-36
CHAPTER 12
Conclusion 14-50
Fluid Transfer Devices Review 14-51
William J. Sembler Acknowledgments 14-51
Pumps 12-1
Compressors 12-137 CHAPTER 15
Blowers and Fans 12-163
Classification and Regulatory Requirements
Ejectors' 12-172
Gus Bourneuf Jr., Cynthia Lakis, and Joseph Tiratto
Review 12-181
Ship Classification 15-1
References 12-183
Maritime Administrations-Flag State 15-15
Acknowledgments 12-184
Maritime Administrations-Port State 15-19
International Maritime Organization (IMO) 15-21
CHAPTER 13
Quality Assurance for Ship Management 15-37
Management and Safety of Marine Review 15-47
Engineering Operations References 15-48
Boris S. Butman and Roger Butturini Appendix to Chapter 15 15-49

General Principles 13-1 APPENDIX : A-I


Shipboard Engineering Operations 13-4
INDEX
Shipyard Repairs and Overhauls 13-11
Shipboard Safety 13-34
Occupational Health 13-65
ERM-Engine RoomResource Management 13-76
Shipboard Computer Applications 13-82
Review 13-85
Foreword

T he term "global economy" has been much overused to describe many


things-the rise and fall of financial powers, the redistribution of
wealth, streamlining, downsizing, and more-all suggesting a relatively
new phenomenon. However, global economy is still largely about interna-
tional commerce-trade across the seas-as it has been for centuries. And
transport across those seas continues to be done by high-capacity ships ca-
pable of moving cargo over long distances. Commerce always involves a
balance of factors such as superior materials, skilled labor, low cost, and
state-of-the-art technology. These factors can be readily modeled and ana-
lyzed using computer software costing as little as a semester at a local col-
lege. The interaction of variables has been examined sufficiently so that
patterns of trade or specifics of vehicle selection can be fine-tuned for vi-
ability. Sea trade remains the favored method of global transport; the over-
whelming majority of international commerce is still carried by ships, as it
has been for nearly three millennia.
Over the last quarter-century, technical developments and economies
of scale have resulted in dramatically lower costs for building, propelling,
and loading ships; the attendant labor cost components are becoming al-
most the sole determinant of competition among the world's fleets. Materi-
als for shipbuilding can now be produced, refined, and shipped anywhere
at such low cost that sourcing differences are insignificant. Much of the
credit for this progress goes to advancements in areas closely aligned with
and including marine engineering.
Ships-those remarkable, self-contained, floating cities-still face the
timeless challenges associated with the sea. No other mode of carrier
transport is required to function reliably and continuously at full power for
long periods and have the capability for adequate maintenance and repair
to be done in-situ. Ships must be designed so that basic ship functions can
be carried out at untoward angles of trim or heel and despite the alternat-
ing orientations caused by pitching or rolling. Engineering considerations
are complicated by ever-increasing engine cycle temperatures further
compounded by salt-laden combustion air; engineers must continually
strive for the economy to be gained from using lower-quality fuels.

xv
.ll.Vl FOREWORD

New challenges appear at a brisk pace. While ship operating economy


continues to favor lower-paid and potentially less-skilled crews, these
same individuals are still expected to be knowledgeable about the increas-
ingly complex ships they sail. The extensive use of shipboard electronics
and the expansion of international safety criteria have significant poten-
tial for worldwide benefit, but they also present additional concerns re-
garding the day-to-day operations of ships of all sizes and types. These
operating realities further challenge those who design, build, and manage
ships. Preface to Third Edition
This book offers the fundamental elements required to help engineers
stay current on ways to benefit from the technological advances occurring
in these rapidly changing times. The third edition of volume 1 of the Mod-
ern Marine Engineer's Manual is a superb up-to-date reference for stu-
T he first edition of volume 1 of Modern Marine Engineer's Manual was
published on the eve of World War II to provide a useful and practical
text for the engineering officers, students, port engineers, and ship repair
dents and practicing professionals alike. It incorporates state-of-the-art specialists of a rapidly expanding American merchant marine. The second
changes that have been implemented since the publishing of the second edition, published twenty-four years later, provided useful updates of the
edition, with emphasis in appropriate areas. Written by experts in marine original text. Due to dramatic changes in all aspects of ship machinery and
engineering and the relevant academic fields, it is authoritative and con- ship operations during the past thirty years, this third edition is not a revi-
tains a significant amount of high-caliber input. sion of past editions but an entirely new text written in the tradition of ear-
lier editions. All the contributing editors are experts in the areas for which
DavidA. O'Neil they have prepared chapters. Many are employed as consultants; others
President, 1997-1998 hold academic appointments in their fields.
The Society ofN aval Architects and Marine Engineers The diesel engine-now the most popular form of main propulsion sys-
tem-is covered in volume 2. The third edition ofvolume 1 remains primar-
ily a source of information on steam and gas turbine power plants. The
reciprocating steam engine is no longer covered in the text, and the mate-
rial on steam turbine propulsion has been reduced. However, gas turbine
main propulsion has been covered in detail in the expectation that this
type of power plant will become increasingly popular as new environ-
mental regulations continue to require the use of higher-quality fuel, con-
tributing to improved economics for the gas turbine. It is possible that gas
turbines combined with heat recovery steam generators and steam tur-
bines may become the most popular propulsion system for cruise liners.
Also covered in this newest edition is the personal computer, which is
rapidly becoming essential shipboard equipment for many tasks, including
spare parts management, maintenance programs, vibration analysis, power
plant analysis, management systems for quality and safety, communica-
tions, and record keeping.
International, national, and local laws and regulations concerning the
protection of the environment and the safety of shipboard personnel and
property plus the rules of classification societies and flag states all combine
to provide a new challenge to ships personnel. Shipboard systems designed
to comply with many of these requirements (including ISO 9002 and the
ISM code) are described in the text.

XVII
xviii PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION

Pumps, pumping systems, and heat exchangers, which are found on all
types of ships, are given extensive coverage.
Petroleum fuels are frequently treated chemically and processed me-
chanically on modern ships. The characteristics of fuels, fuel chemical
treatment, fuel mechanical processing, and the implications of such treat-
ments and processes for the maintenance of both internal combustion en-
gines and boilers are presented.
Since shipboard equipment in most ofthe world is manufactured to the
metric system, metric measurements are used along with the traditional Preface to the First Edition
American units of measure.
In recognition of the use of the text by students, each chapter includes
review questions as well ~s references to materials for further study.
The editors wish to thank all the companies and organizations who
T he expansion of shipbuilding made evident about four years ago that
there was need of an American textbook on marine engineering that
would adequately explain the design and operation of all the general types
gave permission for the use of illustrations and other material in this edi- of marine equipment and at the same time should be written simply, to be
tion. The names and locations of these companies are acknowledged at the easily understood. Because marine engineering was, and is advancing and
end of each chapter. changing so rapidly, it was necessary that a considerable amount of theory
be included in order that the student be prepared to understand future de-
velopments in the field of marine engineering. There was the thought too,
that for effective use in this time of stress, it would have to be widely dis-
tributed among the shipyard and seagoing personnel. This meant that the
price ofthe book had to be such that the men could pay.
At this point, it may be mentioned that methods of study of a technical
book are very important if useful results are to be obtained. A certain time
should be set aside each day for study. This may be interfered with by out-
side emergencies, but every effort should be made to adhere to it. A short
section of the book should be read through completely each day. Then it
should be re-read and important words underlined in pencil. The drawings
may then be copied in the notebook.
It may also be mentioned that many men "look, but see not." Every man
in the "black gang" should be able to sketch on paper the position of every
important piece of equipment in the engine room of his ship and know the
position of every important control and valve.
More and more marine engineering design is breaking up into special-
ties and this is the reason that this book is written by a number of men. The
authors of the various chapters of the book are specialists, each on his sub-
ject, some are engineers of the U.S. Maritime Commission and others are
engaged in various outside branches of the maritime industry. Anyone of
the authors of the manual will be glad to answer any difficult point that
may be brought up in regard to his specialty. Should the student wish to
reach one of them he should write care of the Cornell Maritime Press.
It will be noted by those familiar with the subject that a large use has
been made of the instruction pamphlets of the U.S. Navy. This use was
made both because of the short time available to prepare this manual and
because of the excellence of the Navy material.

XIX
xx PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

The experienced marine engineers will notice the omission of many ex-
cellent pieces of marine equipment from these pages. This was due to the
sharp necessity for conserving time and printed space. In regard to printed
space the editor believed that a full description of a single type of equip-
ment to be greatly preferred to cursory and inadequate descriptions of the
products of all the various manufacturers. That a piece of equipment is pre-
sented in this book does not mean that the author prefers it to some other
piece of equipment that may not be mentioned. It may but illustrate the
point of the subject better.
The thanks of the editor go out to the splendid cooperation he has re-
ceived from the authors of the chapters, from the publishers, from all
branches of the marine industry without exception and from his superiors
in the U.S. Maritime Commission. MODERN MARINE ENGINEER'S MANUAL
Grateful acknowledgment is hereby made to those companies which
have supplied us with data and illustrations concerning their products: .... Volume I
[The remaining paragraphs of the preface were devoted to an extensive
list of companies and organizations that were of help to the editor.]

September 2,1941 A.O.


[Alan Osbourne]