You are on page 1of 37

Thermal Management of Batteries

ME 6301: Conduction Project

GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

May 1, 2016
Bachir El Fil and Daniel Moreno
Thermal Management of Batteries
ME 6301: Conduction Project

Contents

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 2
PROBLEM STATEMENT ......................................................................................................... 4
PROPERTIES ASSUMED IN PROBLEM: ......................................................................................... 5
METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................ 6
ANALYTICAL METHOD...................................................................................................... 6
NUMERICAL METHOD ..................................................................................................... 12
MATLAB ................................................................................................................. 12
ANSYS FLUENT SIMULATIONS ........................................................................................ 15
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ................................................................................................... 18
CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................... 22
REFERENCES .................................................................................................................... 22
APPENDIX A..................................................................................................................... 22
NUMERICAL SOLUTION CODE............................................................................................ 22
ANALYTICAL SOLUTION CODE ........................................................................................... 31
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

1
Introduction
As the world’s demands for energy increase, there has been a great incentive to look towards
renewable energy sources as a sustainable solution for our future. The conventional internal combustion
engine (ICE) used in gas-powered vehicles releases various pollutants which are harmful to the environment.
Electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are an alternative and environmentally-friendly
solution to the issue of automobile pollution (Ismail et al., 2013).

The performance of EVs and HEVs is largely dependent on the efficiency and reliability of the
batteries used to power the vehicle. Traditionally, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have been selected as the best
type of battery to use due to their high energy density, along with lighter weight and lower self-discharge rate
than other types (Zhao et al., 2014). However, performance issues of Li-ion batteries and EV/HEV
applications can arise if the battery’s temperature is not properly maintained (Ismail et al., 2013).

Proper thermal management of batteries (TRB) is very important from both a safety and a
performance perspective. It has been cited that these batteries operate over a limited range of temperatures,
specifically no more than 40 C but no less than 10 C (Lukhanin et al., 2012). Charging and discharging of the
battery generates heat as a result of the enthalpy changes that are taking place due to the chemical reactions,
as well as resistive heating within the cell (Sato, 2001). If this heat that is generated is not properly controlled,
this can cause fire and explosions within the cell, also sometimes known as thermal runaway. Furthermore,
if the temperature distribution within the battery does not confine to some reasonable uniformity, the charge
and discharge behavior within the pack can be uneven, leading to decreased performance (Pesaran, 2001).

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


Controlling the temperature of the battery is typically done in one of two ways: Passively (using only
the ambient environment) and actively (using an external source to provide heating or cooling). One method
of passive cooling involves the use of phase-change materials (PCM), in which heat is absorbed into latent
heat of fusion/vaporization, reducing the emission of sensible heat which causes an increase in temperature.
PCM has been shown to perform well in controlling the temperature of Li-ion batteries, both computationally
(Kizilel, Sabbah, Selman, & Al-Hallaj, 2009) and experimentally (Sabbah, Kizilel, Selman, & Al-Hallaj,
2008). However, active cooling through the use of air and water as cooling media has shown better agreement
with true experimental data (Kizilel et al., 2009), and thus may be more reliable. Furthermore, this method
allows for a much more simplified model computationally since this allows for a very wide range of design

2
parameters to explore. It is also relatively straightforward to obtain an analytical solution from the governing
heat equation and compare with a finite-difference error in numerical simulation.
The modeled battery will be having a casing. The battery casings, also called battery housings, are
the shells or walls encasing the functional battery parts and chemicals. Batteries, sometimes referred to as
cells, are storage devices for electricity and are classified as "primary" if they are disposable and "secondary”
if they are re-chargeable. Different materials that are used as typical battery casing are carbonized plastic
layers, polyethylene terephthalate layers, a polymer layer, and a polypropylene layer.

In this paper, a Li-ion battery will be modeled as a simple cylinder (with a solid polypropylene plastic
casing), with heat generated originated from the battery’s center. Two analytical solutions will be derived:
One for a solid cylindrical model with convective air cooling occurring on the outside, and one for a hollow
model with additional convective water cooling on the inside. The water cooling the battery is entering at
saturation conditions. In order to allow for a direct comparison, consistent volumes will be maintained,
assuming that the battery material is of uniform density. The analytical solution will be derived from first
basis principles and then compared in MATLAB with a finite-difference numerical solution. Finally, the
corresponding geometries will be constructed, meshed, and modeled in ANSYS Fluent to serve as a basis for
more complicated solutions.
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

3
Problem Statement
In this project, two types of battery cooling will be investigated. The air cooled battery which will
be modeled as cylinder with a thin casing, subjected to a constant convective heat loss to cool the battery with
the air at ambient conditions. The water cooled battery is modeled as a hollow cylinder with a thin cover i.e.
casing. The water that is passing through the battery is assumed to be in phase change mode or saturated. It
is important to assume that because it introduces the simplicity of assuming a constant temperature profile in
the water. Typically, batteries are generators of heat so this will be modeled as a constant heat generation
from the center of the battery. Figure 1 (a) and (b) are schematics for the corresponding air cooled and water
cooled batteries respectively.

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

F IGURE 1 - S CHEMATICS OF THE BATTERY COOLING PROBLEM ( A ) AIR COOLED ( B ) SATURATED WATER COOLED

4
Properties Assumed In Problem:

The physical properties and geometric measurements that are assumed for the problem are given by:
T ABLE 1- P HYSICAL P ARAMETERS
Parameter Value
Inner radius (ri) 9.3 mm
Parameters
Geometric

Outer radius (ro) 11.3 mm


Casing thickness (t) 2 mm
Height (H) 85 mm
Conductivity of Casing (kc) 0.25 W/m K
Conductivity of Battery (kB) 26 W/ m K
Density of battery (ρB) 2300 kg/m3

Density of Casing (ρC) 910 kg/m3


Specific heat of battery (cp B) 900 J/kg K
Physical Properties

Specific heat of casing (cp C ) 1250 J/kg K


Air-side Heat Transfer coefficient (ha,N) [Natural] 4 W/m2K
Air-side Heat Transfer coefficient (ha,F) [Forced] 60 W/m2K
Water-side Heat Transfer coefficient (hw) 1200 W/m2 K
Ambient Air Temperature (Ta) 25 C
Cooling water Temperature (Tw) 15 C
Current (I) 3A
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

Voltage (V) 12 V

5
Methodology
Consider the following schematic of the cross section of the battery, shown in Figure 2:

F IGURE 2 - C ROSS SECTION OF THE B ATTERY


The assumptions that needed to solve this problem are:

(1) Axisymmetric (Independent of θ-direction)


(2) Isotropic material
(3) Composite material
(4) Negligible temperature variation in the axial direction
(5) Constant, uniform physical properties
(6) Time dependent /Unsteady
(7) Constant, uniform heat generation (in Battery part only)

Analytical Method
To solve the problem analytically, the general governing heat conduction equation subject to the previous
assumptions will result in:

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇𝐵 𝑔(𝑟, 𝑡) 1 𝜕𝑇𝐵 (𝑟, 𝑡)
(𝑟 )+ = (1)
𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝑘𝐵 𝛼𝐵 𝜕𝑡
1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇𝐶 1 𝜕𝑇𝐶 (𝑟, 𝑡)
(𝑟 )= (2)
𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝛼𝐶 𝜕𝑡
Equations (1) and (2) hold for both cases of external cooling and internal cooling. However, in the case of
internal cooling, due to the column of water located at the center of the battery, the geometric limits and
corresponding boundary conditions will need to be adjusted. In the derivation, the inner pipe radius for
water cooling will be assumed small so as not to significantly affect the volume of the battery. When
concrete numbers are plugged in to the applied equations, however, battery and casing radii will be
increased slightly to accommodate the inner pipe radius.

6
Equations (1) and (2) are valid on the inner region (0 ≤ 𝑟 ≤ 𝑟𝑖 for external cooling, 𝑟𝑤 ≤ 𝑟 ≤ 𝑟𝑖 for
internal cooling) and the outer region ( 𝑟𝑖 < 𝑟 < 𝑟𝑜 ). The two regions are assumed to be in perfect thermal
contact. The boundary conditions to which Equation (1) and (2) are subject to are as following:

External Cooling: 𝑇𝐵 (𝑟 → 0) = 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑒


𝜕𝑇𝐵 (3)
Internal Cooling: −𝑘𝐵 | = ℎ(𝑇𝐵 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑤 ) − 𝑇𝑤 )
𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑤

𝑇𝐵 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑖 , 𝑡) = 𝑇𝐶 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑖 , 𝑡) (4)
𝜕𝑇𝐵 𝜕𝑇𝐶
𝑘𝐵 | = 𝑘𝐶 | (5)
𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑖 𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑖
𝜕𝑇𝐶
−𝑘𝐶 | = ℎ(𝑇𝐶 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑜 ) − 𝑇𝑎 ) (6)
𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑜
The following are the initial conditions:

𝑇𝐵 (𝑡 = 0) = 𝑇𝑖 (7)
𝑇𝐶 (𝑡 = 0) = 𝑇𝑖 (8)
The approach to the problem will be using Green’s function, according to the general solution that is given
by Equation (9) and derived by Yener and Ozisik (1974):
𝑀 𝑥𝑗+1
𝑇𝑖 (𝑥, 𝑡) = ∑ {∫ 𝐺𝑖𝑗 (𝑥, 𝑡|𝑥 ′ , 𝜏)|𝜏=0 𝐹𝑗 (𝑥 ′ )𝑥 ′𝑝 𝑑𝑥 ′
𝑥 ′ =𝑥𝑗
𝑗=1 (9)
𝑡 𝑥𝑗+1 𝛼𝑗
+∫ ∫ 𝐺𝑖𝑗 (𝑥, 𝑡|𝑥 ′ , 𝜏) [ 𝑔𝑗 (𝑥 ′ , 𝜏)] 𝑥 ′𝑝 𝑑𝑥 ′ 𝑑𝜏}
𝜏=0 𝑥 ′ =𝑥𝑗 𝑘𝑗
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

In the interval 𝑥𝑖 < 𝑥 < 𝑥𝑖+1 , where 𝑖 = 1,2,3 … 𝑀, and 𝐺𝑖𝑗 (𝑥, 𝑡|𝑥 ′ , 𝜏) is the composite Green’s
function to be determined in this case.
To homogenize the boundary conditions, we introduce the following transformation given by (10):

External Cooling: 𝜃𝑖 (𝑟, 𝑡) = 𝑇𝑖 (𝑟, 𝑡) − 𝑇𝑎


(10)
Internal Cooling: 𝜃𝑖 (𝑟, 𝑡) = 𝑇𝑖 (𝑟, 𝑡) − 𝑇𝑤
The new boundary conditions and initial conditions are given from (11) to (16):

𝜃𝐵 (𝑟 → 0) = 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑒
𝜕𝜃𝐵 (11)
−𝑘𝐵 | = ℎ(𝜃𝐵 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑤 ))
𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑤

7
𝜃𝐵 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑖 , 𝑡) = 𝜃𝐶 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑖 , 𝑡) (12)
𝜕𝜃𝐵 𝜕𝜃𝐶
𝑘𝐵 | = 𝑘𝐶 | (13)
𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑖 𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑖
𝜕𝜃𝐶
−𝑘𝐶 | = ℎ𝜃𝐶 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑜 ) (14)
𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑜
𝜃𝐵 (𝑡 = 0) = 𝜃𝑖 (15)
𝜃𝐶 (𝑡 = 0) = 𝜃𝑖 (16)
According to the definition of Green’s function given by Equation (9), the form of the temperature
distribution is given by Equation (17):
𝑟𝑖
𝜃𝑖 (𝑥, 𝑡) = ∫ 𝐺𝑖1 (𝑟, 𝑡|𝑟 ′ , 𝜏)|𝜏=0 𝐹1 (𝑟 ′ )𝑟 ′ 𝑑𝑟 ′
𝑟 ′ =0
𝑟𝑜
+∫ 𝐺𝑖2 (𝑟, 𝑡|𝑟 ′ , 𝜏)|𝜏=0 𝐹2 (𝑟 ′ )𝑟 ′ 𝑑𝑟 ′ (17)
𝑟 ′ =𝑟𝑖
𝑡 𝑟𝑖
+∫ ∫ 𝐺𝑖1 (𝑟, 𝑡|𝑟 ′ , 𝜏)𝑔(𝑟 ′ , 𝜏)𝑟 ′ 𝑑𝜏
𝜏=0 𝑟 ′ =0

Where 𝐺𝑖𝑗 (𝑟, 𝑡|𝑟 ′ , 𝜏) is obtained from solving the homogenous version of the problem.

Solving the homogeneous part of the problem:

1 𝜕 𝜕𝜃𝐵 1 𝜕𝜃𝐵 (𝑟, 𝑡)


(𝑟 )= (18)
𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝛼𝐵 𝜕𝑡
1 𝜕 𝜕𝜃𝐶 1 𝜕𝜃𝐶 (𝑟, 𝑡)
(𝑟 )= (19)
𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝛼𝐶 𝜕𝑡
Equation (18) and (19) are valid on the inner region 0 ≤ 𝑟 ≤ 𝑟𝑖 and the outer region 𝑟𝑖 < 𝑟 < 𝑟𝑜 . The

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


two regions are assumed to be in perfect thermal contact. The boundaries conditions and initial conditions
to which Equation (18) and (19) are subject to are the same as the ones given by (11) to (16).
The corresponding eigenvalue problem is taken as:

1 𝜕 𝜕𝜓1𝑛 𝛽𝑛2
(𝑟 ) + 𝜓1𝑛 (𝑟) = 0 (20)
𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝛼1
1 𝜕 𝜕𝜓2𝑛 𝛽𝑛2
(𝑟 ) + 𝜓2𝑛 (𝑟) = 0 (21)
𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝛼2
Here we have made the substitution:

8
𝜓1𝑛 (𝑟) = 𝜃𝐵 (𝑟, 𝑡) (22)
𝜓2𝑛 (𝑟) = 𝜃𝐶 (𝑟, 𝑡) (23)
The corresponding boundary conditions will be:

External Cooling: 𝜓1𝑛 (𝑟 → 0) = 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑒


𝜕𝜓1𝑛 (24)
Internal Cooling: −𝑘𝐶 | = ℎ𝜓1𝑛 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑜 )
𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑤

𝜓1𝑛 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑖 , 𝑡) = 𝜓2𝑛 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑖 , 𝑡) (25)


𝜕𝜓1𝑛 𝜕𝜓2𝑛
𝑘𝐵 | = 𝑘𝐶 | (26)
𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑖 𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑖
𝜕𝜓2𝑛
−𝑘𝐶 | = ℎ𝜓2𝑛 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑜 ) (27)
𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑜
In the most generalized form, according to boundary conditions the solution of the above eigenvalue
functions is given by:

𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛
𝜓1𝑛 (𝑟) = 𝐴1𝑛 𝐽0 ( 𝑟) + 𝐵1𝑛 𝑌0 ( 𝑟) (28)
√𝛼1 √𝛼1
𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛
𝜓2𝑛 (𝑟) = 𝐴2𝑛 𝐽0 ( 𝑟) + 𝐵2𝑛 𝑌0 ( 𝑟) (29)
√𝛼2 √𝛼2
In the case of external cooling, where rw = 0, the B term in (28) drops to 0 (because recall that Y0(0) yields
an infinite value), and the A term can be assumed to be 1. Therefore, in that case, to satisfy the boundary
conditions we will define the following matrix:
𝑟𝑖 𝑟𝑖
𝐽0 (𝛾) −𝐽0 ( 𝜂) −𝑌0 ( 𝜂)
𝑟𝑜 𝑟𝑜
𝑟𝑖 𝑟𝑖 1 0
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

𝐾𝐽1 (𝛾) −𝐽1 ( 𝜂)


𝑟𝑜
−𝑌1 ( 𝜂)
𝑟𝑜 [𝐴2𝑛 ] = [0] (30)
𝐵2𝑛 0
𝐻 𝐻
0 𝐽0 (𝜂) − 𝐽0 (𝜂) 𝑌 (𝜂) − 𝑌0 (𝜂)
[ 𝜂 𝜂 0 ]
𝑟𝑖 𝛽𝑛 𝑟𝑜 𝛽𝑛 𝑟𝑜 ℎ 𝑘1 𝛼2
We defined the following: 𝛾 ≡ ,𝜂 ≡ ,𝐻 ≡ , and 𝐾 ≡ √𝛼 . Therefore, we can obtain
√𝛼1 √𝛼2 𝑘2 𝑘2 1

𝐴2𝑛 and 𝐵2𝑛 :


1 𝑟𝑖 𝑟𝑖
𝐴2𝑛 = [𝐽0 (𝛾)𝑌1 ( 𝜂) − 𝐾𝐽1 (𝛾)𝑌0 ( 𝜂)] (31)
∆ 𝑟𝑜 𝑟𝑜
1 𝑟𝑖 𝑟𝑖
𝐵2𝑛 = [𝐾𝐽1 (𝛾)𝐽𝑜 ( 𝜂) − 𝐽0 (𝛾)𝐽1 ( 𝜂)] (32)
∆ 𝑟𝑜 𝑟𝑜

9
𝑟 𝑟 𝑟 𝑟
We defined ∆ as following: 𝐽0 ( 𝑖 𝜂) 𝑌1 ( 𝑖 𝜂) − 𝐽1 ( 𝑖 𝜂)𝑌0 ( 𝑖 𝜂)
𝑟𝑜 𝑟𝑜 𝑟𝑜 𝑟𝑜

The values of 𝛽𝑛 are basically solutions or roots for the transcendental equation given by Equation (31):
𝑟𝑖 𝑟𝑖
𝐽0 (𝛾) −𝐽0 ( 𝜂) −𝑌0 ( 𝜂)
𝑟𝑜 𝑟𝑜
| 𝑟𝑖 𝑟𝑖 |
𝐾𝐽1 (𝛾) −𝐽1 ( 𝜂)
𝑟𝑜
−𝑌1 ( 𝜂)
𝑟𝑜
=0 (33)
| 𝐻 𝐻 |
0 𝐽 (𝜂) − 𝐽0 (𝜂) 𝑌 (𝜂) − 𝑌0 (𝜂)
𝜂 0 𝜂 0

Now, the derivation of the similar values for 𝛽𝑛 in the case of internal cooling will be shown, taking into
consideration the different boundary conditions:

Plugging (28) and (29) into (24)-(27) leads to the following linear system for 𝐴1𝑛 , 𝐴2𝑛 , 𝐵1𝑛 , 𝐵2𝑛 :

𝑘1 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛
(𝐴1𝑛 𝐽1 ( 𝑅𝑤 ) + 𝐵1𝑛 𝑌1 ( 𝑅𝑤 ))
√𝛼1 √𝛼1 √𝛼1
𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 (34)
= ℎ𝑤 (𝐴1𝑛 𝐽0 ( 𝑅𝑤 ) + 𝐵1𝑛 𝑌0 ( 𝑅𝑤 ))
√𝛼1 √𝛼1

𝑘2 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛
(𝐴2𝑛 𝐽1 ( 𝑅𝑜 ) + 𝐵2𝑛 𝑌1 ( 𝑅𝑜 ))
√𝛼2 √𝛼2 √ 𝛼2
𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 (35)
= ℎ𝑎 (𝐴2𝑛 𝐽0 ( 𝑅𝑜 ) + 𝐵2𝑛 𝑌0 ( 𝑅𝑜 ))
√𝛼2 √𝛼2

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛
(𝐴1𝑛 𝐽0 ( 𝑅𝑖 ) + 𝐵1𝑛 𝑌0 ( 𝑅𝑖 )) = (𝐴2𝑛 𝐽0 ( 𝑅𝑖 ) + 𝐵2𝑛 𝑌0 ( 𝑅𝑖 ))
√𝛼1 √𝛼1 √𝛼2 √𝛼2 (36)

𝑘1 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛
(𝐴1𝑛 𝐽1 ( 𝑅𝑖 ) + 𝐵1𝑛 𝑌1 ( 𝑅𝑖 ))
√𝛼1 √𝛼1 √𝛼1
𝑘2 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 (37)
= (𝐴2𝑛 𝐽1 ( 𝑅𝑖 ) + 𝐵2𝑛 𝑌1 ( 𝑅𝑖 ))
√𝛼2 √𝛼2 √𝛼2
Putting this into matrix form:

10
𝑘1 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝑘1 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛
𝐽1 ( 𝑅𝑤 ) − ℎ𝑎 𝐽0 ( 𝑅𝑤 ) 𝑌1 ( 𝑅𝑤 ) − ℎ𝑤 𝑌0 ( 𝑅𝑤 ) 0 0
√𝛼1 √𝛼1 √𝛼1 √𝛼1 √𝛼1 √𝛼1
𝑘2 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝑘2 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝐴1𝑛
𝐽1 ( 𝑅𝑜 ) − ℎ𝑎 𝐽0 ( 𝑅𝑜 ) 𝑌1 ( 𝑅𝑜 ) − ℎ𝑎 𝑌0 ( 𝑅𝑜 ) 0 0
√ 𝛼2 √ 𝛼2 √ 𝛼2 √ 𝛼2 √ 𝛼2 √𝛼2 𝐵
[ 1𝑛 ]
𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝛽𝑛 𝐴2𝑛
𝐽0 ( 𝑅𝑖 ) 𝑌0 ( 𝑅𝑖 ) −𝐽0 ( 𝑅𝑖 ) −𝑌0 ( 𝑅𝑖 )
√𝛼1 √𝛼1 √𝛼2 √𝛼2 𝐵2𝑛
(1)
𝑘1 𝛽𝑛 𝑘1 𝛽𝑛 −𝑘2 𝛽𝑛 −𝑘2 𝛽𝑛
𝐽0 ( 𝑅𝑖 ) 𝑌0 ( 𝑅𝑖 ) 𝐽1 ( 𝑅𝑖 ) 𝑌1 ( 𝑅𝑖 )
[ √𝛼1 √𝛼1 √𝛼1 √𝛼1 √ 𝛼2 √ 𝛼2 √ 𝛼2 √𝛼2 ]
0
0
=[ ]
0
0

(38)
This resulting equation can be used to solve for the unknown constants as well as 𝛽𝑛 based on the techniques
outlined to obtain (31)-(33).

Having established the coefficients 𝐴2𝑛 and 𝐵2𝑛 , in addition to calculating the eigenvalues 𝛽𝑛 we can now
recover the eigenfunctions 𝜓1𝑛 and 𝜓2𝑛 .

The solution for the temperature profile 𝜃𝑖 (𝑟, 𝑡) is given by the following:

1 −𝛽2 𝑡 𝑘1 𝑟𝑖 ′
𝜃𝑖 (𝑟, 𝑡) = ∑ 𝑒 𝑛 𝜓𝑖𝑛 (𝑟) [ ∫ 𝑟 𝜓1𝑛 (𝑟 ′ )𝐹1 (𝑟 ′ )𝑑𝑟 ′
𝑁𝑛 𝛼1 𝑟 ′ =0
𝑛=1 (39)
𝑘2 𝑟𝑜 ′
+ ∫ 𝑟 𝜓2𝑛 (𝑟 ′ )𝐹2 (𝑟 ′ )𝑑𝑟 ′ ]
𝛼2 𝑟 ′ =𝑟𝑖
The norm Nn is defined as following:

𝑘1 𝑟𝑖 ′ 2 ′ 𝑘2 𝑟𝑜 ′ 2 ′
𝑁𝑛 = ∫ 𝑟 𝜓1𝑛 (𝑟 )𝑑𝑟 + ∫ 𝑟 𝜓2𝑛 (𝑟 )𝑑𝑟 ′

(40)
𝛼1 𝑟 ′ =0 𝛼2 𝑟 ′ =𝑟𝑖
Therefore, from Equation (32) we can deduce that the Green’s function is given by:

1 −𝛽2 (𝑡−𝜏) 𝑘𝑗
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


𝐺𝑖𝑗 (𝑟, 𝑡|𝑟 , 𝜏) = ∑ 𝑒 𝑛 𝜓 (𝑟)𝜓𝑗𝑛 (𝑟′) (41)
𝑁𝑛 𝛼𝑗 𝑖𝑛
𝑛=1

In this problem the heat generation 𝑔 = 𝑞𝑔𝑒𝑛 is calculated from the following equation:

𝑑𝐸
𝑞𝑔𝑒𝑛 = −𝐼 (𝑇 ) + 𝐼(𝐸 − 𝑉) (42)
𝑑𝑇
Equation (35) results in heat generated in Watts. According to the numbers tabulated in Table 1, the heat
generated is given by 𝑞𝑔𝑒𝑛 = 6 𝑊. However, in the geometric domain depicted in Figure 2, it is more
convenient to use heat generation per unit length, under the assumption that variations in the axial direction
are minimal.
The Appendix at the end of the report will have the exact code used to see the results of the analytical
solution.

11
Numerical Method
MATLAB
Several numerical techniques were approached to solve the problem for air cooled battery. The 1D time
dependent heat conduction in cylindrical coordinate system with heat generation can be discretized by
various methods such as explicit using central differencing, Crank Nicolson, or any other semi-implicit
scheme. The choice of the discretizing scheme is vital because we need to optimize between accuracy and
computational expenses. The stability of each scheme will be discussed after the discretization process
below:
The governing equation of the problem is given by:

𝜕 2 𝑇 1 𝜕𝑇 𝑔 1 𝜕𝑇
+ + = (43)
𝜕𝑟 2 𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝑘 𝛼 𝜕𝑡
In the explicit method:

𝑝+1 𝑝 𝑏 𝑝 𝑏 𝑝 𝑔
𝑇𝑖 = 𝑇𝑖+1 (𝑎 + ) + 𝑇𝑖−1 (𝑎 − ) + 𝑇𝑖 (1 − 2𝑎) + 𝛼Δ𝑡 (44)
2𝑟𝑖 2𝑟𝑖 𝑘
𝛼Δ𝑡 𝛼Δ𝑡
Where 𝑎 = and 𝑏 =
Δ𝑟 2 Δ𝑟

Using Crank Nicolson Method:

𝑝+1 𝑝 𝑝+1 𝑝+1 𝑝 𝑒 𝑔


𝑇𝑖 = (𝑇𝑖+1 + 𝑇𝑖+1 + 𝑇𝑖−1 + 𝑇𝑖−1 )𝑐 (𝑑 + ) + 𝑇𝑖𝑛 (1 − 2𝑎) + 𝛼Δ𝑡 (45)
𝑟𝑖 𝑘
1 1 1
Where 𝑐 = (2𝑑 + 𝑓)−1 , 𝑑 = ,𝑒 = , 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑓 =
2Δ𝑟 2 4Δ𝑟 𝛼Δ𝑡

𝛼Δ𝑡
The central explicit that was given by equation (37) has stability criterion as 2 < 0.5. This is effectively
Δ𝑟
very costly and will take a lot of time to converge to the solution. However, since Crank Nicolson is an
average method between implicit and explicit schemes, it will render a computationally cheaper method. In

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


other words, the time steps used in Crank Nicolson method is higher than that used in explicit scheme.
In crank Nicolson, temperature profile is “guessed” at first at time [p+1]. Typically, the guess would be the
same temperature profile as in time step [p]. The new temperature profile at time [p+1] is then solved
according to equation (38). To make sure the code will actually converge, a monitor was set in. The code
then checks to see the difference in temperature profile at time step [p+1] to its previous temperature
profile. So, at time step [p+1], the code will check two things, the first is locally the temperature profile
previously minus the current temperature profile should be less than a tolerance that we specify. The
second thing is that we will actually calculate the L norm error to check/ track the error throughout. The
error/tolerance is given by 𝜺. It is specified by the user to be a really low tolerance number in the order of
10−15 . Equation (39) shows the formula used to track the error throughout the code.

12
𝑁
𝑝+1 𝑝+1
𝜀 = √∑ {𝑇𝑖,𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝑇𝑖,𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑠 } (46)
𝑖

Even “tricky” nodes are to be discretize in this section we will present the discretization treatment at the
interface and at the convective boundary i.e. at the outer radius.
Three are three special nodes that need to be taken into consideration. They are the innermost node, the
outermost node, and the central node which lies right on the battery-casing boundary. These nodes are
important as their equations contain the boundary conditions of the system.
Air cooled:
At the interface, nodes were treated as volume with heat flow in minus heat flow out equals to
instantaneous change in energy of the volume.

𝜕𝑇𝐵 𝜕𝑇𝑐 𝜕𝑇
−𝑘𝐵 | + 𝑘𝑐 | = 𝑉𝜌𝑐𝑝 (47)
𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑖𝑛 𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑜 𝜕𝑡
This will be discretized using explicit method and Crank-Nicolson methods given by equations (46) and
(47) respectively.
𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝+1 𝑝
𝑇𝑖+1 − 𝑇𝑖 𝑇 − 𝑇𝑖 𝑇 − 𝑇𝑖 (48)
−𝑘𝐵 + 𝑘𝑐 𝑖+1 = 𝑉𝜌𝑐𝑝 𝑖
∆𝑟 ∆𝑟 ∆𝑡
𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝
𝑇 − 𝑇𝑖 𝑇 − 𝑇𝑖−1 𝑇 − 𝑇𝑖 𝑇 − 𝑇𝑖
−𝑘𝐵 𝑖+1 −𝑘𝐵 𝑖 + 𝑘𝑐 𝑖+1 + 𝑘𝑐 𝑖+1
∆𝑟 ∆𝑟 ∆𝑟 ∆𝑟 (49)
𝑝+1 𝑝
𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇𝑖
= ∆𝑟𝜌𝑐𝑝
∆𝑡
Inner node: This only applies to the case where there is internal cooling. In this configuration, the boundary
condition is given in (3), which has been replicated here for convenience:
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

𝜕𝑇𝐵
−𝑘𝐵 | = ℎ(𝑇𝐵 (𝑟 = 𝑟𝑤 ) − 𝑇𝑤 ) (50)
𝜕𝑟 𝑟=𝑟𝑤
In order to ensure proper energy balance at this node, the variation of temperature with time must also be
incorporated. Energy balance taking the convective boundary into account is given by:

𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇
ℎ𝑤 𝐴ℎ (𝑇|𝑟=𝑟𝑤 − 𝑇𝑤 ) + 𝑘𝐵 𝐴𝑘 |𝑟=𝑟𝑤 + 𝑞𝑔𝑒𝑛 = 𝜌𝐶𝑃 𝑉
𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑡 (51)

The geometric parameters are given as:

𝐴ℎ = 2𝜋𝑟𝑤 ∆𝑧

13
𝐴ℎ = 𝜋(𝑟𝑤 + 𝑟2 )∆𝑧

𝑉 = 2𝜋𝑟𝑤 ∆𝑟∆𝑧

Where z is a unit length value, which effectively cancels out in this equation a long as a heat generation per
unit length 𝑞𝑔𝑒𝑛 ′ is substituted in.

Discretizing the equation using the Crank-Nicholson scheme then leads to:
1 (𝑟𝑤 + 𝑟2 )𝑘𝐵 (𝑇1 𝑝 − 𝑇2 𝑝 )
(2𝑟𝑤 ℎ𝑤 (𝑇1 𝑝 − 𝑇𝑤 ) + )
2 ∆𝑟
1 (𝑟𝑤 + 𝑟2 )𝑘𝐵 (𝑇1 𝑝+1 − 𝑇2 𝑝+1 )
+ (2𝑟𝑤 ℎ𝑤 (𝑇1 𝑝+1 − 𝑇𝑤 ) + )
2 ∆𝑟 (52)
𝜌𝐶𝑃 ∆𝑟(𝑇1 𝑝+1 − 𝑇1 𝑝 )
=
∆𝑡

The governing equations for the outer node are similar, only using the adjacent node N-1 instead of node 2.

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

14
ANSYS Fluent Simulations
In this section the numerical solution that was conducted on the commercial software ANSYS Fluent is
discussed. In ANSYS Fluent, the geometry for the two conditions was constructed in the Design Modeler (DM). The
geometry was basically two concentric cylinders of different material. In the figure 3 (a) and (b) show the geometry
that was adopted to run this simulation.

F IGURE 3 - G EOMETRY ADOPTED (A) AIR COOLED (B) WATER COOLED


Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

The second step is meshing. It is important to note that meshing or grid-production highly influences the
results and the time needed for the simulation to take place. The finer the mesh the more accurate the results are,
however on the other hand the more it needs time to compute it. The mesh was generated by applying a face sizing and
body sizing on an element size that was 0.05 mm. A tetrahedral mesh was generated with inflation layers near the wall
to accurately predict and model the energy balance at the interface between the composite material and the between
the casing and the ambient. An additional inflation layer was added when it came to case 2 which is the water cooled
batteries. However, it can be clearly seen that the finer the inflation layer is the more accurate the results are near the
walls, or approximately when the y+ value less than 3. The final mesh that was used for each case has the statistical
properties tabulated in Table 2.

Figure 4 shows the mesh setup that was used for the air-cooled (a) and water-cooled (b) solutions.

15
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016
F IGURE 4 - M ESHING SCHEMATICS OF ( A ) AIR COOLED ( B ) WATER COOLED

T ABLE 2 - M ESH S TATISTICS


Parameter Air cooled Mesh Water cooled Mesh
Number of Elements 49,776 446,209
Number of Nodes 11,813 85,559
Average Skewness 0.27183 0.2573
Element Quality 0.8081 0.8101

16
The third step is setting up the problem with its convenient boundary conditions and right schemes for solving.
It is important to mention that pressure was solved with SIMPLE scheme, while all the other energy and momentum
equations had the second order upwind scheme associated with them along with a relaxation factor of 0.3, 0.8, and 0.6
respectively. The simulation consisted of two phases. Phase 1 having steady state conditions, and phase 2 is typically
the transient simulation. The transient simulation was running up to 4 hours (simulation time). In all of the simulations
run, the heat generation of 6 W calculated in (52) was given as a heat generation per unit volume.

T ABLE 3- I MPORTANT BOUNDARY CONDITION USED IN ANSYS


Parameter Value

Air cooled – Battery cooling Method

External air side heat transfer coefficient (forced) 100 W/m2k

Ambient Temperature 285 K

Water cooled Battery cooling Method

Cooling water temperature 289 K

Inlet velocity 10 m/s (minimum)

External air side heat transfer coefficient (forced) 65 W/m2k

Ambient Temperature 300 K

The schemes are methods used are all of second order upwind. However, the transient solution solved assumed a step
time function of 0.01. The water flow in the cooling pipe was modeled as laminar.
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

17
Results and Discussion
In this section the results of the three methods of solution i.e. analytical and numerical (MATLAB and ANSYS) are
presented. The ANSYS simulations are shown in Figures 5-8.

F IGURE 5- P LANE VIEW OF AIR COOLED RESULTS IN ANSYS AT DIFFERENT TIMES

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

F IGURE 6- P LANE VIEW OF W ATER COOLED RESULTS IN ANSYS AT DIFFERENT TIMES

18
F IGURE 7- C ROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE AIR COOLED BATTERY , SIMULATED IN ANSYS
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

F IGURE 8- C ROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE LIQUID COOLED BATTERY , SIMULATED IN ANSYS

19
The ANSYS simulations assumed the same boundary conditions tabulated in 3 EXCEPT for the value of the heat
generation which was chosen to be two-thirds of the original value. However, to overcome this additional ANSYS
simulations were run with the same generation value and the rest of the boundary conditions only for comparison and
validation. These boundary conditions were used also in the numerical simulation done on MATLAB in addition to
the analytical solution.

The below graph in Figure 9 shows validity of the analytical model when compared with MATLAB model.

F IGURE 9- P LOTTING MATLAB V S A NALYTICAL

To validate our Assumption of battery being independent of z or axial, we compared Numerical results done in
Matlab to those of the 3D model of ANSYS. The comparison was based on the mean temperature different a 3
different positions. The results show good agreement.

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

F IGURE 10- A IR - COOLED T EMPERATURE PROFILE

20
F IGURE 11- E RROR B ETWEEN MATLAB AND ANSYS S IMULATIONS

The graph shows that at any point in time, the temperature difference between that predicted by MATLAB and
ANSYS was no more than 5 K. This is a good agreement because in terms of temperature relative error, this amounts
to only 1.48% maximum error.

Another main assumption was made is that the water was in two phase flow, i.e. the temperature was fully uniform.
This assumption simplified the modeling and analytical solution so that we do not solve for the temperature profile in
the water. However it is easy to see that this actually happens in ANSYS unless we increase the water’s velocity to
over 10 m/s. The slow water temperature distribution is given by Figure 12.
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

F IGURE 12- T EMPERATURE PROFILE IN WATER

21
Conclusion

The development of Lithium-ion battery cooling solutions was done using three different methods: Analytically
(solving the governing equation exactly), numerically (discretizing the governing equation into nodes, taking into
account boundary conditions), and through modeling, using the computational software ANSYS. The results
displayed good agreement with one another, suggesting that the discretization and truncation errors were sufficiently
small enough. The largest margin of error was 1.48%, suggesting that the temperature distributions using MATLAB
and ANSYS are in good agreement with one another. As would be expected, the internal cooling demonstrated much
better results of reducing the battery temperature than did the external cooling, despite the smaller surface area of
heat transfer. These results also show that the slight change in geometry due to the central hole in the battery is
negligible as far as heat transfer is concerned.

References

Ismail, N. H. F., Toha, S. F., Azubir, N. A. M., Ishak, N. H. M., Hassan, M. K., & Ibrahim, B. S. K. (2013).
Simplified heat generation model for lithium ion battery used in electric vehicle. Paper presented at the IOP
Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering.
Kizilel, R., Sabbah, R., Selman, J. R., & Al-Hallaj, S. (2009). An alternative cooling system to enhance the safety of
Li-ion battery packs. Journal of Power Sources, 194(2), 1105-1112.
Lukhanin, A., Belyaev, A., Fedorchenko, D., Khazhmuradov, M., Lukhanin, O., Rudychev, Y., & Rohatgi, U. S.
(2012). Thermal Characteristics of Air Flow Cooling in the Lithium Ion Batteries Experimental Chamber. Paper
presented at the ASME 2012 Heat Transfer Summer Conference collocated with the ASME 2012 Fluids
Engineering Division Summer Meeting and the ASME 2012 10th International Conference on
Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels.
Pesaran, A. A. (2001). Battery thermal management in EV and HEVs: issues and solutions. Battery Man, 43(5), 34-49.
Sabbah, R., Kizilel, R., Selman, J., & Al-Hallaj, S. (2008). Active (air-cooled) vs. passive (phase change material)
thermal management of high power lithium-ion packs: Limitation of temperature rise and uniformity of
temperature distribution. Journal of Power Sources, 182(2), 630-638.
Sato, N. (2001). Thermal behavior analysis of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Journal of Power
Sources, 99(1), 70-77.
Yener, Y., & Ozisik, M. (1974). On the solution of unsteady heat conduction in multi-region finite media with time dependent
heat transfer coefficient. Paper presented at the Heat transfer 1974; Proceedings of the Fifth International

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


Conference, Volume 1.
Zhao, R., Zhang, S., Gu, J., Liu, J., Carkner, S., & Lanoue, E. (2014). An experimental study of lithium ion battery
thermal management using flexible hydrogel films. Journal of Power Sources, 255, 29-36.

Appendix A
Numerical Solution Code
clear all;
close all;
clc;

%all inputs here


R_i = 9.3e-3; %m
R_o = 11.3e-3; %m
H = 85e-3; %m
k_c = 0.25; %W/mK

22
k_b = 26; %W/mK, 26
rho_b = 2300; %kg/m^3
rho_c = 910; %kg/m^3
Cp_b = 900; %J/kgK
Cp_c = 1250;%J/kgK
h_a_N = 4; %W/m^2K
h_a_F = 65; %W/m^2K
h_w = 1200; %W/m^2K
T_a_C = 25; %C
T_w_C = 15; %C
T_i_C = 100; %C
I = 3; %I
V = 12; %V

%tolerance for steady-state


eps_tol = 1e-15;

%geometry to account for hole to allow water to flow through


R_w = 0.5e-3; %m
%adjustments
R_i = sqrt(R_i^2 + R_w^2);
R_o = sqrt(R_o^2 + R_w^2);

Time = 300; %seconds


f = 0.5;

%derived parameters
t = R_o - R_i; %m
T_a = T_a_C + 273.15; %K
T_w = T_w_C + 273.15; %K
T_i = T_i_C + 273.15; %K
q_l = (I*V)/H; %W/m

% q_l = 0;

alpha_1 = k_b/(rho_b*Cp_b); %m^2/s


alpha_2 = k_c/(rho_c*Cp_c); %m^2/s
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

%discretization
N = 50; %number of nodes
N = N+1;
N_B = round(N*(R_i/R_o));
N_C = round(N*(t/R_o));

T_0 = T_i*ones(1,N); %K
T_1 = T_i*ones(1,N); %K

dr = (R_o-R_w)/N;

% h_w = 0;

dt = min(f*(dr^2)/(2*alpha_1), f*(dr^2)/(2*alpha_2)); %time step, in s

s = max(alpha_1*dt/(dr^2),alpha_2*dt/(dr^2));

23
s

for i = 1:N
r(i) = R_w+(i-1)*dr;
end

r_w = r(1);

steps = Time/dt;

n = 1;

a1 = alpha_1*dt/(dr^2);
b1 = alpha_1*dt/(dr);
f1 = 1/(alpha_1*dt);

a2 = alpha_2*dt/(dr^2);
b2 = alpha_2*dt/(dr);
f2 = 1/(alpha_2*dt);

d = 1/(2*(dr^2));
e = 1/(4*dr);

c1 = (2*d + f1)^(-1);
c2 = (2*d + f2)^(-1);

beta = 0.5; %weighting factor between implicit and explicit - 1 for fully
implicit

epsilon = 1;

while epsilon > eps_tol;

% for i=1:N

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


% elseif i == 1 %inner radius
A = (rho_b*Cp_b*2*pi*dr*(R_w+0.5*dr))/(dt);
B = (k_b*pi*(r(1)+r(2)))/dr;
C = h_w*2*pi*r_w;
D = q_l/2;

F = (A + B*beta + C*beta);

T_1(1) = (1/F)*(D + A*T_0(1) + B*beta*T_1(2) - B*(1-beta)*(T_0(1) -


T_0(2)) + C*beta*T_w - C*(1-beta)*(T_0(i) - T_w));

% elseif i < N_B && i > 1 %internal battery


for i=2:N_B-1

A = 1/(alpha_1*dt);
B = 1/(dr^2);
C = 1/(2*dr*r(i));

24
D = q_l/(k_b*2*pi*r(i));

F = (A + 2*B*beta);

% T_1(i) = c1*(d+(e/r(i)))*(T_0(i+1) + T_1(i+1) + T_0(i-1) + T_1(i-


1)) + T_0(i)*(1-(2*a1)) + (q_l/k_b)*alpha_1*dt;

% T_1(i) = (1/F)*(A*T_0(i) + B*(T_1(i+1)+T_0(i+1)) + C*(T_1(i-


1)+T_0(i-1)) + D);

% T_1(i) = T_1(i+1)*(a1 + (b1/(2*r(i)))) + T_1(i-1)*(a1 -


(b1/(2*r(i)))) + T_0(i)*(1-2*a1) + (q_l/k_b)*(alpha_1*dt);

T_1(i) = (1/F)*(B*(beta*(T_1(i+1)+T_1(i-1))+(1-
beta)*(T_0(i+1)+T_0(i-1)-2*T_0(i))) + C*(beta*(T_1(i+1)-T_1(i-1)) + (1-
beta)*(T_0(i+1)-T_0(i-1))) + A*T_0(i) + D);

end

% elseif i == N_B %interface node


A = (rho_b*Cp_b*dr)/dt; %assume battery properties
B = k_b/dr;
C = k_c/dr;
D = q_l/(4*pi*R_i);

F = A + B*beta + C*beta;

% T_1(N_B) = (1/F)*(T_0(N_B) + (D/A) + (1/(2*A))*(B*(-T_0(N_B) +


T_1(N_B+1) + T_0(N_B+1)) + C*(-T_0(N_B) + T_1(N_B+1) + T_0(N_B+1))));

% T_1(N_B) = T_0(N_B) + D/A - (B/A)*(T_0(N_B) - T_0(N_B-1)) -


(C/A)*(T_0(N_B) - T_0(N_B+1));

T_1(N_B) = (1/F)*(D + B*beta*T_1(N_B-1) - B*(1-beta)*(T_0(N_B)-


T_0(N_B-1)) + C*beta*T_1(N_B+1) - C*(1-beta)*(T_0(N_B)-T_0(N_B+1)) +
A*T_0(N_B));
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

% elseif i > N_B && i < N %internal casing


for i=N_B+1:N-1

A = 1/(alpha_2*dt);
B = 1/(dr^2);
C = 1/(2*dr*r(i));
D = 0;

F = (A + 2*B*beta);

% T_1(i) = c2*(d+(e/r(i)))*(T_0(i+1) + T_1(i+1) + T_0(i-1) + T_1(i-


1)) + T_0(i)*(1-(2*a2));

% T_1(i) = (1/F)*(A*T_0(i) + B*(T_1(i+1)+T_0(i+1)) + C*(T_1(i-


1)+T_0(i-1)) + D);

25
% T_1(i) = T_1(i+1)*(a2 + (b2/(2*r(i)))) + T_1(i-1)*(a2 -
(b2/(2*r(i)))) + T_0(i)*(1-2*a2);

T_1(i) = (1/F)*(B*(beta*(T_1(i+1)+T_1(i-1)) + (1-


beta)*(T_0(i+1)+T_0(i-1)-2*T_0(i))) + C*(beta*(T_1(i+1)-T_1(i-1)) + (1-
beta)*(T_0(i+1)-T_0(i-1))) + A*T_0(i) + D);

end

% if i == N %outer radius
A = (rho_c*Cp_c*dr)/dt;
B = 2*R_o*h_a_N;
C = (k_c*(r(N-1)+r(N)))/dr;

D = 0;

F = (A + B*beta + C*beta);

% T_1(N) = T_0(N) + (C/A)*(T_0(N-1)-T_0(N)) - (B/A)*(T_0(N) - T_a);

T_1(N) = (1/F)*(A*T_0(N) + C*beta*T_1(N-1) + B*beta*T_a + C*(1-


beta)*(T_0(N-1) - T_0(N)) - B*(1-beta)*(T_0(N) - T_a));

T_diff = (T_1 - T_0);

% T_diff

epsilon = sqrt(sum(T_diff.^2));

% end
% T_1
% pause
n = n+1;
T_0 = T_1;

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


Time_elapsed = n*dt;

end
% T_1

rr = r*1000;

plot(rr,T_1)
title(strcat('Temperature profile for internal cooling, Time =
',num2str(Time_elapsed),' seconds, tolerance = ',num2str(eps_tol)))
xlabel('Position (mm)')
ylabel('Temperature (K)')

clear all;
close all;
clc;

26
%all inputs here
R_i = 9.3e-3; %m
R_o = 11.3e-3; %m
H = 85e-3; %m
k_c = 0.25; %W/mK
k_b = 26; %W/mK, 26
rho_b = 2300; %kg/m^3
rho_c = 910; %kg/m^3
Cp_b = 900; %J/kgK
Cp_c = 1250;%J/kgK
h_a_N = 4; %W/m^2K
h_a_F = 60; %W/m^2K
h_w = 1200; %W/m^2K
T_a_C = 25; %C
T_w_C = 15; %C
T_i_C = 100; %C
I = 3; %I
V = 12; %V

%tolerance for steady-state


eps_tol = 1e-15;

Time = 60; %seconds


f = 0.5;

%derived parameters
t = R_o - R_i; %m
T_a = T_a_C + 273.15; %K
T_w = T_w_C + 273.15; %K
T_i = T_i_C + 273.15; %K
q_l = (I*V)/H; %W/m

% q_l = 0;

alpha_1 = k_b/(rho_b*Cp_b); %m^2/s


alpha_2 = k_c/(rho_c*Cp_c); %m^2/s
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

%discretization
N = 50; %number of nodes
N = N+1;
N_B = round(N*(R_i/R_o));
N_C = round(N*(t/R_o));

T_0 = T_i*ones(1,N); %K
T_1 = T_i*ones(1,N); %K

dr = R_o/N;

h_w = 0;

dt = min(f*(dr^2)/(2*alpha_1), f*(dr^2)/(2*alpha_2)); %time step, in s

s = max(alpha_1*dt/(dr^2),alpha_2*dt/(dr^2));

27
s

for i = 1:N
r(i) = (i-1)*dr;
end

r_w = r(1);

steps = Time/dt;

n = 0;

a1 = alpha_1*dt/(dr^2);
b1 = alpha_1*dt/(dr);
f1 = 1/(alpha_1*dt);

a2 = alpha_2*dt/(dr^2);
b2 = alpha_2*dt/(dr);
f2 = 1/(alpha_2*dt);

d = 1/(2*(dr^2));
e = 1/(4*dr);

c1 = (2*d + f1)^(-1);
c2 = (2*d + f2)^(-1);

beta = 0.5; %weighting factor between implicit and explicit - 1 for fully
implicit

%alternatively, if one wants to continue until steady state is reached

epsilon = 1;

while epsilon > eps_tol;

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


% for i=1:N

% elseif i == 1 %inner radius


A = (rho_b*Cp_b*pi*r(2)^2)/(4*dt);
B = (k_b*pi*(r(1)+r(2)))/dr;
C = 0;
D = q_l/2;

F = (A + B*beta);

T_1(1) = (1/F)*(D + A*T_0(1) + B*beta*T_1(2) - B*(1-beta)*(T_0(1) -


T_0(2)));

% elseif i < N_B && i > 1 %internal battery


for i=2:N_B-1

A = 1/(alpha_1*dt);

28
B = 1/(dr^2);
C = 1/(2*dr*r(i));
D = q_l/(k_b*2*pi*r(i));

F = (A + 2*B*beta);

% T_1(i) = c1*(d+(e/r(i)))*(T_0(i+1) + T_1(i+1) + T_0(i-1) + T_1(i-


1)) + T_0(i)*(1-(2*a1)) + (q_l/k_b)*alpha_1*dt;

% T_1(i) = (1/F)*(A*T_0(i) + B*(T_1(i+1)+T_0(i+1)) + C*(T_1(i-


1)+T_0(i-1)) + D);

% T_1(i) = T_1(i+1)*(a1 + (b1/(2*r(i)))) + T_1(i-1)*(a1 -


(b1/(2*r(i)))) + T_0(i)*(1-2*a1) + (q_l/k_b)*(alpha_1*dt);

T_1(i) = (1/F)*(B*(beta*(T_1(i+1)+T_1(i-1))+(1-
beta)*(T_0(i+1)+T_0(i-1)-2*T_0(i))) + C*(beta*(T_1(i+1)-T_1(i-1)) + (1-
beta)*(T_0(i+1)-T_0(i-1))) + A*T_0(i) + D);

end

% elseif i == N_B %interface node


A = (rho_b*Cp_b*dr)/dt; %assume battery properties
B = k_b/dr;
C = k_c/dr;
D = q_l/(4*pi*R_i);

F = A + B*beta + C*beta;

% T_1(N_B) = (1/F)*(T_0(N_B) + (D/A) + (1/(2*A))*(B*(-T_0(N_B) +


T_1(N_B+1) + T_0(N_B+1)) + C*(-T_0(N_B) + T_1(N_B+1) + T_0(N_B+1))));

% T_1(N_B) = T_0(N_B) + D/A - (B/A)*(T_0(N_B) - T_0(N_B-1)) -


(C/A)*(T_0(N_B) - T_0(N_B+1));

T_1(N_B) = (1/F)*(D + B*beta*T_1(N_B-1) - B*(1-beta)*(T_0(N_B)-


Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

T_0(N_B-1)) + C*beta*T_1(N_B+1) - C*(1-beta)*(T_0(N_B)-T_0(N_B+1)) +


A*T_0(N_B));

% elseif i > N_B && i < N %internal casing


for i=N_B+1:N-1

A = 1/(alpha_2*dt);
B = 1/(dr^2);
C = 1/(2*dr*r(i));
D = 0;

F = (A + 2*B*beta);

% T_1(i) = c2*(d+(e/r(i)))*(T_0(i+1) + T_1(i+1) + T_0(i-1) + T_1(i-


1)) + T_0(i)*(1-(2*a2));

29
% T_1(i) = (1/F)*(A*T_0(i) + B*(T_1(i+1)+T_0(i+1)) + C*(T_1(i-
1)+T_0(i-1)) + D);

% T_1(i) = T_1(i+1)*(a2 + (b2/(2*r(i)))) + T_1(i-1)*(a2 -


(b2/(2*r(i)))) + T_0(i)*(1-2*a2);

T_1(i) = (1/F)*(B*(beta*(T_1(i+1)+T_1(i-1)) + (1-


beta)*(T_0(i+1)+T_0(i-1)-2*T_0(i))) + C*(beta*(T_1(i+1)-T_1(i-1)) + (1-
beta)*(T_0(i+1)-T_0(i-1))) + A*T_0(i) + D);

end

% if i == N %outer radius
A = (rho_c*Cp_c*dr)/dt;
B = 2*R_o*h_a_F;
C = (k_c*(r(N-1)+r(N)))/dr;

D = 0;

F = (A + B*beta + C*beta);

% T_1(N) = T_0(N) + (C/A)*(T_0(N-1)-T_0(N)) - (B/A)*(T_0(N) - T_a);

T_1(N) = (1/F)*(A*T_0(N) + C*beta*T_1(N-1) + B*beta*T_a + C*(1-


beta)*(T_0(N-1) - T_0(N)) - B*(1-beta)*(T_0(N) - T_a));

T_diff = (T_1 - T_0);

% T_diff

epsilon = sqrt(sum(T_diff.^2));
% epsilon

% end
% T_1
% pause
n = n+1;

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


% n
T_0 = T_1;

Time_elapsed = n*dt;

end

rr = r*1000;

plot(rr,T_1)
title(strcat('Temperature profile for external cooling, Time =
',num2str(Time_elapsed),' seconds, tolerance = ',num2str(eps_tol)));
xlabel('Position (mm)')
ylabel('Temperature (K)')

30
Analytical Solution Code
clear all;
close all;
clc;

%all inputs here


R_i = 9.3;
R_o = 11.3;
h = 85;
k_c = 0.25;
k_b = 26;
rho_b = 2300;
rho_c = 910;
Cp_b = 900;
Cp_c = 1250;
h_a_N = 4;
h_a_F = 60;
h_w = 1200;
T_a_C = 25;
T_w_C = 15;
I = 3;
V = 12;
T_i_C = 100;

R_w = 1e-6;

%adjustments
R_i = sqrt(R_i^2 + R_w^2);
R_o = sqrt(R_o^2 + R_w^2);

Time = 60; %s
P = 10;

P=P+1;

dt = Time/P;
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

q_l = (I*V)/h; %W/m

%derived parameters
t = R_o - R_i;
T_a = T_a_C + 273.15;
T_w = T_w_C + 273.15;
T_i = T_i_C + 273.15;

alpha_1 = k_b/(rho_b*Cp_b);
alpha_2 = k_c/(rho_b*Cp_c);

slices = 20;
slices= slices+1;

for i=1:slices
r(i) = R_w+(i-1)*(R_o-R_w)/slices;
end

31
dr = (R_o-R_w)/slices;

slices_b = round(slices*(R_i/R_o));

%Here is where code used to determine eigencalues would have to be


%inserted.

%Evantually, after the algorithm to solve for beta terms is coded up...

beta = 0.5*[1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]; %assume as some finite-valued vector


eigenvals = length(beta);

% eta = beta*(R_o/sqrt(alpha_2));
% gamma = beta*(R_i/sqrt(alpha_1));
%
% H = (R_o*h_a_F)/k_c;
%
% K = (k_b/k_c)*sqrt(alpha_2/alpha_1);
%
% for i=1:eigenvals
% delta(i) = besselj(0,(R_i/R_o)*eta(i))*bessely(1,(R_i/R_o)*eta(i)) -
besselj(1,(R_i/R_o)*eta(i))*bessely(0,(R_i/R_o)*eta(i));
% A_2(i) = (1/delta(i))*(besselj(0,gamma(i))*bessely(1,(R_i/R_o)*eta(i))-
K*besselj(1,gamma(i))*bessely(0,(R_i/R_o)*eta(i)));
% B_2(i) = (1/delta(i))*(besselj(1,gamma(i))*bessely(0,(R_i/R_o)*eta(i))-
K*besselj(0,gamma(i))*bessely(1,(R_i/R_o)*eta(i)));
% end

%Set up to solve for unknown coefficients.


for i=1:eigenvals

aa(i) = ((k_b*beta(i))/sqrt(alpha_1))*besselj(1,(beta(i)*R_w)/sqrt(alpha_1))-
h_w*besselj(0,(beta(i)*R_w)/sqrt(alpha_1));
bb(i) = ((k_b*beta(i))/sqrt(alpha_1))*bessely(1,(beta(i)*R_w)/sqrt(alpha_1))-
h_w*bessely(0,(beta(i)*R_w)/sqrt(alpha_1));
cc(i) = ((k_c*beta(i))/sqrt(alpha_2))*besselj(1,(beta(i)*R_o)/sqrt(alpha_2))-

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


h_a_F*besselj(0,(beta(i)*R_o)/sqrt(alpha_2));
dd(i) = ((k_c*beta(i))/sqrt(alpha_2))*bessely(1,(beta(i)*R_o)/sqrt(alpha_2))-
h_a_F*bessely(0,(beta(i)*R_o)/sqrt(alpha_2));

ee(i) = besselj(0,(beta(i)*R_i)/sqrt(alpha_1));
ff(i) = bessely(0,(beta(i)*R_i)/sqrt(alpha_1));
gg(i) = -besselj(0,(beta(i)*R_i)/sqrt(alpha_2));
hh(i) = -bessely(0,(beta(i)*R_i)/sqrt(alpha_2));

ii(i) = (k_b/sqrt(alpha_1))*besselj(1,(beta(i)*R_i)/sqrt(alpha_1));
jj(i) = (k_b/sqrt(alpha_1))*bessely(1,(beta(i)*R_i)/sqrt(alpha_1));
kk(i) = -(k_c/sqrt(alpha_2))*bessely(1,(beta(i)*R_i)/sqrt(alpha_2));
ll(i) = -(k_c/sqrt(alpha_2))*bessely(1,(beta(i)*R_i)/sqrt(alpha_2));

A_1(i) = 1; %free parameter - remember that this was previously assumed to be


1 for external case anyway.
A_2(i) = ((ee(i) - (aa(i)*ff(i))/bb(i))*A_1(i))/((cc(i)*hh(i)/dd(i))-gg(i));
B_1(i) = -(aa(i)/bb(i))*A_1(i);

32
B_2(i) = -(cc(i)/dd(i))*A_2(i);

end

for i=1:eigenvals
for j=1:slices
phi_1(i,j) =
A_1(i)*besselj(0,beta(i)*r(j)/sqrt(alpha_1))+B_1(i)*besselj(0,beta(i)*r(j)/sq
rt(alpha_1));
phi_2(i,j) =
A_2(i)*besselj(0,beta(i)*r(j)/sqrt(alpha_2))+B_2(i)*bessely(0,beta(i)*r(j)/sq
rt(alpha_2));

%now the squares


phi_1_sq(i,j) = phi_1(i,j)^2;
phi_2_sq(i,j) = phi_2(i,j)^2;
end
end

%Integrate using finite sums approach.

%norm

for i=1:eigenvals
%norm
Norm(i) = (k_b/alpha_1)*sum(dr*(phi_1_sq(i,1:slices_b))*r(1:slices_b)') +
(k_c/alpha_2)*sum(dr*(phi_2_sq(i,slices_b+1:slices))*r(slices_b+1:slices)');
%integrals
I_1(i) = (k_b/alpha_1)*T_i*sum(dr*(phi_1(i,:))*r(:));
I_2(i) = (k_b/alpha_2)*T_i*sum(dr*(phi_2(i,:))*r(:));

%total
Tot(i) = (I_1(i) + I_2(i))/Norm(i);
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

end

for o=1:slices
for p = 1:P
t(p) = (p-1)*dt;
for i = 1:eigenvals
theta_1d(i,o,p) = Tot(i)*exp(-((beta(i)^2)*t(p)))*phi_1(i,o);
theta_2d(i,o,p) = Tot(i)*exp(-((beta(i)^2)*t(p)))*phi_1(i,o);

end

theta_1(o,p) = sum(theta_1d(:,o,p));
theta_2(o,p) = sum(theta_1d(:,o,p));

end
end

33
for i=1:P
tau(i) = (i-1)*dt;
end

dtau = Time/P;

for i = 1:slices
for j = 1:P
for p = 1:P
% tau(p) = 0;
for o = 1:slices
for n = 1:eigenvals
G1_d(i,j,n,o,p) = (1/Norm(n))*exp(-(beta(n)^2)*(t(j)-
tau(p)))*(k_b/alpha_1)*phi_1(n,i)*phi_1(n,o);
G2_d(i,j,n,o,p) = (1/Norm(n))*exp(-(beta(n)^2)*(t(j)-
tau(p)))*(k_c/alpha_2)*phi_2(n,i)*phi_2(n,o);
end
G1(i,j,o,p) = sum(G1_d(i,j,:,o,p));
G2(i,j,o,p) = sum(G2_d(i,j,:,o,p));
theta_1d(i,j,o) = T_i*dr*G1(i,j,o)*r(o);
theta_2d(i,j,o) = T_i*dr*G2(i,j,o)*r(o);
theta_3d(i,j,o,p) = G1(i,j,o,p)*q_l*h*r(o)*dr*dtau;

theta_3d2(i,j,o) = sum(theta_3d(i,j,o,:));

end
end
theta_1(i,j) = sum(theta_1d(i,j,1:slices_b));
theta_2(i,j) = sum(theta_2d(i,j,slices_b:slices));

theta_3(i,j) = sum(theta_3d(i,j,1:slices_b));
theta(i,j) = theta_1(i,j) + theta_2(i,j) + theta_3(i,j);
end
end
clear all
clc
close all

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016


l=85;
r_i = 9.3;% inner raduis in mm
r_o = 11.3;% outer raduis in mm
k_c = 0.25; %casing conductivity
k_b = 26; %battery s conductivity
rho_b = 2300;%battery s density
rho_c = 910;% casing density
Cp_b = 900;%battery specific heat
Cp_c = 1250;%casing specific heat
h_a_N = 4; %natural convection
h_a_F = 60; %forced convection
volume = pi*(r_i)^2*l*10^(-9);
gen = 6/volume;
a_o = k_c/(rho_c*Cp_c); %thermal diffusivity of casing i.e outer
a_i = k_b/(rho_b*Cp_b); %thermal diffusivity of the battery i.e. inner
delta_r = 0.0005; %step size
nr = r_0/(delta_r) +1;
%% Material matrix

34
n_Li_b = 1;
n_Li_f = n_Li_b + ri/delta_r +1;
n_c_b = n_Li_f+1;
n_c_f=n_c_b+(r_o-r_i)/deta_r -1;
mat=ones(1,nr);
mat(n_Li_b:n_Li_f)=1;
mat(n_c_b:n_c_f)=2;
%% Start of the eigenvalues
n_Eig = 15; %number of eigenvalues
Eig_index = 0; %starting indexing
Eig = zeros(1,n_Eig); %initializing the eigenvalues
rr = r_i/r_o;
nu = r_o/(a_o^0.5);
gamma = r_i/(a_i^0.5);
K1 = (k_b/k_c)*(a_o/a_i)^0.5;
H = r_o*h_a_N/k_c;

eigfunction=@(b)det([besselj(0,gamma*b), -besselj(0,rr*nu*b), -
bessely(0,(rr*nu*b));K1*besselj(1,gamma*b),-besselj(1,(rr*nu*b)),-
bessely(1,rr*nu*b);0,(H*b/(nu*b))*besselj(0,nu*b)-
besselj(0,nu*b),(H*b/(nu*b))*bessely(0,nu*b)-bessely(0,nu*b)]);

dc = 0.01; %the span of finding roots of eigenvalues


tol = 1e-5;
for i=0:dc:1000
try
value = fzero(eigfunction,[i,i+dc]);
if (abs(eigfunction(value)<tol))
Eig_index=Eig_index+1; %increment the index
Eig(Eig_index) = value;%set the value of the eigenvalue
end
if Eig_index>=n_Eig
break;
end
end
end
Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

n_c = 3; %we are solving for two A_2n and B_2n and 1
Cons = zeros(n_c,n_Eig);
for i = 1:n_Eig
ev = Eig(i);
Cc = [besselj(0,gamma*ev), -besselj(0,rr*nu*ev), -
bessely(0,(rr*nu*ev));K1*besselj(1,gamma*ev),-besselj(1,(rr*nu*ev)),-
bessely(1,rr*nu*ev);0,(H/nu)*besselj(0,nu*ev)-
besselj(0,nu*ev),(H/nu)*bessely(0,nu*ev)-bessely(0,nu*ev)];
Dc = [besselj(0,gamma*ev);K1*besselj(1,gamma*ev);0];
Cons(:,i)=Cc\Dc;
end

N = zeros(1,n_Eig);
%functions used to calculate the normalization
phi_b_2 = @(e,r) (besselj(0,Eig(e)*r/a_i^0.5)).^2.*r;
phi_c_2 = @(e,r)
(Cons(1,e)*besselj(0,Eig(e)*r/(a_o^0.5))+Cons(2,e)*bessely(0,Eig(e)*r/a_o^0.5
)).^2.*r;

35
%normalization
for i=1:n_Eig
N(i) =
(k_b/a_i)*integral(@(r)phi_b_2(i,r),0,r_i)+(k_c/a_o)*integral(@(r)phi_c_2(i,r
),0,r_o);
end
%% phi
phi_b = @(e,r) besselj(0,Eig(e)*r/a_i^0.5);
phi_g = @(e,r)
Cons(1,e)*besselj(0,Eig(e)*r/a_o^0.5)+Cons(2,e)*bessely(0,Eig(e)*r/a_o^0.5);

green_time=@(e,t,tau) exp(-Eig(e)^2*(t-tau);
green_space=@(e,r) besselj(0,Eig(e)*r/a_i^0.5).*r;

Tanalytical = ones(1,nr)
for l_r =1:nr
for 1_e=1:n_Eig
switch mat(l_r)
case 1
phi = phi_b_2(l_e,r(l_r));
case 2
phi = phi_c_2(1_e,r(l_r));
end
T_analytical(l_r)=T_analytical(l_r)+(1/N(l_e)*exp(-
Eig(l_e)^2*t)*phi*(k_b/k_c)+(k_c/a_o)*integral...

Thermal Management of Batteries | 5/1/2016

36