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Evouton oGS i'ntote Next Generation

Wireless Wrl

PrabhakarChitrapu1,Member, IEEE andBehrouz Aghili 'InterDigitalCommunications Corporation,781 ThirdAvenue, King ofPrussia,PA 19406,

USA. (610-878-5730;fax: 61-878-7841;e-mail:

prbhaKarchitrapu@interdijta1com).

2InterDigitalCommunications Corporation,2 HuntingdonQuadrangle,Melville,NY 11747.

(e-mail: behrouzaghili@interdigitaLcom

Equipment is still relatively young, a numiiber of deployment

Abstract-GSM is the most widely deployed 2ud Generation challenges remain unresolved. First, widespread comercial

digital cellular standard, with over 2 billion subscribers in some

  • 213 countries and adding about 1000 new users per minute!

Originally developed in the 1980s, and first

GSM is a TDMA+FDMA

communications

using

system,

providing

200 KHz carriers.

deployed

wide

Subsequently,

in 1991

area voice

GSM

deployment of 30 is an

expensive

matter,

since it entails the

acquisitionofnew Radio Access spectrum,andthedevelopmentofentirely Networks and Use Handsets.

ne

Second,

because of market requirements and service

compatibility

as well.

support 20 functionality

evolved intoa2.5Gstandardwiththeintroductionofpacketdata issues, 30 Handsets will

transmissiontechnology (GPRS) andhigherdataratesviahigher

order modulation schemes (EDGE). More

recently,

GERAN

standards organiization has been evolving further to coexist with and provide comparable services to 3G technologies. In this

Finally,

some level of

continuity

of services across 2G & 3G

networks will be important for both the customers and

erat r

p

paper, we first provide an overview of the traditional 2G

and

2.5G GSM,

and then

discuss the so-called "GERAN Evolution"

into the

3G world. We conclude by detailinig a few selected

aspects of the GERAN Evolution. Overall, we aspire to demonstrate that GERAN is a vibrant, living and growing

technology that exploits the latest advances in communications

anidsignalprocessing.

andsignalprocessing

Driven

by

the

above

fators,

GERAN

standards

development organization has been engaged in a

evolution effort simce 2005 in order to offer advanced

major

radio

interface capabilities in the context of

(Rad

1~(Rado

V

A

Access

Teclmology)networks

Tech

nwks

emerging multi-RAT

d m

and

multi-mode user

equipmentenvironment.Thesecapabilitiesare expectedto be

Index Terms - Land Mobile Radio Cellular Systems,

Standards, Quadrature Amplitude

Methods.

Modulation, Diversity

I. INTRODUCTION

mostly Mobile Station centric, with only software and minor (ifany) hardware upgrades to the existing GERAN networks. This willoffercellularoperators alessexpensive alternativeto

30. Futhermore, since tfie new features are related to 30

features, implementation im Dual Mode (2G-3G) Handsets

G SM is the most

tJcellularstandard,

widely deployed 2nd Generation digital shouldbe effiientand less expensive.

with over 2 billion subscribers in some

  • 213 coumtries and adding about 1000 new users per minute! GERAN evolution is addressingboth Uplinkand Downlink

Originallydeveloped in the 1980s, andfirstdeployed in 1991, enhancements. One ofthe new DL features is theusage atthe

GSM is a TDMA+FDMA system, providing wide area voice communications using 200 KHz carriers. Soon, the text

Mobile Station of multiple antennas, which are exploited for Receive Diversity and interference cancellation. This is

messaging service, SMS, became hugely successful and now especiallyimportant as thecell sizes arebecoming smallerand transmriitsover 1 billionmessages per day. Subsequently, GSM smaller, so that even though GERAN is a TDMA based

evgolved into 2.50 standards with the introduction of packet

xsystem, interference from adjacent cells, rather than noise, is

datatransmission technology(GPRS) andhigherdatarates via begiuning to be the capacity limiting factor. Another DL

higher order modulation schemes (EDGE). Together they are

now referred to as GERAN, for GSM/EDGE based Radio

Access Network. Th:e theoreticalpeak data rate is 473.6 kbps

andthepracticalhighestdatarateisapproximately200kbps.

enhanceent ature is the

alloc+ation of multiple caiers in

order to increase peak and mean data rates. Finally, Higher

OrderModulation, HOM (16and 32 QAM) andTurbo Coding

are being investigated

performance

to increase the data rates and

respectively. Similarly, HOM and Tibo Coding

The a:dvent of te new millennium saw the developmen:t of ae being:implementedin:theUJplinkaswell.*

  • 30 tecnlogis, bkase on Wide b and CDM:A. This stanldardI

offers much :higher data frates anld greater flexibility :for supporting a v riety of services. As 30 Networks and UJser

Thispfaperwl poide a ohicaloverviwof

e

thle GERAN

Evolution, e:xpandin:g

aspEct

sucih asX

on the above initiatives. W9e wfill cover

link performance, sp>ectral efficiencies,

impplemenstationcomplex:itieDsetc.

II. OVERVIEWOF2G&2.50 GERAN

OSM orGERAN asitcame tobecalledinlateryears isawell

known, well understood and well documented

technology,

with several textbooks dealing withthesubjecteither infullor

m part. Some useful references are [1,2,3]. Here we give a

as Layer 3 Signalimg Protocols. The Layer 2 protocol

(LAPDm), also generally recognized as the Data Link Layer,

ismalyresponsible forprovi sequence

correctionby

means of retransmission.

ntrol and error

briefoverview ofthesalientaspects.

urn

A

rado ntrce

As

interface

Cm

Cm

  • A. GSMN tworkArchirtectre

MM

RR

~~~~~~~_4

  • 66 SS~|+)X

uAP

-4-11

_

MM

R+R

BTSM

BTSM

0CC R

SCCP

The GSM system architecture is basically divided into two

LARD,

LAPD,

LARD

LARD

MTP

MTP

subsystems. the Network (N') Switching System (NSS alsO

Rado

Radio

64kbps

64kbps

64kps 664kbps

referredortoasCN), CoreNW

where the services are realized

Mobile

Base station transceiver

Bssestatoncontroller

Mobileswitching

and the Base Station System (BSS, also called Radio Access

satton

center

RAN),NW'orvhich gives the users access to the CN. The

CM=ConnecionManagement'MM=MobiliyManagementRR,=adioResourcecontol,LAPD=LnkAccess

 

terminal,userwhich is called Iviobie Station (IVIS),

user

terminal,

of

which is called Mobile Station

(MS),

can

can

support a range

various capabilities. Figurel illustrates a

Protocol

D-channel(1S0N);'TS6=B67

Management'BSSAP=BaseStaion SusystemAIpptcation

SCCP=SignalConnectionContrlPart:MTP`MessageTransferPart(SS7)

Pa';

simple example of a GSM NW, where the Base Transceiver

Stations (BTS)andBase StationController(BSC)make upthe

BSS. The NSS is siply the totalt Of the Switches

and

databases that exist in the NW. Here, we find the Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC), the Visitor Location

Register (VLR), the Home Location Register (HLR) and the

AuthenticationCenter (AUC) as themost importantnodes.

Figure-2: ProtocolArchitecture[2]

G

Rdo

ce

The GSM radio interface, shown in Figure-2, consists of a number of communication channels defined in terms of the

radio

spectrum.

GSM is

essentially

operating

with 200 KHz carriers

a FDMA+TDMA system, in the frequency domain.

Time is basically partitioned into a continuous synchronous

gU1

MS

BTS

BTS

EiTS

B

/

\

HLR

BSC

MS

l

VLR

AU_

_sequence

of4.615 msec-long

'frames',eachofwhichisfurther

of

partitionedinto8

modulated

'timfslots'.EachtiImslotcarriesa 'burst'

symbols, using the spectrally efficient GMSK

modulation

scheme,

which carries 1 bit

symbol.

The

number of /l0numhXiAls nfsrr

symbols

used

per I,S;1#~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ burst .......................... is 148 for a so-called 'normal'

to carry 114 user databits as well as

per

.....

m-

._....

l/Siiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiillllllllllllllllllllllllburst, which is

l^>

MSG

111

1111111

tralning symbols

Adjacentbursts

tha of8

e

and a small amount of

signaling

with

data.

are separatedby aguard time,

.25syblAs.

Thiesultsin a

aduration

~|~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~qatoT

'

_.

ul0

of

jsymbolintrval<

271

3.69usec and an average

symbol rate of approximately

BSC

tF

,?

ksps.Startingwithframes,

|frames),

multiframes(consistingof26 or 51

superframes and hyperframes are defined. Figure 3

depictsthevarioustimescalesdescribedabove.

Figure-I: PhysicalNetwork Architecture [2

  • B. GSM Protocol Model

Figure2belowshows theprotocol stackofOSM

togetherwith

the entities in correspondimg nodes. Focusimg at the MS side,

the Connection Management (CM) entity provides the

signaling to setupbasic voice and data calls as well as Short

Message Service (SMS). The Mobility Management (MM)

entity supports the means for registration and

security

functions sucfh as user aulthentication, identification and

confidJen:tiality. However, in ordJer for the MS: to hfave: a signaling counection wfith the core NW, a "bdedicated" Radio Coune:ction mustS be crea:ted first. The: radio counection

between the MS and the BSS is created by using the Radio

ReesourceManageme+nt(RRrM).Alltheseprotocols arere>alized

Hnrerframe -2048

nuperframes

3 h 28 ]5176

t

Sunrfram6 -1 tr6afficmsrUltfrname

  • 2- controt multttranme

I~~~~~= 612s

T

..

,raffic

msiframe

-2 tramnes

-2nms

cartro

I

23f4smA

ruframe 51 frrames

r

frame-ormslts

7-4615

TIm a=156025sybos

-7U

=

e

Figure-3:VariousTimeScalesinG5M [2>]

A number ofphysicalandlogicalchannels aredefinedintermns Protocol) routing technology. The new nodes in the CN are

of radio bursts. For example, a physical full rate channel

consists of 1 timeslot per frame. Logical channels are

called Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway

GPRS Support Node

(GGSN). The data are rou d as IP-

characterizedby thetype ofinformation carriedovertheactual packets withim the CN and beyond to external Packet Data

physical channels. Some examples are Broadcast Channels (to Networks (PDNs).

facilitate cellselection, synchronizationetc),Common Control

Channels (to support Access and Assignment mechanisms), Stmad-alone Dedicated Control Channels (to perform

procedures such as location update etc), Traffic ChanMel (to

On theradio interface, GPRS uses the same physicalchannels as circuit switched GSM. However, some newlogicalchannels have bee defined to mable GPRS specific procedures. An

transfer user data) and Associated Control Channels (to help example is the PDTCH, which uses a physicalchannel shared

maintain the radio connection, send handover messages, to reportmeasurements etc).

among several users. The basic radio unit is the so-called

"Radio Block", which consists of 4 'consecutive' bursts. By allocating a different number of radio blocks to a user, the

User data, typically voice in 2G GSM systems,

is protected effective datarate can be varied, depending upon the demands

against channel errors by a combination ofLayer 1 and Layer ofthedataapplicationathand.

2 techniques. The Layer 1 techniques include Forward Error

Correction Codes (mostly convolution codes) for correctig randomly distributed errors and Interleaving for randomizing burstyerrors (whichcan thenbecorrectedbyFEC). The Layer

2 technique used is the ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request)

urther imcreases in data rates were made possible in

1999 by

to

the standardization of 8PSK Modulation, in addition

GMSK. Since 8PSK carries3 bitsper symbol,theoreticallythe

datarates can be tripledwithout affectingthe symbol rate and

method. The ARQ is mainly used for retransmission of entire hence thebandwidth. By way ofterminology, GPRS enhanced

radiobursts.

with 8PSK modulation came to be referred to as Enhanced

GPRS (E-GPRS) where EDGE stands forEnhanced Data rates

FEC Codes are characterized by the so-called channel code forGSM Evolution. rate, which is the ratio ofthe data rate before codinig to data

rate after the coding. Often the coded data stream is

Since, data applications, unlike voice coiummications,

'punctured' by deleting some coded bits, sothat thepunctured require variabledatarates as well as channel errorprotection,

data can be exactly mapped onto the assigned physical channel.

In GSM, a voice call is first source coded by the RPE-LTP

a number of"Modulation and Codimg Schemes" (MCS) have

been defined in E-GPRS. The followimg table shows the

schemes along withthe raw datarates anduser datarates that,

respectively, do and do not include channel coding, and

(Regular Pulse Excitation - Long Term Prediction) speech signalingoverhead.

codec, which

coWpresses input speech to approximately 13

to about 22 kbps after FEC coding.

kbps, winch is increased

This is the data rate supported by a fullrate physicalchannel

(114 data bits per 4.615 msec frame and 24 frames in a 26

frame multiframe), wich means that a voice communication

requires a Traffic Channel using a single fuill rate physical

channel. The resulting voice capacity is 8 simultaneous voice calls for each 200 KHz carrier. Subsequent improvements in

speech coding technology saw the introduction of the Half

Rate Coder (doubling the voice capacity) and the Enhanced

Full Rate Coder (producing higher perceptual speech

quality

withoutdiminishingthevoicecapacity).

D.

PacketData ServicesandE-GPRS

SinceGSM systemwas primarilydesignedforvoice,

a Circuit

Switched arciltecturewas followedeven

fordataapplications.

Inotherwords, dedicatedphysical channels were allocatedfor

Table- :DataRatesinE-GPRS

Schenie(Family)

Ma (C)

MCS-2(B)

MCS3(A)

MCS-4(C)

MCS-S(B)

MCS-6 (A)

MCS-7(B)

MCS-8 (A)

MCS9(A)

M

(

9

___

Modulation

GMSK

ChannelCoding

03

GMSK

GMSK

GMSK

8PSK

8PSK

8PSK

8PSK

8PSK

8PSK

0.66

0.85

1.0

0.37

0.49

0.76

0.92

1.0

___

UserData

88bps)

11.2

13.6/14.8

17.6

22.4

27.2/29.6

44.8

54.4

59.2

I

individual data applications. However, because the traffic of The above date rates assume that a single timeslot is allocated

most data applicationsis

4"bursty" in nature, thiswas obviously

Therefore, the GS8M siociety

per frame If all the 8 timeislots were to be allocated to the

same data stream, clearly thiemaximum theoruetical data rate

473.6kb3ps! In

lreality, however, the maximulm data

rates ae lower reaching up to somet 200 kbps, limte;dby the number ofT ti:meslots that can be allocated to a user and

not an optimized solultion.

introduced a Packet Swsitchedtran:sport servicecalled General would be

Packet Radio Serrvice(GP1RS)in 1997.

The G;PRS i:srealizedlby mainltaininYg fandmod:ifying;the BSS

proessedby amobile.

as weillas in:troducing anew type oifCN based on IP (+Internet

in addition to ARQ techniques, error protection at Layer 2 is

several more decades to come.

Migration to newer 30

technologies is expensive from an operators' point of view,

enhancOed throughtheintroduction ofIncremental

Redundancy not onlybecause

ofthenew networks thatneed to be built,but

(IR) and Link Adaptation

(LA). In the former, the

incorrectly

also due

th

sectrum liessneddt

elo

hs

e

received packets are retransmittedusinga differentpuncturinig

radio technologies.Recent history

of

spectrumregulation

and

pattern, whfich are ' soft-combined' with the previously packt. I LinAdptaton, he Mdultionand

sent

odig

licensing has show that the

latter aspect can be

expensive and therefore prohibitive

to

operators

extroemely

across

the

Scheme is changed dependingupon the channel conditions.

if

globe

in

general.

& 2.50networks.

This calls for

continued

enhancemeint of 20

the change happens withinm the samie 'Famiily' of MCS

schemes (as indicated in Table 1), then data packets (at the

Anteimoatpittokpinidishtasew3

es

radio networks are

being deployed, they

will be

coexisting

RLCtlhevelareogurateged pattiong be combmenuat,inte

that hey owinegerpartiionig

or

ombiing.with the 20 & 2.50networks. This means that thelevel of

The allocation ofpacket data resouirces is orchestrated

by

the

service provided should remain COMparable as users move

MAC (Medium Access Control) protocol, which also ensures

ars h

ewrs utfigtene

oeov

025

packet

data

sequence

control and error correction. The MAC

protcolllowforstaic a wel as ynaic alocaion n a

services.

Finally,current and futurehandsets willmost likelybe multi-

per radio block basis. Theo 0PRS Mobility Management

mhode devices, with 30 capabilities. This suggests that

(0MM) protocol mainly acts like the MM protocol

and the

enhancing 20&2.50

capabilities to be on par with 30

Session Management (SM) protocol is used for

IP-address

capabilities will be feasible with onily a ma-rginial increase in

allocationas wellas QoS negotiation.

theoveralldua mode devicecomplexity.

III. OVERVIEW OF GERAN EvOLUTION

Driven by such motivations, theo 0ERAN standardization

organization (namely 30PP, www.3gpp ora) has been

The late 90' s and the 2000' s saw an explosive growth in

mobile wireless coimmuication technologies, especially

terms of new and more capable

radio interfaces and a

multitude of new usage scenarios.

In the wide area coverage

cellular scenarios, the ITU (InterniationalTelecommunications Union) initiated the 1MT2000 project, with a hope for a truily

global

radio interface for the new millennium. This effort

continuing to enhance the capabilities of GERAN both at the

in PhysicalLayeras well as higherlayers. In this section,we will

give an overview of these efforts. We will see that some of

these einhancements have already been standardized (in Release 6 of 0ERAN) and even implemented,while others are being actively standardized (Work Items for Release 7&8 Of

0ERAN), wvhile yet otheors are being stuidied for

resulted in two 3 generto rdointerfaces, developed by standardization (Stuidyitems forReleases 7&8 of0ERAN).

the Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) 30PP and

30PP2, with the former being based on a 5 MHz WCDMA

A

hsclL e i acmn

(Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) technology and

the latter being based on Multi Carrier extension of the, 20

1.25 MHz CDMA radio interface. (The radio access

network

in30PP is referredto as UTRAN). Boththeseradio interfaces

ae capableofdeliveringdatarates up to severalMbps and

are

well suitedfordataintensive

applications,includingstreaming

In the scenario of

& interactive multimedia commnunications.

local area dataorienitedservices, IEEE developedtheWLAN

(Wireless Local Area Network) radio interfaces, based onI

OFDM (Ortogonl Frqueny

technlogy ndprvidin

techioloy an Proidin

up

up

Diisio

Muliple-mg)

t

o

54

54Mbps

Mps.

Smilar

Simlar

developmentstookplace inthe area ofPersonalArea Wireless

1) FlexibleLayerOne

logical

specifiedin terms of

(FLO): In 2.500ERAN,Optimized

channels for real-time services were standardized and

specificchannelcoding,punctuiring

and

interleaving. While these were optimal for the particular

sevc,tywrentfxil,nthsnetatihte

introduction of each new service, new

codingschemes had to

was likelyto

be developed and standardized. This problem

grow as a number ofnew IPbased MultimhediaServices (IMS)

were

being

defined.

solution was to

design

flexible

in

physica

which

layer(i.e.layer-i),which provideda

A

frameiwork

a

optirmized

ofcall

channel coding schemes couldbe specifiedat was solved in

setup. Fortunately,thfispiroblem

3GPP UTRAN viatheconceptofTransportChannels (TrCH),

so thatGERAN

simpilified

and adaptedtheconcept. The result

was a so-calledFlexibleLayerOne (FLO), specifiedin [4]and decidin[]

Services for Cable Replacemnent applications (e.g. Bluetoothi), the time

Wireless Gaming devices (e.g. ZigBee), Warehouse & Asset

Trackingapplications(RFID) etc.

In light of such unprecedented developments, one may get an

TI

as_!13~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~RJ5t?

As

the

number of

etc. is denoted by the

a number of different

two approaches

are

(JD)

algorithms and

Blimd

algorithms.

As the

namne

suggests,

attempt

to decode both

the

desired

to one transport channel.

signal,

whereas BIG algorithms

transport

formats is completely interferencebased

signal.

Clearly,

JD

the

signals,

which

D

transport channels can be active

multiplexedatthephysicallayer.

The configuration of a transport

at

the

same tirne and

leading

to a class of receiver algorithms referred to as Single

(SAIC). At a high level,

Antenna Interference Cancellation

possiblefor SAIC, namely JointDetection

Interference Cancellation (BIC)

JD algoritfims essentially

signal and the interfering

attempt to cancel the

on general characteristics of the interfering

algorithmsrequire

synchronizationbetween

may

not be

possible in the case of un-

For

the BIC algorithms, a

the GMSK modulated

is that GMSK symbols,

channel i.e.

inputbits, channel coding, interleaving

Transport Format (TF).

in

UTRAN,

transport formats can be associated

The configuration of

tlh

controlledbytheRAN andsignaledto theMS atcallsetup.

On transportchannels,

transportblocks

between the MAC layer

transrnission time interval

(TB)

are

exchanged

and the physical layer on a

(TTI)

basis. For each

TTI a

synchronized base stations.

particular non-obvious property of

signals is

although

exploited.

carrymg

The property

dimensionalcomplex symbol

can be splitinto two I-Q

components,

signals

froh

tWo

virtual antennas

transport format is chosen and indicated through the transport

formatindicator(TFIN).

Only a limited number

of combinations of the transport

formats of the different TrCHs are allowed.

A

valid

comhbinationiscalledaTransportFormat

Combination

(TFC).

The setofvalid TFCs on abasic physical channelis called the

TransportFormatCombinationSet(TFCS).

in order to decode the received

sequence

to know the active TFC fora

radio

pcket.

transmitted in the Transport

the

receiver needs

a single bit per symbol, span the 2-

space,

so thatthereceived signal

mimicking two separate

[3,5]. This observation

allows the application of several well known 2 antenna

interference

cancellation algorithms.

large gains thatare possible with an

Figure 5 illustrates the

SAIC algorithm [8]. The

DIR

represents

the

ratio

ofthe Dorminant Interferer

Noise.

This information is parameter

to

Format Combination indicator

a layer

1

header,

which

is

decode the

payload

data.

Figure

therestoftheinterferersand

(TFCI) field. This fieldisbasically

decoded first and is used

to

belowillustratestheconcept ofFLO.

ranporthanne&

Layer2

ITrtansportelook

CRC Attachment

Code elook

Channel Coding

h0r

13

F777777777777x

Rate Matching

Radio

Frame

R6dioframe

F

TrataportChannel

Multiplexing

C:CTrCH

TFCIMapping

RadioPaskot

l

I Interxleaving

t

#

o

PhyolsalChanealo

-Coventionalreceiver

SAIC,

IR-0dBl

.\.--SAIC,

*f;g D1R=0dB

SA1IDDR-10dB

0.45

0

03

k%

-

tI0.;205_-w\

O2 02

01

Q,j5

0

-10

-5

0

5

1 0

BurstwiseCI1 [dB]

the

Figure-5:Illustrating

as realizable,bv SAIC [8]

gains

by

Due to such

requirements

[6].

3)

Mbbile

Antennas.

As

viewed as

exected

impressive performance, DARP performance

have been standardized in GERAN Release 6

Station Receive Diversity (MSRD) with Dual

handsettechnologyimsproves

a

reality.As

use of

miltiple

such,GERAN Evolution

is

the use of

2 receive antennas to

In

a

certain sense, it may be

L

Figure-4:ConceptofFlexibleLayerOne [3]

Performance

antennas willbecome

currently

provide

standardizing

2) Downlink Advanced Receiver

the cell sizes decreased

to

(DARP):

As

diversity gains [7].

the

that

accommodate increasing

limiting

traffic

Dual Antenna extension of DARP/SAIC. It is

tis

will

be standardized in Release 7 of

load, co-channel interference becomes the

factor, as

opposed to additive rdom noise. Es1pecialyin th downlink GERAN dueto be completed late in 2007. Tns tpic willbet MISs are afcted by th interferece from one: or more basei dealtwithingrreaterdettaillaterin section IV.

station:s usin:g the sam:e frequency and timeeslot. Since the

characteristics of thieinterfering signals are knXown in general 4) Down?li.nk Dufal Carrier (DLDCA() ttransmission: GERAN

terms (suc as modulation types, training; sequences etc), itis p;ossible to develop interfeence cancellation techiqueLs,

uses a relatively narrowband carrier of 200 KHz. Ini order to

increase peak and mean datarates, te use ofmultiple cariers

has been investigated in both uplink and downlink. HoWever, Control Block. Ithas to be mentioned thatControl Blocks in

it has been decided that only the use of 2 carriers in the

downlink will be standardized, in Release 7 of GERAN [7].

(E)GPRS cannot contaimany user data. Thismechanismworks

properly for applications thatcan tolerate delays. A real time

This topicwillbe elaboratedlaterinsectionV. service, on the other hand, demands rapidresponses from the

)Higher OrderModulation (HOM): A wellknown way to

receiver. Therefore, the idea of FANR is that the receiver,

when sending data, will piggyback an Ack/Nak report.

mcrease datarates istoincrease themodulation order. As itis Currently, there are two different approaches being discussed, donein UTRAN, GERAN Evolutioniscurrentlystandardizing one time based and another one based on the sequence

16 QAM and 32 QAM for Release 7 [7]. This topic will be elaboratedlaterinsection VI.

6)HigherSymbolRate (HSR). Throughfeasibilitystudies, it

has been determined that the symbol rate of the GERAN

waveform can be increased by a factor of 1.2, with the

spectrum still satisfying the spectral mask requirements [6,7].

number.

2) Generic (WIAN) Radio Access Networks (GAN): Due to

the increasing prevalence of Wireless LAN, the idea of

utilizing WLAN coverage became very appealing for the

operators. This is particularly important as it frees up radio

Thisefctivelyincreasesthepeakdataratesby20%. spectrumhence increasing thecapacity. The wholeideais also

7) Turbo Coding. It is well known that Turbo Codes are

recognized as Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC). GERAN

standards introduced a new

n:ode, called GAN Controller

near-optimal codes approaching Shannon capacity limits and (GANC), interfaciMg theCN byusing theexact same protocols

that it has been standardized in 30 UTRAN. Accordingly,

GERAN is adopting the same Turbo Coding scheme [7]. This

and procedures defined in GERAN, to enable tffis idea in

Release 6. This new GANC also communicates with the

introduces additional MCS classes to those shown imTable-i. mobile using WLAN (IEEE 802.11) Acoess Points and rules.

Since Tubo Codes perform bestforlongterdatablocks,Trbo Obviouily, handover of voice calls, being the most important Coding is expected to perform well with HOM. This feature service, was definedbetween GERAN and GAN from the day

willbestandardizedin Release7 ofGERAN.

B.

Higher L

rEnhancements

1) Latency Reductionfor Conversational PS (VOP): From

theveryoriginofGSM, thebasictimeumitindeliveryofvoice

samples was chosen to be 2Qrms. The same tact was also

used

when GPRS was introducedbysendimgthebasicpieceofinfo,

called "Radio Blocks", in four consecutive TDMA

frames

of introduction, and extensions to PS Handovers is unda

currentstandardization.

IV. " MOBILE STATIONRECEIVEDIVERSITY" WITHDUAL

ANTENNAS

The use

of multipleantennas

many

is a technique

systems,since being

that is

(and

hence

it

data

and

expored in

romises

wireless communication

capacity

great

imrovements for

pates) as well

as performance (by providing trans

using one time slot. As Packet Switched networks offer more eceive diversity. InGERAN Evolution, theuseof2 ateunas

capacity and flexibilityfor theoperators, the supportofVoice

at the Mobile Station is being explored in order to provide

over IP (VoIP) became an attractive solution. This, on the

receive diversity,

which can in tum be exploited to improve

other hand, calls for reduction oflatency, Which is somewhat the performance m the presence of channel impalrments,

naturalin PS netvworks. Accordingly, GERAN is standardizing interference and noise. We mention that the use of multiple

various techniques to reduce the latency in Conversational Packetreal-tiimeServices, suchas voice andvideo.

antennas at the Base Station has been common in GERAN.

Theyhave been usedforReceiveDiversityas wellas Transmit

Diversity. So, althoughtheuseofmultipletransimnitantennas at

The two latency reduction techniques that are being

the Base Station coupled