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CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
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INTRODUCTION

A competence is an underlying characteristic of a person that allows


him/ her to deliver superior performance in a given role.
Competencies therefore are those skills, traits or behaviors that
distinguish the best from rest in an organization.

Today organizations are all talking or discussing in terms of


competence. Company expects from the employees necessary of skill
sets , which would make their organizations competitive .There has
been a shift in the focus of the organizations. Company believes in
excelling and not competing. It is better to build a core competency
that will see them through crisis. And what other way than to develop
the people , for human resource is the most valuable resource any
organization has.

Organizations of the future will have to rely more on their competent


employees than any other resource. It is a major factor that
determines the success of an organization . Competencies are the
inner tool for motivating employees, directing systems and processes
and guiding the business towards common goals that allow the
organizations to increase their value. Competencies provide a
common language and method that can integrate all the major hr
functions and services like recruitment , training , performance
management , remuneration, performance appraisal , career and
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succession planning and integrated human resource management


system.

Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for


achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a
particular organization .Success factors are combinations of
knowledge , skills and attributes ( more historically called
“KSA” s) that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and
are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work
roles. Attributes include : personal characteristics , traits ,
motives , values or ways of thinking that impact an individuals
behavior.

In this study of behavioral competencies of employees include


knowledge , skills , attitudes and actions that distinguish
excellent performers . In order to achieve consistency of
understanding to enhance discussions about work behaviors .
The importance of the study of behavioral competencies are job
effectiveness , making people better and organizational success
etc.

DEFENITION:
First popularized by BOYATZIS (1982) with research result on
clusters of competencies:
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"“ A capacity that exists in a person that leads to behavior that


meets the job demands with in parameters of organizational
environment , and that , in turn brings about desired results”

 UNIDO ( 2002)

A competency is a “set of skills , related knowledge and


attributes that allow an individual to success fully perform a
task or an activity with in a specified job or function”.

 RANKIN ( 2002)

“ Competencies are definition of skills and behaviors that


organization expects their staff to practice in work.”

 MANSFIELD (1997):

“ Underlying characteristics of a person that results in effective


and superior performance”.

 WOODRUFFE ( 1991):

COMPETENCY: A person- related concept that refers to the


dimensions of behavior lying behind competent performer.

COMPETENCE: A work – related concept that refers to areas


of work at which the person is competent.

COMPETENCIES: often referred as the combination of the


above two.
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 ALBANESE (1989):

Competencies are personal characteristics that contribute to


effective managerial performance.

 HAYES (1979):

Competencies are generic knowledge motive, trait , social role


or skill of a person linked to superior performance on the job.

APPLICATION OF BEHAVIORAL COMPETENCIES:


Application of behavioral competencies is absolutely important for
bringing superior performance across the organization and it is
applicable for all important areas of hr.

BEHAVIOURAL COMPETENCIES – HR INTEGRATED


1. SELECTION AND PLACEMENT :

For management positions , there are a few competencies


that are common and they may be difficult to develop at a
later stage hence , even when an organization hires
management trainees , they must have a set of behavioral
competencies .While for senior management positions , the
person must match the competency profile required for the
job and otherwise , we can be very sure that the person will
not give superior performance on the job. Once a person has
been hired , it is important to asses his / her competencies
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periodically ,( it happens automatically once the concept is


integrated with the performance management system) and
place the person on a role , which best matches his/ her
competency profile.

2. SUCESSION PLANNING

It is an accepted fact in the organization which groom their existing


people for taking senior positions , are the one which get good
people at the entry level, has lesser turnover at managerial level and
a much higher level of motivation in their managerial team .The
other major advantage of a succession planning exercise is that you
have people in senor positions that have a much stronger sense of “
belongingness” and far better understanding of the business . By
integrating the concept of competencies in the hrm , it is very easy to
identify a set of people for a given position and groom them to take
over the same in due course of time. More important that you not
only a few successors for the job but you are also sure that they will
deliver a superior performance . It is therefore absolutely important
to have the competencies integrated in the succession planning
process of an organization.

CAREER PLANNING & JOB ROTATION


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The concept of competencies would enable an organization to


identify the potential of the existing employees and put them in jobs
where they will give optimal performance . Very often it is seen that
a person might be performing a particular role very efficiently but
when promoted or moved to another position, she / he fails . T his
happens because the person didn’t’ t have the requisite set of
competencies for the new role . By developing the career planning
and job rotation exercise around competencies’, the organization not
only puts the individual in to optimum use but also ensures the
growth an success of employees with in the organization.

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT:

This is one area where the concept of competencies can create


wonders . Once competencies have been identified for a role , they
get listed in the performance management system and there fore an
individual knows that she / he will also be rated on these in addition
to the KRAs . In other words, the individual makes efforts to develop
and use required competencies and hence delivers much higher level
of performance eg: if initiative was a key competency for a job, the
individual now makes effort to take initiative and thus improves up
on his /her performance . Mere introduction of this concept in this
area, therefore improves performance across the organization without
any special efforts or costs.
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INTRODUCING COMPETENCIES IN AN ORGANIZATION:

There are two approaches that can be used introducing the


competencies in an organization.

BEHAVIOURAL EVEN INTERVIEW( BEI) THE PURIST


METHOD:

This was a method used by Mcber after looking at various


alternatives . In this method we can identify each role at least 2
existing superior performance and two average performers . BEI (
Behavioral Even Interview) is than conducted on both sets of people .
At least 2 BEIs are important to draw enough information on the
task and people management competencies . The behavioral data
gathered during the interview is isolated and put in to an “umbrella”
category. For example all behaviors that indicate initiative are bought
under one umbrella. So at the end of the exercise, we can map all
the individuals interviewed. Then we can compare the competencies
displayed by the superior performers with that of average performers
. The competencies that are present in the superior performers but not
in average performers are the one those are important and are known
as distinguishing competencies. They become the competencies for
the role.

GENERIC MODEL :

There are generic model of behavioral competencies available with


their specific behavioral indicators . An expert panel is formed for
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each job ( normally all the role members) and the panel is asked to
look at the generic model and find out what behavioral dimensions
are required for achieving superior performance on the job. The
competencies indentified are then rated and ranked to isolate the
distinguishing competencies and leave the threshold one. At the end
of the exercise, we will have a set of competencies for each role .
Then we have to validate it by looking at our current superior
performers on that role .For this we have to discuss the generic model
with the immediate boss of the superior performer and at least one
peer person from the customer department and a subordinate and ask
them to identify the competencies from the generic model which best
describe the superior performer. Then we again need to row rate and
rank them to isolate the distinguishing competencies, then there is a
need to co-relate the model developed from the expert panel and do
the required fine- tuning to freeze the competencies for a role.

COMPARISON OF TWO MODELS

The pursuit method is far more clear proof and also enables the
organization members to develop BEI skills. However , it is time
consuming and demands higher resources .In the second method. We
can introduce the concepts at a faster pace and fine-tune this as you
start practicing , then developing BEI skills in key managers
responsible for selection and appraisal would be required even if on e
was to use the generic model.
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BEHAVIOR INDICATOR:

A COMPETENCY IS DESRIBED IN TERMS OF KEY


BEHAVIORS THAT ENABLE RECOGNITION OF THAT
COMPETENCY AT THE WORK PLACE.

These behaviors are demonstrated by excellent performers on the job


much more consistently than average or poor performers. These
characteristics generally follow the 80-20 rule in that and they
include the key behaviors that primarily drive to excellent
performance.

COMPETENCY – BROAD CATEGORIES

 GENERIC COMPETENCIES
Competencies which are considered essential for all employees
regardless to their function or level.( communication , initiative
listening etc .These are basic competencies required to do the job,
which do not differentiate between high and low performers.

 MANAGERIAL COMPETENCIES
Competencies which are considered essential for employees with
managerial or supervisory responsibility in any functional area
including directors and senior posts.
 THRESHOLD OR PERFORMANCE:

Performance competencies are those that differentiate between


high and low performers.
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COMPETENCY MODEL:
The roots of competency modeling date as far back as early 1990’s
but these models have become widely popular these days .A
competency model is an organizing framework that lists the
competencies required for effective performance in a specific job(
group of related jobs) , organization , function or process.
Individual competencies are organized in to competency models to
enable people in an organization or profession to understand , to
discuss and apply the competencies to the work force
performance.
The competencies in a model may be organized in a variety of
formats . No one approach is inherently best. Organizational needs
will determine the optimal framework .A common approach is to
identify several competencies that are essential for all employees
and then identify several additional categories of competencies
that apply only to specific subgroups .Some competency models
are organized according to the type of competency such as
personal effectiveness , leadership or technical capacity. Other
models may employ a frame work based on job level, with a basic
set of competencies for a given job family and additional
competencies added cumulatively for each higher job level with in
the job family
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TRADITIONAL JOB ANALYSIS VS COMPETENCY


APPROACH

JOB ANALAYSIS LEADS TO


 Long lists of tasks and the skills / knowledge required to
perform each of those tasks.
 Data generation from the subject matter experts
 Effective performance

COMPETENCY MODEL LEADS TO

 A distilled set of underlying personal characteristics.


 Data generation from outstanding performers in addition to
subject matter experts and other job incumbents.
 Outstanding performance

This approach allows executives and managers to make a distinction


between a person’s ability to do specific tasks at the minimum
acceptable level and the ability to do the whole job in an outstanding
manner.

USE OF COMPETENCY MAPPING

Competency mapping serves a number of purposes. It is done for the


following functions

 Gap analysis
 Role clarity
 Selection, potential identification, growth plans
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 Succession planning
 Restructuring
 Inventory of competencies for future planning

1.COMPETENCY BASED RECRUITMENT

Competency based interviews reduce the risk of making a costly


hiring mistake and increase the likely hood of identifying the right
person for the right job.

2.COMPETENCY BASED PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

 Competencies enable
 Establishment of clear high performance standards
 Collection and proper analysis of factual data against the set of
standards
 Conduct of objective feedback meetings
 Direction with regard to specific area of improvement

3.COMPETENCY BASED TRAINING


 Competency based appraisal process leading to effective
identification of training needs.
 Opportunity to identify develop specific training programmers-
focused training investment.
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 Focused training enabling improvement in specific technical and


managerial competencies.

4.COMPETENCY BASED DEVELOPMENT

 Contribute to the understanding of what development really


mean, giving the individual the tools to take the responsibility
for their own development.
 Give the line managers a tool to empower them to develop
people.

5. COMPETENCY BASED SUCESSION PLANNING

Assessing employees readiness or potential to take on new


challenges. Determining the person job fit can be based on matching
the competency profile of an individual to the set of competencies
required for excellence with in a profession. Individuals would know
the competencies required for a particular position and therefore
would have an opportunity to decide if they have the potential to
pursue the position.

COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ENHANCES EMPLOYEE’S


BEHAVIORAL OR TECHNICAL SKILLS.

The competency development is very important in an organization


.All organizations are based on some competencies and if any
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organization is not taking this as a key strategy that will affect the
output and productivity of the individual and organization as a whole.

The employee first have to understand the culture of their


organization, each organization follow some values and these values
are based on their corporate culture. Based on those values or core
competencies they need to define certain behavior indicators , these

of educating them .This will ensure that they are following the same
path for generic and culture specific competencies.

THE MAIN BEHAVIORAL COMPETENCIES

 Communication and motivation abilities


 Leadership skills
 Team work
 Decision making
 Analytical ability
 Adaptability

THE MAIN STEPS FOR DEVELOPING CORE


COMPETENCIES

 Examine core competencies


 Review jobs
 Emphasize outcomes
 Make it measurable
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 Make sure you have a strategic alignment


 Take a strength- based approach
 Champion role modeling.
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SCOPE FOR THE STUDY

The focus was on refractory making industry . The study was under taken by
personally visiting the plant in kanjikode, palakkad and was done over a period
of 30 days

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE

 The primary objective is“ TO STUDY THE BEHAVIOURAL


COMPETENCIES OF THE EMPLOYEES IN SAINT GOBAIN SEPR
REFRACTORIES LTD”

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES

 TO STUDY THE IMPORTANCE OF KNOWLEDGE LEVEL


COMPETENCY MAPPING IN EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY

 TO KNOW THE SIGNIFICANCE OF JOB RELATED SKILL


COMPETENCIES IN IMPROVING JOB INVOLVEMENTS

 TO IDENTIFY THE IMPORTANCE OF INTERPERSONAL AND


COMMUNICATION COMPETENCIES IN EMPLOYEE
EFFICIENCY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

Research Design:
The type of study used for the completion of this study is of
descriptive type (questionnaire).
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Population
A total of 100 employees working in the organization in 3 different
categories such as ( management staff , process leaders and
executives) , questions are prepared accordingly.

Sample Design
The type of design used for the study is random sample design.

Sample Unit
The management staff , process leaders and executives

Sample Size
The employees available in the three cadres are taken as samples so a
sample of 100 out of 150 is taken.
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DATA ANALYSIS

The collected data was tabulated and analyzed with the help of
percentage analysis .The tool used for data collection is questionnaire

DESCRIPTION OF STATISTICAL TOOLS USED

 Percentage method
 Chi-square test
 Weighted average method

PERCENTAGE METHOD

In this project Percentage method test was used. The


percentage method is used to know the accurate percentages of the
data we took, it is easy to graph out through the percentages. The
following are the formula

No of Respondent
x 100
Percentage of Respondent = Total no. of Respondents

From the above formula, we can get percentages of the data given by
the respondents.

CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS
In this project chi-square test was used. This is an analysis of
technique which analyzed the stated data in the project. It analysis the
assumed data and calculated in the study. The Chi-square test is an
important test amongst the several tests of significant developed by
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statistical. Chi-square, symbolically written as x2 (Pronounce as Ki-


Spare), is a statistical measure used in the context of sampling
analysis for comparing a variance to a theoretical variance.

Formula
2 = (O-E) 2
E
O = Observed frequency
E = Expected frequency

WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD

 Weighted average can be defined as an average whose component items are


multiplied by certain values (weights) and the aggregate of the products
are divided by the total of weights.
 One of the limitations of simple arithmetic mean is that it gives equal
importance to all the items of the distribution.
 Certain cases relative importance of all the items in the distribution is
not the same. Where the importance of the items varies.

It is essential to allocate weight applied but may vary in different cases. Thus
weightage is a number standing for the relative importance of the items.

PERIOD OF STUDY

“The Study was conducted for a period of 30 working days.”


( from 16 APRIL to 2012 to 30 MAY 2012)
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LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

 Accuracy of the primary data collected depends up on the


authenticity of the information filled by the respondents in the
questionnaire
 Employee view can be biased
 There is a possibility of systematic bias.
 Findings of this study may not be use full to other organization
 Mental activities performed on the job and the knowledge, skill,
ability etc are not at all directly obsevable
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CHAPTER-2
REVIEW
OF
LITERATURE
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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The concept of competence or competency (‘competence’ generally refers to


functional areas and ‘competency’ to behavioral areas but usage is inconsistent,
as shown below) dominated the management strategy literature of the 1990s,
which emphasized ‘core competence’ as a key organizational resource that
could be exploited to gain competitive advantage (e.g. Campbell and Sommers
Luchs, 1997; Mitrani et al., 1992; Nadler and Tushman, 1999). Hamel and
Prahalad (1994) defined core competence as ‘the collective learning in the
organisation, especially how to co-ordinate diverse production skills and
integrate multiple streams of technologies’ (Prahalad and Hamel, 1990: 82).
From the perspective of a resource-based theory of the firm, sustained
competitive advantage is seen as deriving from a firm’s internal resources if
these can add value, are unique or rare, are difficult for competitors to imitate
and are non-substitutable (Cappelli and Crocker-Hefter, 1996; Ellestro¨ m,
1992; Foss and Knudsen, 1996). The virtue of the core competence approach is
that it ‘recognizes the complex interaction of people, skills and technologies
that drives firm performance and addresses the importance of learning and path
dependency in its evolution’ (Scarborough, 199)
It is paradoxical that, while management strategists were emphasizing
competences that are unique and firm-specific, the HRD literature was more
concerned with developing highly transferable generic competences that are
required for most jobs or particular occupations or job roles (Le´vy-Leboyer,
1996; Stasz, 1997). There is an inherent tension between the strategy and HRD
approaches. If concentrating on core competences that are ‘distinctive and
specific to each individual organization’ is what gives competitive advantage
(Bergenhenegouwen et al., 1996), the scope for generic competence
frameworks is limited; as Thompson et al. (1996) note, rigid adherence to a
generic list for managers of a small firm may undermine the very things that
have led to its current success.
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The competence-based approach in HRD and vocational education and training


(VET) was driven by several factors, some global in nature, others particularly
European. First, and universally, the pace of technological innovation in
products and processes, along with demographic change, has increased the
importance of adaptive training and work-based learning in the HRD agenda.
This need has led to the second global factor, the replacement of supply-driven
traditional education systems with demand-driven models that favor output-
related (typically described as ‘competence-based’) systems of VET. Third,
and especially in Europe, lifelong learning policy emphasizing informal and
non-formal learning has led to initiatives like the Personal Skills Card and the
European Skills Accreditation System, to identify and validate competences so
acquired, and in many EU member states the education and training systems
have begun to validate tacit skills (Bjørna˚vold, 1999, 2000). This policy
emphasis is related to a fourth factor, supporting ‘Social Europe’, since
recognizing learning outcomes, irrespective of the routes of acquisition
involved, rather than inputs in terms of time spent in institutions of learning, is
key to widening access to learning and providing ‘ladders’ for those who have
had fewer opportunities for formal education and training but have nonetheless
developed competence experientially. The fifth factor, also related to the
objectives of European lifelong learning policy, is the potential of a
competence-based approach for integrating traditional education, vocational
training and experiential development.
The sixth factor, elaborated in the European Employment Strategy, is the need
to improve the skills and qualifications of the labour force and to promote
labour mobility through constructing common reference levels of occupational
competence. In relation to this generic competence approach, the development
of an appropriate typology of competence is important for integrating
education and training, aligning both with the needs of the labor market and
promoting mobility for individuals (vertical as in career progression, lateral as
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in movement between sectors and spatial as in geographically), especially for


workers faced with job insecurity (van der Klink and Boon, 2002). If
competence is important, it follows that its meaning is also important, since
without a common understanding there is little chance of integration, alignment
or mobility in practice. However, despite the central role of competence, there
is considerable confusion surrounding the term, which reflects conflation of
distinct concepts and inconsistent usage as much as differences in systems,
structures and cultures of HRD and VET. This paper explores the various
definitions and usage of competence, contrasting three dominant approaches in
the USA, UK, France Germany and Austria, which developed more or less
independently, and, comparing these, seeks to clarify the concept by
incorporating knowledge, skills, competences and competencies within a
holistic competence typology.

Competence as a ‘Fuzzy Concept’


There is such confusion and debate concerning the concept of ‘competence’
that it is impossible to identify or impute a coherent theory or to arrive at a
definition capable of accommodating and reconciling all the different ways that
the term is used. As Norris argued, ‘as tacit understandings of the word
[competence] have been overtaken by the need to define precisely and [to]
operationalize concepts, the practical has become shrouded in theoretical
confusion and the apparently simple has become profoundly complicated’
(1991: 332). Describing competence as a ‘fuzzy concept’, Boon and van der
Klink nonetheless acknowledge it as a ‘useful term bridging the gap between
education and job requirements’ (2002: 6).
Snyder and Ebeling (1992) refer to competence in a functional sense, but use
‘competencies’ in the plural. Some authors consistently use ‘competency’
when referring to occupational competence (Boam and Sparrow, 1992; Mitrani
et al.,
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1992; Smith, 1993) or treat the two as synonymous (Brown, 1993, 1994).
Hartle argues that competency as ‘a characteristic of an individual that has been
shown to drive superior job performance’ (1995: 107) includes both visible
‘competencies’ of ‘knowledge and skills’ and ‘underlying elements of
competencies’, like ‘traits and motives’. Elkin (1990) associates competences
with micro-level job performance and competencies with higher management
attributes and, in defining ‘managerial competencies for the future’, Cockerill
(1989) combines output competences, like presentation skills, with inputs like
self-confidence. The difficulty of using competence as an overarching term as
well as a specific one is demonstrated by the apparently tautological definition
provided by Dooley et al.: ‘Competency-based behavioural anchors are defined
as performance capabilities needed to demonstrate knowledge, skill and ability
(competency) acquisition’ (2004: 317). According to this construction,
competency is a sub-set of itself.

The few attempts to establish coherent terminology (Boak, 1991; Tate, 1995;
Winterton and Winterton, 1999; Woodruffe, 1991) have had little impact to
date. Boak (1991) argues that ‘competency’ in the American sense
complements ‘competence’ as used in the UK occupational standards.
Burgoyne (1988) similarly distinguishes ‘being competent’ (meeting the job
demands) from ‘having competencies’ (possessing the necessary attributes to
perform competently). Woodruffe (1991) offers the clearest statement,
contrasting areas of competence, defined as aspects of the job which an
individual can perform, with competency, referring to a person’s behaviour
underpinning competent performance. Woodruffe’s definition is endorsed by
Tate who warns against confusing ‘input competencies with output
competences’ (1995: 86).
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Mangham (1986) noted that competence may relate to personal models,


outcome models or education and training models, as well as to the standards
approach in which benchmarking criteria are used.Mansfield (2004: 304)
similarly contrasts three different usages of competence: outcomes (vocational
standards describing what people need to be able to do in employment); tasks
that people do (describing what currently happens); and personal traits or
characteristics (describing what people are like).

What Is Competence?
Weinert (2001) lists nine different ways in which competence has been
defined or interpreted: general cognitive ability; specialized cognitive skills;
competence performance model, modified competence-performance model;
objective and subjective self-concepts; motivated action tendencies; action
competence; key competencies; meta-competencies.

Different cultural contexts influence the understanding of competence (Cseh,


2003) and this is especially important in relation to the extent to which
competence is defined by cultural literacy involving group identities such as
race, gender, age and class (ascription), as opposed to demonstrable behavior
(achievement). As Jeris and Johnson note, the distinction is confounded by the
role of ascription in providing access to education and career opportunities that
enable achievement: ‘As much as the behavioral and skill-based performance
assessments portend to be ‘‘neutral and objective,’’ the ascriptive elements
remain present and troubling for today’s increasingly diverse workplaces’
(2004: 1104). There have been few attempts (notably Boon & van der Klink,
2002 in the USA; Eraut, 1994 in the UK) to situate competence in terms of
socio-cultural practices, which as Jeris and Johnson note:
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It is disturbing in light of the strong bonds between identifying competencies


and tying them to practice standards. These standards, once developed, find
their way into practice through certification of people and processes, through
accrediting agencies (public and private) for all sorts of educational programs,
and through qualification examinations and licensure requirements.. . .The
commodification of competence into certifiable competencies privileges the
KSA (knowledge, skills and attitudes) worldview, and turns what Boon and
van der Klink (2002) found to be a somewhat flexible concept into a rigid
sorting mechanism that may have grave consequences for marginalized groups.
(Jeris & Johnson 2004: 1108)

The same argument can be made in relation to the neglect of organizational


culture and workplace context, since generic competences may not be
transferable across different knowledge domains (Burgoyne, 1989; Canning,
1990; Kilcourse, 1994). The Job Competences Survey developed by Dulewicz
and Herbert (1992) demonstrated that the skill needs of managers are
sufficiently generic to permit generalizations across the occupation. Despite
differences in the managerial function in different contexts, Dulewicz (1989)
found that firm-specific competencies represented only 30 per cent of the total
competencies basket, while the remaining 70 per cent were common to a wide
range of organizations. However, Antonacopoulou and FitzGerald warn that
the ‘fact that many organisations use the same terminology to describe a set of
managerial characteristics is not a strong argument for claiming that it is
possible to identify a set of universal management competencies’ (1996: 31).
Such critics claim that rationalist approaches create abstract, narrow and
oversimplified descriptions of competence that fail adequately to reflect the
complexity of competence in work performance (Attewell, 1990; Norris, 1991;
Sandberg, 1994). Since competences are centred on the individual, they are
viewed as independent of the social and task-specific context in which
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performance occurs, yet ‘skill level is a characteristic not only of a person but
also of a context. People do not have 30 F. Delamare Le Deist & J. Winterton.
competences independent of context’ (Fischer et al., 1993: 113). Constructivist
and interpretative approaches derived from phenomenology view competence
as a function of the context in which it is applied, where ‘worker and work
form one entity through lived experience of work’ (Sandberg, 2000: 50).
Competence is constituted by the meaning that the work has for the worker in
their experience (Stoof et al., 2002; Velde, 1999). Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986),
who used an interpretative approach to investigate competence among pilots
and others, found that attributes used in accomplishing work are bound to the
work context regardless of the level of competence attained and that in the
work situation individuals acquire situational or context-dependent knowledge
and skills. Other interpretative studies, with nurses (Benner, 1984) and police
officers (Fielding, 1988a, 1988b), have equally demonstrated that attributes
acquire context-dependency through individuals’ experience of work. One of
the advantages of the interpretative approach is that it acknowledges workers’
tacit knowledge and skills (Polanyi, 1967), which can be overlooked if
competence is treated as context-free since the way people work in practice
seldom accords with the formal job description. Tacit competences, not only of
professionals (Eraut, 2000) but also of so-called ‘unskilled workers’ (Kusterer,
1978), can have a determining impact on the success of an enterprise (Flanagan
et al., 1993).

In view of the terminological and conceptual confusion surrounding


competence, we set out to explore three dominant approaches which began
relatively independently, first in the USA, then in the UK and most recently in
France and Germany. These approaches are contrasted before proposing a
comprehensive holistic typology of competence.
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The Behavioral Approach: The US Tradition


White (1959) is credited with having introduced the term competence to
describe those personality characteristics associated with superior performance
and high motivation. Postulating a relationship between cognitive competence
and motivational action tendencies, White defined competence as an ‘effective
interaction (of the individual) with the environment’ and argued that there is a
‘competence motivation’ in addition to competence as ‘achieved capacity’.
McClelland (1973) followed this approach and developed tests to predict
competence as opposed to intelligence, but subsequently (McClelland, 1976)
also described this characteristic underlying superior performance as
‘competency’, introducing the approach to the consulting firm that became Hay
McBer.

Measures of competence were developed as an alternative to using traditional


tests of cognitive intelligence because these were held to be poor predictors of
job performance, although Barrett and Depinet (1991) defended the predictive
power of intelligence tests. The competence approach starts from the opposite
end, observing successful and effective job performers to determine how these
individuals differ from less successful performers. Competency thus captures
skills and dispositions beyond cognitive ability such as self-awareness, self-
regulation and social skills; while some of these may also be found in
personality taxonomies, competencies are fundamentally behavioural and,
unlike personality and intelligence, may be learned through training and
development (McClelland, 1998). This tradition has remained.

What Is Competence?
Particularly influential in the USA, with competency defined in terms of
‘underlying characteristics of people’ that are ‘causally related to effective or
superior performance in a job’, ‘generalizing across situations, and enduring
31

for a reasonably long period of time’ (Boyatzis, 1982; Spencer and Spencer,
1993). The Hay Group et al. (1996) demonstrated widespread use of this
approach in USA companies in order to raise performance.

This is the tradition followed by Boyatzis (1982), who determined empirically


the characteristics of managers that enable them to be effective in various
managerial positions, based on a study of 2,000 managers holding forty-one
different positions in twelve organizations. Boyatzis proposed an integrated
model of managerial competence that explains the interrelationship of these
characteristics and their relationship with both management functions and the
internal organizational environment. Similarly, Spencer and Spencer (1993)
demonstrated the use of the McClelland/McBer job competence assessment
(JCA) methodology with an analysis of 650 jobs to propose generic job
models. For them, competencies include: motives, traits, self-concepts,
attitudes or values, content knowledge, or cognitive or behavioral skills – any
individual characteristic that can be measured or counted reliably and that can
be shown to differentiate significantly between superior and average
performers, or between effective and ineffective performers. (Spencer and
Spencer, 1993: 4).

Similarly, noting that different cultures are commonly associated with an


emphasis on particular work attributes, Dooley et al. (2001) found that
Mexican and American trainers listed the same top ten competencies from a list
of thirty-nine considered relevant to their training and development activities.
Paradoxically, the use of generic competencies has lived alongside the strategic
approach to core competence in the US. Twenty-five years ago, the American
Management Association (AMA) identified five clusters of competencies that
were believed to be associated with effective managerial behavior (Hayes,
1979) and these prompted the American Association of Colleges and Schools
32

of Business (AACSB) to promote the competency approach in US Business


Schools (Albanese, 1989). More recently, the State Commission on Achieving
Necessary Skills (SCANS), established by the US Secretary of Labor,
identified ‘generic competencies’ (resources, interpersonal, information,
systems and technology) (SCANS, 1992). The link between core competence
and generic competencies is made through competency modeling and
competency assessment. Competency modeling is used to identify the critical
success factors driving performance in organizations (Lucia and Lepsinger,
1999), while competency assessment is used to determine the extent to which
individuals have these critical competencies (Spencer et al., 1997).

Since the end of the 1990s, competency-based HRM has become widespread in
the US, in relation not only to HRD in general, but also to leadership in
particular as well as selection, retention and remuneration (Allbredge and
Nilan, 2000; Athey and Orth, 1999; Dubois and Rothwell, 2004; Foxan, 1998;
Naquin and Holton, 2002; Rodriguez et al., 2002). In this renaissance,
competency has a much broader conception than hitherto, including knowledge
and skills alongside the behavioural or psycho-social characteristics in the
McClelland tradition. Even within the predominantly behavioural approach,
many conceptions of competency now include knowledge and skills alongside
attitudes, behaviors, work habits, abilities and personal characteristics (Gangani
et al., 2004; Green, 1999; Lucia and Lepsinger, 1999; Naquin and Wilson,
2002; Nitardy and McLean, 2002; Russ-Eft, 1995). More comprehensive
competence frameworks appearing in the USA incorporate job standards and
processes as well as knowledge measured by qualifications (Cooper, 2000;
Evers et al., 1998). Competency models have been widely used to align
individual capabilities with the core competence of the organization (Rothwell
and Lindholm, 1999). A competency framework is typically viewed as a
mechanism to link HRD with organizational strategy: ‘a descriptive tool that
33

identifies the skills, knowledge, personal characteristics, and behaviors needed


to effectively perform a role in the organization and help the business meet its
strategic objectives’ (Lucia and Lepsinger, 1999: 5). Gangani et al. (2004:
1111) similarly argue that ‘competency based practices utilize a competency
framework to align the strategic objectives of an organization with its key HR
business processes’.

Much of the recent US literature focuses on job-related (functional)


competences (Aragon and Johnson, 2002; Boon and van der Klink, 2002),
often with associated underpinning behavioral competencies. For example, in
the influential leadership competency model developed by Holton and Lynham
(2000), six ‘competency domains’ are identified relating to performance at the
organization, process and individual levels. These domains are broken down
into ‘competency groups’ and then further divided into ‘sub-competencies’. At
the organization performance level, the two competency domains identified are
strategic thinking and strategic stewardship, beneath which there are,
respectively, four and five competency groups, with further sub-competencies
(Collins et al., 2000). Similarly, at the process level, the two competency
domains identified are process management and process planning, each broken
down further into three competency groups, with further sub competencies
(Baker et al., 2000). At the individual level, the two competency domains,
employee performance and employee appraisal, are each further subdivided
into four competency groups, with further sub-competencies (Wilson et al.,
2000). All of the competencies listed are based on functional job-related
standards, rather than behavioral competencies (although some are clearly
underpinned by behavioral competencies).

While the behavioral competency approach promoted most notably by David


McClelland and Hay-McBer is still much in evidence in the US, a broader
34

conception of competence, which emphasizes also job-related functional skills


and underpinning knowledge, is clearly gaining ground.

The Functional Approach: The UK Tradition


Recognizing endemic deficiencies of skill formation in the UK, governments
during the 1980s introduced a competence-based approach to VET in order to
establish a nation-wide unified system of work-based qualifications. This VET
reform was driven by the adoption of a competence-based qualifications
framework, which subsequently influenced similar developments in other
countries in the Commonwealth and the European Union.

What Is Competence?
The new vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications, NVQs,
in England and Wales, Scottish Vocational Qualifications, SVQs, in Scotland)
created under this framework were based on occupational standards of
competence, grounded in functional analysis of occupations in a variety of
contexts (Mansfield and Mitchell, 1996). Other (non-NVQ/SVQ) vocational
qualifications continued to exist alongside. The Management Standards, for
example, were developed and tested with over 3,000 managers, across a range
of sectors (Frank, 1991). Occupational standards identify key roles, which are
then broken down into a number of units of competence. These are further sub-
divided into elements of competence and, for each element of competence,
performance criteria are defined which form the basis of assessment, with
range indicators provided for guidance. Occupational standards are firmly
rooted in the reality of work (Mansfield, 1993); employers play a leading role
in their validation, as do trade unions in unionized sectors. Nevertheless,
participation by employers in the formal vocational qualifications system has
been far from universal, partly because of a perceived lack of relevance to
specific employer needs and partly due to the bureaucracy associated with
35

assessment procedures. Assessment for VQs involves accrediting the


competence of individuals against actual performance in the workplace, which
was designed to ensure continued relevance to the work situation (Miller,
1991), although there is evidence that assessment fails to capture many of the
outcomes of informal learning.

Another criticism of the new VQs related to their apparent lack of adequate
theoretical underpinning as the competence-based approach was concerned
mainly with demonstrating competence in the workplace and not the systematic
acquisition of knowledge. However, underlying knowledge has always played
a major part in craft qualifications of the City and Guilds of London Institute
and this continued to be the case under the new VQs, as City and Guilds
became one of the awarding institutions. The criticism probably also reflects
the resistance of educational institutions to a competence-based approach.
Much of the early UK literature on NVQs was dominated by academic
critiques which were hostile to the competence based approach per se (Bates,
1995; Jones and Moore, 1995). Hyland (1994) described NVQs as
fundamentally flawed and inappropriate to current and future education and
training needs. Smithers (1993) attacked the underpinning knowledge of NVQs
compared with VQs in countries like Germany and did not disguise his
opposition to a learner-centered approach. Significantly, the Management
Standards developed by the Management Charter Initiative (MCI) had little
influence on UK Business Schools (IoM, 1994) in comparison with the
adoption of competency by the AACSB in the US.

With a competence-based approach to VET, the emphasis is on functional


competence and the ability to demonstrate performance to the standards
required of employment in a work context (Knasel and Meed, 1994). The
definition of occupational competence provided by the Manpower Services
36

Commission (MSC, 1986) and adopted by Investors in People (1995: 41) was
‘the ability to perform activities in the jobs within an occupation, to the
standards expected in employment’.
However, the definition also included ‘mastery of skills and understanding’ and
‘aspects of personal effectiveness’. As Mansfield and Mitchell note, this
definition ‘appears to include a mix of models: work expectations, input
measures (knowledge and skills) and psychological attributes’ (1996: 46).
Indeed, the original Management 34 F. Delamare Le Deist & J. Winterton.
Standards were supplemented by an MCI competency model, defining
behavioral performance indicators. Nevertheless, the MSC definition of
competence was subsequently adopted as the official Employment Department
approach in defining occupational standards as ‘a description of something
which a person who works in a given occupational area should be able to do. .
.[and] able to demonstrate’ (Employment Department and NCVQ, 1991). A
government review of vocational qualifications in 1996 (Beaumont, 1996)
expanded the definition of competence as:
‘The ability to apply knowledge, understanding and skills in performing to the
standards required in employment. This includes solving problems and meeting
demands
37

Typology of competence

While the main approach in the UK remains one of functional competence,


some employers developed their own competence frameworks for managers or
adopted other generic models instead of using the MCI Standards (Carrington,
1994; Hirsh and Strebler, 1994). Some organizations adopted the Hay McBer
competency framework in preference to the competences embodied in the
Management Standards (Mathewman, 1995; Cockerill, 1989). Diverse
competence models have been introduced in relation to competence-based pay
systems (Reilly, 2003) and especially for competence-based management
development (Strebler and Bevan, 1996).
Hodkinson and Issitt (1995: 149) argued for a more holistic approach to
competence in the caring professions, integrating knowledge, understanding,
values and skills that ‘reside within the person who is the practitioner.’
Similarly, Cheetham and Chivers (1996, 1998) claimed to develop a holistic
model of professional competence, comprising five sets of inter-connected
38

competences and competencies. Their competence framework comprises five


dimensions:
Cognitive competence, including underpinning theory and concepts, as well as
informal tacit knowledge gained experientially. Knowledge (know-that),
underpinned by understanding (know-why), is distinguished from competence.
Functional competences (skills or know-how), those things that ‘a person who
works in a given occupational area should be able to do. . .[and] able to
demonstrate’.
Personal competency (behavioral competencies, ‘know how to behave’),
defined as a ‘relatively enduring characteristic of a person causally related to
effective or superior performance in a job’.
Ethical competencies, defined as ‘the possession of appropriate personal and
professional values and the ability to make sound judgments based upon these
in work-related situations’.
Meta-competencies, concerned with the ability to cope with uncertainty, as
well as with learning and reflection.
This framework was applied in an analysis of the future skills needs of
managers in the UK undertaken for the Department for Education and Skills
(Winterton et al., 2000), and in a modified version (where ethical competencies
were subsumed under personal competency, as in the MCI Personal
Competency Model) in a study undertaken for the UK government taxation
agency, the Inland Revenue (Winterton and Winterton, 2002). This later
research into the implementation of management.

What Is Competence?
Standards in sixteen organizations found that nine were using the functional
competences based on the Management Standards only, two were using
behavioral competency frameworks and five had combined functional
competence and behavioral competency to introduce hybrid competence
39

models. This evidence suggests that in the UK, too, the concept of competence
is being broadened to capture underlying knowledge and behaviors’ rather than
simply functional competences associated with specific occupations.
A Multi-dimensional and Holistic Approach: France, Germany and Austria In
mainland Europe, two other approaches are evident, exemplified by France and
Germany, which each adopted competence in their approaches to HRD more
recently. Most other European countries have followed the UK, French or
German approaches (Winterton et al., 2005), so confining the discussion to
these nonetheless permits a wider generalization of the issues
The competence movement in France began during the 1980s, and became
particularly influential from the 1990s. The emergence and development of
competence has passed through several stages: after the first appearance of the
idea within organizations, came the development of instruments and tools for
HRM practitioners and consultants, then the conceptualization of competence
as a theoretical concern, and finally more critical approaches. The major
development of competence-based practice appeared in 1984, linked to the
need to develop new competences and the role of enterprises in developing
them (Cannac and CEGOS, 1985). Gilbert (2003) traces the history of the
management of competence a` la franc¸ aise, which carries the imprint of
national culture (in a context of a right to vocational training and the important
role of collective agreements), so that the strong global influence of the
McClelland approach is much less evident in France.
The state encouraged a competence-based approach in 1993 when the national
employment agency, ANPE (Agence nationale pour l’emploi), modified its
framework of occupations (Re´pertoire Ope´rationnel des Me´tiers et des
Emplois) to a competence-based system, which stimulated widespread
academic commentary (Le Boterf, 1994; Levy-Leboyer, 1996; Merle, 1996;
Minet et al., 1994). Enterprises adopted individual evaluation of competence
instead of relying upon qualifications (Durand, J. P., 2000), increasing
40

flexibility but sometimes jeopardizing job security (Arnaud and Lauriol, 2002).
Further impetus was given to the competence movement during the 1990s
when the state introduced a right for individuals to have their competences
assessed (bilan de competences) independently to provide a basis for personal
development in their occupation (Joras, 2002). The concept of competence
featured increasingly in HRM since the mid 1990s, both in research and
practice and has been associated with several different normative models and
various practices (Minet et al., 1994). Competence also became more focused
on HRD (Dousset, 1990) and the instruments for developing and measuring
competences began to appear (Dietrich, 2003; Klarsfeld and Roques, 2003;
Paraponaris, 2003; Tre´po and Ferrary, 1998). Competence-based pay was
introduced in some heavy industries (Brochier and Oiry, 2003; Klarsfeld and
Saint-Onge, 2000). The competence movement gained further ground after the
36 F. Delamare Le Deist & J. Winterton employers’ association MEDEF
(Mouvement des Entreprises de France) launched Objectif competences
(MEDEF, 2002) encouraging the adoption of competence approaches in
enterprises and further stimulating academic interest (Brochier, 2002; Dupray
et al., 2003; Klarsfeld and Oiry, 2003).
Haddadj and Besson (2000) note that, from an epistemological perspective, the
logic of competence is polarized into two distinct directions: an individual
approach, centred on individual behaviours, and a collective approach, centred
on building the required competence in an organization. Most definitions of
competence fall somewhere between two extremes: competence as a universal
attribute, such as literacy, and competence in terms of individual capacity,
which is found only in the work context (Klarsfeld, 2000). Several French
authors have compared the French approach with the ‘Anglo-Saxon’ (often
exclusively American) approach. The French approach is generally more
comprehensive, considering savoir (compe´tences the´oriques, i.e. knowledge),
savoir-faire (compe´tences pratiques, i.e. functional competences) and savoir-
41

eˆtre (compe´tences sociales et comportementales, i.e. behavioural


competencies). Tremblay and Sire (1999) note a strong concordance between
the UK use of functional competence and the French savoir-faire and between
the USA use of soft competences, as in the Hay approach, and the French
savoir-eˆtre. Dejoux (1999) comments that in France, while the notion of
individual competence has not yet generated a general, empirically validated
theory, there is nonetheless a consensus definition based on the minimal three
dimensions already mentioned. These three dimensions rest on the concepts of
knowledge (savoir and connaissance), a component based on experience
(savoir faire or savoir agir) and a behavioural component (savoir eˆtre or la
faculte´ de s’adapter). According to Cazal and Dietrich (2003) this triptyque is
largely confined to HRD, although it has occasionally appeared in the
vocabulary of those concerned with strategy (Durand, T., 2000).
While competence (Kompetenz) was always implicit in the German dual
system of VET, the main emphasis was on specifying the necessary learning
inputs, rather than outcomes, to master a trade. Occupational competence is
rooted in the concept of Beruf (usually translated as occupation, but
encompassing the traditions of the craft from the trade and craft guilds), which
defines vocational training theory and associated pedagogy. Within this
tradition, modularization and generic competences are regarded with suspicion
since these may damage the unity of the craft. From the 1980s, the concept of
‘key qualifications’ (Schlu¨sselqualifikationen) appeared, including personal
competences, such as ‘ability to act autonomously and to solve problems
independently’, ‘flexibility’, ‘ability to cooperate’, ‘practical ethics and moral
maturity’. While Qualifikation signifies the ability to master concrete
(generally professional) situation requirements (so is clearly application-
oriented), Kompetenz refers to the capacity of a person to act and is more
holistic, comprising not only content or subject knowledge and ability, but also
core and generic abilities (Arnold et al., 2001: 176).
42

In 1996 the German education system adopted an ‘action competence’


approach, moving from subject (inputs) to competence (outcomes) and
curricula specifying learning fields (Lernfelder) rather than occupation-related
knowledge and skills content (Straka, 2004). A standard typology of
competences now appears at the beginning of every new vocational training
curriculum, elaborating vocational action competence (Handlungskompetenz)
in terms of domain or subject competence (Fachkompetenz), personal
competence (Personalkompetenz) and social competence (Soziaekompetenz).
Domain competence describes the willingness and ability, on the basis of
subject-specific knowledge and skills, to carry out tasks and solve problems
and to judge the results in a way that is goal-oriented, appropriate,
methodological and independent.
43

HOLISTIC MODEL OF COMPETENCE


44

ETA Competency Model Clearinghouse’s General Competency Model


Framework
45

CHAPTER-3
INDUSTRY
PROFILE
46

INDUSTRY PROFILE

COMPANY PROFILE

Saint Gobain SEPRO, SEPR Refractories pass for merely known as carborandum universal
Ltd. (CUML). CUML was under Murugappa group. It was established in 1977 with the
technical assistance from carborandum, USA on 17th April 2002. Saint Gobain brought CUML
and named it as SEPR Refractories India Ltd, SEPR is located at 11km from Palakkad at
Kanjikode, which is on the palakkad-Coimbatore road. The company has 175 workers, 28
trainees and 13 contractors who are supplying the required personnel to the company. The unit
has 23 acres and built in 13000 years old industrial group.

Saint Gobain group is based on frame which has business in more than 100 locations in 46
countries. The company is a 100% subsidiary of SEPR which is in turn owned by compienjne
de Saint Gobain of France. Saint Gobain is one of the world’s top industrial co-operation and
ranks 163 in the fortune global 500 list. The company is a leading and only manufacturer and
supplier of fused cast refractory products in India. The fused cast Refractories industry is a
capital and technology intensive. The company today is a manufacturer of fused cast
Refractories that are used for glass furnaces. The plant in palakkad is presently having
3000MT of furnace capacity Saint Gobain has strong presence in the field of abrasive,
ceramics, plastic, flat glass, packaging, insulation, reinforcement, building materials and
prices. The company manufactures fused cast refractories of two types. A2S blocks and
Blocks’.

COMPANY VISION

To be the customer-preferred provider of innovative radiation detection solutions.

COMPANY MISSION

To delight our customers by improving and expanding our portfolio of solutions through
innovation and world class business practices.

SAINT GOBAIN is a part of MURUGAPPA GROUP, a pioneer in diversified business


activities.
47

Well-known companies in India such as EID Parry ltd, Tube Investments Ltd, SAINT
GOBAIN, Coromandal fertilizers, Cholamandalam Investment and finance and Parrys
confectionery are all part of this strong multi-million Muruggapa group.

The group enjoys its leadership on various fonts including Engineering, Fertilisers, Sugar,
Food processing, Financial services, Bicycles, Electrominerals, Abrasives, Diamond tools,
Refractories, Hi-tech ceramics, Confectionaries and so on.

SAINT GOBAIN has different divisions at various locations in India, engaged in


manufacturing a wide range of products.

The Saint Gobain group, world leader in glass manufacturer and among the top one hundred in
industrial companies by the fortune magazine. Saint Gobain glass at the very heart of the Saint
Gobain group, found in 1665 in France on the initiative of Colbert to produce mirrors for the
Royal wart of Versailles. Saint Gobain was created in 1665 as a part of the plan devised by
king Louis XIV and JEAN BAPPTISTE to restore the French economy. As a result of the
royal glass works came into existence. It established a near monopoly in seventeenth and
eighteenth century and was included in the ten leading firm in that sector. Now Saint Gobain
has a global presence.

Saint Gobain SEFPRO is fully dedicated to Refractories for glass industry. Refractories are the
products to resist the corrosive and erosive action of hot glass, liquid and solids at high
temperature in various liens and furnaces. They are made mainly for non-metallic minerals.

FEATURES OF THE COMPANY

The company maintains close association with its customers such as glass
manufactures, glass consultants and glass furnace designers for over three decades.

1. Ability to understand and respond to the changing needs of the industry.


2 .Customized individual service.
3 The company was certified ISO 9002 in 1998 December.
4 The quality management system upgraded to 9001:2004 version.

5. The company got certified ISO 14001 in 2001 for its environment management
system and upgraded to 14001:2004 version .
48

6. Obtained occupational health and safety assessment series (OHAS) 18001


certification, for its OHS management system in 2004. The organization employs 208
services.
7. It has a production capacity of 3500 tons per annum.

8. There are trade unions

a) SEPR employees union


b) SEPR employees federation(INTUC)
c) SEPR employees association(CITU)
d) Palakkad district engineering and industries mazdoor sangam(BMS)

HISTORY OF THE COMPANY

Early History

Saint-Gobain is the only survivor of a group of private manufacturers founded in 1665 as part
of the economic revival of France planned by Jean Baptiste Colbert, chief minister of Louis
XIV. The letters patent which created the Compagnie des Glaces granted the company a
monopoly on production and sale of glass in France. The original name of the company was
Dunoyer, after the individual to whom these privileges were accorded. A group of Venetian
glass-workers was persuaded to come to Paris, and production began in the Faubourg Saint-
Antoine. However, disputes and difficulties arose with the Venetian authorities and workers,
and they returned to Venice after two years. The company then formed an association with
Richard Lucas de Nehou, proprietor of a glassworks at Tourlaville, near Cherbourg. Glass
produced there was sent to Paris for the finishing process of grinding and polishing. In around
1680, Richard's nephew Louis was responsible for an invention that transformed the
manufacture of glass and that remained in use until 1920; glass could now be rolled out on a
flat surface, allowing much larger sheets to be produced. After Colbert's death in 1683, his
successor Louvois allowed the establishment of rival companies and restricted the original
company to the production of b wn glass. This led to the establishment in 1692 of a new
factory at the village of Saint-Gobain, which lay nearer Paris and was designed for the new
process.
49

Following the death of Louvois, the newly created companies were united with Dunoyer under
the name of Plastrier, but problems continued, and by 1702 Plastrier was declared bankrupt.
Rescue came in the surprising form of the Geneva bank of Antoine Saladin. After complex
negotiations, Saladin purchased the company, now to be called Dagincourt. The influence of
the Swiss bank was to be felt throughout the 18th century.

The company now possessed a more entrepreneurial spirit and was able to exploit the new
technique of rolled glass, benefiting from 18th-century prosperity and the numerous new uses
for glass, especially mirrors. Technical expertise was brought in from 1740, to supplement the
aristocratic element always prevalent in the company. Various rationalizations and reforms
took place from 1755 to 1760 in response to the expansion of the market.

The company ceased glassblowing in 1763, and the ovens were improved. At the village of
Saint-Gobain itself, a separate workers' enclave was established in 1775, partly as a solution to
rivalry between the workers and other villagers.

The French Revolution of 1789 and its aftermath caused serious disruption, and it took 40
years to restore sales to the level of the best years of the Ancien Régime. In 1806 the first
attempts at diversification took place, with the implementation of the Leblanc process for
producing soda ash, an important ingredient for glass and later for many other industrial
materials. This activity was transferred to new works at Chauny in 1822. The Tourlaville glass
works closed in 1824, and production was concentrated at Saint-Gobain. In 1830 the company
was incorporated as a société anonyme. The revolution had ended its monopoly, and there was
a threat of competition from English glassworks--Raven head had been started by ex-Saint-
Gobain workers and several new French glass factories established during the 1820s, notably
Saint-Quirin. The distribution of shares in the new company still reflected an aristocratic bias
not suited to the world of 19th-century industry. Nevertheless, rationalization was taking place
during this period, led by directors recruited from among technical university graduates. The
process of mechanization had begun at the turn of the century.

With the boom in public building, the middle of the 19th century was a turning point for Saint-
Gobain, heralding a golden age under the long presidency of the Duc de Broglie from 1866 to
1901.Foreign ventures began with the lease of a factory at Stolberg in Germany in 1857, and
in the following year a merger with its principal French rival Saint-Quirin gave Saint-Gobain a
second presence in Germany--the glassworks built in 1853 at Mannheim, which was also to be
50

the site of a French workers' city. Two other younger French rivals, Commentary and
Prémontré, had been acquired jointly before the merger. These moves were prompted by the
growing threat of competition from Belgium, as well as the expanding English glassworks.
Broglie's predecessor as president, Antoine-Pierre Hély D'Oissel, recruited Hector Biver, an
Englishman who had also worked in Belgium. Following its 1858 merger, the company
became the Société Anonyme de la Manufactures des Glaces et Produits Chimiques de Saint-
Gobain, Chauny et Cirey. On the chemical side, the company benefitted from the presence of
the famous chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, who had been president from 1844 to 1850, and
who perfected his method of sulfuric acid production at Chauny. Considerable effort was
devoted to improving the social and educational conditions of the workers, with the provision
of schools, chapels, orphanages, savings and pension schemes, and even philharmonic and
shooting societies.

Saint-Gobain Crystals is an operating unit of Compagnie de Saint-Gobain, which is based in


Paris, France. Saint-Gobain was created in 1665 by Louis XIV’s Minister of Finance, Jean-
Baptiste Colbert, to break Venice’s monopoly over the glass trade. Saint-Gobain supplied the
mirrors for the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versaillesin 1684.

1853 - established in Germany, 1889 in Italy, 1904 in Spain and Benelux, 1937 in Brazil,
1967 in the United States.

1930 - Harshaw Chemical Company is the first major manufacturer to develop and produce
scintillation crystals.

1940 - Quartz & Silice, a subsidiary of Saint-Gobain, begins production of optical crystals and
scintillation crystals.

1969 - Bicron Corporation is established and begins production of NaI(Tl) scintillation ingots.

1990 - Saint-Gobain acquires Bicron Corporation and Harshaw brand products from
Engelhard.

1992 - Crismatec-Grenoble is acquired. Crismatec becomes the new name for the Quartz &
Silice entity.
51

1997 - Bicron Products Private Limited (BPPL) production facility is opened in Bangalore,
Karnataka, India

1999 - Bicron acquires TGM Detectors and Gamma Laboratories.

2000 - All of the above businesses and brand names are united under the Saint-Gobain name.

2002 - Bicron Radiation Measurement and Protection division is sold to Thermo Electron.

2003 - Introduction of new scintillation crystals Lanthanum Chloride, Lanthanum Bromide


and LYSO, which are later, marketed under the BrilLanCe and PreLude trademarks.

2008 - Saint-Gobain Crystals headquarters and Scintillation manufacturing operations move


to new facility in Hiram, Ohio.

Corporate objectives

The corporate objectives include the following.

 Furnace design assistance


 Assistance in the choice of Refractories, optimization of block sizes.
 On-site assembly assistance.
 Supply of complete pre-assembled sub-units.
 Assistance in furnace pre-heating.
 Periodic check up of the furnace performance wear evolution forecasts etc.
 Organization of rapid trouble shooting for exceptional emergency evaluations.
 Management of worn Refractories.
 Glass defect analysis
52

DEPARTMENTS

The departments that are involved in the functioning of the organization are:
 Personnel
 Production
 Maintenance services
 Marketing
 Stores
 Dispatch
 Finance
 Accounts
 Administration
 Systems

PRODUCTS

SEPR Refractories India Limited manufactures 2 main types of fused cast refractory blocks
cater to various segments of the Indian glass industries. They are;

 Alumina Zirconia Silica based refractories (AZS Refractories)


 High Alumina based refractoriness (M Refractories)

Molten glass at high temperature is an extremely corrosive material. To effectively contain the
corrosive action of flass, electrocast or fused cast refractories are required. AZS and M type
refractories differ in their chemical composition.

AZS is composed of Alumina, Zirconia and Silica, whereas M type material has about 94.8%
of Alumina only (Zirconia is not used in these type of refractories).
The M type material is cast using the Regular Cast (RC) technique only.
53

Table 1 : Characteristics of blocks made by different casting techniques

Type Characteristic

RC Blocks have shrinkage cavity inside

EC Shrinkage cavity confined to one end

EPIC Void free blocks

DCL Void free tiles

Source: Brochure of Saint Gobain

Table 2 : Chemical composition of the products

AZS Type
Product CS3 CS4 CS5 Alumina
Soda type

Al2O3 49.0% 49.1% 46.8% 94.8%

ZrO2 34.8% 37.3% 41% 0.0%

SiO2 14.8% 12.3% 11.0% 1.1%

Alkalies 1.4% 1.3% 1.2% 4.1%

Source: Brochure of Saint Gobain


54

S1 has a composition of 30% ZrO2 besides alumina and silica.


S 532 is a product having 97.5% alumina and 2.5% magnesium.
PROCESS
The process begins with the marketing department receiving an enquiry from a customer. The
enquiry is forwarded to the design department. The design department analyses the
manufacturing feasibility and the time of delivery of the customer requirement. For this
purpose, the 3-month tentative schedule, the dispatch plan and the design handbook are made
use of. If the requirement is found feasible to manufacture and deliver within the delivery time
indicated by the customer, weight estimation is done and Customer Enquiry Scrutiny Report
(CESR) is prepared and sent back to the marketing department. The marketing department
then prepares the quotation based on the weight estimated by the design department and the
complexity of the shape and sends it to the customer along with the offer letter. In case the
requirement is not found feasible to manufacture, the design department checks to see if any
developmental process is required. If it is required, a trial plan is prepared and a trial block is
made as per the requirement. In case of a customer requirement is not found feasible by the
production department, then the marketing department is intimated to regret for the item,
which is in turn informed to the customer suitably.

Upon receipt of the purchase order from the customer, the marketing department forwards it
along with the order acknowledgement or the manufacturing clearance and customer drawings
to the planning department, which advises the design department to release the manufacturing
drawings. The design department checks if the customer drawings have all the required
details. The department makes the manufacturing or ‘M’ drawings. The M drawings are
released to the planning, foundry, finishing and quality control sections.
Meanwhile the planning department prepares and updates the following:
 3 month tentative Despatch plan
 Monthly Despatch plan
 1 + 2 plan
 Shop load plan for the pattern shop
 Order follow-up sheet
 Campaign sheet related to furnace information.
The foundry section receives the M drawings and decides on whether to make the pattern in-
house or to source it from outside. It also decides on whether to make cores (if they are
55

required) in-house or to source it from outside. Once the pattern is decided to be made in-
house, the shop load plan for the pattern shop is prepared by the planning department in
consultation with the pattern shop supervisor, taking into consideration the 3 month tentative
plan, the skill of the operatives involved, the mould requirement by the furnace, the mould
shop capacity, patterns remaining to be made from the last month and any order that needs
priority over the others. The pattern maker then makes a layout of the pattern to be made ( in
case of complex shapes) and the pattern is made. For each pattern, hardboards of the same size
are also made (this is to facilitate easy removal of pattern once the mould is made). The
patterns are made of plywood to reduce cost and also because of its reusability (the same
pattern can be used for making a large number of moulds).

The mould shop, upon receiving the pattern, begins to make moulds. The mould is made of
silica sand with sodium silicate as binder material and resin as setting agent. The mould should
also makes headers (risers) and silica sand slab boards (top, side and bottom boards) for the
moulds. The moulds and the side and top boards are then assembled. The assembled moulds
are given traceability numbers. The assembled moulds are then flasked by keeping them in bin
bottoms, keeping bin tops and filling the space between the mould and the bin with an
annealing media called Molochite. The blocks should cool only at slow rate for proper
solidification without crack formation. Malachite ensures that the cooling takes place only at
the required rate. In case of bigger blocks, it has been found that by using an annealing blocks,
insulation gorge is being used as the annealing media.

The flasked moulds are then sent to the furnace section. Hardware setting is done there.
Meanwhile the mixing section prepares the mix based on the mix ticket prepared for each
quality blocks by the technical section. The raw materials are fed to a “Y blender” to achieve
good mixing of the raw materials. The prepared mix is filled in hoppers and transferred to the
furnace through the elevator. The mix prepared are given traceability numbers. Each mix
made in a month is identified by a 4 digit alphanumeric number, the first digit of which is an
alphabet from A – L (January – December) representing the month in which the mix is made.
The next 3 digits represent the serial number of the mix made.

The mix is melted in the furnace using 3 graphite electrodes, which form a delta connection.
Once the mix starts melting, the graphite electrodes are removed and the tap voltage increased.
After this, the oxygen lancing process is done the purpose of which is to remove the carbon
56

content from the melt and to provide proper mixing of the melt. The melt is then poured into
the moulds, which are kept inside the bins. The RC blocks are plugged immediately after
being poured and their headers ( if cast iron headers are used) knocked off after around 30
minutes. In case of EPIC blocks, the bins after pouring are held stationary near the furnace bay
itself. This is done so as EPIC blocks have a large amount of molten metal inside and hence
may develop internal cracks, if they are moved to other bays. EPIC blocks and in some cases
EC blocks require repour after one hour and another one 1hr after the first repour.
57

CHAPTER-4
DATA ANALYSIS
AND
INTERPRETATION
58

AGE OF RESPONDENTS

TABLE 4.1AGE OF RESPONDENTS

SLNO INTERVAL NO OF PERCENT


RESPONDENTS
1 20-30 60 60.0
2 30-40 30 30.0
3 40-50 10 10.0
4 50 AND ABOVE
TOTAL 100 100.0
s

SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

CHART 4.1 AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS- PERCENTAGE

70

60

50

40

30 60

20
30
10
10
0 0
20-30 30-40 40-50 50 above

INTERPRETATION

From the table given above we can get an inference that about 60% of the
respondents belong to the age group of 20-30, and 30% of them belong to the
age category of 30-40 and the remaining 10% belongs to the age group 40-50.
59

GENDER- WISE CLASSIFICATION

Table: 4.2 GENDER – WISE CLASSIFICATIONS

SL NO FACTORS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 MALE 60 60.0
2 FEMALE 40 40.0
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart: 4.2 GENDER- WISE CLASSIFICATION

PERCENTAGE

60

50

40
60
30
40
20

10

0
FEMALE MALE

INTERPRETATION:

From the above table we can Identify that the sample respondents were
predominantly males constituting 60% of the sample population and the
remaining 40% constituted females
60

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS

TABLE : 4.3 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE


RESPONDENTS

SL NO FACTORS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDE
NTS
1 PG 80 80.0
2 UG 10 10.0
3 DIPLOMA 10 10.0
4 ITC/ITI 0 0.0
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart : 4.3 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE


RESPONDENTS- PERCENTAGE

80

70

60

50

40 80

30

20

10
10 10
0 0
PG UG DIPLOMA ITC/ITI

INTERPRETATION

The table gives us a clear picture about the educational qualification of the
respondents we can find that 80% of the respondents have post graduation and
10% are under graduation and the remaining 10% has diploma as their
qualification. .
61

EXPERIENCE AT THE ORGANIZATION

Table 4.4 EXPERIENCE AT THE ORGANIZATION

SL FACTORS NO OF PERCENT
NO RESPONDENTS
1 1-5 90 90.0
2 6-10 0 0.0
3 11-15 0 0.0
4 ABOVE 15 10 10.0
TOTAL 100 100.0

Chart: 4.4 EXPERIENCE AT THE ORGANIZATION

90

80

70

60

50 90
40

30

20

10 10
0 0
0
1 TO 5 6 TO 10 11 TO 15 ABOVE 15

INTERPRETATION

From the response of the respondents we have identified that 90% of them have
only1-5 years experience in the organization and the remaining 10 % has got
above 15 years with great experience and seniority.
62

SHARING OF JOB RELATED KNOWLEDGE WITH OTHERS IN THE


ORGANIZATION

Table 4.5 SHARING OF JOB RELATED KNOWLEDGE WITH


OTHERS IN THE ORGANIZATION

SL NO INTERVALS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 40 40.0
2 STRONGLY 60 60.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 0 0.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0

Chart 4.5 SHARING OF JOB RELATED KNOWLEDGE WITH


OTHERS IN THE ORGANIZATION

PERCENTAGE

60
50
40
30 60

20 40

10
0 0 0 0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

As per the above representation we assume that 40% agree that they share the
job related knowledge with others in the organization and 60% strongly agree
with the same concept.
63

SHARING OF EXPERTISE IN A PRACTICAL WAY IN THE


ORGANIZATION

Table 4.6 SHARING OF EXPERTISE IN A PRACTICAL WAY IN THE


ORGANIZATION

SL INTERVALS NO OF PERCENTAGE
NO RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 40 40.0
2 STRONGLY AGREE 40 40.0
3 NEUTRAL 20 20.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0

Chart 4.6 SHARING OF EXPERTISE IN A PRACTICAL WAY IN THE


ORGANIZATION

PERCENTAGE
45
40
35
30
25
20
PERCENTAGE
15
10
5
0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

From the response received we identified that the first and the second 40% of
the respondents are agreeing and strongly agreeing that they share the
expertise in a practical way in the organization and the remaining 20% have a
neutral response.
64

COMMUNICATE THE INTENTION OPENLY WITH OTHERS

Table 4.7 COMMUNICATE THE INTENTION OPENLY WITH


OTHERS

SL NO FACTORS RESPONDENTS PERCENT

1 AGREE 20 20.0
2 STONGLY 40 40.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 40 40.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0

Chart 4.7 COMMUNICATE THE INTENTION OPENLY WITH


OTHERS

PERCENTAGE

40
35
30
25
20 40 40
15
10 20
5
0 0 0
AGREE SRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can get a clear picture that 20% of the respondents
agree that they communicate their intention openly with others in their
organization and the next 40% strongly agrees with it and the remaining 40%
have neutral response.
65

COMMUNICATE THEIR IDEAS WITH OTHERS

Table 4.8 COMMUNICATE THEIR IDEAS WITH OTHERS

SL NO INTERVALS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 50 50.0
2 STONGLY AGREE 30 30.0
3 NEUTRAL 20 20.0

4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0

Chart 4.8 COMMUNICATE THEIR IDEAS WITH OTHERS

PERCENTAGE

50
45
40
35
30
25 50
20
15 30
10 20
5
0 0 0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

The above table shows the inference about the communication of their ideas
with others 50% agree with it and 30% strongly agrees with it and the
remaining 20% have a neutral response.
66

SHARING OF FEELINGS WITH OTHERS IN THE ORGANIZATION

Table 4.9 SHARING OF FEELINGS WITH OTHERS IN THE


ORGANIZATION

SL NO FACTORS NO OF THE PERCENT


RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 40 40.0
2 STONGLY 30 30.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 10 10.0
4 DISAGREE 10 10.0
5 STRONGLY 10 10.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chapter 4.9 SHARING OF FEELINGS WITH OTHERS IN THE


ORGANIZATION

40

35

30

25

20 40
PERCENTAGE
15 30

10

5 10 10 10

0
AGREE SRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

The above table represents the graph for the opinion of the sharing of feelings
with others in the organization 40% agrees with that 30% strongly agree and
10% have a neutral response and 10% have a disagreement and the remaining
10% strongly disagrees with this inference.
67

UNDERSTAND OTHER PERSON’S BEHAVIOUR IN THE


ORGANIZATION

Table 4.10 UNDERSTAND OTHER PERSON’S BEHAVIOUR IN THE


ORGANIZATION

SL NO FACTORS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 30 30.0
2 STONGLY 20 20.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 40 40.0
4 DISAGREE 10 10.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.10 UNDERSTAND OTHER PERSON’S BEHAVIOUR IN THE


ORGANIZATION

PERCENTAGE

40
35
30
25
20 40
15 30
10 20
5 10
0 0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION.

From the above representation we can identify that 30% of the respondents
agree that they can understand other person’s behavior in the organization and
the next 20% strongly agree with the statement and 40% have got a neutral
response and 10% have disagreement.
68

AWARE OF ORGANIZATION CULTURE

Table 4.11 AWARE OF ORGANIZATION CULTURE

SL NO FACTORS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 60 60.0
2 STONGLY 40 40.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 0 0.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.11 AWARE OF ORGANIZATION CULTURE

PERCENTAGE

60

50

40
60
30
40
20

10
0 0 0
0
AGREE SRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE SRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

As per the table above 60% agrees with the inference that they are aware of the
organization culture and the remaining 40% has strongly agrees with the same
statement.
69

AWARE OF THE NORMS FOLLOWING IN THE ORGANIZATION

Table 4.12 AWARE OF THE NORMS FOLLOWING IN THE


ORGANIZATION

SL NO FACTORS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 50 50.0
2 STONGLY 40 40.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 10 10.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.12 AWARE OF THE NORMS FOLLOWING IN THE


ORGANIZATION

PERCENTAGE
50
45
40
35
30
25 50
20 40
15
10
5
0 10
AGREE 0
STRONGLY 0
NEUTRAL
AGREE DISAGREE
STRONGLY
DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

It is clear from the above table that 50% of the respondents agree that they are
aware of the norms following in the organization and the next 40% has
strongly agrees with it and the remaining 10% has got a neutral response.
70

WHETHER SET ASIDE OWN PERSONAL PREFERENCE TO MEET


ORGANIZATION GOALS

Table 4.13 WHETHER SET ASIDE OWN PERSONAL PREFERENCE


TO MEET ORGANIZATION GOALS

SL NO FACTORS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 40 40.0
2 STONGLY 20 20.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 30 30.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 10 10.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.13 WHETHER SET ASIDE OWN PERSONAL PREFERENCE


TO MEET ORGANIZATION GOALS

PERCENTAGE
45
40
35
30
25
20 40
15 30
10 20
5 10
0 0
AGREE STRONGLY AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STONGLY
DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

The table provides the data regarding the inference about the opinion of the
respondents regarding whether they set aside personal preference to meet the
organization goals 40% agree with it 20% strongly agrees and 30% have
neutral response and 10% strongly disagrees with the statement.
71

CONFIDENCE ON BEHAVIOURAL COMPETENCY REGARDING


THE WORK ENVIRONMENT

Table 4.14 CONFIDENCE ON BEHAVIOURAL COMPETENCY


REGARDING THE WORK ENVIRONMENT

SL NO FACTORS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 40 40.0
2 STONGLY 60 60.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 0 0.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.14 CONFIDENCE IN BEHAVIOURAL COMPETENCY


REGARDING THE WORK ENVIRONMENT
PERCENTAGE

60

50

40

30 60

20 40

10

0 0 0 0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

The above data give an information that 40% agree with the statement that they
have confidence in behavioural competency regarding the work environment
and the remaining 60% available strongly agrees with the same.
72

COMPLETE TASK CALMLY WHEN FACING AN EMOTIONAL


SITUATION

Table 4.15 COMPLETE TASK CALMLY WHEN FACING AN


EMOTIONAL SITUATION

SL NO INTERVALS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 50 50.0
2 STONGLY 10 10.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 30 30.0
4 DISAGREE 10 10.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.15 COMPLETE TASK CALMLY WHEN FACING AN


EMOTIONAL SITUATION

PERCENTAGE

50
45
40
35
30
25 50
20
15 30
10
5 10 10
0 0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

From the table above we can make an analysis that 50% of the respondents
agree with the fact that they can complete the task calmly when facing an
emotional situation the next 20% strongly agree with the statement and the next
30% have responded neutrally and the last 10% have a disagreement with it.
73

EXPRESS YOUR GRATITUDE FOR A JOB WELL DONE AND


CREATE POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT

Table 4.16 EXPRESS YOUR GRATITUDE FOR A JOB WELL DONE


AND CREATE POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT

SL NO FACTORS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 20 20.0
2 STONGLY 60 60.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 10 10.0
4 DISAGREE 10 10.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.16 EXPRESS YOUR GRATITUDE FOR A JOB WELL DONE


AND CREATE POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT

PERCENTAGE
70
60
50
40
30 60
20
10 20
10 10
0 0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

From the above table it is clear that 20% of the respondents have responded
that they strongly agree with the fact that they express their gratitude for a job
well done and create positive environment the next 60% strongly disagrees and
the 10%. Responded neutrally and the last 10% disagrees
74

ENCOURAGE CO-OPERATION AND INVOLVE OTHERS IN


DECISION MAKING

Table 4.17 ENCOURAGE CO-OPERATION AND INVOLVE OTHERS


IN DECISION MAKING

SL NO FACTOR NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 20 20.0
2 STONGLY 50 50.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 30 30.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.17 ENCOURAGE CO-OPERATION AND INVOLVE OTHERS


IN DECISION MAKING

PERCENTAGE

50
40
30
50
20
30
10 20

0 0 0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

From the data given it is identified that 20% of the respondents agree with the
fact that they encourage co-operation and involve others in decision making
and the next 50% strongly agrees with the same statement last 30% responded
neutrally..
75

REVIEW OWN PERFORMANCE FOR DEVELOPMENT PURPOSE

Table 4.18 REVIEW OWN PERFORMANCE FOR DEVELOPMENT


PURPOSE

SL NO FACTOR NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 70 70.0
2 STONGLY 30 30.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 0 0.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.18 REVIEW OWN PERFORMANCE FOR DEVELOPMENT


PURPOSE

PERCENTAGE

70

60

50

40
70
30

20
30
10
0 0 0
0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

From the above table we can get an analysis of the fact that about 70% of the
respondents review their own performance for the development purpose and
the next 30% supports the fact by strongly agreeing the statement..
76

NEED FOR SPECIALISED SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE TO


PERFORM DUTIES IN THE ORGANIZATION

Table 4.19 NEED FOR SPECIALISED SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE TO


PERFORM DUTIES IN THE ORGANIZATION

SL NO FACTORS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 70 70.0
2 STONGLY 20 20.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 10 10.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.19 NEED FOR SPECIALISED SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE TO


PERFORM DUTIES IN THE ORGANIZATION

PERCENTAGE

70
60
50
40 70
30
20
10 20
10
0 0 0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

As per the data available it is inferred that 70% of the respondents agree with
the fact that they require specialized skill and knowledge to perform duties in
the organization 20% supports it by strongly agreeing and 10% responded in a
neutral way.
77

CO-OPERATE WITH THE TEAM WORK IN THE ORGANIZATION

Table 4.20 CO-OPERATE WITH THE TEAM WORK IN THE


ORGANIZATION

SL NO FACTOR NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 60 60.0
2 STONGLY 40 40.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 0 0.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.20 CO-OPERATE WITH THE TEAM WORK IN THE


ORGANIZATION

PERCENTAGE

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

According to the table given it is analyzed that 60% agrees with the statement
that they co-operate with the team work in the organization and the rest 40%
supports the fact by strongly agrees with the data.
78

POSITIVE ATTITUDE AT THE WORK FIELD IN THE


ORGANIZATION

Table 4.21 POSITIVE ATTITUDE AT THE WORK FIELD IN THE


ORGANIZATION

SL NO FACTOR NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 70 70.0
2 STONGLY 30 30.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 0 0.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.21POSITIVE ATTITUDE AT THE WORK FIELD IN THE


ORGANIZATION

PERCENTAGE
100%
80%
60%
70 30
40%
20%
0%
0
0
0

INTERPRETATION

The table above shows the inference regarding the respondents opinion
that 70% agrees with the statement that they have a positive attitude at the
work field in the organization and the next 30% strongly disagrees with the
fact.
79

WILLING TO ADOPT CHANGES IN WORKING CONDITIONS AND


TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT

Table 4.22 WILLING TO ADOPT CHANGES IN WORKING


CONDITIONS AND TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT

SL NO PARAMETERS NO.OF PERCENT


RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 50 50.0
2 STONGLY 30 30.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 20 20.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0
5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.22 WILLING TO ADOPT CHANGES IN WORKING


CONDITIONS AND TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT

PERCENTAGE

50
45
40
35
30
25 50
20
15 30
10 20
5
0 0 0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

The inference about the above table is that 50% of the respondents agree with
the fact that they are willing to adopt changes in working conditions and terms
of employment next 30% strongly agrees with it and the last 20% have a
neutral response.
80

REACT PROPERLY WHEN FACING A CRITICAL SITUATION

Table 4.23 REACT PROPERLY WHEN FACING A CRITICAL


SITUATION

SL NO FACTORS NO OF PERCENT
RESPONDENTS
1 AGREE 40 40.0

2 STONGLY 20 20.0
AGREE
3 NEUTRAL 40 40.0
4 DISAGREE 0 0.0

5 STRONGLY 0 0.0
DISAGREE
TOTAL 100 100.0
SOURCE – PRIMARY DATA

Chart 4.23 REACT PROPERLY WHEN FACING A CRITICAL


SITUATION

PERCENTAGE

40
35
30
25
40 40
20
15
20
10
5
0 0
0
AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY
AGREE DISAGREE

INTERPRETATION

From the data given it is identified that the 40% of the respondents supports
and agrees with the fact that they react properly when facing a critical situation
20% strongly agrees with it and the next 40% has a neutral response.
81

5.ANALYSIS USING CHI-SQUARE- 2

TO FIND WHETHER THERE IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE


OPINION OF RESPONDENTS REGARDING THE SHARING OF
FEELINGS OPENLY WITH OTHERS IN THE ORGANIZATION

Null Hypothesis

There is no significant difference in the variable among the employees


about the sharing of feelings openly with others in the organization.

TABLE 5.1

S.No Sharing of feelings No. of Respondents

1 AGREE 40

2 STRONGLY AGREE 30

3 NEUTRAL 10

4 DISAGREE 10

5 STRONGLY DISAGREE 10

Total 100

Source: primary data


82

FORMULA

(O-E) 2

2 = E

O = Observed frequency
E = Expected frequency

COMPUTATION OF CHI-SQUARE ( 2 )

TABLE No: 5.2

SL.No O E (O-E) (O-E)2 (O-E)2 /E

1 40 20 20 400 20

2 30 20 10 100 5

3 10 20 -10 100 5

4 10 20 -10 100 5

5 10 20 -10 100 5

TOTAL 40.0

Source: Primary Data

The calculated value is 40.0

Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (5-1)

=4
83

Level of significance = 5%

Table value 4 of DGF and 5% level of significance = 9.48

40.0 > 9.48 - Calculated Value is greater than Tabulated Value.

Hence, Null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted..

INFERENCE

There is significant difference in the variable among the employees


about the sharing of feelings openly with others in the organization.

6.ANALYSIS USING WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD

TO FIND THE RANKS OF DIFFERENT FACTORS WHICH ARE LISTED BELOW


ACCORDING TO THE OPINION OF RESPONDENTS

TABLE No: 6.1

FACTORS AGREE STRONGLY NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY


AGREE DISAGREE

60 40 0 0 0

ORGANIZATION
CULTURE

OTHER PERSONS 30 20 40 10 0
BEHVIOUR

COMMUNICATE 50 30 20 0 0
IDEAS

PERSONAL REVIEW 70 30 0 0 0

Source: Primary Data


84

Table 6.2

POINT WEIGHTAGE 5 4 3 2 1

FACTORS STRON NEUTR DISAG STRON TOTAL AVG RAN


AGRE GLY AL REE GLY K
E AGREE DISAG
REE

300 160 0 0 0 460 9.2 2

ORGANIZATION
CULTURE

OTHER PERSONS 15O 80 120 20 0 370 7.4 4


BEHVIOUR

COMMUNICATE 250 120 60 0 0 450 9.0 3


IDEAS

PERSONAL REVIEW 350 120 0 0 0 470 9.4 1

Source: Primary Data

INFERENCE

The above table infer and gives us a clear picture that most of the people
are very much aware of the organization culture and they are very much agree
with the fact that they makes a personal review of them for their own
development personal review and organization culture has achieved higher and
leading ranks and last ranks are occupied by the communication of ideas and
understanding other person’s behaviour in the organization.
85

CHAPTER-5
FINDINGS, SUGGESTION
AND
CONCLUSION
86

FINDINGS ( percentage analysis)

 we can get an inference that about 60% of the respondents belong to the
age group of 20-30, and 30% of them belong to the age category of 30-
40 and the remaining 10% belongs to the age group 40-50.

 From the table we can Identify that the sample respondents were
predominantly males constituting 60% of the sample population and the
remaining 40% constituted females

 The table gives us a clear picture about the educational qualification of


the respondents we can find that 80% of the respondents have post
graduation and 10% are under graduation and the remaining 10% has
diploma as their qualification.

 From the response of the respondents we have identified that 90% of


them have only1-5 years experience in the organization and the
remaining 10 % has got above 15 years with great experience and
seniority.

 As per the above representation we found that 40% agree that they share
the job related knowledge with others in the organization and 60%
strongly agree with the same concept.

 From the response received we identified that the first and the second
40% of the respondents are agreeing and strongly agreeing that they
share the expertise in a practical way in the organization and the
remaining 20% have a neutral response.
87

 we can get a clear picture that 20% of the respondents agree that they
communicate their intention openly with others in their organization and
the next 40% strongly agrees with it and the remaining 40% have neutral
response.
 We identified inference about the communication of their ideas with
others 50% agree with it and 30% strongly agrees with it and the
remaining 20% have a neutral response.
 The opinion of the sharing of feelings with others in the organization
40% agrees with that 30% strongly agree and 10% have a neutral
response and 10% have a disagreement and the remaining 10% strongly
disagrees with this inference.

 we can identify that 30% of the respondents agree that they can
understand other person’s behavior in the organization and the next 20%
strongly agree with the statement and 40% have got a neutral response
and 10% have disagreement.

 As per the table above 60% agrees with the inference that they are aware
of the organization culture and the remaining 40% has strongly agrees
with the same statement.

 It is clear from the above table that 50% of the respondents agree that
they are aware of the norms following in the organization and the next
40% has strongly agrees with it and the remaining 10% has got a neutral
response.

 The table provides the data regarding the inference about the opinion of
the respondents regarding whether they set aside personal preference to
meet the organization goals 40% agree with it 20% strongly agrees and
88

30% have neutral response and 10% strongly disagrees with the
statement.

 The above data give an information that 40% agree with the statement
that they have confidence in behavioural competency regarding the work
environment and the remaining 60% available strongly agrees with the
same.
 From the table above we can make an analysis that 50% of the
respondents agree with the fact that they can complete the task calmly
when facing an emotional situation the next 20% strongly agree with the
statement and the next 30% have responded neutrally and the last 10%
have a disagreement with it.

 It is clear that 20% of the respondents have responded that they strongly
agree with the fact that they express their gratitude for a job well done
and create positive environment the next 60% strongly disagrees and the
10%. Responded neutrally and the last 10% disagrees.

 From the data it is identified that 20% of the respondents agree with the
fact that they encourage co-operation and involve others in decision
making and the next 50% strongly agrees with the same statement last
30% responded neutrally.

 From the table we can get an analysis of the fact that about 70% of the
respondents review their own performance for the development purpose
and the next 30% supports the fact by strongly agreeing the statement.

 As per the data available it is inferred that 70% of the respondents agree
with the fact that they require specialized skill and knowledge to perform
89

duties in the organization 20% supports it by strongly agreeing and 10%


responded in a neutral way.

 According to the table it is analyzed that 60% agrees with the statement
that they co-operate with the team work in the organization and the rest
40% supports the fact by strongly agrees with the data.

 The table above shows the inference regarding the respondents opinion
that 70% agrees with the statement that they have a positive attitude at
the work field in the organization and the next 30% strongly disagrees
with the fact.
 The inference about the above table is that 50% of the respondents agree
with the fact that they are willing to adopt changes in working conditions
and terms of employment next 30% strongly agrees with it and the last
20% have a neutral response.

 From the data given it is identified that the 40% of the respondents
supports and agrees with the fact that they react properly when facing a
critical situation 20% strongly agrees with it and the next 40% has a
neutral response.

FINDINGS FROM CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS

 There is significant difference in the variable among the employees


about the sharing of feelings openly with others in the organization.
90

FINDINGS FROM WEIGHTED AVERAGE

 The above table infer and gives us a clear picture that most of the people
are very much aware of the organization culture and they are very much
agree with the fact that they makes a personal review of them for their
own development personal review and organization culture has achieved
higher and leading ranks and last ranks are occupied by the
communication of ideas and understanding other person’s behaviour in
the organization
91

SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 It is found from the study that all the factors like personal, organizational,
work environment have high influence on employees behavioural
competencies. Hence human resource should focus on these key areas
which may help in reducing turnover and achieve higher productivity.

 Evaluation of behavioural competencies among the employees should be


conducted once in a year.

 The company can develop advanced training methods for the all round
development of employees.

 Work place redesigning will motivate the employees to work more


effectively there by the quality of work is improved.

 Feedback from the employees should be considered because it will help to


improve the motivation level and the the employees there by can develop
new ideas which can lead to productivity development as well as human
resource development.

 The human resource planning can be effectively done by assessing the


behavioural competencies.

 Need for a performance management system in the organization.


92

CONCLUSION

The main objective of the study was to identify the behavioural competencies
of the employees with special reference to SAINT GOBAIN SEPR
refractories.

The purpose of the study was to understand how far the employees are aware
about the importance of behavioural competencies and to ascertain
satisfaction of employees on their working conditions and organizational
environment. When the performance of the employee largely depends upon
the behavioural competencies, we can infer that it is the important concern of
the management.The study reveals the behavioural competency of the
employees helps the organization to improve its productivity and job
performance of the employees. The study reveals that most of the employees
strongly agree that behavioural competencies are very much important in
overall job performance of the employees and reflects in it in a positive
manner..

A sample of 100 were used to study this topic through questionnaire and
their study reveals the behavioural competencies of the employees and
helped to identify the level of behavioural competencies among the
employees in the organization. The study was at last concluded in a manner
that behavioural competency analysis is vital for every organization for fresh
thinking , innovation, idea generation and competency. So organizations
should take proper steps to continuously review the behavioural
competencies.
93

BIBLIOGRAPHY- BOOKS

1. Goleman.d (1998b) working with emotional intelligence, newyork


bantam books.
2. T.V.Rao and Udai pareek Third edition, Designing and Managing
Human resource systems
3. S.K.Bhatia Performance management concept, practices and strategies
for organisation success
4. Otley .D.T PM A Framework for management control system research
5. Chhabra.t.n. Human Resource Management dhanpati rai and co ltd ninth
edition.
6. Spencer, l,m(1993) competence at work models for superior
performance.
7. Various records of SAINT GOBAIN.

WEBSITES

1. WWW. SAINT GOBAIN.COM


2. WWW.HR SURVEY .COM
3. WWW.CITE HR.COM
4. WWW.REVIEW.COM
5. WWW. ASK HR.COM
94

APPENDIX
95

QUESTIONNAIRE
QUESTIONNAIRE

A STUDY ON BEHAVIOURAL COMPETENCIES OF THE EMPLOYEES WITH


SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SAINT GOBAIN SEPR REFRACTORIES INDIA LTD,
KANJIKODE PALAKKAD

PERSONAL PARTICULARS

1. NAME :
2. AGE :
3. GENDER : (a) Male (b) Female
4. DESIGNATION :
5. EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: (a) UG (b) PG (c) DIPLOMA (d) ITC/ITI
6. EXPERIENCE AT SAINT GOBAIN : (a) 1-5 (b) 6-10 (c) 11-15 (d) ABOVE 15

SELECT THE BEST OPTION USING TICK MARKS

7. Can you share job related knowledge to others in this organization?


(a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

8. Can you share to apply your expertise in practical way in this organization?
(a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

9. Can you communicate your intention openly and directly with others in the
organization?
(a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

10. Are u able to properly communicate your ideas with others in the organization?
(a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

11. Are u free to share your feelings openly with others in the organization?
(a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

12. Can you understand about the other person’s behaviour in this organization?
a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

13. Are you aware of the organization culture?


a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree
96

14. Are you aware of the norms following in the organization?


a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

15. Do you able to set aside own personal preference to meet the organization goals?
a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

16. Do you have confidence in your behavioural competency regarding the work
environment?
a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

17. Are you able to complete task calmly when facing an emotional situation?
a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

18. Do you express your gratitude for a job well done and create a positive environment?
a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

19. Do you encourage co-operation and involving others in decision making?


a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

20. Do you review your own performance explicitly for development purpose?
a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

21. Do you need special skills and knowledge to perform your duties in this organization?
a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

22. Do you cooperate with the team work in this organization?


a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

23. Do you have a positive attitude at your work field in this organization?
a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

24. Are you willing to adopt the changes made in your organization’s working conditions
and terms of employment?
a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

25. Are you able to react properly by facing a critical situation in your organization?
a)Agree (b)Strongly agree (c) Neutral (d) disagree (e) strongly disagree

26. Do you have any suggestion, which you think your management should do for
improvement?......................................................................

THANKYOU