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# ME 442 ASSIGNMENT

REG. NO: 2014/191341
QUESTION 1
Given the following characteristic equation:
𝑆 5 + 9𝑆 4 + 3𝑆 3 + 12𝑆 2 + 6𝑆 1 + 7𝑆 0 = 0
Arranging the Routh Array:
𝑆5 1 3 6 0

𝑆 4 9 12 7 0

𝑆 3 1.67 5.22 0

𝑆 2 -16.13 7 0

𝑆 1 5.94 0 0

𝑆0 7

Where:
1 3
| |
𝑏1 = − 9 12 = 1.67
9
1 6
| |
𝑏2 = − 9 7 = 5.22
9
9 12
| |
𝑐1 = − 1.67 5.22 = −16.13
1.67
9 7
| |
𝑐2 = − 1.67 0 =7
1.67
1.67 5.22
| |
𝑑1 = − 16.13 7 = 5.94
−16.13
−16.13 7
| |
𝑒1 = − 5.94 0 =7
5.94
Examining the first column of the Routh array, it is found that there are to
changes in sign (from 1.67 to -16.13 and from -16.13 to 5.94). Therefore
the system under consideration is unstable having two poles in the right
half of the s plane. Hence it can be said in conclusion that the characteristic
equation is unstable with just two roots.

## 2. Given the following characteristic equation:

𝑆 4 + 𝑆 3 + 0𝑆 2 − 𝑆 1 − 1𝑆 0 = 0

## Arranging the Routh Array:

𝑆 4 1 0 -1 0

𝑆 3 1 -1 0 0

𝑆 2 1 -1 0 0

𝑆1 0 0 0 0

𝑆0

From the Above Routh array, it can be observed that the terms in
the 𝑆 1 row are all zeros, the Routh’s test breaks down. Now the Auxiliary
polynomial is formed from the coefficients of the 𝑆 2 row, which is given by:
𝐴(𝑠) = 𝑆 2 − 1
The derivative of the polynomial with respect to s is:
𝑑
𝐴(𝑠) = 2𝑠
𝑑𝑠
The zeros in the 𝑆 1 row are now replaced by the coefficient 2. The routh
array then becomes:

𝑆 4 1 0 -1 0

𝑆 3 1 -1 0 0

𝑆 2 1 -1 0 0

𝑆1 2 0 0 0

𝑆 0 -1
Where:
1 0
| |
𝑏1 = − 1 −1 = 1
1
1 −1
| |
𝑏2 = − 1 0 = −1
1
1 −1
| |
𝑐1 = − 1 −1 = 0
1
After differentiating the Auxiliary polynomial and substituting the value of
its coefficient, we have that:
1 −1
| |
𝑑1 = − 2 0 = −1
2
There is one change of sign in the first column of the Routh array, which
tells us that there is one root in the right half z- plane. Therefore the system
is unstable with just one root.

## 3. Given the following characteristic equation:

𝑆 4 + 6𝑆 3 + 11𝑆 2 + 6𝑆 1 + 𝑘 = 0

## Arranging the Routh Array:

𝑆 4 1 11 k

𝑆3 6 6 0

𝑆 2 10 𝑘
3
𝑆 1 (10 − 𝑘)
5

𝑆0 𝑘
Where:
1 11
| |
𝑏1 = − 6 6 = 10
6
1 𝑘
| |
𝑏2 = − 6 0 = 6𝑘 = 𝑘
6 6
6 6
| | −(6𝑘 − 60) 60 − 6𝑘 6(10 − 𝑘) 3
𝑐1 = − 10 𝑘 = = = = (10 − 𝑘)
10 10 10 10 5
10 𝑘
|3 | 3
(10 − 𝑘) 0 𝑘(10 − 𝑘)
𝑑1 = − 5 = 5 =𝑘
3 3
(10 − 𝑘) (10 − 𝑘)
5 5
Since for a stable system, the sign of the elements of the first column of the
Routh Array should all be positive, the conditions of system stability
requires that:
𝑘>0
3
𝑎𝑛𝑑 (10 − 𝑘) > 0
5
Therefore for stability, K should lie within the range:

10 > 𝑘 > 0

Where K = 10, there will be a zero at the first entry in the fourth row of the
Routh array. This corresponds to the presence of a pair of symmetrical
roots which are purely imaginary in this case. Therefore K= 10, will cause
sustained self-oscillations in the closed loop system.
For K = 10, the auxiliary polynomial, given by the coefficients of the third
row is:
(10)𝑠 2 + 10 = 0
Which gives the roots as:
𝑠 = ±𝑗 = ±𝑗𝑤0
Hence the frequency of sustained oscillations are:
𝐾 = 1 𝑟𝑎𝑑⁄𝑠𝑒𝑐