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Original Article

USE OF ANIMATION IN TEACHING PHYSIOLOGY: AN INSTITUTIONAL BASED STUDY


Komal Ajay Meshram1, Ajay Wasudeo Meshram2, Alka Rawekar3
1
Assistant Professor. 3Professor & Head , Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra
2
Professor & Head, Department of Biochemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra , India.

ABSTRACT
Objec ves: To evaluate the gain in knowledge of first year MBBS students with the use of anima on.
Methodology: Prospec ve Interven onal study was conducted in department of physiology. 200 first year MBBS
students par cipated in the study. 100 students (Group-A) were taken as control group to them the topic of physiol-
ogy was taught by didac c method and another 100 students (Group-B) were taken as interven on group, where
the same topic was taught with Power point presenta on along with anima on. For each lecture pre and pos est
was taken. Five consecu ve lectures were planned with this interven on. At the same me feedback forms were
given to interven on group for purpose of analyzing the results qualita vely. A er this interven on the crossover of
groups were done only for the sake of ge ng benefit of interven on. Results: Data obtained was analyzed sta s cal-
ly. Pre and pos est mean were taken. The results of pos est (p<0.05) were found to be significant when compared
with pretest. As per the results of feedback forms, 90% (n=100) students agreed that the anima on is powerful tool
to understand the topic as it improves knowledge and makes learning interes ng. Conclusion: According to the MCQ
and feedback analysis, the results showed that teaching with power point presenta on along with anima on is the
be er method for making the students to learn, understand and to gain the knowledge of physiology lectures rather
than by power point presenta on alone.
KEYWORDS: Anima on, Chalk and board, Overhead projector, Teaching aids, Visual impact.

INTRODUCTION have definite advantages over the tradi onal chalk


board, and overhead projectors [4]. It is observed and
Teaching and learning are important events for an indi-
no ced that the a en on span of students is decreas-
vidual during his life. Teaching and learning are the
ing gradually; power point presenta ons are becoming
phenomenon for carrying knowledge from one genera-
boring to the students. Hence the resultant output of
on to another genera on and the process goes on and
gain of knowledge is decreasing. To overcome this
should go on for the be erment of society and man-
many educa onalist had proposed different modules
kind. Teaching is effec ve when learner understands
a er their experiences and research projects.
and tries to implement what is being taught. To make
The choice of the teaching aid depends upon an indi-
teaching effec ve, valuable, and measurable and its
vidual thinking. Abstract scien fic phenomena occur-
applica on various teaching aids are in use [1, 2]. Chalk
ring in the macroscopic level or in the microscopic level
and board was the first tool in modern teaching modal-
can be a rac vely illustrated by animated movies. Ani-
i es. Then teachers started using overhead projector
ma ons are employed for enhancing the transi ons
slides (OHP). Now a day’s teachers are using Power
from abstract to concrete mental opera ons and vice
point presenta ons (PPT) for delivering lectures [3].
versa [5].
Power point presenta on is the preferred method of
Learning is a process involves improving knowledge,
visual aid in lecture hall. Power point presenta ons
skill and a tude respec vely with cogni ve domain,
psychomotor domain and affec ve domain of the stu-
DOI: 10.5455/ijcbr.2017.34.01 dent [6]. The visual impact is be er than the descrip-
ve lectures as we know and experienced that movies
are remembered for longer me. With this idea, the
eISSN: 2395-0471
pISSN: 2521-0394 present study was conducted in the department of
physiology JNMC Wardha to know the effec veness of

Correspondence: Komal Ajay Meshram, Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal


Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. E-mail: meshram.komal3@gmail.com
International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research. © 2017 Sumathi Publications.
This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. 1
Komal Ajay Meshram et al.  Use of Animation in Teaching Physiology: An Institutional based study.

anima on as a teaching tool in understanding physiol- cally. Students paired‘t’ was used to compare the re-
ogy topic. sults in same group while Students unpaired‘t’ test was
Aim: The present study was designed to know the use used to compare the results between two groups. The
observa ons and results for the present study are as
of anima on in teaching didac c lectures can improve
follows and are depicted using SPSS 16 so ware.
the process of learning of topics in physiology for MBBS
First Year students of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College RESULTS
Sawangi.
As in Table 1 it can be seen that in all the 5 lectures
Objec ves:
which were taken for control group the mean scores of
1. To observe the improvement in the process of learn-
marks have been increased. The increase is sta s cally
ing in physiology.
significant in all the 5 lectures. P value for all the 5 lec-
2. To evaluate the gain in knowledge of first year MBBS
tures is <0.001.
students with the use of anima on.
MATERIALS & METHODS Table 1. Comparison of marks of lecture 1 to lecture 5
in control group at pre and post test
Study design: Prospec ve interven onal study
Ethics approval: Ins tu onal ethical commi ee of Ja- Mean±SD t-value p-value
waharlal Nehru Medical College Sawangi Meghe Pre Test 2.05±1.31
Wardha Maharashtra INDIA a er screening the synop- Lecture 1 Post Test 5.65±0.84 22.47 < 0.001
sis submi ed has approved the said project to carry Pre Test 1.96±1.32
out in the ins tu on. Lecture 2 Post Test 5.68±0.82 24.83 < 0.001
Study se ng: The present Study was conducted in Pre Test 2.25±1.42
Department of Physiology, J.N. M. C, Sawangi (Meghe), Lecture 3 23.80 < 0.001
Post Test 5.90±1.04
Wardha, a rural part of Vidarbha region of central In-
Pre Test 2.36±1.41
dia.
Lecture 4 Post Test 5.97±1.07 23.69 < 0.001
Study dura on: Six month
Study group- Ist year MBBS students for academic Pre Test 2.47±1.41
year 2016-2017, at JNMC, Sawangi (M), Wardha. Lecture 5 Post Test 5.92±1.04 22.59 < 0.001
Sample size- 200 students.
Inclusion criteria: First year MBBS student ready to As in Table 2 it can be seen that in all the 5 lectures
par cipate in the study were included considering the which were taken for interven on group mean scores
IQ level of the en re student is same or near to similar. of marks have been increased. The increase is sta s -
Exclusion criteria: Previous experience of anima on cally highly significant in all the 5 lectures. P value for
teaching. 2. Not willing to give consent. all the 5 lectures is <0.001.
Grouping: Par cipants were divided into two groups Table 2: Comparison of marks of lecture 1 to lecture 5
in each group n=100 in interven on group at pre and post test
Methodology: Pres en t stu d y con sisted of 200, Mean±SD t-value p-value
IInd semester, first year MBBS students. The protocol Pre Test 1.86±1.34
for the interven on to be followed for the study was Lecture 1 Post Test 6.10±1.33 32.91 <0.001
explained to them. Pre Test 1.86±1.34
Interven on: In the Group-A, 100 students were tak- Lecture 2 26.80 <0.001
Post Test 6.62±1.38
en as control group who were taught lectures by rou-
Pre Test 2.16±1.45
ne didac c method while 100 students of Group-B
Lecture 3 Post Test 6.83±1.34 24.35 <0.001
were taken as interven on group were taught lectures
by power point presenta on along with anima on. For Pre Test 2.36±1.38
each lecture pre and pos est was undertaken. Five Lecture 4 Post Test 7.04±1.29 24.55 <0.001
consecu ve lectures were planned with this interven- Pre Test 2.51±1.51
on. A er this interven on the crossover of groups Lecture 5 Post Test 7.09±1.22 22.94 <0.001
was done. At the same me feedback forms were giv-
en to interven on group for purpose of analyzing the Table 3 depicts the comparison of marks for pretest
results qualita vely. carried out for control and interven on group. It shows
that the mean scores obtained for all 5 lectures are
Sta s cal analysis: Data obtained was analyzed sta s- more or less same. The p value calcula on also is not

Int. j. clin. biomed. res. 2017;3(4):1-4. 2


Komal Ajay Meshram et al.  Use of Animation in Teaching Physiology: An Institutional based study.

significant for all 5 lectures. ture with the use of anima ons. 85% students reported
Table 3. Comparison of marks of lecture 1 to lecture 5 anima on will help in recall of knowledge during ex-
in both the group at pre tests. ams. 90% students reported anima on be incorporated
Table 4 depicts the comparison of marks for pos est for important and maximum topics. 90% students sug-
gested anima on should be incorporated in maximum
Group Mean±SD t-value p-value
topics of all the subjects. Overall students have shown
Control 2.05±1.31 inclina on towards the understanding and learning by
Lecture 1 1.00 0.314,NS
Interven on 1.86±1.34 use of anima ons.
Control 1.96±1.32 DISCUSSION
Lecture 2 0.52 0.59,NS As the students admi ed to study the medicine by en-
Interven on 1.86±1.34
trance test are supposed to be higher IQ level than
Control 2.25±1.42 normal students studying art and commerce stream. So
Lecture 3 0.44 0.65,NS
Interven on 2.16±1.45 we supposed there should be no conflict about average
Control 2.36±1.41 and high IQ level, all students are more or less of the
Lecture 4 0.00 1.00,NS same IQ level. They were grouped as 100 students in
Interven on 2.36±1.38
control group and 100 students in interven on group.
Control 2.47±1.41
0.19 0.84,NS Study was carried out for a par cular series of lectures
Lecture 5 Interven on 2.51±1.51
for a par cular por on of physiology
carried out for control and interven on group. It shows for Ist MBBS students.
that the mean scores obtained for all 5 lectures are The authors Miri Barak et al stated that “We found
increased in interven on group as compared to control that the use of animated movies enhanced students
group. The p value was highly significant in interven- thinking skills, in terms of science of understanding,
on group as compared to control group. knowledge implementa on, and reasoning ability” [5].
Table 4. Comparison of marks of lecture 1 to lecture 5 We found that our results are falling on the lines of this
in both the group at post test study.
Study by Joshi et al states “A er sta s cal analysis
Group Mean±SD t-value p-value
significant improvement in the knowledge was ob-
Control 5.65±0.84 served with the use of overhead projector slides, while
Lecture 1 2.84 0.005,S highly significant improvement in knowledge and un-
Interven on 6.10±1.33
derstanding was observed using anima on tool. Visual
Control 5.68±0.82 impact is more effec ve”[7-11]. Results of our study
Lecture 2 5.83 0.0001,S
Interven on 6.62±1.38 are similar as per study done by Joshi et al.
Kim et al in his study observed that fourth graders
Control 5.90±1.04
Lecture 3 5.44 0.0001,S low in NFC (mark list) rated animated graphics as more
Interven on 6.83±1.34 enjoyable and mo va ng. Low NFC fourth graders may
be a er seeing anima ons and sharing task character-
Control 5.97±1.07
Lecture 4 6.35 0.0001,S is cs with television find them higher mo va ng and
Interven on 7.04±1.29 enjoyable, because they think that they have to put
less effort into understanding the presented contents
Control 5.92±1.04 [10]. Our study results are similar to the lines of this
Lecture 5
7.28 0.0001,S study.
Interven on 7.09+1.22 One of the study quoted that some researchers claim
that anima ons may evoke misconcep ons and hinder
S:Significnat meaningful learning [9]. This study shows their findings
Percep on: A er the study percep on of students of that par cular study. May in their view and study be
from interven on group was taken. Their expressions the observa ons are opposite to our findings but other
in short were as follows. 90% percent of students re- studies are showing the results which are falling similar
ported anima on has created interest in learning the to our findings. The findings of this study and other
topic. 60% students reported there should be anima- studies [7, 8] indicate quite the opposite.
on facili es in development of cri cal thinking. 80% Usual mode of learning is rou ne and proven to be
students reported they were able to understand lec- best mode of teaching and learning and cannot be

Int. j. clin. biomed. res. 2017;3(4): 1-4. 3


Komal Ajay Meshram et al.  Use of Animation in Teaching Physiology: An Institutional based study.

replaced by any mode of learning. Usual mode of 2. Seth V, Upadhyaya P, Mushtaq ahmad, Moghe V.
learning like chalk and board, LCD projectors for Powerpoint or chalk and talk: percep ons of medi-
slides are no doubt be replaced by any means as cal students in a medical college in India. Advances
they are handy easily available and cheap and works in in medical educa on and prac ce, 2010:1:11-16.
any condi on. 3. Savoy A, Proctor RW, Salvendy G. Informa on re-
Our study states that in addi on to usual mode of ten on from powerpoint and tradi onal lectures.
learning the use of anima on will be an added ad- Comput Educ, 2009;52:858-867.
vantage for the learning process. Anima ons give an 4. Ian Kinchin. Developing PowerPoint handouts to
added impact on understanding by the cogni ve
support meaningful learning;, Bri sh Journal of
mode. Anima ons can improve the students thinking,
reasoning and remembering process by having a visual Educa on Technology, 2006;37(4):647-650.
impact. 5. Barak, M. & Dori, Y. J. Enhancing higher order
CONCLUSION thinking skills among in-service science educa on
According to the MCQ and feedback analysis, the teachers via embedded assessment. Journal of
results showed that teaching didac c lecture along Science Teachers Educa on, 2009;20(5): 459-474.
with anima on is an added advantageous method 6. Sathish kumar S, Thomas N, Tharion E,
for making the students to learn and understand the Neelakantan N, Vyas R. A tude of medical stu-
physiology be er rather than by using didac c teach- dents towards Early Clinical Exposure in learning
ing alone. endocrine physiology. BMC Medical Educa on.
Take home message: Anima on can be an added pow- 2007;30:1-7.
erful tool in understanding & learning physiology. 7. Dori YJ, Belcher JW. How does technology-enabled
Implica on: Incorpora on of anima on along with ac ve learning affect student’s understanding of
power point presenta on has tremendous poten al for scien fic concepts? The Journal of the Learning
learning with enhancing their cogni ve mode of under- Sciences. 2005:14(2):243-279.
standing and can be used for enhanced understanding 8. Rosen, Y. The effect of an anima on-based online
and learning of physiology for Ist MBBS students. learning environment on higher-order thinking
Acknowledgements: I acknowledge the DMIMSDU for skills and on mo va on for science learning. The
their kind support and funding. Work carried out was 4th Chais Conference, The Open University of Isra-
adherent to the guidelines provided by the DMIMSDU. el, 2009, Raanana,
I acknowledge the helping hand provided by the Dean 9. Schnotz W, Rasch, T. Enabling, Facilita ng, and
of the JNMC. Inhibi ng Effects of Anima ons in Mul media
Source of funding :The present research project was Learning: Why Reduc on of Cogni ve Load Can
carried out with funds provided by the funding ins tu- Have Nega ve Results on Learning. Educa onal
on Da a Meghe Ins tute of Medical Sciences (DU). Technology: Research and Development. 2005;53
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None. (3):47-58.
10. Kim S. The effect of anima on on comprehension
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How to Cite this article: Komal Ajay Meshr am, Ajay Wasudeo Meshr am, Alka Rawekar . Use of Animation in Teaching
Physiology: An Institutional based study. Int. j. clin. biomed. res. 2017;3(4): 1-4

Int. j. clin. biomed. res. 2017;3(4):1-4. 4

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