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THE EARTH IN THE UNIVERSE

1.
a. Both the moon and sun are planets that revolve around the Earth.
b. The sun represents the element of fire, thus is represented by a tetrahedron.
c. The moon was revolving around the Earth while the sun was not.
d. The sun is the nearest “planet” to the Earth.

2.
a. For an Earth-based observer, the Earth does not seem to be moving from its position.
b. It is affected most by the moon which is easily observed to revolve around the Earth, it was safe
to assume that all other bodies did so as well.
c. All other celestial bodies seemed to revolve around the Earth, even the sun.
d. They have formulated equations to prove that the Earth was at the center of the universe.

3.
a. It provided an observation that the universe is in the shape of a sphere.
b. It explained that the universe is created with only four elements.
c. All other bodies in the universe are observably moving around the Earth.
d. It explained that the Earth was an immovable center of the sphere of the universe.

4.
a. Copernicus
b. Ptolemy
c. Aristarchus
d. Aristotle

5.
a. Mercury
b. Venus
c. Saturn
d. Neptune

6.
a. daily rotation of the celestial sphere where stars seemed to be attached
b. rotation of a star around its axis
c. revolution of a star around a planet
d. circumferential motion

7.
a. lunar eclipse
b. solar eclipse
c. phases of the moon
d. motion of the planets

8.
a. when the Earth is in between the sun and the moon
b. when the moon is in between the sun and the Earth
c. when the sun is in between the moon and the Earth
d. when the stars revolve around the Earth

9.
a. Moon’s apparent change in color
b. lightening of the night sky
c. complete disappearance of the moon from the sky
d. the length of the night becomes shorter

10.
a. Ptolemaic model
b. Copernican model
c. Aristotelian model
d. Tychonic model

11.
a. The Sun is at the center of the universe.
b. The planets did not directly revolve around the Earth.
c. The moon revolved around the Earth but did not revolve around the sun.
d. The Earth is at the center of the universe.

12.
a. Greek beliefs have defined the Moon as a perfect and smooth body.
b. Galileo was able to prove that the Moon revolves around the Sun.
c. Galileo's observations showed that the Moon has different phases.
d. Galileo observed that the Moon only has one gigantic mountain.

13.
a. The orbit was circular.
b. The orbit has an uneven shape.
c. The orbit was elliptical.
d. The orbit of the planets was irregular.

14.
a. Larger
b. the same
c. smaller
d. zero