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DHIRAJLAL GANDHI

COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY

LABORATORY MANUAL

DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGG

EE6411 – ELECTRICAL MACHINES-1


LAB
Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Opp. Salem Airport,
Sikanampatty, Omalur, Salem.
Tel : +91 04290 233333 Email : dgctsalem@gmail.com
DHIRAJLAL GANDHI
COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY

Subject Name : Electrical Machines-1 laboratory

Subject Code : EE6411

Semester : IV

Branch : Electriccal & Electronics Engineering

University : Anna University, Chennai.

Year of Syllabus : R 2013

PREPARED BY REVIEWED BY APPROVED BY


Name Mr.G.Subramaniam Mr.G.Subramaniam
Dr.S.Rajendiran
Mr.A.Alaudeen Mr.A.Alaudeen
Designation AP/EEE AP/EEE HOD/EEE
Signature

Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Opp. Salem Airport,


Sikanampatty, Omalur, Salem.
Tel : +91 04290 233333 Email : dgctsalem@gmail.com
College

Vision
To improve the quality of human life through multi-disciplinary programs in
Engineering,architecture and management that are internationally recognized and would
facilitate research work to incorporate social economical and environmental development.

Mission
 To create a vibrant atmosphere that creates competent engineers, innovators, scientists,
entrepreneurs, academicians and thinkers of tomorrow.
 To establish centers of excellence that provides sustainable solutions to industry and
society.
 To enhance capability through various value added programs so as to meet the challenges
of
dynamically changing global needs.
Department

Vision
The department of electrical and electronics engineering is intended to establish a proficient hub
for producing a highly competent electrical engineers by imparting effective teaching learning
process to meet the rapidly transforming technical scenario.
Mission
 To engender outstanding electrical technocrats for industry demand by research and
industry collaboration.
 To train the students with interpersonal communication, ethical teamwork and time
management.
 To equip the students with technical knowledge in critical problem solving and analytical
skills.
Program Educational Objectives(PEOs)

PEO1
Our graduates to meet industry demands and motivate for higher studies.
Our graduates are able to apply widen and in-depth knowledge of Electrical and
PEO2 Engineering to analyzethe realistic problems and think creatively to generate
innovative solutions using appropriate technologies.
Our graduates are able to adapt to different roles and responsibilities and demonstrate
leaderships in solving emerging engineering problems within the organization and
PEO3
society at national and international levels.
Program Outcomes(POs)
a. Ability to exhibit the knowledge of science, mathematics, communication and
PO1 programming skills.
b. Ability to identify and formulate engineering problems and solve by applying
PO2
basic engineering principles.
c. Ability to identify and apply appropriate tools and techniques for engineering
PO3
practical applications.
PO4 d. Ability to apply research based knowledge for analyzing complex engineering
problems.
PO5 e. Ability to design solutions for complex engineering problems.
f. Ability to prepare reports and communicate effectively and professionally
PO6
through effective presentations.
g. Ability to follow current good practices of engineering for sustainable
PO7
development.
h. Ability to demonstrate safety, health, social, cultural and environmental
PO8
responsibilities relevant to professional engineering practices.
i. Ability to execute the responsibilities of an Engineer professionally and
PO9
ethically.
j. Ability to function and manage effectively as an individual or in a team.
PO10
k. Ability to recognize the need and be able to involve in independent and life-
PO11
long learning according to technological changes.
l. Ability to understand and apply the knowledge of engineering management
PO12
principles.
Program Specific Outcomes(PSOs)
PSO1 The ability to analyze the basics of the electrical engineering.
PSO2 The skill to analyze the mathematical derivations of transformers with its applications.
Course Outcomes(COs)
CO1 To understand the basic principles of Electrical measurement using proper instruments.
CO2 The ability to formulate and then analyze the working of any electrical machine using
mathematical model under loaded and unloaded conditions.
CO3 The skill to analyze the response of any electrical machine.

CO4 The ability to troubleshoot the operation of an electrical machine with their working
principles.
CO5 The ability to estimate and correct deviations in measurements due to the influence of
the instrument and due to the accuracy of the instrument.
CO6
The ability to understand and analyze the DC machines construction.
Mapping

Course Outcomes PO PO PO PO PO PO PO PO PO PO PO PO PS PS
(COs) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 O O2
1

1 2 3 1
CO1

2 1
CO2

2 2
CO3

CO4
2 3

CO5 1 2 1

2 1 3
CO6
ANNA UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI
(R 2013)
EE 6411 ELECTRICAL MACHINES-1 LAB

1. Open circuit and load characteristics of DC shunt generator- critical


resistance and critical speed.

2. Load characteristics of DC compound generator with differential and


cumulative connections.

3. Load test on DC shunt and compound motor.

4. Load test on DC series motor.

5. Swinburne’s test and speed control of DC shunt motor.

6. Hopkinson’s test on DC motor – generator set.

7. Load test on single-phase transformer and three phase transformers.

8. Open circuit and short circuit tests on single phase transformer.

9. Polarity Test and Sumpner’s test on single phase transformers.

10.Separation of no-load losses in single phase transformer.

11.Study of starters and 3-phase transformers connections


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

CYCLE-I
Ex. Name of the Experiment Page. No
No
Open circuit and load characteristics of self
1
excited DC generator.
Open circuit and load characteristics of
2
separately excited DC generator.

3 Load test on DC shunt motor.

4 Speed control of DC Shunt motor

5 Load test on single phase transformer

Open circuit and short circuit test on single


6
phase transformer.
Load Test On D.C. Compound Generator With
7 Difeerential And Cumulative Connection

8 Load Test On D.C. Compound Motor

CYCLE-2

9 Load Test On D.C. Series Motor

10 Swinburne’stest

11 Hopkinson’stest

12 Loadteston A Threephasetransformer

13 Polarity Test On Single Phase Transformer

14 Sumpner’s test on Transformers

Separation Of No Load Losses In A Single Phase


15
Transformer
Study Of Starters And Three Phase Connection
16
Of a Transformer
INDEX
Ex. PAGE. MAR SIGNATUR
No Experiments No KS E OF THE
STAFF
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

MARKS (Out Of 10 )…………………………

SIGNATURE OF THE STAFF


TIPS FOR A BETTER LAB SESSION

Some of the Best Practices to help the Lab run smoothly while maximizing Student
Learning.

1. Students should be thoroughly familiar with the Lab exercises before coming to
Lab.
2. Students should treat the Laboratory Exercises as original Research.
3. Students should make sure not to miss even a single Lab Class.
4. Students must apply the concepts learned in class to New Situations.
5. Each student must try to do their Lab Exercises Individually.
6. The instructor will hold a pre-laboratory discussion on the lab exercises.
7. Before every lab session each student should draw the circuit diagram for the lab
exercise, write the purpose of each component in the circuit and its application in
the empty space provided.
8. Each student must be able to design the circuit for the specifications given during
the lab session.
9. Students are encouraged to do the additional lab exercise provided in the manual.
Extra credit will be awarded for the same.
10. The progress of every student will be monitored on a regular basis. Based on the
progress report Extra Credit Marks will be awarded for the students in their
Internals.
11. Every student must be able to explain the circuit, its functioning and application
clearly at the end of each Lab Session.
12. Labs are for you students and so consider it as your duty to leave the lab exactly
how you found it, by taking care of the computer systems and the other
equipments.

“ENJOY THE JOY OF DESIGNING”


EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS


Motor Generator
Rated Voltage :
Rated Current :

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

Rated Power :
Rated Speed :

Ex.No.1 OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF


SELF EXCITED DC GENERATOR
Date:

AIM:
To obtain open circuit characteristics and Load characteristics of self-excited DC shunt generator and to find its critical
resistance.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No Quanti
Apparatus Range Type
. ty
1 Ammeter (0-1)A MC 1
2 Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1
3 Rheostats 350, 1.5A Wire Wound 2
4 SPST Switch - - 1
(0-
5 Tachometer Digital 1
1500)rpm
Connecting
6 2.5sq.mm. Copper Few
Wires

PRECAUTIONS:
1. The field rheostat of motor should be in minimum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the machine.

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

2. The field rheostat of generator should be in maximum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the
machine.
3. SPST switch is kept open during starting and stopping.

PROCEDURE:
Open Circuit Test
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking minimum position of motor field rheostat, maximum position of generator field rheostat, DPST switch is
closed and starting resistance is gradually removed.
3. By adjusting the field rheostat, the motor is brought to rated speed.
4. Voltmeter and ammeter readings are taken when the SPST switch is kept open.
5. After closing the SPST switch, by varying the generator field rheostat, voltmeter and ammeter readings are taken.
6. After bringing the generator rheostat to maximum position, field rheostat of motor to minimum position, SPST switch is
opened and DPST switch is opened.

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Load Test
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking minimum position of DC shunt motor field rheostat and
maximum position of DC shunt generator field rheostat, DPST switch is
closed and starting resistance is gradually removed.
3. Under no load condition, Ammeter and Voltmeter readings are noted,
after bringing the voltage to rated voltage by adjusting the field
rheostat of generator.
4. Load is varied gradually and for each load, voltmeter and ammeter
readings are noted.
5. Then the generator is unloaded and the field rheostat of DC shunt
generator is brought to maximum position and the field rheostat of DC
shunt motor to minimum position, DPST switch is opened.
TABULAR COLUMN:
Generator Armature Resistance Ra: _____________
OC Test Load Test
Open
Field Load Load Armature Armature Generated
Sl.N Circuit
Current Voltage Current Current Drop Voltage
o Voltage
(If) (VL) (IL) (Ia) Ia.Ra Eg=VL+IaRa
(Eo)
Volts Amps Volts Amps Amps Volts Volts

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DETERMINATION OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE:

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TABULAR COLUMN:

S.No Voltage Current Armature


. V (Volts) I (Amps) Resistance
Ra (Ohms)

PROCEDURE: (To Find Armature Resistance Ra)


1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Supply is given by closing the DPST switch.
3. Readings of Ammeter and Voltmeter are noted.
4. Armature resistance in Ohms is calculated as Ra = (Vx1.5) /I
FORMULAE:
Eg = V + Ia Ra (Volts)
Ia = IL + If (Amps)
Eg : Generated emf in Volts
V : Terminal Voltage in Volts
Ia : Armature Current in Amps
IL : Line Current in Amps
If : Field Current in Amps
Ra : Armature Resistance in Ohms

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MODEL CALCULATION:

Circuit Diagram Practice:

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Components Details:

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Applications:

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT
Eo (Volts)
MODEL GRAPH:
Open Circuit Characteristics
Critical Resistance = Eo / If Ohms

If (Amps)

If

Eo

Load Characteristics
V, Eg (Volts)

V Vs If
(Int Char)

Eg Vs IL
(Ext Char)

If, IL (Amps)

VIVA QUESTIONS:
Open circuit test and Load test
1. What should be done if the D.C. Shunt generator fails to build up?
2. What are the reasons of fall of terminal voltage of a D.C. shunt
generator?
3. Define armature reaction.
4. What are the different types of losses in generator?
5. What is the e.m.f. Equation of generator?
6. What is the relation between Eg and VL factor of the load used
RESULT
Thus the Open circuit test and Load test on a given self excited DC
generator and the characteristics curves were drawn.

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS


Motor Generator
Rated Voltage :
Rated Current :

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

Rated Power :
Rated Speed :
Ex.No.2 OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS AND LOAD
Date: CHARACTERISTICS OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC GENERATOR

AIM:
To obtain open circuit characteristics, internal and external characteristics of separately
excited DC shunt generator.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No Quanti
Apparatus Range Type
. ty
1 Ammeter (0-2)A MC 1
2 Ammeter (0-20)A MC 2
2 Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1
3 Rheostats 350,1.5A Wire Wound 2
(0-
4 Tachometer Digital 1
1500)rpm
Connecting
5 2.5sq.mm. Copper Few
Wires

PRECAUTIONS:
1. The field rheostat of motor should be in minimum resistance position at the time of starting
and stopping the machine.
2. The field rheostat of generator should be in maximum resistance position at the time of
starting and stopping the machine.

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

PROCEDURE:
Open Circuit Test
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking minimum position of motor field rheostat, maximum position of generator
field rheostat, DPST switch is closed and starting resistance is gradually removed.
3. By adjusting the field rheostat, the motor is brought to rated speed.
4. By varying the generator field rheostat, voltmeter and ammeter readings are taken.
5. After bringing the generator rheostat to maximum position, field rheostat of motor to
minimum position, DPST switch is opened.

Load Test
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking minimum position of DC shunt motor field rheostat and maximum position of
DC shunt generator field rheostat, DPST switch is closed and starting resistance is
gradually removed.
3. Under no load condition, Ammeter and Voltmeter readings are noted, after bringing the voltage
to rated voltage by adjusting the field rheostat of generator.
4. Load is varied gradually and for each load, voltmeter and ammeter readings are noted.

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

5. Then the generator is unloaded and the field rheostat of DC shunt generator is brought to
maximum position and the field rheostat of DC shunt motor to minimum position, DPST
switch is opened

TABULAR COLUMN:
Generator Armature Resistance Ra: _____________
OC Test Load Test
Open
Field Load Load Armature Armature Generated
Sl.N Circuit
Current Voltage Current Current Drop Voltage
o Voltage
(If) (VL) (IL) (Ia) Ia.Ra Eg=VL+IaRa
(Eo)
Volts Amps Volts Amps Amps Volts Volts

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TABULAR COLUMN :( Ra)

S.No Voltage Current Armature


. V (Volts) I (Amps) Resistance
Ra (Ohms)

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

FORMULAE:
Eg = V + Ia Ra (Volts)
Ia = IL + If (Amps)
Eg : Generated emf in Volts
V : Terminal Voltage in Volts
Ia : Armature Current in Amps

IL : Line Current in Amps


If : Field Current in Amps
Ra : Armature Resistance in Ohms

MODEL CALCULATIONS:

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

MODEL GRAPH:
Load Characteristics

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Circuit Diagram Practice:

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Components Details:

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Applications:

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

VIVA QUESTIONS:
Open Test
1. What are the parts of a DC machine?
2. Define working principle of DC generator?
3. How will you identify a DC machine from an AC machine?
4. What will be the approximate theoretical value of armature and field resistance?
5. What is critical resistance?
6. What is the purpose of plotting the o.c.c curve?
7. If the generator speed is increased to 150 percent of its rated speed, what will be the
on o.c.c?
8. Why should the resistance of the armature winding be low?
9. Why should the shunt field coil be with large number of turns?
10. What is critical speed?

Load Test

1. What type of DC machine has the similar Output/Speed characteristics?


2. Why should the power factor improve with the loading?
3. What will you do when the wattmeter detection shows below zero?
4. What will happen if one phase goes out when the IM is running at full load?
5. What is the slip at maximum torque?
6. At what load will the efficiency be maximum?

RESULT:
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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

Thus the Open circuit test and Load test on a given separately excited DC generator and
the characteristics curves were drawn.

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MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
FUSERATING Viva-voce 10 NAME
Total 30
PLATE DETAILS

Rated Voltage :
Rated Current :
Rated Power :
Rated Speed :

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

Ex.No.3
Date: LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM:
To conduct load test on DC shunt motor and to find the performance
characteristics with efficiency.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Quanti
S.No. Apparatus Range Type
ty
1 Ammeter (0-20)A MC 1
2 Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1
3 Rheostat 350, 1.5A Wire Wound 1
(0-1500)
4 Tachometer Digital 1
rpm
Connecting
5 2.5sq.mm. Copper Few
Wires

PRECAUTIONS:
1. DC shunt motor should be started and stopped under no load condition.
2. Field rheostat should be kept in the minimum position.
3. Brake drum should be cooled with water when it is under load.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the no load condition, and minimum field rheostat
position, DPST switch is closed and starter resistance is gradually
removed.
3. The motor is brought to its rated speed by adjusting the field rheostat.
4. Ammeter, Voltmeter readings, speed and spring balance readings are
noted under no load condition.
5. The load is then added to the motor gradually and for each load,
voltmeter, ammeter, spring balance readings and speed of the motor
are noted.

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

6. The motor is then brought to no load condition and field rheostat to


minimum position, then DPST switch is opened.

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

TABULAR COLUMN:

Spring Balance Outpu


Curre Spee Input
Reading Torqu t
Voltage nt d Power Efficienc
S.No (S1 e Power
V I N Pi y
. S2)Kg T Pm
(Volts) (Amps S1(Kg) S2(Kg) (rpm (Watt %
(Nm) (Watt
) ) s)
s)

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

Circumference of the Brake drum =_________________cm.

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

FORMULAE:

Circumference
R = ------------------- m
100 x2

Torque T = (S1 S2) x R x 9.81 Nm

Input Power Pi = VI Watts

2NT
Output Power Pm = ------------ Watts
60

Output Power
Efficiency  % = -------------------- x 100%
Input Power

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Circuit Diagram Practice:

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Components Details:

Applications:

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

MODEL CALCULATION:

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

MODEL GRAPHS:
y3 y2 y1
Efficiency %

Torque T (Nm)

Speed N (rpm)

y

N

Speed N (rpm)
T

x
Output Power (Watts) Torque T (Nm)

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. How do you load the motor in this experiment?
2. What was the assumption made in calculations?
3. What is the condition for maximum torque of a D.C. shunt motor?
4. Why is the starter necessary?
5. What is the power?
6. Why should the field rheostat be kept in the position of minimum
resistance?
7. What is the loading arrangement used in a dc motor?
8. How can the direction of rotation of a DC shunt motor be reversed?
9. What are the mechanical and electrical characteristics of a DC shunt
motor?
10. What are the applications of a DC shunt motor?

RESULT:
Thus load test on DC shunt motor is conducted and its efficiency
is determined.

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

MARK ALLOCATION
CIRCUIT Experimental setup 10 DIAGRAM
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30
FUSERATING NAME
PLATE DETAILS
Rated Voltage :
Rated Current :
Rated Power :
Rated Speed :

Ex.No.4
Date: SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM:
To obtain speed control of DC shunt motor by
a. Varying armature voltage with field current constant.
b. Varying field current with armature voltage constant

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No Quantit
Apparatus Range Type
. y

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

1 Ammeter (0-20) A MC 1
2 Voltmeter (0-300) V MC 1
350, 1.5A Wire
3 Rheostats Each 1
50, 5A Wound
(0-3000)
4 Tachometer Digital 1
rpm
Connecting
5 2.5sq.mm. Copper Few
Wires

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Field Rheostat should be kept in the minimum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the motor.
2. Armature Rheostat should be kept in the maximum resistance position at the time of starting and stopping the motor.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the maximum position of armature rheostat and minimum position of field rheostat, DPST switch is
closed
(i) Armature Control:
1. Field current is fixed to various values and for each fixed value, by varying the armature rheostat, speed is noted for
various voltages across the armature.
(ii) Field Control:
1. Armature voltage is fixed to various values and for each fixed value, by adjusting
the field rheostat, speed is noted for various field currents.

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

2. Bringing field rheostat to minimum position and armature rheostat to maximum


position DPST switch is opened.

TABULAR COLUMN:
(i) Armature Voltage Control:

(ii) Field Control:


S.No. Va1 = Va2 = Va3 =

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

Field Speed Field Speed Field Speed


Current N (rpm) Current N (rpm) Current N (rpm)
If (A) If (A) If (A)

Circuit Diagram Practice:

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

Components Details:

Applications:

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

MODEL GRAPHS:

If1

Speed N (rpm)
Speed N (rpm)
If2

If3

Va1

Va3 Va2

If (Amps)
Va (Volts)

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1 What will happen if the armature rheostat is not
in maximum position while starting?
the motor?

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

2. What will happen if the armature resistance is in minimum position and the field
resistance is in maximum position while starting the motor?
3. How do you reverse the direction of rotation of a DC motor?
4. If the armature connection and the field connection both are reversed, does the direction of rotation of the motor
reverse?
5. How does the speed of a DC shunt motor vary with armature voltage and field current?
6. Compare the resistance of the armature and field winding.
7. What is the importance of speed control of DC motor in industrial applications?
8. Which is of the two methods of speed control is better and why?
9. Why is the speed of DC shunt motor practically constant under normal load condition?
10. What are the factors affecting the speed of a DC shunt motor?

RESULT:
Thus the speed control of DC Shunt Motor is obtained using Armature and Field control methods.

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS


Rated Voltage :
Rated Current :
Rated KVA :
Ex.No.5
Date: LOAD TEST ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM:
To conduct load test on single phase transformer and to find efficiency and percentage regulation.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No Quantit
Apparatus Range Type
. y
(0-10)A MI 1
1 Ammeter
(0-5) A MI 1
(0-150)V MI 1
2 Voltmeter
(0-300) V MI 1
(300V, 5A) Upf 1
3 Wattmeter
(150V, 5A) Upf 1
Auto 1, (0-
4 - 1
Transformer 260)V
5 Resistive Load 5KW, 230V - 1

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

Connecting
6 2.5sq.mm Copper Few
Wires

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Auto Transformer should be in minimum position.
2. The AC supply is given and removed from the transformer under no load condition.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the no load condition, minimum position of auto transformer and DPST switch is closed.
3. Ammeter, Voltmeter and Wattmeter readings on both primary side and secondary side are noted.
4. The load is increased and for each load, Voltmeter, Ammeter and Wattmeter readings on both primary and secondary
sides are noted.
5. Again no load condition is obtained and DPST switch is opened.

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EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

TABULAR COLUMN:

Efficien
Input Output %
cy
Primary Secondary Power Power Regulati

S.N Loa W1 x MF W2 x MF on
%
o. d
I1 W1 V2 I2 W2
V1
(Amp (Watts (Volts (Amp (Watt
(Volts)
s) ) ) s) s)

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FORMULA:
Output Power = W2 x Multiplication factor
Input Power = W1 x Multiplication factor
Output Power
Efficiency  % = -------------------- x 100%
Input Power
VNL - VFL (Secondary)
Regulation R % = ------------------------------ x 100%
VNL

MODEL CALCULATIONS:

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Circuit Diagram Practice:

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Components Details:

Applications:

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MODEL GRAPHS:

Efficiency %

Regulation R %
R

Output Power ()

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is the principle of a transformer?
2. What are the types of transformer?
3. What are the applications of transformer?
4. What is the capacity of a transformer specified as KVA and not as
KW?
5. What is the condition for maximum efficiency of a transformer From
the graph,
find the load at which it occurs.
6. Why is the efficiency of a transformer higher than that of motors?
7. What is the principle of a transformer?
8. What are the types of transformer?
9. What are the applications of transformer?
10. Why is the capacity of a transformer specified as KVA and not as
KW?
11. What is the condition for maximum efficiency of a transformer From
the graph, find the load at which it occurs.
12. . Why is the efficiency of a transformer higher than that of motors?

RESULT:
Thus the load test on single phase transformer is conducted.

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30

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FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS


Rated Voltage :
Rated Current :
Rated KVA :

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Ex.No.6 OPEN CIRCUIT & SHORT CIRCUIT TEST ON A


Date: SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
AIM:
To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of a transformer by
conducting open circuit test and short circuit test and to draw equivalent
circuit.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No Quanti
Apparatus Range Type
. ty
(0-2)A MI 1
1 Ammeter
(0-10) A MI 1
2 Voltmeter (0-150)V MI 2
(300V, 5A) LPF 1
3 Wattmeter
(150V, 5A) UPF 1
Connecting
4 2.5sq.mm Copper Few
Wires

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Auto Transformer should be in minimum voltage position at the time
of closing & opening DPST Switch.
PROCEDURE:
OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the minimum position of Autotransformer, DPST switch is
closed.
3. Auto transformer varied is adjusted get the rated primary voltage.
4. Voltmeter, Ammeter and Wattmeter readings on primary side are noted.
5. Auto transformer is again brought to minimum position and DPST switch
is opened.
SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the minimum position of Autotransformer, DPST switch is
closed.
3. Auto transformer varied is adjusted get the rated primary current.

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4. Voltmeter, Ammeter and Wattmeter readings on primary side are noted.


5. Auto transformer is again brought to minimum position and DPST switch
is opened.

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FORMULAE:

I =Iocoso (Amps) I =Io sin o (Amps)

V0 V0 Wsc
Ro = -------  Xo = -------  Ro2 = ------- 
I I Isc2

Vsc
Zo2 = -------  Xo2= ( Zo2 - Ro22)1/2
Isc

V2
R02 X02
K= ------- = 2
Ro1 = -------  Xo1= ------- V1
K2 K2

Percentage Efficiency: for all loads and p.f.

Output Power (X) x KVA rating x 1000 x cos


Efficiency % = -------------------- = ------------------------------------------------
Input Power Output power + losses

(X) x KVA rating x 1000 x cos


= -------------------------------------------------------------
(X) x KVA rating x 1000 x cos + Wo + X2Wsc
Percentage Regulation:
(X) xIsc (Ro2cos Xo2sin ) x 100 + = lagging
R% = -------------------------------------- - = leading

VSC

Where X is the load and it is 1 for full load, ½ for half load, ¾ load, ¼ load
etc and the power factor is, UPF, o.8 p.f lag and 0.8 p.f lead

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TABULAR COLUMN:

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:


Vo Io Wo
(Volts) (Amps) (Watts)

LOAD

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:


Vsc Isc Wsc
(Volts) (Amps) (Watts)

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT:

ZL = ZL/K2

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MODEL CALCULATIONS:

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MODEL GRAPHS:

Efficiency %

Output power ()

% lagging

Power factor ISC o R o1


R

I o

% leading o
V

R o X o

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Circuit Diagram Practice:

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Components Details:

Applications:

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VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is the purpose of OC and SC tests?
2. Why is the core of a transformer laminated?
3. What is meant by regulation?
4. Define the term transformation ratio?
5. What are the components of no load current?
6. What are the parameters of the equivalent circuit?
7. How are the parameters referred to the HV or LV side? Explain with an
example.
8. Under what value of power factor a transformer gives zero voltage
regulation?
9. What transformers are rated in kVA?
10. How the eddy current loss can be reduced?
11. What test is to be conducted on a transformer to estimate its
voltage regulation?
12. Define power factor.
13. Is copper loss affected by power factor?

RESULT:
Thus the efficiency and regulation of a transformer is predetermined
by conducting open circuit test and short circuit test and the equivalent
circuit is drawn.

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

CUMULATIVE SHUNT

DIFFERENTIAL SHUNT

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Ex.No.7 LOAD TEST ON D.C. COMPOUND GENERATOR WITH
DIFEERENTIAL
AND CUMULATIVE CONNECTION
Date:

FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS

AIM:
To conduct the load test on the given D. C. compound generator in the
following modes.
1. Cumulative
2. Differential
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No Quanti
Apparatus Range Type
. ty
1 Ammeter (0-2)A MC 1
2 Ammeter (0-15)A MC 1

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3 Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1
Connecting
4 2.5sq.mm Copper Few
Wires

PROCEDURE

1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.


2. The DPST switch is closed.
3. The motor is started using four point starter.
4. The field rheostat of the motor is adjusted to bring the motor speed
to the rated speed of the generator.
5. The generator field rheostat is adjusted till the voltmeter reads the
rated voltage of the generator.
6. DPST switch on the generator side is closed.
7. The load is increased in steps. At each step of loading all the meter readings are noted.
8. The above procedure is repeated till the ammeter reads the rated current.
9. Switch off the load gradually and make the motor and generator rheostat resistance
position as instructed in the precaution.
10. Turn off the supply
11. Interchange the terminal connection of the generator series field coil and repeat
the procedure right from the first step.

TABULAR COLOUMN
CUMULATIVE

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DIFFERENTIAL

MODEL GRAPHS:

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MODEL CALCULATION :

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

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Components Details:

Applications:

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VIVA QUESTIONS :

1. What is the standard direction of rotation of the DC generator and DC


motor?
2. How should a generator be started?
3. What are the indications and causes of an overloaded generator?
4. Generator operates in the principle of Fleming’s __________________.
5. Whether compound generators can be used as shunt and series generators? How?
6. An electrical machine can be loaded up to -------------------- % of rated current.
7. Why series generators are not used for power generation at the power house?
8. How do we conclude that connections between field coils and armature are correct?
9. How will you differentiate cumulative compound and differential compound
generators?
10. Define commutation

RESULT:

Thus the performance characteristics of the DC


compound generator were drawn.

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS

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Ex.No.8 LOAD TEST ON D.C. COMPOUND MOTOR

Date:

AIM:
To perform the load test on the given DC compound motor and draw the
performance characteristics.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No Quanti
Apparatus Range Type
. ty
1 Ammeter (0 - 20) A MC 1
2 Ammeter (0 - 2) A MC 1
3 Voltmeter (0 - 300) V MC 1
Rheostat 350Ω/1.5A - 1
Connecting
4 2.5sq.mm Copper Few
Wires

PROCEDURE
1. The connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The DPST switch is closed.
3. The motor is started using the four point starter.
4. The speed of the motor is adjusted to the rated value by varying the
field rheostat.
5. The no load readings are noted.
6. The load on the brake drum increased in steps.
7. At each step of loading the meter readings are noted.
8. The procedure is repeated till the ammeter reads the rated current.

FORMULA USED:-

Circumference of brake drum = 2 x Π x R in meter


R – Radius of the brake drum
Torque, T =(S1-S2)*9.81*R in Nm
Input power, Pi = VL x IL in Watts
Output power, P0 = (2 x Π x N x T) / 60 in Watts
% Efficiency, ƞ = (P0 / Pi) x 100

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TABULAR COLOUMN

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MODEL GRAPHS:

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MODEL CALCULATION :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What will happen if both the field current and armature current are reversed?
2. What will happen if the shunt motor is directly connected across the supply line?
3. Mention the applications of DC compound motor.
4. The differentially compounded motor has a tendency to start in the opposite direction,
why?
5. What are the advantages of a compound motor?
6. Differentiate between cumulative compound and differential compound motors.

RESULT:

Thus the performance characteristics of the DC


compound motor were drawn.

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30

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Ex.No.9 LOAD TEST ON D.C. SERIES MOTOR

Date:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR BRAKE TEST ON D.C. SERIES MOTOR:

FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS

AIM:
To perform the load test on the given DC series motor and draw the
performance characteristics.

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APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No Quanti
Apparatus Range Type
. ty
1 Ammeter (0 - 15) A MC 1
2 Voltmeter (0 - 300) V MC 1
3 Rheostat 350Ω/1.5A - 1
Connecting
4 2.5sq.mm Copper Few
Wires

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per circuit diagram.

2. Before starting the motor some initial load is applied to the motor by
using the

brake drum with spring balance.

3. Using two-point starter the motor is started to run.

4. The meter readings are started at its initial condition.

5. Gradually load the machine up to rated current and


corresponding meter readings were noted.

6. After the observation of all the readings the load is released


gradually up to the

initial load condition.

Tabular Column:

Radius of brake drum, r =_____________________ mts.

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FORMULAE USED:

Circumference of the brake drum =____________ cms

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Radius of the brake drum, r = ____________________m

Torque applied on the shaft of the rotor, T = (F1 ~ F2)* r × 9.81 Nm

Output power, Po = 2Πx (NT/60) Watts

Input power Pi = V × IL Watts

Efficiency, = Po/Pi

Model Graphs:

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VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. What are the applications of DC series motors?


2. What are the special features of a DC series motors?
3. Which type of starter is used for DC series motors?
4. How will you control the speed of DC series motor?
5. What will happen to the speed of series motor when the supply voltage is reduced?
6. What is the importance of no-load current of the motor?
7. Why we use starters to start DC motors?
8. DC series motors should never be started on no-load. Why?
9. Why the DC series motors have high starting torque?
10. What is meant by speed losses in DC machines?

RESULT:

Thus the performance characteristics of the DC series motor were drawn.

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS

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Ex.No.10 SWINBURNE’STEST

Date:

AIM:
To predetermine the efficiency o the D.C. machine when it act as
(i) Motor
(ii) Generator

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No Quanti
Apparatus Range Type
. ty
1 Ammeter (0 - 5) A MC 1
Ammeter (0 - 2) A MC 1
2 Voltmeter (0 - 300) V MC 1
3 Rheostat 350Ω/1.5A - 1
Connecting
4 2.5sq.mm Copper Few
Wires

PROCEDURE:
1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. The DPST switch is closed.

3. The motor is started with the help of three point starter.

4. The field rheostat of the motor is adjusted to bring the motor speed to
the rated

value.

5. The no load current, voltage and shunt field current are noted.

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FORMULA USED:

Constant loss Wc = VIa – (IO –If)2 Ra


Ra – Resistance of armature

TABULAR COLOUMN

For Generator

For Motor

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For Motor:
1. Armature Current Ia = IL – IF
2. Armature copper loss Wcu = Ia Ra
3. Total loss Wt = Wc + Wcu
4. Input power Pi = VIL
5. Output Power Po = Pi - Wt
6. Efficiency =(Po/Pi)*100

For Generator:
1. Armature Current Ia = IL + If
2. Armature copper loss W 2 cu = Ia Ra
3. Total loss Wt = Wc + Wcu
4. Output power Po = VIL
5. Input Power Pi = Po + Wt
6. Efficiency =(Po/Pi)*100

Model Graph

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Model Calculation:

Circuit Diagram:

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Components Details:

Applications:

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VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. State the advantage of Swinburne’s test.


2. Is it possible to conduct Swinburne’s test on DC series motor? Justify.
3. State the Torque equation of DC motor.
4. Which one of the speed will be higher either no-load speed or full load speed?
5. What will be the efficiency of the motor at no-load?
6. What will be the approximate value of armature and field resistance of DC motors?

7. Why the armature control method is employed only below the rated speed in DC
shunt motors?
8. Why the field control method is employed only above the rated speed in DC shunt
motors?
9. Where we use shunt motor?
10. Why is field control method superior to armature control method for DC shunt
motors?

RESULT:

Thus the efficiency of the DC machine has been predetermined and


Characteristics were drawn.

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS

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Ex.No.11 HOPKINSON’STEST

Date:

AIM:
To conduct Hopkinson’s test on a pair of identical DC machines to
predetermine
the efficiency of the machine as generator and as motor.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No Quanti
Apparatus Range Type
. ty
1 Ammeter (0 - 1) A MC 1
2 Ammeter (0 - 2) A MC 1
3 Ammeter (0 - 20) A MC 1
4 Voltmeter (0 - 300) V MC 2
5 Voltmeter (0 - 600) V MC 2
6 Rheostat 350Ω/1.5A - 2
Connecting
7 2.5sq.mm Copper Few
Wires

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the minimum position of field rheostat of motor,
maximum
position of field rheostat of generator, opening of SPST switch, DPST
switch
is closed and starting resistance is gradually removed.
3. The motor is brought to its rated speed by adjusting the field rheostat of
the
motor.

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4. The voltmeter V1 is made to read zero by adjusting field rheostat of


generator and SPST switch is closed.
5. By adjusting field rheostats of motor and generator, various Ammeter
readings, voltmeter readings are noted.
6. The rheostats and SPST switch are brought to their original positions and
DPST switch is opened.

TABULAR COLUMN:

AS MOTOR:

AS GENERATOR:

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FORMULAE:
1. Input Power = VI1 watts
2. Motor armature cu loss = (I1+ I2)2 Ra watts
3. Generator armature cu loss = I22 Ra watts
4. Total Stray losses W = V I1 –( (I1+I2)2 Ra + I2 Ra) watts.
5. Stray loss per machine = W/2 watts.

AS MOTOR:
Input Power = Armature input + Shunt field input
= (I1+ I2) V + I3V
Total Losses = Armature Cu loss + Field loss + stray loss
= (I1 + I2)2 Ra + VI3 +W/2 watts
Output Power=Input power – Total Losses

Efficiency % =( output power /input power)*100

AS GENERATOR
Output Power = VI2 watts
Total Losses = Armature Cu loss+ Field Loss + Stray loss
= I22 Ra + VI4 + W/2 watts
Efficiency % = (out put power / input power )*100%
Input Power= Output Power+ Total Losses

MODEL GRAPH:

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Model Calculation:

Circuit Diagram:

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Components Details:

Applications:

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VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What are the advantages of Hopkinson’s test over Swinburne’s test and
what are its limitations?
2. What is the function of no-voltage release (NVR) coil provided in a DC
motor starter?
3. How does a 4-point starter differ from 3-point starter?
4. What are the other names of Hopkinson’s test?
5. What are the advantages of Hopkinson’s test?
6. A DC motor fails to start when switched on. What could be the reasons and
remedies?
7. When does the armature of dc motor likely to get over-heated?
8. What is the function of interpoles?
9. How the interpoles are connected?
10. Name different methods of electrical braking of DC motors.

RESULT:

Thus Hopkinson’s test is conducted on a pair of identical DC machines the


efficiency of the machine as generator and as motor are pre-determined.

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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Ex.No.12 LOADTESTON A THREEPHASETRANSFORMER
Date:

AIM:
Determination of Regulation & Efficiency of three-phase transformer
by direct loading.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.N Quanti
Apparatus Range Type
o. ty
Ammeter (0 - 10) A MI 1
Ammeter (0 - 20) A MI 1
Voltmeter (0 - 300) V MI 1
Voltmeter (0 - 600) V MI 1
3ph
Resistive load - 1
415V,5kw
600V,5/10A,
Wattmeter 4
UPF
Connecting
2.5sq.mm Copper Few
Wires

PROCEDURE:
1) Connect the circuit as shown in figure.
2) Keep load on transformer at off position.
3) Keeping dimmer stat at zero position, switch on 3-Phase supply.
4) Now increase dimmer stat voltage for 440 V.
5) Note down the no-load readings.
6) Then increase the load in steps till rated current of the transformer &
note
down corresponding readings.
7) Calculate efficiency & regulation for each reading.

MODEL CALCULATION:-

Input power = W1 + W2 Watts

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Output power = √3 V2 I2 Watts


%Efficiency = (output / Input) x 100
%Regulation = (VNL – VL) / VL

TABULAR COLOUMN

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Model Calculation:

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Circuit Diagram:

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Components Details:

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Applications:

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VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. Mention the types of transformer.


2. Explain the operating principle of a transformer.
3. List out general applications of transformer.
4. What are core type transformers?
5. What are shell type transformers?
6. Distinguish between power and distribution transformer.
7. Define voltage regulation of a transformer.

RESULT:

Thus the efficiency and regulation of a three phase transformer were


calculated.

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Subractive Polarity:

Additive Polarity:

NAME PLATE DETAILS

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Ex.No.13 POLARITY TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
Date:

AIM:
Determination of Regulation & Efficiency of three-phase transformer
by direct loading.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No Quanti
Apparatus Range Type
. ty
Auto
1 230/(0-270) V 1
Transformer
2 1Φ Transformer 1KVA 1
3 Voltmeter (0 - 600) V MI 3
Connecting
4 2.5sq.mm Copper Few
Wires

PROCEDURE:

1. connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.

2. Switch on the single phase a.c. supply.

3. Record the voltages V1, V2 and V3 .In case V3<V1 polarity is subtractive.

4. Repeat the step 3 after connecting terminals A1 and a2 .In case V3> V1
polarity is additive.

5. Switch off the a.c. supply

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Tabular Column:

SUB-POLARITY

S.No V1 V2 V3 = V2 - V1

ADD-POLARITY

S.No V1 V2 V3 = V2 -+V1

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Circuit Diagram:

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Components Details:

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Applications:

VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. What is a Transformer?

2. Is it Possible to Change Three Phase to Two Phase or Vice-Versa with Standard Transformers?

3. What are Taps and When are They Used?

4. Can Transformers be Used in Parallel?

5. Can 60 Hz Transformers be Used at Higher Frequencies?

6. What is Meant by Temperature Rise in a Transformer?

7. What is Meant by "Impedance" in Transformers?

8. Can Transformers be Reconnected as Autotransformers to Increase Their KVA Rating?

9. What is Polarity, When Associated With a Transformer?

10. How Do You Size a Transformer for Operating a DC Motor?

11. What is Meant by "Balanced Loading" on Single Phase Transformer Applications?

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RESULT:

Thus the Polarity of a given single phase Transformer is determined by


conducting a polarity test.

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS

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Ex.No.14 SUMPNER’STESTON TRANSFORMERS
Date:

AIM:
To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of a given single phase
Transformer by conducting back-to-back test.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No Quanti
Apparatus Range Type
. ty
Auto 230/(0-
1 2
Transformer 270) V
2 Wattmeter 150 V, 2A LPF 1
3 Wattmeter 150 V, 5 A UPF 1
4 Ammeter (0-2) A MI 1
5 Ammeter (0-5) A MI 1
6 Voltmeter (0-75) V MI 1
7 Voltmeter (0-150) V MI 1
8 Voltmeter (0 -600) V MI 1
9 1Φ Transformer 1KVA 2
Connecting
10 2.5sq.mm Copper Few
Wires

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Rated voltage of 110V is adjusted to get in voltmeter by adjusting the
variac of the Auto Transformer which would be in zero before switching on
the supply at the primary side.
3. The readings of voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter are noted on the
primary side.
4. A voltmeter is connected across the secondary and with the secondary
supply off i.e switch S is kept open. The voltmeter reading is noted.
5. If the reading of voltmeter reads higher voltage, the terminals of any
one of secondary coil is interchanged in order that voltmeter reads zero.

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TABULAR COLUMN:

To find Efficiency

To find Regulation

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FORMULA USED:
Core loss =Wo
Copper Loss= full load cu loss X (1/x)2
Total loss =Core loss +Cu loss
Output = V2 I2 Cosφ
Input= output + total loss
% Efficiency = output/input *100
POWER FACTOR ON NO LOAD:
CosΦ=(Wo/VoIo)
Working component Iw=I0*CosΦ
Magnetizing component Iμ =I0*SinΦ
Resistance Ro= Vo/Iw in Ω
FOR SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:
Equivalent resistance R01= Wsc / Isc 2 in Ω
Equivalent impedance Z01= Vsc / Isc in Ω
Equivalent leakage reactance X 01= √(Z012 –R012 ) in Ω
Voltage ratio= V2/V1
R02=K2*R01
X02=K2*X01

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Circuit Diagram:

Components Details:

Applications:

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VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. State the advantages and disadvantages of Sumpner’s test.


2. What will happen if a transformer is connected across a DC supply?
3. Define frequency.
4. Does the transformer draw any current when its secondary is open? Why?
5. How does the change in frequency affect the operation of a given transformer?
6. The main purpose of using core in a transformer is to ----------------------.
7. A step-up transformer increases ---------------------.
8. In relation to a transformer, what does the ratio 20:1 mean?
9. When the efficiency of transformer is maximum?
10. Define all-day efficiency.

RESULT:

Thus the efficiency and regulation of a given single phase Transformer is


carried out by
conducting back-to-back test.

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 138 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30
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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

FUSE RATING NAME PLATE DETAILS

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Ex.No.15 SEPARATION OF NO LOAD LOSSES IN A SINGLE PHASE
TRANSFORMER
Date:

AIM:
To separate no load losses of a transformer in to eddy current loss and
hysteresis loss.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No Quanti
Apparatus Range Type
. ty
1 Rheostat 50 Ω/5A 1
2 Rheostat 300 Ω/1.5A 1
3 Wattmeter 300 V, 5A LPF 1
4 Ammeter (0-2A) MC 1
5 Voltmeter (0-300V) MI 1
Connecting
6 2.5sq.mm Copper Few
Wires

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Supply is given by closing the DPST switch.
3. The DC motor is started by using the 3 point starter and
brought to rated speed by adjusting its field rheostat.
4. By varying the alternator filed rheostat gradually the rated
primary voltage is applied to the transformer.
5. The frequency is varied by varying the motor field rheostat
and the readings of frequency are noted and the speed is also measured
by using the tachometer.
6. The above procedure is repeated for different frequencies and
the readings are tabulated.

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7. The motor is switched off by opening the DPST switch after


bringing all the rheostats to the initial position.
FORMULAE USED:
1. Frequency, f =(P*NS) / 120 in Hz
P = No.of Poles& Ns = Synchronous speed in rpm.
2. Hysteresis Loss Wh = A * f in Watts A = Constant (obtained from graph)
3. Eddy Current Loss We = B * f2 in Watts B = Constant (slope of the tangent
drawn to the curve)
4. Iron LossWi = Wh + We in Watts
Wi / f = A + (B * f)
Here the Constant A is distance from the origin to the point where the line cuts
the
Y- axis in the graph between Wi / f and frequency f.
The Constant B is Δ(Wi / f ) / Δf

TABULAR COLUMN:

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MODEL GRAPH:

Model Calculation:

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Circuit Diagram:

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Components Details:

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Applications:

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VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. What are the components of magnetic losses in transformer and on what


factors do they depend?
2. How are various losses in transformer classified into constant and variable
losses?
3. What is an auto transformer?
4. Distinguish between auto transformer and ordinary transformer.
5. Can you reduce the hysteresis loss by making the core laminated? If not how?
6. How is the hysteresis loss affected by a change in flux density?
7. What are the two components of the core loss?
8. What properties should a good transformer oil possess?
9. Silicon steel used in laminations mainly reduces --------------------- loss.
10. How can the equivalent impedance of a transformer be determined?

RESULT:
Thus separation of eddy current and hysteresis loss from the iron
loss on a
Single-phasetransformer is conducted.

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 147 30
EE6411- Electrical Machines Laboratory - I, DGCT

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EX.NO:16
STUDY OF STARTERS AND THREE PHASE CONNECTION OF
A TRANSFORMER
Date:

AIM
To Study about the starters and three phase connection of a transformer.

APPRATUS REQUIRED

S.N Name of the Quantity


o apparatus
1 Two Point starter 1
2 Three Point starter 1
3 Four Point starter 1
4 DOL Starter 1
5 Auto transformer Starter 1
6 Star-Delta Starter
7 Rotor Resistance Starter

THEORY :

The value of the armature current in a D.C shunt motor is given by


Ia = ( V – Eb )/ Ra
Where V = applied voltage.
Ra = armature resistance.
E b = Back .e.m.f .

In practice the value of the armature resistance is of the order of 1 ohms and at
the instant of starting the value of the back e.m.f is zero volts. Therefore under
starting conditions the value of the armature current is very high. This high
inrush current at the time of starting may damage the motor. To protect the
motor from such dangerous current the

D.C motors are always started using starters.


The types of D.C motor starters are
i) Two point starters
ii) Three point starters
iii) Four point starters.

The functions of the starters are


i) It protects the from dangerous high speed.
ii) It protects the motor from overloads.

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i) TWO POINT STARTERS:

It is used for starting D.C. series motors which has the problem of over speeding
due to the loss of load from its shaft. Here for starting the motor the control arm
is moved in clock-wise direction from its OFF position to the ON position against
the spring tension. The control arm is held in the ON position by the
electromagnet E. The exciting coil of the hold-on electromagnet E is connected in
series with the armature circuit. If the motor loses its load, current decreases
and hence the strength of the electromagnet also decreases. The control arm
returns to the OFF position due to the spring tension, Thus preventing the motor
from over speeding. The starter also returns to the OFF position when the supply
voltage decreases appreciably. L and F are the two points of the starte which are
connected with the motor terminals

ii) THREE POINT STARTER:

It is used for starting the shunt or compound motor. The coil of the hold on
electromagnet E is connected in series with the shunt field coil. In the case of
disconnection in the field circuit the control arm will return to its OFF position due
to spring tension. This is necessary because the shunt motor will over speed if it
loses excitation. The starter also returns to the OFF position in case of low
voltage supply or complete failure of the supply. This protection is therefore is
called No Volt Release ( NVR).
Over load protection:
When the motor is over loaded it draws a heavy current. This heavy current also
flows through the exciting coil of the over load electromagnet ( OLR). The
electromagnet then pulls an iron piece upwar6.ds which short circuits the coils of
the NVR coil. The hold on magnet gets de-energized and therefore the starter
arm returns to the OFF position, thus protecting the motor against overload. L, A
and F are the three terminals of the three point starter.

iii) FOUR POINT STARTER:

The connection diagram of the four point starter is shown in fig 3. In a four point
starter arm touches the starting resistance, the current from the supply is
divided into three paths. One through the starting resistance and the armature,

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one through the field circuit, and one through the NVR coil. A protective
resistance is connected in series with the NVR coil. Since in a four point starter
the NVR coil is independent of the of the field ckt connection , the d.c
motor may over speed if there is a break in the field circuit. A D.C motor can be
stopped by opening the main switch. The steps of the starting resistance are so
designed that the armature current will remain within the certain limits and will
not change the torque developed by the motor to a great extent.

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STAR-DELTA-STARTER
This starter is used in case of motor which are built normally with a
delta connected stator winding. Basically it consist a two way switch that
connected the motor star type of the time of start and delta type under
normal running connection . The advantages of having a star connected
winding the voltage applied over each motor phase is reduced to 1/√ 3
times the normal value and the current to 1/√3 time normal value . But the
starting torque is also reduced by a factor of 1/√3.
ROTOR RHEOSTAT STATOR
This stator is used for starting slip motors in this the stator terminal
are Connected to supply via a variable resistance in series to the stator
circuit .
The controlling resistance is after connected rheostat type with resistance
being gradually cot out as Motor gain speed.
The two advantages of this starting is:-
1) starting current is reduced
2) starting torque is increased due to power factor improvement.
The controlling rheostat may be of speed or contactor type and may
also be manual or auto noted.
The starter also consist of low voltage and over current protective
devices. There is inter locking mechanism for ensuring proper operation of
line contactor and starter.
This method is similar to the starter used for starting dc motor in which
too, the resistance is cut out gradually ones the motor was started running
normally.

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Three Phase Transformer Star and Delta Configurations:

what do we mean by “star” and “delta” three-phase transformer connection. A


three phase transformer has three sets of primary and secondary windings.
Depending upon how these sets of windings are interconnected, determines
whether the connection is a star or delta configuration. The available voltage
which are each displaced from the other by 120 electrical degrees and flow of
the transformers currents are also decided by the type of the electrical
connection used on both the primary and secondary sides.
With three single-phase transformers connected together, the magnetic flux’s in
the three transformers differ in phase by 120 time-degrees. With a single the

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three-phase transformer there are three magnetic flux’s in the core differing in
time-phase by 120 degrees.
The standard method for marking three phase transformer windings is to label
the three primary windings with capital (upper case) letters A, B and C, used to
represent the three-phases of RED, YELLOW and BLUE. The secondary windings
are labelled with small (lower case) letters a, b and c. Each winding has two ends
normally labelled 1 and 2 so that, for example, the second winding of the
primary has ends which will be labelled B1 and B2, while the third winding of the
secondary will be labelled c1 and c2 as shown.

Symbols are generally used on a three phase transformer to indicate the type or
types of connections used with upper case Y for star connected, D for delta
connected and Z for interconnected star primary windings, with lower case y, d
and z for their respective secondaries. Then, Star-Star would be labelled Yy,
Delta-Delta would be labelled Dd and interconnected star to interconnected star
would be Zz for the same types of connected
transformers.

We now know that there are four ways in which three single-phase transformers
may be connected together between primary and secondary three-phase
circuits. The configurations are delta-delta, star-star, star-delta, and delta-star.
Transformers for high voltage operation with the star connections has the
advantage of reducing the voltage on an individual transformer, reducing the
number of turns required and an increase in the size of
the conductors, making the coil windings easier and cheaper to insulate than
delta transformers.
The delta-delta connection nevertheless has one big advantage over the star-
delta configuration, in that if one transformer of a group of three should become
faulty or disabled, the two remaining ones will continue to deliver three-phase
power with a capacity equal to approximately two thirds of the original output
from the transformer unit.
Three Phase Transformer Connections

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Transformer Delta and Delta Connections

Transformer Delta and Delta Connections

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In a delta connected ( Dd ) group of transformers, the line voltage, V L is equal to the supply voltage,
VL = VS. But the current in each phase winding is given as: 1/√3 × IL of the line current, where IL is the
line current. One disadvantage of delta connected three phase transformers is that each transformer
must be wound for the full-line voltage, (in our example above 100V) and for 57.7 per cent, line
current. The greater number of turns in the winding, together with the insulation between turns,
necessitate a larger and more expensive coil than the star connection. Another disadvantage with delta
connected three phase transformers is that there is no “neutral” or common connection.
In the star-star arrangement ( Yy ), (wye-wye), each transformer has one terminal connected to a
common junction, or neutral point with the three remaining ends of the primary windings connected
to the three-phase mains supply. The number of turns in a transformer winding for star connection is
57.7 per cent, of that required for delta connection.
The star connection requires the use of three transformers, and if any one transformer becomes fault
or disabled, the whole group might become disabled. Nevertheless, the star connected three phase
transformer is especially convenient and economical in electrical power distributing systems, in that a
fourth wire may be connected as a neutral point, ( n ) of the three star connected secondaries as
shown. The voltage between any line of the three-phase transformer is called the “line voltage”, V L,
while the voltage between any line and the neutral point of a star connected transformer is called the
“phase voltage”, VP. This phase voltage between the neutral point and any one of the line connections
is 1/√3 × VL of the line voltage.
FULL VOLTAGE OR DIRECT –ON-LINE STARTING

When full voltage is connected across the stator terminals of an induction motor, large current is
drawn by the windings. This is because, at starting the induction motor behaves as a short circuited
transformer with its secondary, i.e. the rotor separated from the primary, i.e. the stator by a small air-
gap. At starting when the rotor is at standstill, emf is induced in the rotor circuit exactly similar to the
emf induced in the secondary winding of a transformer. This induced emf of the rotor will circulate a
very large current through its windings. The primary will draw very large current from the supply
mains to balance the rotor ampere-turns. To limit the stator and rotor currents at starting to a safe
value, it may be necessary to reduce the stator supply voltage to a low value. If induction motors are
started direct-on-line such a heavy starting current of short duration may not cause harm to the motor
since the construction of induction motors are rugged. Other motors and equipment connected to the
supply lines will receive reduced voltage. In industrial installations, however, if a number of large
motors are started by this method, the voltage drop will be very high and may be really objectionable
for the other types of loads connected to the system. The amount of voltage drop will not only be

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dependent on the size of the motor but also on factors like the capacity of the power supply system,
the size and length of the line leading to the motors etc. Indian Electricity Rule
restricts direct on line starting of 3 phase induction motors above 5 hp.

AUTO –TRANSFORMER STARTING

An auto transformer starter consists of an auto transformer and a switch as shown in the fig. When the
switch S is put on START position, a reduced voltage is applied across the motor terminals. When the
motor picks up speed, say to 80 per cent of its mornal speed, the switch is put to RUN position. Then
the auto-transformer is cut out of the circuit and full rated voltage gets applied across the motor
terminals.

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The circuit dia in the fig is for a manual auto-transformer starter. This can be made push button
operated automatic controlled starter so that the contacts switch over from start to run position as the
motor speed picks up to 80% of its speed. Over-load protection relay has not been shown in the
figure. The switch S is air-break type for small motors and oil break type for large motors. Auto
transformer may have more than one tapping to enable the user select any suitable starting voltage
depending upon the conditions. Series resistors or reactors can be used to cause voltage drop in them
and thereby allow low voltage to be applied across the motor terminals at starting. These are cut out
of the circuit as the motor picks up speed.

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VIVA QUESTIONS:

Result:

The starters and three phase connection of a transformer were studied.

MARK ALLOCATION
Experimental setup 10
Execution 10
Viva-voce 10
Total 30

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