Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 36

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Pavement Materials Part – 4


(Bituminous Binders)

Dr. K. Sudhakar Reddy


Professor, Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
India
Email: ksreddy@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Kinematic Viscosity (n)


In many situations, we are interested in the ratio of the
viscous force to the inertial force
A convenient unit for this purpose is the kinematic
viscosity (n) defined as the ratio of dynamic viscosity
(m ) and density of the fluid (r)
u = ( h / r)
SI Units m2/s
Cgs cm2/s or Stoke
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Measurement of Kinematic Viscosity


Efflux Viscometers

Standard size of Orifice - Time for standard volume to flow is


measured – at the given test temperature
Unit – seconds (Instruments are calibrated to obtain the
corresponding kinematic viscosity)
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Common Efflux Viscometers


Standard Tar Viscometer, Saybolt-Furol Viscometer, Engler
Viscometer, etc

Standard Tar Viscometer Saybolt-Furol Viscometer


Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Capillary Viscometers
Kinematic viscosity obtained by observing the time
required for a fixed volume of fluid to flow through
a standard capillary tube
Narrow glass tubes (having narrow and wide
sections) through which bitumen flows
2 or more marks on the tube to indicate a
particular volume of flow
Viscometers calibrated and product of flow
time and calibration factor gives kinematic
viscosity
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Capillary Viscometers
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Specific Gravity of Bitumen


Determined by Pycnometer method at 270C
Sp. Gr. of bituminous binders range from 1.02 to 1.04
Does not influence the behaviour of the binder
Normally used for quality control purpose
Useful for volumetric conversion in bituminous mix
design
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Aging of Bitumen
Bituminous binders undergo aging due to loss of volatile
mater and oxidation
Short-term aging during storage, transportation,
mixing and placing (at high temperature, bulk or
thin film)
Long-term aging due to oxidation occurring during
the service life
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Aging of Bitumen
Bituminous binders become harder and stiffer due to
aging
Penetration decreases with aging
Viscosity increases
Softening Point increases
Ductility decreases
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Measurement of Aging Characteristics


Short-term aging by Thin Film Oven (TFO) or Rolling
Thin Film Oven (RTFO)
Bituminous binder is kept as film at high temperature
(1630C) for specified time period
Properties of the aged binder are compared with those
of un-aged binder
Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV) is used to simulate the
long-term aging that occurs over long time period in
pavements
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Measurement of Aging Characteristics

Thin Film Oven


Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Temperature Susceptibility of Binders


Bitumen is thermo-plastic (soft when hot and hard
when cold)
We are concerned with the variation in consistency
of the bitumen with temperature
Variation in consistency (penetration, viscosity)
with temperature is known as temperature-
susceptibility
Measured by conducting either the viscosity test or
penetration test at different temperatures
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Temperature Susceptibility of Binders

Log (Penetration)

Log (pen) = AT + K
Temperature, T
A – Temperature Susceptibility
(0.015 to 0.06 for paving binders)
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Penetration Index (PI)


Parameter used to describe the temperature-
susceptibility of binders
PI correlated to A as given below
(20-PI)/(10+PI) = 50A
or
PI = 20(1-25A)/(1+50A)
PI ranges from –3 (for highly susceptible bitumens)
to +7 (low susceptibility, highly blown bitumens)
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Penetration Index (PI)


PI can be obtained if A can be determined
A = (log(Pen at T1) – log(Pen at T2))/(T1-T2)
Most bitumens have a penetration value of about 800
when the test temperature is equal to the Softening
Point temperature
A = (log(Pen at T1) – log(800))/(T1-SP)
Using Penetration test data,
A = (log Pen at 250C) – log(800))/(25 – SP)
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Penetration Index
Using the results from Penetration and
softening point tests, Penetration Index can
be obtained as

PI = (1952 – 500 log(Pen) - 20SP) / (50log(Pen) – SP – 120)


Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Gradation of Bituminous Binders


• Penetration grading - on the basis of
penetration at 250C

• Viscosity grading – on the basis viscosity


at 600C

• Performance Grading – graded by the


conditions (temperatures) at the binder is
expected to perform satisfactorily
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Penetration Grading (IS 73 – 1992)


Grade Penetration
S35 30/40
S45 40/50
S55 50/60
S65 60/70
S90 80/100
S 200 175/225
S stands for straight run bitumen (not blended,
modified, blown)
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Specifications for S65 Bitumen


(IS:73-1992)
Characteristic Requirement
Specific Gravity at 270C Min. 0.99
Water (%) by mass Max. 0.2
Flash Point, COC Min 1750C
Softening Point 45-550C
Penetration at 250C, 100g, 5s 60-70
Penetration ratio Min. 35
(pen at 40C, 200g, 60s / Pen at 250C, 100g, 5s) X 100
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Specifications for S65 Bitumen


(Continued)
Characteristic Requirement
Ductility at 270C Min 75 cm
Paraffin wax content (%) Max 4.5
Fraass breaking Point, Min - 60C
Loss on Heating, TFO Test Max 1 %
Retained penetration after TFO Min 52% of
original
Matter Soluble in trichloroethylene Min 99%
Viscosity @ 600C, Poise 2000 +/- 400
@ 1350C, cSt Min 300
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Penetration Grading
Simple but empirical (not fundamental)
Cannot be used for grading polymer-modified
bitumens
Does not provide guidance regarding mixing and
compaction temperatures to be used for
bituminous mixes (viscosity at high temperatures
is not available)
Penetration grading specifications do not provide
a good idea about the temperature susceptibility
of the binder
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Viscosity Grading (IS:73 – 2006)


VG grading was recently Introduced in India
Binders graded in terms of viscosity at 600C
Grade Viscosity at 600C (Poise)
VG-10 Min 800 Poise
VG-20 Min 1600 Poise
VG-30 Min 2400 Poise
VG-40 Min 3200 Poise

S90, S65 and S35 roughly correspond to VG-10,


VG-30, VG-40 respectively
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Specifications for VG-30 Bitumen


(IS:73-2006)
Characteristic Requirement
Absolute Viscosity at 600C Min. 2400 Poise
Absolute Viscosity at 1350C Min 350 cSt
Flash Point, COC Min 2200C
Solublility in trichloroethylene Min 99%
Softening Point Min 470C
Penetration at 250C, 100g, 5s 50-70
TFOT/RTFOT – Viscosity Ratio Max 4.0
TFOT – Ductility at 250C Min. 40cm
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Specifications for S65 Bitumen


(Continued)
Characteristic Requirement
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Viscosity Grading
More fundamental than penetration grading

Bitumens having similar viscosities normally give


similar rutting performance (not the case in
penetration grading)

Better guidance available for mixing and


compaction temperatures since viscosities are
measured
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Performance Grading
Result of a 50-million dollar, 5-year Strategic Highway
Research Programme (SHRP) conducted in USA
Also called the Superpave (Superior Performance
Pavements) Performance Gradation
Binders are graded by the temperature range (high and
low) within which the binder has appropriate properties
to perform satisfactorily
against rutting mode of failure (high temperature)
against fatigue failure of bituminous mixes
(intermediate temperatures)
against low temperature cracking (low temperatures)
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Performance Grading
Based on engineering principles and addresses
common bitumen pavement problems
The tests and specifications are applicable for
unmodified and modified binders
The physical properties measured as per this method
are directly related to the performance of the binder in
terms of engineering principles and not by experience
alone
Specifications are available for long-term aged
bitumens also
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Performance Grading
Complete range of temperatures experienced at a
given site are considered for selecting an appropriate
grade of bitumen for the site

PG 58 -12 represents a binder that is expected to


perform satisfactorily in a region having 7-day
maximum pavement temperature of 580C and minimum
pavement temperature of -120C
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Selection of Binders for Paving Purpose


(10 to 30 million esa)
Tmax (0C) <20 20 to 30 30 to 40 40 to 50
Tmin (0C)
-10 to 0 90 90 55 55
0 to 10 90 90 55 55
10 to 20 90 65 45 or 55 45
>20 -- 65 45 35
Tmax Highest monthly average maximum temperature for
project location
Tmin Lowest monthly average maximum temperature for
project location
One grade softer for <10 msa, One grade harder for > 30msa
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Cutbacks
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Cutbacks
Straight run bitumen requires heat to reduce its
viscosity for various applications
Cut-backs are low viscosity bitumens
Viscosity of bitumens is lowered by a volatile
solvent
Low-viscosity of cutbacks at normal temperatures
alleviates the need for heating
After application, the volatile material will
evaporate leaving behind the desired quantity of
bitumen
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Types of Cutbacks
Different types of cutbacks are available depending
on the solvent used

Rapid Curing (RC)


Naptha or gasoline as solvent
Medium Curing (MC)
Kerosene as solvent
Slow Curing (SC)
Diesel/lubricating oil as solvent
Curing is the evaporation of solvent from cutback
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Types of Cutbacks
Depending on the initial viscosity of the cutback at
600C, the cutbacks are further classified as
Rapid Curing (RC)
RC 70; RC 250; RC 800 and RC 3000

Medium Curing (MC)


MC 30; MC 70; MC 250; MC 800 and MC 3000

Slow Curing (SC)


SC 70; SC 250; SC 800; SC 3000

Suffix indicates kinematic viscosity (cSt) at 600C


Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Application of Cutback
Rapid curing – with aggregates containing
practically no fine aggregates (passing 2.36 mm
sieve)
Medium Curing – with aggregates having less than
20% fine aggregates
Slow Curing – with aggregates having more than
20% fine aggregates
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Application of Cutback

Being environmentally hazardous and risky


in handling the use of cutback bitumen is
generally discouraged except in special
conditions
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Specifications for Cutbacks (IS:217-1988)


(for 250 cSt Viscosity cutbacks)

Characteristic RC250 MC250 SC250


Kin. Visc @ 600C 250-500 250-500 250-500
Flash Point 0C Min 26 Min 65 Min 93
Residue from Distillation
@ 3600C (% by Vol) Min 65 Min 67 --

Tests on Residue
Viscosity @ 600C, Poise 600-2400 300-1200 250-500
Ductility, cm Min 100 Min 100 Min 100