Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning

„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

Dedić Arijana – The sources of air pollution


Mašinski fakultet,
Fakultetska 1, 72000 Zenica
Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina

1
The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning
„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

Content

1. INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................4

2. AIR COMPOSITION.............................................................................................................5

2.1. Term emission and immission, maximum allowable concentration................................6

3. THE SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION................................................................................7

3.1. Natural sources of air pollution........................................................................................7

4.2. Artificial (anthropogenic) sources of air pollution...........................................................8

4. AFTERMATH OF AIR POLLUTION...................................................................................8

5. PROTECTION MEASURES OF AIR POLLUTION............................................................9

6. CONCLUSION.....................................................................................................................11

7. LITERATURE......................................................................................................................12

2
The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning
„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

SUMMARY

This paper is based on the identification of sources of air pollution with consequences that they make
to the environment. Polluted air influence in different ways on human health and the
whole ecosystem. Objective of this paper is the protection of human health, respectively,
identification of pollution sources, determining the degree of pollution, determining the
movement of air pollution during the year, evaluation of the burden on certain locations,
identification of critical situations in order to alert the public. And as the main final objective
is to define and implement protection measures of air pollution.

Key words: sources, air pollution,consequences, human health, environment, protection measures

SAŽETAK

Ovaj rad je baziran na opisivanju izvora zagađenja zraka sa posljedicama koje oni čine po okoliš.
Zagađeni zrak utiče na različite načine na zdravlje ljudi i čitav ekosistem. Cilj ovog rada jeste zaštita
zdravlja ljudi, odnosno, utvrđivanje izvora zagađenja, određivanje stepena zagađenja, određivanje
kretanja zagađenosti zraka u toku godine, procjena opterećenosti pojedinih lokacija, utvrđivanje
kritičnih situacija u cilju upozorenja javnosti. I kao glavni završni cilj je definisati i provoditi mjere
zaštite zraka od zagađenja.

Ključne riječi: izvori, zagađenje zraka, posljedice, zdravlje ljudi, okoliš, mjere zaštite.

3
The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning
„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

1. INTRODUCTION

Subject of this paper are the sources of air pollution. The aim is to define and explain the
natural and artificial sources of pollution. Air is all around us. The air is, like and water,
condition for life. He has two basic functions: biological (primary) and manufacturing
(secundary). The average composition of clean air is: nitrogen (78,08 %), oxygen (20,95 %),
noble gases (0,03 %). The most important component of air is oxygen. He allows breathing
for all higher organisms, even the people. Most of the oxygen is of biological origin, this
means that derives from photosynthesis. The biggest manufacturers are woods, algae that live
in the water and phytoplanktons. Air has great ecological significance, because it contains the
necessary life gases: oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The human body daily needs seven
times more air than water. Polluted air that we are forced to breathe is the result of human
activities. Significant air pollution are started with using fossil fuels, first in the 13 century,
and then in the 17 century. Sources of air pollution are numerous and may be naturally
(volcano eruption, forest fires, storm, earthquakes) and artificial. Important artificial sources
of air pollution are: motor vehicles, industry, power stations, heating, burning waste materials
and so on. Of the total weight, gases make up 90 percent, and solid particles 10 percent.
Transport and industry are the main sources of air pollution. During combustion, different
forms of fuel in engines or factories, with the release of energy is released and large amount
of harmful substances, such as: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, oxides of
nitrogen, ash and soot. Humans polluting the air in many ways: burning forest, driving cars
and airplanes, work in the factories and thermal power plants, burning firewood in
households.

4
The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning
„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

2. AIR COMPOSITION

The air which surrounding our planet consists of a mixture of gases and various additives in
the solid, liquid and gaseous state. This additives (dust, volcanic ash, soot, salt particles and
other particles), water vapor and various gases, are everywhere and in every place in larger or
smaller amounts. With its activity, a person consciously or unconsciously more and more
polluting the air. Air is a mixture of gases (picture 1), water vapor and solid particles.

The most important gases that are a part of the air:


 Nitrogen - representation about 78 %,

 Oxygen – representation about 21 %,

 Carbon dioxide – representation about 0,03 %,

 Other gases – representation about 0,97 %.

5
The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning
„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

Figure 1. Air composition

2.1 Term emission and immission, maximum allowable concentration

Emissions is the discharge of pollutants from facilities (chimney, engine, pipeline and so on)
to the environment: air, water, land. When studying the extent of pollution with some harmful
substances, it is important to determine:

 Speed emission

 Total emission.

Speed emission is the amount of pollutant expressed in the unit of time: g/sec., or in
percentages. Total emission is released amount of pollutants expressed in grams per amount of
energy released (in joules) or in kilograms of product.
Immission is the occurrence of gaseous, liquid and solid matters in layer directly above the
soil surface. She can be higher than emissions. Their value is based on the concentration of
pollutants in air at a height of 0 to 0,2 meters from the ground level. The value of the emission
depends on the: speed, strenght, type of emissions surrounding sources, of the dispersion of
pollutants in the atmosphere and of types of pollutants.
Maximum allowable concentrations are determined by how many are harmful to human
health. Maximum allowable concentration of some harmful substances is an amount that at
human does not cause pathological changes and diseases, does not impair the biological
optimum for people. Relatively clean air is one in which the concentrations does not exceed
the permitted limits.

6
The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning
„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

3. THE SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION

Harmful substances, among them pesticides, heavy metals, oil and derivatives, in the
environment triggering a series of chain reactions and therefore their presence in environment
can not remain unnoticed. Sources of air pollution are processes that under internal or external
influence emit contaminants into the atmosphere.
Sources of air pollution can be:

1. Natural and

2. Artificial (anthropogenic).

Sources of air pollution are result of:

 combustion of fuel

 working industry

 agriculture

 production of weapons

 communal work.

3.1. Natural sources of air pollution

In natural sources of pollution we include only nature that is its wide expanse, sea, oceans,
fog, effect of its volcanoes, natural radioactivity, forests and forest fires, various combustion,
erosion. Therefore, nature also creates harmful and toxic substances, often far more than the
human activities. The difference between natural and anthropogenic sources is in the amount
and type of pollutants and the way they are issued. The most of the sulfur emission is from
ocean and then from the biogenic process. However, significant amounts are broadcast and
from the volcano in some large eruptions directly into the stratosphere.
In such cases, emission may have limited consequences for the entire planet. Fine particles of
dust and sulphate aerosols, inserted from volcanic eruptions in the stratosphere remain there
for a long time (during the deposition of up to 5 years) and may lead to reduction of heat that
from the sun matures to the earth. Fine particles of dust and aerosols when the eruption is, can

7
The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning
„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

erupt at an height of 40-50 km and with air currents transmitted over long distances thus
pollution gets global character. During volcanic eruptions Krakatau on the island between
Java and Sumatra 1883. year, two-thirds of the island flew in the air referring about 20 km 3
dusts at height about 30 km. Then died about 36 000 people.

3.2. Artificial (anthropogenic) sources of air pollution

Artificial sources of air pollution are processes of extracting and processing of mineral
resources, chemical industry, coal combustion, agriculture, road transport, settlements, power
plants (thermal and nuclear) and so on.

4. AFTERMATH OF AIR POLLUTION

Global warming, acid rain, damaging of ozone layer and raising the level of world sea, are
direct consequence of air pollution. And many human beings suffer direct consequence
increasing the concentration of harmful substances in the air. Plants lose chlorophyll and
change color, gradually then dying tissues and organs, stop processes of photosynthesis and
growth, at the end comes drying and death. Animals labored breathe, damaging their
respiratory organs, and occurring diseases such as: bronchitis, asthma and lung cancer.
Extremely serious consequences of air pollution suffer the man himself. Air pollution acts in
two ways at people. On the one end, life in air pollution is dangerous (Picture 2.), particularly
for children, old and sick people. Harmful substances from the air cause many diseases. On
the other hand, harmful substances from the air can pollute and the human food. Therefore is
concern about air quality one of the most important tasks modern man.

Figure 2. Air pollution in cities

8
The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning
„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

Today is the air over many cities dark and gloomy, and this unnatural appearance is the result
of pollution. During more century stay on the earth, man is with its negative impact disrupted
natural balance that has at one time existed. In the most serious consequences of air pollution
we include:

 Acid rain

 Greenhouse effect

 Global warming

 Smog.

5. PROTECTION MEASURES OF AIR POLLUTION

Protection measures of air pollution can be divided into three groups. The first involves the
elimination of the causes of pollution, the second involves reducing the amount of harmful
substances which is released into the atmosphere and third involves special protection
measures of air pollution.
Elimination causes of pollution including the introduction of new „clean“ technologies in the
production processes and the use of „clean“ fuels. As one of the good measures to reduce air
pollution is the possibility of using biodiesel and other biofuels. In contrast to conventional
fuels, biodiesel does not contain sulfur (respectively the sulfur content is very low), thus
reducing the possibilities for the occurrence of acid rain. Biodiesel does not contain neither
toxic aromatic compounds such as benzol. High content of oxygen contributes to reducing the
content of particles (or soot) in the exhaust gases, while more complete combustion
contributes and reduced emissions of carbon monoxide. As with all fuel, with combustion of
biodiesel appeared carbon dioxide. However, since plants use carbon dioxide from
atmosphere (photosynthesis process) for its growth, carbon dioxide formed by combustion of
this fuel balances with adsorbed carbon dioxide during the annual plant growth. These plants
are used as a raw material for the preparation of vegetable oils.
Reduction the amount of pollutants is today the main form of air protection. Installation of
filters and special facilities for treatment of exhaust gases and smoke at the factory plant, can
give quite good results. Construction of tall chimneys may contribute improving air quality,
but only on local level. Most of the exhaust gases from the chimney goes into more parts of

9
The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning
„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

the atmosphere, but there makes other problems, who already have global consequences at the
entire planet. Problems for solving air pollution:

 incomplete network for pollution monitoring,

 traffic

 low level of technical equipments

 great proximity to power and industrial facilities in regard to the settlements

 increasing number of thermal power plants at the one place which as fuel using coal
with high content of sulphur.

Air quality control is carried out with systematic measurements of emmission through a
network of weather stations, whose number depends on the number of inhabitants, the number
of emission sources, meteorological parameters, etc.

10
The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning
„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

6. CONCLUSION

Polluted air influence in different ways on human health and the whole ecosystem.
Atmosphere serves and as a means of transport pollutants to remote locations and as a means
of pollution of land and water. Air pollution depends primarily of the type of contaminants.
Sources of pollution are different. These are, above all, processes of combustion of coal and
oil in power plants, heating plants and individual household furnaces, processes in industrial
plants (oil, chemical, metallurgical, food industry), exhaust gases of transport vehicles and
heavy machinery, processes on the landfill of waste and garbage and so on. The most common
pollutants are: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, various
organic compounds (hydrocarbons, benzenes, freons), lead and other. On the air quality in one
area, in addition to the concentration of pollutants from a source of pollution and distance of
sources, major impact have a meteorological elements. The largest concentration of pollutants
is laid out horizontally windward. In periods of „silence“ - absence of air movement, all
pollute substances remain in the settlement. In the lower layers of atmosphere air is warmer
and moves up to the upper cooler layers, what allowing normal dispersion. However, in terms
of the rapid cooling of the Earth comes to the temperature inversion. Ground - level air is
colder than air in the higher layers so dispersion is disabled. Low air pressure, absence of
wind, high humidity of air, fog and temperature inversions, reduce the spread of pollutants in
height and length, they keep them in the lower layer and concentrating them in the vicinity of
sources of pollution. Can reach to forming the „smog“ with compounds that are highly toxic
and dangerous to human health. The level of concentration the pollutant is determined by
measuring. The concentration of polluting substances in the air, in a certain place, which
expressing the air quality, is called immissions. The competent ministry defines limit values
of immissions, ensures proper monitoring of air quality in settlement and records data, ensures
monitoring of basic meteorological elements and monitors the impact of pollution air on
human health. Objective of air quality control is the protection of
human health, respectively, identification of pollution sources, determining the degree of
pollution, determining the movement of air pollution during the year, evaluation of the burden
on certain locations, identification of critical situations in order to alert public and
determining of protection measures.

11
The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning
„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

7. LITERATURE
[1] Colls,J. (2002): Air Pollution, Spon Press, London, 2002.

[2] Ross,B., Amter, S. (2010): The Polluters: The making of Our Chemically Altered Environment,
Oxford Universiy Press, New York, 2010.

[3] Cherni, J. (2002): Economic Growth versus the Environment: The Politics od Wealth, Health and
Air Pollution, Palgrave, New York, 2002.

[4] Crandall,R. (1983): Controlling Industrial Pollution, Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C.,
1983.

12
The 1st Student Conference – Content and English Language Integrated Learning
„CLIL 2016“ Zenica, B&H, June 2016

13