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MAKALAH

PENGKAJIAN TRANSKULTURAL
BLOK PSIKOSOSISL,BUDAYA,DAN KEPERAWATAN
TRANSKULTURAL

DIsusun oleh:
Dzakwan Ihsanul Fikri
Nim: 20160320125
ISI

Identitas pasien

Nama :Anjani Putri Bayu Dwiyana

Usia :23 tahun

Jenis kelamin :perempuan

Suku :melayu

Pekerjaan :mahasiswa
Pengkajian trankultural
1.Biocultural Variations and Cultural Aspects of the Incidence of
Disease

• Does the client and/or family members relate a health history associated
with genetic
or acquired conditions that are more prevalent for a specific cultural group
(e.g.,
diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs
disease, G-6-PD deficiency, lactose intolerance)? Does the client’s family
relate such a history?
 Klien mengatakan mempunyai riwayat penyakit diabetes didalam
keluarganya,namun klien tidak merasakan penyakit tersebut.

• Are there socio-environmental conditions more prevalent among a specific


cultural
group that can be observed in the client or family members (e.g., lead
poisoning,
alcoholism, HIV/AIDS, drug abuse, ear infections, family violence, fetal
alcohol spectrum disorder [FASD], obesity, respiratory diseases)?
 Klien mengatakan lingkungan sekitarnya terjaga dengan
baik,masyarakat di lingkungannya sering melakukan gotong royong
demi menjaga kebersihan lingkungan.

• Are there diseases against which the client has an increased resistance
(e.g., skin cancer in darkly pigmented individuals, malaria for those with
sickle cell anemia)?
 Klien mengatakan tidak pernah merasakan hal tersebut.

• Does the client have distinctive features characteristic of a particular


ethnic or
cultural group (e.g., skin color, hair texture)? Do his or her family members
have
such features? Within the family group, are there variations in anatomy
characteristic
of a particular ethnic or cultural group (e.g., body structure, height, weight,
facial shape and structure [nose, eye shape, facial contour], upper and lower
extremities)?
 Klien mengatakan ada beberapa persamaan dengan keluarganya
seperti warna kulit,rambut,bentuk tubuh dengan ibu dan ayahnya

• How do anatomic, racial, and ethnic variations affect the physical and
mental examination?

 Klien mengatakan cukup percaya diri dengan bentuk tubuhnya sendiri


dan didalam masyarakat klien tetap diterima dan tidak di asingkan

2.Communication

• What language does the client speak at home with family members? In
what language
would the client prefer to communicate with you? What other languages
does the client speak or read? What other languages do the client’s family
members speak or read? • What is the fluency level of the client in
English—both written and spoken? What is the fluency level of the client’s
family members?
 Klien mengatakan menggunakan bahasa Indonesia dalam
kesehariannya,dengan seorang perawat lebih memilih bahasa
Indonesia,klien juga menguasai bahasa inggris dan bahasa
minang,jika dengan keluarga klien menggunakan bahasa Indonesia
dan bahasa minang.

• Does the client need an interpreter? Do his or her family members need an
interpreter? Does the health care setting provide interpreters? Who would
the client
and his or her family members prefer to assist with interpretation? Is there
anyone
whom the client would prefer not to serve as an interpreter (e.g., member of
the
opposite sex, person younger or older than the client, member of a rival
tribe, ethnic group, or nationality)?
 Klien mengatakan cukup lancar berbahasa inggris,beberapa anggota
keluarga ada yang bisa berbahasa inggris.
Klien tidak membutuhkan penerjemah namun keluarganya butuh
penerjemah.

• What are the rules and style (formal or informal) of communication? How
does the
client prefer to be addressed? What do his or her family members prefer?
What are the preferred terms for greeting?
 Klien mengatakan lebih sering berbicara mengguakan bahasa yang
informal, dan lien tidak suka dipanggil ibuk karna masih muda.

• How is it necessary to vary the technique and style of communication


during the
relationship with the client to accommodate his or her cultural background
(e.g.,
tempo of conversation, eye contact, sensitivity to topical taboos, norms of
confidentiality, and style of explanation)? How do these factors vary with
family members, if at all?
 Klien mengatakan dalam berkomunikasi menggunakan bahasa
Indonesia yang baik,tidak cepat maupun tidak terlalu pelan dalam
berbicara.
• What are the styles of individual and family members’ nonverbal
communication?
 Klien mengatakan pada saat berkomunikasi lebih ssering
menggunakan gerakan tubuh seperti gerakan tangan,tatapan
mata,gerakan kepala.
• How does the client’s nonverbal communication compare with that of
individuals from other cultural groups? How does the client’s style of
nonverbal communication differ from the health care provider’s style? How
does it affect the client’s
relationships with you and with other members of the health care team? How
does communication with the family influence the care environment?
 Klien mengatakan komunikasi non verbalnya masih dimengerti oleh
orang lain dan juga tidak mempengaruhi saat berkomunikasi dengan
yang berbeda budaya.

• How do the client and family members feel about health care providers
who are not of
the same cultural or religious background (e.g., Black, middle-class nurse;
Hispanic of a
different social class; Muslim or Jewish care provider)? Does the client
prefer to receive
care from a nurse of the same cultural background, gender, and/or age? How
do family members react to care providers of different cultural backgrounds,
age, and gender?
 Klien mengatakan tidak perduli dengan adanya perbedaan budaya atau
agama seorang tenaga medis selama mereka mempunyai kompetensi
tersebut.namun untuk tenaga medisnya klien lebih memilih
perempuan karna gendernya sama dan jika berbeda jender klien
merasa tidak nyaman .

3.Cultural Affiliations

• With what cultural group(s) does the client report affiliation (e.g., Java,
Melayu, Balinese, Sudanese, multicultural, etc )? Equally important, to what
degree does the client identify with the cultural group (e.g., “we” concept of
solidarity or as a fringe member)?
 Klien mengatakan mempunyai beberapa suku seperti minang dan
melayu,namun klien lebih kea rah suku melayu
• How do the views of other family members coincide or differ from the
client regarding cultural affiliations?
 Klien mengatakan didalam keluarganya ada beberapa suku dan
penggabungan dua suku sekaligus klien tidak terlalu
mempermasalahkan hal tesebut.klien beranggapan adanya perbedaan
itu bisa menyatukan semua.
• What is the preferred term that the cultural group chooses for itself? What
term does the client choose?
 Klien mengatakan lebih suka budaya melayu karna budaya melayu itu
penuh akan dengan tunjuk ajarnya dan sastra melayu lebih menarik
bagi klien.

• Where was client born? Where were his or her parents born? What are the
generational similarities and differences in regards to cultural identification,
language, customs, values, and so on? • Where has the client lived (country,
city, or area within a country) and when
(during what years of his or her life)? If the client has recently immigrated to
another country, knowledge of prevalent diseases in his or her country of
origin
as well as sociopolitical history may be helpful. If the client is a recent
immigrant, did he or she live in countries of transit? For how long? Current
residence? Occupation? Occupation in home country?
 Klien lahir di pekanbaru,riau, ibunya lahir di bukit tinggi,sumatera
barat,ayah nya lahir dibagansiapiapi,riau.sehingga klien mempunyai
suku dan adat istiadat yang berbeda beda.

4.Cultural Sanctions and Restrictions

• How does the client’s cultural group regard expression of emotion and
feelings,
spirituality, and religious beliefs? How are feelings related to dying, death,
and grieving expressed in a culturally appropriate manner?
 Klien mengatakan dalam hal mengekspresikan kesedihan sangat
beragam seperti jika ada yang lagi kritis biasanya dibacakan syahadat
karna dibudaya melayu tidak jauh dari agama islam.

• How do men and women express modesty? Are there culturally defined
expectations about male–female relationships, including the nurse–client
relationship?
 Klien mengatakan adanya batasan batasan terhadap tenaga medis yang
ingin memeriksanyaa,misalkan klien lebih memilih ke tenaga medis
yang perempuan dan diusahakan membatasi tenaga medis laki
laki.dalam budaya klien yang namanya laki laki dan perempuan harus
dijaga da nada batasannya.

• Does the client or family express any restrictions related to sexuality,


exposure of various parts of the body, or certain types of surgery (e.g.,
vasectomy, hysterectomy, abortion)?
 Menurut klien yang namanya aborsi,vasectomy,maupun tubektomi
diperbolehkan jika hal tersebut sangat berbahaya bagi korban.karena
itu adalah hak individu.

• Are there restrictions against discussion of dead relatives or fears related


to the unknown?
 Klien mengatakan tidak ada larangan untuk membicarakan seseorang
yang sudah meninggal.

5.Developmental Considerations

• Are there any distinct growth and development characteristics that vary
with the cultural
background of the client and family (e.g., bone density, psychomotor
patterns of development, fat folds)?
 Klien mengatakan tidak ada keluarganya yang mengalami cacat fisik
maupun keterbelakangan mental.
• What factors are significant in assessing children of various ages from the
newborn
period through adolescence (e.g., male and female circumcision, expected
growth on
standards grid, culturally acceptable age for toilet training, duration of
breast-feeding,
introduction of various types of foods, gender differences, discipline, and
socialization to adult roles)?
 Klien mengatakan pemakaian popok bayi tidak menghambat tumbuh
kembang seorang anak.intinya bagaimana cara orang tua mendidik
anaknya sangatlah berpengaruh terhadap tumbuh kembang seorang
anak.

• What are the beliefs and practices associated with developmental life
events such as pregnancy, birth, marriage, and death?
 Terkait ini klien mengatakan dibudayanya ada beberapa kepercayaan
terkait pernikahan,Cuma klien tidak terlalu paham terkait kepercayaan
tersebut.

• What is the cultural perception of aging (e.g., is youthfulness or the


wisdom of old age more valued)?
 Klien mengatakan penuaan adalah susuatu yang tidak bisa ditolak,itu
sudah takdir.mau tidak mau akan terjadi kepada siapapun itu.

• How are elderly persons cared for within the cultural group (e.g., cared for
in the home of
adult children, placed in institutions for care)? What are culturally accepted
roles for the elderly?
 Klien mengatakan di budaya melayu sangat menghormati yang
namanya orang tua,biasanya dirawat oleh anaknya sendiri.pada bayi
biasanya setelah umur 4 bulan diberi makan pisang yang di leburkan.
6. Economics

• Who is the principal wage earner in the family and what is the income
level? Is there
more than one wage earner? Are there other sources of financial support?
(Note: These may be potentially sensitive questions.)
 Klien mengatakan yang mencari nafkah adalah kedua
orangtuanya,yang lebih dominan dalam membantu nafkah
dikeluarganya adalah ayahnya.

• What insurance coverage (health, dental, vision, pregnancy, cancer, or


special conditions) does the client and his or her family have?
 Klien mengatakan dia menggunakan asuransi kesehatan dari kedua
orangtuanya.

• What impact does the economic status have on the client and his or her
family’s lifestyle and living conditions?
 Klien mengatakan semakin rendah financial seseorang maka akan
menyebabkan susahnya mendapatkan pelayanan kesehatan dan
bebanding terbalik jika financialnya tinggi.
.
• What has been the client and family’s experience with the health care
system in terms of reimbursement, costs, and insurance coverage?
 Klien mengatakan tidak pernah melakukan transaksi kesehatan
melalui via online walaupun klien mempunyai asuransi kesehatan.

7. Educational Background

• What is the client’s highest educational level obtained? What values do the
family members express regarding educational achievements?
 Pendidikan terakhir kliean adalah SMA dan keluarga menggangap
pendidikan itu sangat lah penting.
• Does the client’s educational level affect his or her knowledge level
concerning his or her health literacy—how to obtain the needed care,
teaching related to or learning about
health care, and any written material that he or she is given in the health care
setting (e.g.,
insurance forms, educational literature, information about diagnostic
procedures and laboratory tests, admissions forms, etc.)? Does the client’s
educational level affect health
behavior? As an example, in the United States, cigarette smoking and
obesity have been linked to socioeconomic levels.
 Klien mengatakan tingkat pengetahuan sangat berpengaruh terhadap
kesehatan,dengan adanya pengetahuan seseorang akan mudah
menelaah atau memilih suatu pengobatan berdasarkan penelitian.

• Can the client read and write English, or is another language preferred? If
English is the client’s second language, are health-related materials available
in the client’s primary language? Are all family members fluent in English?
 Klien bisa berbahasa inggris maupun bahasa Indonesia.bahasa
Indonesia menjadi bahasa utama dan bahasa inggris adalah bahasa
kedua.karena menggunakan bahaasa Indonesia lebih mudah
dimengerti oleh keluarganya maupun orang lain dibandingkan bahasa
inggris.

• What learning style is most comfortable and familiar? Does the client
prefer to learn through written materials, oral explanations, videos, and/ or
demonstrations?
 Klien lebih mudah memahami suatu pelajaran atau suatu hal melalui
lisan dan audio visual.

• Does the client access health information via the Internet?


 Klien mengatakan pernah mengakses tentang kesehatan di internet
seperti bahaya kanker,psikologi,kesehatan mental, dan lain lain.
• Do the client and family members prefer intervention settings away from
hospitals and
other clients which may have negative connotations for them? Are
community sites such
as churches, schools, or adult day-care centers a good alternate choice for
the client and
his or her family, considering they are informal settings that may be more
conducive for
open discussion, demonstrations, and reinforcement of information and
skills? Are the client and family more comfortable in their home setting?
 Klien mengatakan untuk masalah kesehatan mereka lebih nyaman jika
mendiskusikan terkait kesehatan dirumah sendiri dari pada dirumah
sakit.

8. Health-Related Beliefs and Practices

• To what cause does the client attribute illness and disease or what factors
influence the
acquisition of illness and disease (e.g., divine wrath, imbalance in hot/cold,
yin/yang,
punishment for moral transgressions, a hex, soul loss, pathogenic organism,
past behavior, growing older)? Is there congruence within the family on
these beliefs?
 Klien mengatakan jika seseorang itu tidak bisa menjaga pola hidup
atau tidak bisa menjaga kesehatan maka akan mudah terjangkit suatu
penyakit. Cuaca dan lingkungan sekitar juga berpengaruh terhadap
kesehatan klien.

• What are the client’s cultural beliefs about ideal body size and shape?
What is the client’s self-image in relation to the ideal?
 Klien mengatakan tubuh yang ideal adalah yang tidak gemuk dan
tidak pendek.klien mengganggap dirinya termasuk yang tidak
ideal.tapi klien tidak terlalu mempermasalahkan hal tersebut.
• How does the client describe his or her health-related condition? What
names or terms are used? How does the client express pain, discomfort, or
anxiety?
 Klien mengatakan sehat adalah dimana suatu kondisi tubuh yang
segar dan tidak menghalang aktifitas apapun.sedangkan sakit menurut
klien adalah dimana suatu kondisi yang tidak memungkinkan untuk
melakukan suatu kegiatan.sasat sekarang klien mengganggap dirinya
sehat sehat saja,jika sakit klien hanya minum obat dan beistirahat.

• What do the client and family members believe promotes health (e.g.,
eating certain
foods, wearing amulets to bring good luck, sleeping, resting, getting good
nutrition,
reducing stress, exercising, praying or performing rituals to ancestors, saints,
or other deities)?
 Menurut klien agar terhindar dari penyakit biasanya klien dan
keluarga menerapkan menjaga pola makan seperti nasi putih diganti
dengan nasi merah,menghindari makanan yang bisa menyebabkan
kolestrol tinggi.namun terkadang klien juga melanggar hal tersebut.

• What is the client’s religious affiliation? How is the client actively


involved in the
practice of religion? Do other family members have the same religious
beliefs and
practices? Do the client and/or family members incorporate religious
practices, such as healing ceremonies or prayer, into health/illness care?
 Dalam hal ibadah klien mengatakan mengerjakan
sholat,mengaji,bersedekah, dan ibadah lainnya tanpa mencampur aduk
antara agama dan kebudayaan,budaya tetap dijalankan tanpa
menyimpang dari ajaran agama islam.

• Does the client and his or her family rely on cultural healers (e.g.,
curandero, shaman,
spiritualist, priest, medicine man or woman, minister)? Who determines
when the client
is sick and when he or she is healthy? Who influences the choice or type of
healer and treatment that should be sought?
 Klien mengatakan misalkan sakit atau hal yang lainnya tidak pernah
ke dukun atau ke orang pintar.misalkan sakit biasanya klien minum
obat atau langsung ke rumah sakit.

• In what types of cultural healing or health promoting practices does the


client engage
(e.g., use of herbal remedies, potions, or massage; wearing of talismans,
copper bracelets,
or chains to discourage evil spirits; healing rituals; incantations; or prayers)?
Do family members share these beliefs and practices?
 Klien mengatakan obat herbal masih dipakai seperti madu,jintan
hitam dan minyak zaitun,untuk jimat dan hubungan kearah gaib tidak
diamalkan.

• How are biomedical or scientific health care providers perceived? How do


the client and
his or her family perceive nurses? What are the expectations of nurses and
nursing care workers?
 Klien jarang dapat perawatan dari perawat,karena beberapa
belakangan ini tidak pernah opname dirumah sakit.

• Who will care for the client at home? What accommodations will family
members make to provide caregiving?
 Klien mengatakan jika sakit dirumah yang mengurusi atau yang
merawat adalah ibunya sendiri,pengobatan yang diterapkan
sepengetahuan keluarganya saja,misalkan demam Cuma dikompres.

• How does the client’s family and cultural group view mental disorders?
Are there differences in acceptable behaviors for physical versus
psychological illnesses?
 Dikeluarganya pernah ada yang depresi,tetp di fasilitasi seperti
dibawa ke psikiater dan diberikan obat yang dibutuhkan.tidak ada
perbedaan penanganan antara sakit fisik dan mental.
9. Kinship and Social Networks

• What is the composition of a “typical family” within the kinship network?


What is the composition of the client’s family?
 Klien mengatakan sekarang ibunya seorang single parents dan itu
tidak menjadi hambatan bagi klien untuk mendapatkan kehidupan
yang sempurna walaupun ayahnya sudah meninggal.

• Who makes up the client’s social network (family, friends, peers,


neighbors)? How do they influence the client’s health or illness status?
 Klien mengatakan dalam hal bersosial klien mempunyai cara
tersendiri,karena klien bukan tipe orang yang mudah terpengaruh.

• How do members of the client’s social support network define caring or


caregiving?
What is the role of various family members during health and illness
episodes? Who makes decisions about health and health care?
 Klien mengatakan jika iya sakit yang paling perduli adalah ibunya,
tapi biasanya yang lebih perhatian adalah kakak nya.jika sakit ibu
maupun kakak nya langsung membawa klien ke rumah sakit terdekat.

• How does the client’s family participate in the promotion of health (e.g.,
lifestyle changes
in diet, activity level, etc.) and nursing care (e.g., bathing, feeding, touching,
being present) of the client? • Does the cultural family structure influence
the client’s response to health or illness (e.g., beliefs, strengths, weaknesses,
and social class)?
 Keluarga klien sangat berperan aktif dalam mempromosikan
kesehatan terutama ibu yang sering mengingakan dalam
mempromosikan kesehatan.contoh ibu klien sering mengingatkan
untuk minum suplemen atau vitamin yang meningkatkan stamina
tubuh.
• What influence do ethnic, cultural, and/or religious organizations have on
the lifestyle
and quality of life of the client (that may provide schools, classes, and/or
communitybased health care programs.
 Klien mengatakan budaya sangat berpengaruh terhadap gaya
hidupnya,,misalkan makanan di budaya melayu labih mengarah ke
makanan laut yang tinggi kolestrol.karena didalam kebudayaan
banyak sekali larangan larangan terkait makanan.

• Are there special gender issues within this cultural group? Do the client
and family
members conform to traditional roles (e.g., women may be viewed as the
caretakers of
home and children, while men work outside the home and have primary
decision-making responsibilities)?
 Klien mengatakan yang namanya persepsi misalkan istri harus
dirumah dan suami harus mencari nafkah itu tidak berlaku didalam
keluarganya,antara ibu dan ayahnya sama sama mencari nafkah.

10. Nutrition

• What nutritional factors are influenced by the client’s cultural background?


What is the meaning of food and eating to the client and his or her family?
 Dibudaya melayu klien mengatakan tidak terlalu mengikuti pantangan
asupan makanan yang ada dibudayannya,karena budaya melayu tidak
jauh berbeda dengan agama islam,begitu juga dengan keluarganya.

• Does the client have any eating or nutritional disorders (e.g., anorexia,
bulimia, obesity, lactose intolerance)? Do the client’s family members have
any similar disorders? How do the client and family view these conditions?
 Klien tidak ada penyakit terkait asupan nutrisi
• With whom does the client usually eat? What types of foods are eaten?
What is the timing and sequencing of meals? What are the usual meal
patterns?
 Biasanya klien makan seperti normalnya seperti nasi,sayur,lauk pauk
misalkan ikan,ayam,ataupun daging sapi. Makanan yang mengurangi
kesehatan juga dikonsumsi klien seperti junkfood.

• What does the client define as food? What does the client believe
constitutes a “healthy” versus an “unhealthy” diet? Are these beliefs
congruent with what the client actually eats?
 Bagi klien makan itu adalah suatu kebutuhan hidup dasar yang harus
dipenuhi.klien juga paham terkait bedanya antara makanan yang sehat
dan yang tidak sehat.

• Who shops for and chooses food? Where are the foodstuffs purchased?
Who prepares the
actual meals? How are the family members involved in nutritional choices,
values, and choices about food?
 Dalam pemilihan makanan,klien menerima makanan apapun yang
disajikan oleh ibunya tanpa menuntut terlalu banyak terkait makanan
yang dimakan.namun ibunya paham apa yang harus di masak agar
terpenuhi kebutuhan klien.

• How are the foods prepared at home (type of food preparation, cooking
oil[s] used, length
of time foods are cooked [especially vegetables], amount and type of
seasoning added to various foods during preparation)? Who does the food
preparation?
 Tergantung jenis makanan dan cara menyajikannya tergantung
ibunya.
• Has the client chosen a particular nutritional practice such as
vegetarianism or abstinence
from red meat or from alcoholic or fermented beverages? Do other family
members adhere to these beliefs and practices?
 Klien pernah melakukan makan sayur saja,namun gagal karena ada
daging kambing yang menggoda,akhirnya gagal.

• Do religious beliefs and practices influence the client’s or family’s diet


(e.g., amount,
type, preparation, or delineation of acceptable food combinations, [e.g.,
Vegetarian or kosher diets])? Does the client or client’s family abstain from
certain foods at regular
intervals, on specific dates determined by the religious calendar, or at other
times? Are there other food prohibitions or prescriptions?
 Iya,karena dalam agama dilarang makan daging babi,dimana
kandungan lemak pada daging babi sangatlah tinggi yang bisa
menyebabkan kegemukan,makanya sangat berperan dalam proses
diet.

• If the client or client’s family’s religion mandates or encourages fasting,


what does the
term fast mean (e.g., refraining from certain types of foods, eating only
during certain times of the day, skipping certain meals)? For what period of
time are family members
expected to fast? Are there exceptions to fasting (e.g., are pregnant women
or children
excluded from fasting)?
 Didalam agama yang dia anut tidak ada aturan yang sah dalam
pengaturan diet.

• Are special utensils used (e.g., chopsticks, cookware, kosher restrictions)?


 Seperti sendok,sumpit,garpu dan lain lain
• Does the client or client’s family use home and folk remedies to treat
illnesses (e.g.,
herbal remedies, acupuncture, cupping, or other healing rituals often
involving eggs, lemons, candles)? Which over-the-counter medications are
used?
 Klien pernah melakukan perawatan seperti olesan minyak yang
dibikin sendiri contoh dari sungu badak untuk pengobatan luar seperti
gigitan serangga,luka,kulit melepuh,dan lain lain.

11. Religion and Spirituality

• How does the client or family’s religious affiliation affect health and
illness (e.g., life events such as death, chronic illness, body image alteration,
cause and effect of illness)?
 Sangat berpengaruh terhadap sehat maupun sakitnya
seseorang,misalkan berpuasa bisa mempengaruhi kesehatan.

• What is the role of religious beliefs and practices during health and
illness? Are there special rites or blessings for those with serious or terminal
illnesses?
 Secara terkhusus tidak ada,yang namanya orang sakit didoakan saja.

• Are there healing rituals or practices that the client and family believe can
promote well
being or hasten recovery from illness? If so, who performs these? What
materials or
arrangements are necessary for the nurse to have available for the practice of
these rituals?
 Klien tidak pernah melakukan ritual khusus untuk mengobati suatu
penyakit misalkan rukiyah,namun klien tidak menerapkan itu.
• What is the role of significant religious representatives during health and
illness? Are
there recognized religious healers (e.g., Islamic Imans, Christian Scientist
practitioners or nurses, Catholic priests, Mormon elders, Buddhist monks)?
 Klien mengatakan tidak,jika sakit klien lebih memilih ke dokter.

12. Values Orientation

• What are the client’s attitudes, values, and beliefs about his or her health
and illness status? Do family members have similar values and beliefs?
 Klien mengatakan kondisi mental atau fikiran yang berat bisa
mengakibatkan sakit itu akan datang

• How do these influence behavior in terms of promotion of health and


treatment of disease? What are the client’s or family’s attitudes, values, and
beliefs about health care providers?
 Makan teratur,istirahat yang cukup,menjaga kondisi
pikiran,menghindari junkfood.

• Does culture affect the manner in which the client relates to body image
change resulting
from illness or surgery (e.g., importance of appearance, beauty, strength, and
roles in the cultural group)? Is there a cultural stigma associated with the
client’s illness (i.e., how is
the illness or the manner in which it was contracted viewed by the family
and larger culture)?
 Budaya klien tidak mempermasalahkan perubahan fisik akibat
penyakit misalkan seseorang yang terjangkit tumor,klien mengatakan
itu sudah takdir.

• How do the client and his or her family view work, leisure, and education?
 Klien mengatakan yang namanya pekerjaan dan hiburan harus
seimbang,jangan hanya libur aja tanpa pekerjaan dan sebaliknya dan
edukasi sangat penting.
• How does the client perceive and react to change?
 Perubahan itu diperlukan karna itu bukan suatu hal yang harus
ditakuti melainkan suatu hal yang harus diterima.

• How do the client and his or her family perceive changes in lifestyle
related to current illness or surgery?
 Klien mengatakan perubahan gaya hidup terkait setalah sakit itu suatu
hal yang bagus karena klien bisa lebih tau bagaimana menjaga
kesehatan.

• How do the client and his/her family view biomedical care or scientific
health care (e.g., suspiciously, fearfully, acceptingly, unquestioningly, with
awe)?
 Sesuatu yang penting karena berhubungan dengan hidup
seseorang,untuk pelayanan saat ini cukup memadai namun harus
ditinggkatkan.

• How does the client value privacy, courtesy, touch, and relationships with
others?
 Klien mengatakan sesuatu yang pribadi itu bukan suatu hal yang harus
disebarluaskan,terutama berhubungan terhadap kesehatan.

• How does the client relate to persons outside of his or her cultural group
(e.g., withdrawal, suspicion, curiosity, openness)?
 Klien cukup terbuka dengan orang yang berbeda budaya,karena klien
sangat tertarik terhadap perbadaan budaya yang ada.