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Any information on misoperation of power substation protection systems would be appreciated

(categories and causes of misoperations, outage statistics etc.)

Induced voltage on control cables due to 60Hz fault current is one of the reasons for
misoperation of some relays. I have seen a bus differntial relay misoperated due to a
15kV feeder cable failing insdie the substation. The fault current returned to the
transformer from the corner of the substation via substation ground grid. The fault was
outside the bus differential scheme and yet the differntial relay operated to take the
entire substation out.
The investigation indicated that the fault current in the ground grid induced the voltage
on the control cables. The induced voltage in differential mode caused the current to
flow in the circuit.

he bus differential protection might have lost stabilty during through fault (15kV cable
failure). This is more likely, I feel, than the induced voltages during fault causing the relay
The topic is interesting and I would appreciate any further feedbak on the subject.

Suggestion: Visit
· Shunt Reactors and Capacitors – These elements are used to provide system voltage
support or correction and are protected by a wide variety of protective devices;
differential, impedance and negative sequence relays for reactors, fuses and overcurrent
relays for capacitors. They are susceptible to misoperation as system parameters change
drastically under unusual system events. Their misoperation would exacerbate any
system problem by changing the voltage at the associated system node.

SEL has a large amount of literature on their site. Perhaps there are papers there that
would be of interest.

I took a quick glance through their list, and this one jumped out at me (regarding
sympathetic tripping problem analysis / solutions):

GE also has a good amount of technical papers on their site. Again, there may be
something of interest here.

Also, part of NERC's Compliance Program requires electric utilities to report relay
misoperations as part of each Reliability Region's Compliance Program (planning standard
III.A). I haven't dug through NERC's site (or regional reliability council sites) to find out if
any of this information is publicly available, but if so it may be helpful as well.
can any one tell me please why one of the the Transformer neutral connected to ground is not
disconnected while running Transformers in parellel?

The described sounds like a localized practice, and for transformers, not a universal
procedure. It may be to prevent site-specific zero-sequence circulating current.

why do you think it should be disconnected.

In case of generators there is production of third harmonics and it is necessary to
disconnect the neutral(s) from earth. But, that is not the same case with transformers.
Transformers are passive elements and draw third harmonics from the system.
Have I answered your query!

If you have an ungrounded transformer operating in parallel with grounded transformers,

there will be circulating currents between the transformers. The tranformeres may
overload and fail.

Protección Diferencial de Barra: What's your bus protection philosophy; when and where is it
used? Is there a minimum voltage level? We're looking to eventually loop some of our now
radial sub-transmission system, so I'm trying to plan ahead. I'm looking for comments from
those experienced in electric utility protection and design. Google jockeys need not answer.

For utilities, it's rare to find bus diff on distribution buses, except for new installations of
metal-clad switchgear. Industrial facilities will often use it for their main 15 kV switchgear,
especially when fault currents are very high. Of course, for ring bus systems, bus diff is
not really applicable.
For the sub-transmission voltages (34.5 - 69 kV) it seems to be a mixed bag. Above 69
kV, it is pretty common. Retrofitting bus diff protection is tough because of the need for
matching CTs.
Other bus arrangements use as main/transfer bus or double-bus/single breaker are more
difficult to apply bus diff to because you will have to switch out the bus diff for "off-
normal" operating conditions (or switch the CT secondaries which is scary).
Schweitzer has a new digital high-impedance bus diff relay. I'm not about GE/Multlin or
ABB. Basler has an older analog solid state bus diff.

It is a 69 kV main/transfer bus. When you said above 69, did you mean to exclude that
particular voltage, putting it in the mixed bag category? I don't see a difficult application,
since all we would do is sum all the currents all the time. In normal mode, the aux
breaker has zero current. When switched in, the aux breaker picks up the current of the
line breaker it replaces. Sum is still zero.
We would only need to switch out the protection when a mobile transformer is installed,
since I wouldn't bother with CT's at the hook up point for this rare event. Thanks.

I don't see any problem with what you are proposing, as long as there are no loads
normally coming off the transfer bus. And as long as you have the dedicated CTs
available that you need. I'd suggest adding a selector switch to allow the bus diff to be
disabled in the trip circuit. The next consideration would be breaker failure for the 69 kV

bus differential is used in 11kv in-door metal-clad Switch gears as well.the philosophy
is:sum of all in-coming current should be eqal the sum of all out-going currents
in a substation with multi incoming feeders & many outgoing feeders in different section.
sould there be a problem with in the bus section,all the incoming & the all the outgoing
feeders will trip isolating the faulty bus section

Here in Gulf and in India the outdoor substations at 66kV level and above are provided
with Busbar differential protection. Hope this info is useful to you.
Dimensionamiento de TC: can any body explain how far the kneepoint voltage of the particular
CT will affect the sizing of CT.i came across the differnce in CT size while commssioning the line
protection (distance protection CT Weighs more than line differential CT and secondary for
distance CT is 5A, Line differential is 1A), whether Ct secondary determines the Sizing of CT.

The knee point voltage of a current transformer is directly proportional to the core area
and turns
Therfore twice the stack length gives twice the knee voltage and twice the weight of core

Secondary current does play a part in the sizing of a CT core. If the 2 CTs have the same
primary current rating (i.e. 1000:1A or 1000:5A) and the same knee-point voltage rating
(i.e. Vkp>= 200 V), then they should be approx. the same size. The core will be the same
size, but the coil design could result in different weight. The 5A rated secondary would
have 200 turns in this example. The 1A rated secondary would have 1000 turns, but the
wire would only need to be able to carry 1/5 of the current. What normally happens is
that the 1A rated design may be a little heavier due to the coil design, but it wouldn't be
a big difference. I suspect in your case, the 2 CTs have differen protection ratings, or
different ratios.

scottf – By your description, does it follow that 1A secondary-loop insulation is stressed to

five times that of otherwise equal 5A CTs?

Actually, exactly the opposite. 5A rated secondary would have 1/5 of the turn-to-turn
voltage stress as that of an equally rated 1A rated secondary CT. Example:
1000:5A (200 turns)versus 1000:1A (1000 turns)
With 600 V across the secondary, the 5A distributes 600V across 200 turns whereas the
1A distributes 600 V across 1000 turns.
But here's the catch, 1A rated relays need much less voltage to operate compared to their
5A rated counter-parts.
In the end, from the CT's perspective, it all works out about the same.

scotff- by ur desription,knee point voltage for both ct is not that much different say
example for distance which is big compare to differential is approx.2400v and differential
2300v. but the secondary is 5A for distance and 1A for differntial.
does ur last point may be the reason i.e. 1a rated relays need much less voltage compare
to 5a rated relays

Suggestion: CTs are also characterized by VA rating. This rating actually determines how
many VA load can be in the CT secondary circuit. A CT with secondary rated at 5A comes
with the same VA rating and PF rating as the CT with secondary rated at 1A. The burden
of the circuit is supposed to be adjusted by (5/ampere different from 5A)**2. See:
ANSI/IEEE Std C57.13-1978 Table 11 Standard Burdens for Current Transformers with 5
A Secondaries.

When a CT is specified or rated by it's minimum knee-point voltage, there is no

associated VA rating. In general, especially when looking at differently rated secondaries
(5A or 1A), it is better to think of things in ohms and power factor, instead of VA.
It is much harder for a 1A rated CT to be rated at 50 VA, than a 5A rated CT. That's
because 50 VA at 1 A is 50 ohms, whereas, 50 VA at 5A is 2 ohms.

I do not agree with yr statement that Knee Point Voltage of 200 volts on 1A and 5A sec
CTs will have appox. same size of Cts. The core area in 5 amps CT will approx.5 times
larger than 1Amps CT.Because nos of turns in 5 amp will be 5 times less, which means
Voltage/Turn will be 5 times higher than that for 1 Amp CT, hence core area will be 5
times larger. It is governed by the formulae- V=4.44*Bm*Ai*Frequency*N(Nos of turns)
where Ai= Net area of core cross section and Bm is flux density which is considered to be
same for both CTs. Therefore,the distance protection CT Weighs more than line
differential CT in this particular example as experienced by sensitivity.

Transformadores en paralelo: What are the steps or operating procedures and requirements of
paralleling two power transformers, one with an on-load tap changer (OLTC) and the other
transformer is fixed. The ratings of the transformers are 83 MVA, 110kv/34.5 kv. The load of
the fixed transformer will be transferred to the transformer with OLTC in order to improve the
secondary bus voltage of the fixed transformer. There is a tying facility in the secondary bus
through a bus tie breaker. The OLTC does not have remote controlled and could not be
controlled through SCADA. It can only be adjusted manually inside the substation. All the
breakers could be controlled remotely through SCADA.

Is there a way to parallel the two power transformer using remote control so as not to conduct
the manual paralleling operation daily? What are the precautions/restrictions that should be
considered during paralleling operation?

Is this a temporary paralleling to transfer load from one transformer to another, or do

you intend to operate with the transformers in parallel?
What are the impedances of the two transformers?

Aside from {blatantly obvious, I hope} operational safety and phasing aspects, the
biggest problem is likely excessive circulating {chiefly reactive} power until the
transformer taps are adjusted to minimize flow.

The tap which result in best match of voltages will give the smallest ciculating current
regardless of load current. This means you can always use the same tap.

I checked this issue by myself. Last week I connected two 27MVA 161/22kV transformers
with tap changers in parallel. (up to four taps difference, 1.2% each tap).
Assuming that Vector Group of both Transformers are same and that the paralleling is
temporary (for load transfer only) you should care only that the transformers circulating
current is far enough from protection settings in the circulation circuit
Circulating current:
I= deltaU/(Uk1/I1 + Uk2/I2)
delta U – voltage difference between transformers at no load condition in % (proportional
to the difference in the transformers ratio)
Uk - impedance voltage in %
I1, I2 - transformers rated current

I suggest you also look at the system fault levels with two transformers in parallel: You
have increased the prospective fault current with two in parallel. It's OK as long as your
switchgear can interrupt a fault.

Have you looked at installing an automatic tap changer control device? Our current low
profile substation design allows us to install up to four transformers feeding up to sixteen
12kV feeders or twelve 35kV feeders. Although the trfs. have automatic tap changer
controls, they may be of different brands due to our compaetive bid process. To
compensate, we install a cabinet inside the control house with two automatic tap changer
control units that we have standardized on and our personnel have become very familiar
with over time. We still have the ability, thru SCADA, to control tap settings and monitor
for a run away tap changer.

Suggestion: The paralleled transformer will need their unique protection including system
grounding. Because of low winding impedances, the circulating currents can become
Curso de Sistemas de Potencia a Distancia: I would like know the universities in USA which
could provide distance learning program as master degree in power engineering.

Georgia Tech. www.gatech.edu

The more direct link for distance learning is at:
The EE homepage is at:
Note that at this link you will see Georgia Tech is ranked 7th best EE program in the US
by US New and World Report.
I got my MSEE (Power) there over the course of four years while working full-time
without ever stepping foot on the campus. I watched videotapes of the on-campus
lectures, faxed in my homework, and had exams proctored at a local library. I thought
the courses had a very practical focus.

Suggestion: If you are in some advanced position requiring already earned advanced
expertise, then there are some accelerated Master's degree programs (e.g. for nuclear
industry technical personnel stationed at remote nuclear power plant sites) that allows
you to complete the degreed curriculum in the shorter time.

Protección de Potencia Inversa: I am still confused about these matters :

1. If reverse power relay does't work, does the speed of generator become higher,lower, or
remain stable? In what situation reverse power relay work, when the steam inlet is in a small
quantity or the generator voltage is lower than the infinite bus voltage
2. If generator losses its excitation, why does its speed become higher?

Reverse power relays are used to protect the prime mover, not the generator. The
generator is quite happy running as a motor.
Reverse power occurs when the mechanical energy provided is not sufficient to overcome
the friction and other losses in the turbine/generator.
In a steam turbine the main concern is usually overheating of the low pressure section
due to lack of adequate steam flow.
As far as loss of field - without a generator field, there is no restraining torque on the
generator. Normally, when synchronized to the grid, increasing the power input to the
generator does not cause the generator to speed up, but rather it simply delivers more
power, by advancing its power angle relative to the grid. This is because of the
restraining torque applied by the system voltage. It is like a spring that stretches as the
power is increased. With the field removed, the spring is gone and the generator
accelerates quickly, generally much faster than the governor can respond.

In the case of loss of field, as long as the generator remains connected to the system it
will continue to produce power, changing operating mode from synchronous to induction.
In an induction machine, torque is produced by the difference in speeds between the
rotating field of the stator and the rotor. This is called slip. Operating as a generator, the
rotor turns slightly faster than the stator field. Operating as a motor, the rotor will turn
slightly slower.
Lacking any other control, the speed of an unexcited generator would increase due to the
slip. The speed difference can be anywhere from 0 at no load to 5% or so at full load.
Also the generator will no longer be able to support var load and in fact will absorb vars
from the system.

Suggestion: Reference:
IEEE Std 242-2001 Buff Book Chapter 12, Section Reverse-Power Relay
"From a system standpoint, the primary indication of motoring is the flow of real power
into the generator acting as a synchronous motor. The reverse-power relay detects the
reverse flow of power (i.e., watts) that would occur should the prime mover lose its input
energy. The magnitude of motoring power varies considerably depending on the type of
prime mover, as shown in Table 12-2.
Table 12-2—Maximum motoring power for
prime movers Steam turbine 3.0%
Water wheel turbine 0.2%
Gas turbine 50.0%
Diesel engine 25.0%
In gas turbines, for example, the large compressor load represents a substantial power
requirement from the system, up to 50% of the nameplate rating of the unit; therefore,
the sensitivity of the reverse-power relay is not critical. A diesel engine with no cylinders
firing represents a load of up to 25% of rating; therefore, again, no particular sensitivity
problem exists.
A directional power relay with either definite- or inverse-time characteristics is frequently
used to introduce sufficient time delay necessary to prevent operation during power
swings caused by system disturbances or when synchronizing the machine to the system.
A time delay of 10 s to 30 s is typical. Either a single-phase or a three-phase relay may be
used although a single-phase relay calibrated in three-phase watts is frequently selected."

Protección de Pérdida de Exitación: For our 20 MW Gas-turbine driven generator we are

having two types of 'loss of excitation' protections .One ,with under voltage and the other
without under voltage.As per the manufacturer's recommendation , the loss of excitation
protection without undervoltage is going for tripping of generator , whereas the loss of
excitation protection with undervoltage is going for tripping of both turbine and
generator.However I am unable to understand why a loss of excitation condition should trip the
turbine .Should we change it ?

When a synchronous generator loses its field while carrying load, it also loses the
restraining torque that is holding it at synchronous speed. When the field is removed, the
unit will accelerate rapidly and will usually trip on overspeed if it had been carrying much
The requirement to trip the turbine is probably based on a concern for overspeed.
Loss-of-field should be a fairly rare event, so tripping the turbine seems reasonable.