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Chemistry 534 Gases Ms.

Godin

8 - Boyle's Law (1627-1691)


• Discovered relationship between P and V of any
gas'constant T and n
• In a simplified version of his many experiments he
observed results similar to following:
Volume Pressure P x V
1 2 16
2 4 8
3 8 4
4 16 2
5 20 1.6
• Derived a math formula for this relationship:
∎ Since: P1 x Vl = k and P2 X V2= K
Therefore:

Where : P, = initial pressure


V 1 = initial volume
P2 =final pressure
V2= final volume

Boyle's Law

Graphical Representation of Boyle's Law


Inverse relationship, where if V is halved, P is
doubled. (inverse of 1/2 is 2/1)

Sample Calculation
Ex- After decreasing the volume of a gas to
2.35L its pressure increases by 29.5kPa. If its
pressure was 125kPa, what was its starting
volume?

Do questions p. 227 #4, p. 241 #15, 16,

21, 22

Boyles' Law
Use Boyles' Law to answer the following questions:
1) 1.00 L of a gas at standard temperature and pressure is
compressed to 473 mL. What is the new pressure of the
gas?

2) In a thermonuclear device, the pressure of O.OSO liters of gas


within the bomb casing reaches 4.0 x 10 6 atm. When the
bomb casing is destroyed by the explosion, the gas is
released into the atmosphere where it reaches a pressure of
1.00 atm. What is the volume of the gas after the
explosion?

3) Synthetic diamonds can be manufactured at pressures of 6.00


x 104 atm. If we took 2.00 liters of gas at 1.00 atm and
compressed it to a pressure of 6.00 x 10 4 atm, what would
the volume of that gas be?
4) The highest pressure ever produced in a laboratory setting
was about 2.0 x 106 atm. If we have a 1.0 x 10 -5 liter sample
of a gas at that pressure, then release the pressure until it is
equal to 0.275 atm, what would the new volume of that gas
be?

(1746-1823)

His ex eriment showed data like this:


Trial Volume T(°C) T (k) V/T K*
1 120 27 300
2 160 127 400
3 240 327 600
4 300 477 750
5 400 727 1000
*means a constant
10 -Charles Law

He derived a math formula for this relationship


Since: VI/T, = k and V2/T2= k

Therefore:
Where V1 = initial volume
Tl = initial temperature
V2= final volume
T2= final temperature

Example:
A gas was heated to a T of 125°C. Its volume
was 2.4L at a
temperature of
22°C. What is
the new
volume?
Charles Law Calculations

1) The temperature inside my refrigerator is about 4° Celsius. If I


place a balloon in my fridge that initially has a temperature of
22° C and a volume of 0.5 liters, what will be the volume of
the balloon when it is fully cooled by my refrigerator?

2) A man heats a balloon in the oven. If the balloon initially has


a volume of 0.4 liters and a temperature of 20 °C, what will
the volume of the balloon be after he heats it to a
temperature of 250 °C?

3) On hot days, you may have noticed that potato chip bags seem
to "inflate", even though they have not been opened. If I have
a 250 mL bag at a temperature of 19 °C, and I leave it in my
car which has a temperature of 60'C, what will the new
volume of the bag be?
temperature (25 °C), what will the new volume be if you put it in your freezer (-4
0
c)?

5) Some students believe that teachers are full of hot air. If I inhale 2.2 liters of gas
at a temperature of 18°C and it heats to a temperature of 38 °C in my lungs, what is the
new volume of the gas?

6) How hot will a 2.3 L balloon have to get to expand to a volume of 400 L?
Assume that the initial temperature of the balloon is 25 °C.

7) I have made a thermometer which measures temperature by the compressing and


expanding of gas in a piston. I have measured that at 100°C the volume of the
piston is 20 L. What is the temperature outside if the piston has a volume of 15
L? What would be appropriate clothing for the weather?

Charles Law- Graphical Representation

Graph of V v s.
T (Celsius)
partially direct
relation between
V and T(°C)
Graph of V vs.
T (Kelvin) direct
Relation between
V and T(k) of a
Gas.

11- Gay-Lussac's Law

- math representation:
Where: P1 = initial pressure
T1 = initial temp. (Kelvin)
P2= final pressure
T2= final temp. (Kelvin)

-Example
A 5.OL rigid container holds a gas with a P of
122.25kPa and a T of 86°C. What was the initial
T(°C), if the original P was l.OSatm?

V,= 5.OL (don't need, doesn't change)


P1= 1.OSatm x 101.3kPa
1 atm
= 106.4kPa
T, _ ?
P2 = 122.25kPa
T2 =860C + 273 = 359K

Gay-Lussac's Law Calculations

1. Determine the pressure change when a constant volume of gas at


1.00 atm is heated from 20.0 °C to 30.0 °C.
2. A gas has a pressure of 0.370 atm at 50.0 °C. What is the
pressure at standard temperature?

3. A gas has a pressure of 699.0 mm Hg at 40.0 °C. What is the


temperature at standard pressure?

4. If a gas is cooled from 323.0 K to 273.15 K and the volume is


kept constant what final pressure would result if the original
pressure was 750.0 mm Hg?

5. If a gas in a closed container is pressurized from 15.0


atmospheres to 16.0 atmospheres and its original temperature was
25.0 °C, what would the final temperature of the gas be?

6. A 30.0 L sample of nitrogen inside a rigid, metal container at


20.0 °C is placed inside an oven whose temperature is 50.0 °C. The
pressure inside the container at 20.0 °C was at 3.00 atm. What is
the pressure of the nitrogen after its temperature is increased?

12- Avagadro's Law


- states that the V of any gas is directly
proportional to its n if P and T held constant

- math formula:

V - V2
nl n2
- math similar to Charles' law

Calculations

1: 5.00 L of a gas is known to contain 0.965 mol. If the amount of


gas is increased to 1.80 mol, what new volume will result (at an
unchanged temperature and pressure)?