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16.0 Release

Introduction

Lecture Theme:

• All CFD simulations follow the same key stages. This lecture explains how to go

from the original planning stage through to analysing the end results. After

this CFX will be introduced

Learning Aims – you will learn:

• The basics of what CFD is and how it works

• The different steps involved in a successful CFD Project

• How to work with CFX

2 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

What is CFD

flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions and related phenomena

The equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, energy, etc.

CFD is used in all stages of the design process:

• Conceptual studies of new designs

• Detailed product development

• Troubleshooting

• Redesign

effort and cost required for experimentation and data acquisition

Introduction CFD Approach Pre-Processing Solution Summary

3 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

How Does CFD Work?

• Domain is discretized into a set of control volumes

• General conservation (transport) equations for mass, momentum, energy,

species, etc. are solved on this set of control volumes

Equation f

Continuity 1

X momentum u

Y momentum v

Unsteady Advection Diffusion Generation Z momentum w

Energy h

• Partial differential equations are discretized into a system of algebraic

equations

• All algebraic equations are then solved numerically to render the solution

field

Introduction CFD Approach Pre-Processing Solution Summary

4 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

Step 1 – Define Your Modeling Goals

What results are you looking for (i.e. pressure drop, mass flow rate) and

how will they be used?

What are your modeling options?

• What physical models will need to be included in your analysis?

• What simplifying assumptions do you have to make?

• What simplifying assumptions can you make (i.e. symmetry, periodicity)?

What degree of accuracy is required?

How quickly do you need the results?

Is CFD an appropriate tool?

5 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

Step 2 – Identify the Domain to Model

Domain of Interest

How will you isolate a piece of the as Part of a Larger

complete physical system? System

begin and end?

• Do you have boundary condition information at these locations?

• Can the boundary condition types

accommodate that information? Domain of interest

• Can you extend the domain to a point isolated and meshed

where reasonable data exists? for CFD simulation.

Can the problem be simplified or approximated as a 2D

or axisymmetric problem?

Introduction CFD Approach Pre-Processing Solution Summary

6 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

Step 3 – Create a Solid Model

• Make use of existing CAD models?

• Extract the fluid region from a solid part?

• Create from scratch?

Can you simplify the geometry?

• Remove unnecessary features that would complicate meshing

(fillets, bolts…)?

• Make use of symmetry or periodicity if both the solution and

boundary conditions are symmetric / periodic?

7 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

Step 4 – Design and Create the Mesh

• Resolves geometric features of interest and capture gradients of

concern, e.g. velocity, pressure, temperature gradients

• Can you use a hexahedral mesh?

• Are non-conformal interfaces needed?

Do you have sufficient CPU resources?

• How many cells/nodes are required?

• How many physical models will be used?

8 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

Step 5 – Set up the Solver

• Define material properties

– Fluid, Solid, or Mixture

– Turbulence, combustion, multiphase, etc. For complex problems

solving a simplified or 2D

• Prescribe boundary conditions problem will provide

• Provide initial values of a previous solution valuable experience with the

models and solver settings

• Set up solver controls for your problem in a short

• Set up convergence monitors amount of time

Introduction CFD Approach Pre-Processing Solution Summary

9 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

Step 6 – Compute the Solution

• Changes from one iteration to the next are negligible

– Residuals monitor this trend

• Overall property conservation is achieved

– Imbalances measure global conservation

• Quantities of interest have reached steady values

– Monitor points track quantities of interest A converged and mesh-

The accuracy of a converged solution depends on independent solution on

a well-posed problem

• Appropriateness and accuracy of physical models

will provide useful

• Mesh resolution and independence

engineering results!

• Numerical errors

Introduction CFD Approach Pre-Processing Solution Summary

10 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

Step 7 – Examine the Results

Use Visualization tools to answer:

• What is the overall flow pattern?

• Is there separation?

• Where do shocks, shear layers, etc. form?

• Are key flow features being resolved? Examine results to ensure

property conservation and

Calculate quantitative results:

correct physical behavior.

• Forces and moments High residuals may be caused

• Average heat transfer coefficients by just a few poor quality

• Surface and volume integrated quantities cells.

Introduction CFD Approach Pre-Processing Solution Summary

11 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

Step 8 – Consider Model Revisions

• Is the flow turbulent or unsteady?

• Any compressibility effects or 3D effects?

Are the boundary conditions correct?

• Computational domain large enough?

• Boundary values reasonable?

Is the mesh adequate?

• Does the solution change with a refined mesh, or is the High residuals may be

solution mesh independent? caused by just a few poor

quality cells

12 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

Summary and Conclusions

• All CFD simulations are approached using the steps just described

• Remember to think first about what the aims of the simulation are

prior to creating the geometry and mesh

• Make sure the solver is applying the appropriate physical models

and that the simulation is fully converged

• Examine the results carefully

– You may need to rework some of the earlier steps in light of the flow

field predicted by CFD

follow that with a demonstration of CFX in action

Introduction CFD Approach Pre-Processing Solution Summary

13 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

ANSYS CFX

16.0 Release

CFX Pre – Workflow

from top to bottom

• Double-click entries in the

tree to edit

• Right-click on entries in the

tree to insert new items or

perform operations

15 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

CFX Pre – Workflow

Inserting an item opens a new

tab panel with properties.

• Load Mesh TIP: Work through all tabs from

left to right

• Define Domain Properties

– Right-click on ‘Flow Analysis 1’ to insert a

new domain

– Right-click on the domain to insert BCs

• Define Solver Settings Complete the required fields on

– Right-click on Solver Control and pick Edit each sub-tab to define the domain

CFX-Pre – Workflow Example

Start Solver

• Close CFX-Pre

• Right-click on Solution and select

Edit to open Solver Manager

Solver Manager

Introduction Launching CFX Workflow Files Demo

17 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

CFX Solver Manager

– Plot residuals, imbalances, monitor points, forces, fluxes…

– Can also view the .out file in a text editor

Create new

monitors

18 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

CFD-Post

processing objects. Double-click

to edit in the Details Pane

19 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

CFD-Post

• Prepare locations for data

extraction or plot generation

– e.g. Planes, Isosurface

• Create variables, expressions which • Generate quantitative data at locations

will be used to extract data

– e.g. Drag, pressure ratio

• Generate Reports

Introduction Launching CFX Workflow Files Demo

20 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

Common File Types

and can be opened by CFX-Pre .cmdb, .cfx5, .def, .res, …

Open

• .def files contain mesh and physics .cfx, .def, .res CFX-Pre

.cfx

(CFX-Pre Database)

data and can be run in the Solver .def (Solver Input or Definition File)

and results data and can be .res (Results File) (Solver Output File)

opened in CFD-Post .def, .cmdb

CFD-Post .cst

(Mesh Files) .cse

• CFX-Pre can open .def and .res files to recover mesh and physics.

• The CFX-Solver can use .res files to continue a run or as an initial guess

• CFD-Post can also open .def and .cmdb files to view the mesh

Introduction Launching CFX Workflow Files Demo

21 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

Solver Files and Folders

2nd Time Solving

Filename.def index

C:\Filename.def

changes to _002

CFX-Solver C:\Filename_001.out

C:\Filename_001\100_full.bak

First Time Solving C:\Filename_001

C:\Filename_001\1.trn

Filename.def C:\Filename_001\2.trn

C:\Filename_001.res

C:\StaticMixer_files

When running in Workbench only the project file (.wbpj) is saved

to the current working directory Project files and folders.

• All other files are saved to a name_files subdirectory Do not edit directly

22 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. March 13, 2015 ANSYS Confidential

DEMO & Workshop 01 – Mixing Tee

Introductory tutorial for CFX

• Starting from existing mesh

– generated in earlier tutorial during the DM / Meshing session

• Model set-up, solution and post-processing

• Mixing of cold and hot water in a T-piece

• How well do the fluids mix?

• What are the pressure drops?

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