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Biology 300, Biometrics Homework #1 Key

Answer each question and show intermediate calculations. Please be neat! Do the work with a hand calculator by yourself. After all, that's the way you'll need to do it during an exam!

Salivary magnesium concentrations (mmol/L) were measured for n = 20 adults:

Salivary Magnesium Concentration (mmol/L)

0.31

0.30

0.18

0.10

0.13

0.11

0.23

0.31

0.32

0.22

0.04

0.29

0.21

0.33

0.32

0.15

0.15

0.25

0.22

0.31

1. Compute the arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, and median for these data to three decimal places. (6 points)

RANK

X

X^2

LN(X)

1/X

|X-XMEAN|

15

0.31

0.0961

-1.17118

3.2258

0.086

4

0.13

0.0169

-2.04022

7.6923

0.094

18

0.32

0.1024

-1.13943

3.1250

0.096

8

0.21

0.0441

-1.56065

4.7619

0.014

5

0.15

0.0225

-1.89712

6.6667

0.074

14

0.30

0.0900

-1.20397

3.3333

0.076

3

0.11

0.0121

-2.20727

9.0909

0.114

9

0.22

0.0484

-1.51413

4.5455

0.004

20

0.33

0.1089

-1.10866

3.0303

0.106

12

0.25

0.0625

-1.38629

4.0000

0.026

7

0.18

0.0324

-1.71480

5.5556

0.044

11

0.23

0.0529

-1.46968

4.3478

0.006

1

0.04

0.0016

-3.21888

25.0000

0.184

19

0.32

0.1024

-1.13943

3.1250

0.096

10

0.22

0.0484

-1.51413

4.5455

0.004

2

0.10

0.0100

-2.30259

10.0000

0.124

16

0.31

0.0961

-1.17118

3.2258

0.086

13

0.29

0.0841

-1.23787

3.4483

0.066

6

0.15

0.0225

-1.89712

6.6667

0.074

17

0.31

0.0961

-1.17118

3.2258

0.086

SUM:

4.48

1.1504

-32.06580 118.6121

1.460

Sample size: n = 20

Arithmetic mean: x =  X)/n = 4.48/20 = 0.224 mmol/L

Geometric mean: G = exp[(Ln X)/n] = exp[–32.06580/20] = exp[–1.60329] = 0.201233 = 0.201 mmol/L

Harmonic mean: H = n/ (1/X)] = 20/[118.6121] = 0.168617 = 0.169 mmol/L

Median: n=20 is even, so median is average of X-values with ranks n/2 = 20/2 = 10 and 1+n/2 = 1+20/2 = 1+10 = 11. median = (X 10th + X 11th )/2 = (0.22 + 0.23)/2 = 0.225 mmol/L

Biometrics

Homework #1 Key

Page 2

2. Compute the standard deviation, mean deviation, range, and coefficient of variation to three decimal places. (6 points)

Sample size: n = 20

Arithmetic mean: x = 0.224 mmol/L

Standard deviation: s

= Sqrt([(X 2 ) – (X) 2 /n] / [n-1])

= Sqrt([1.1504 – (4.48) 2 /20] / [20-1])

= Sqrt([1.1504 – 20.0704/20] / 19)

= Sqrt([1.1504 – 1.00352] / 19)

= Sqrt(0.14688 / 19) = Sqrt(0.00773053) = 0.0879234 = 0.088 mmol/L

Mean deviation =  |X – x|) / n = 1.460 / 20 = 0.073 mmol/L

Range = Max(X) – Min(X) = X 20th – X 1st = 0.33 – 0.04 = 0.290 mmol/L

Coefficient of variation: CV = s/x = 0.0879234/0.224 = 0.39252 = 39.3%

3. Compute the 25th, 50th, and 66th percentiles to three decimal places. (3 points)

25th percentile:

P=25, n=20, (nP)/100 = (20*25/100) = 500/100 = 5 which is an integer, so k=5 and the

25th percentile is the average of the X-values with ranks k = 5 and k+1 = 6.

25th percentile is is (X 5th + X 6th )/2 = (0.15 + 0.15)/2 = 0.150 mmol/L

50th percentile:

P=50, n=20, (nP)/100 = (20*50/100) = 1000/100 = 10 which is an integer, so k=10 and the

50th percentile is the average of the X-values with ranks k = 10 and k+1 = 11.

50th percentile is (X 10th + X 11th )/2 = (0.22 + 0.23)/2 = 0.225 mmol/L (same as median).

66th percentile:

P=66, n=20, (nP)/100 = (20*66/100) = 1320/100 = 13.2 which is not an integer, so k = int(13.2) = 13 and the

66th percentile is X-value with rank k+1 = 13+1 = 14.

66th percentile is X 14th = 0.300 mmol/L

Biometrics

Homework #1 Key

Page 3

4. Data was collected on the number of lobsters per trap for a fishery off the coast of Maine::

Lobster Catches per Trap

Number of lobsters per trap

Number of

traps

0

17

1

23

2

24

3

11

4

5

Compute the mean, median, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation for the number of lobsters per trap to two decimal places. (5 points)

X

f

f*X

f*X^2

RANKS

0

17

0

0

1-17

1

23

23

23

18-40

2

24

48

96

41-64

3

11

33

99

65-75

4

5

20

80

76-80

SUM:

80

124

298

Sample size: n = f = 80

Arithmetic mean: x = (f*X)/n = 124/80 = 1.55 lobsters per trap

Median:

n=80 is even, so median is avg. of X-values with rank (n/2)=40 and 1+(n/2)=41. median = (1+2)/2 = 1.5 lobsters per trap

Std. Dev. = s = Sqrt([ (f*X 2 ) – (f*X) 2 /n ]/[n–1])

= Sqrt([ 298 – (124) 2 /80 ]/[80–1])

= Sqrt([ 298 – (15376)/80 ]/[79])

= Sqrt([ 298 – 192.2 ]/[79])

= Sqrt(105.8/79)

= Sqrt(1.339241) = 1.157256 = 1.16 lobsters per trap

Coefficient of variation: CV = s/x = 1.157256/1.55 = 0.74662 = 75%