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Introduction to Vibration Problems

at Compressor Stations

Presented by:
Gary Maxwell, Chris Harper, Shelley Greenfield
(Beta Machinery Analysis)
Welcome…

 Purpose: Introduction to compressor vibration


(for more detail, recommend the 2.5 day GMRC Course in May)

 Focus on practical issues.


 Audience participation…demo’s, case studies,
questions, etc.
(We can’t take you to the field, so we are bringing the field to the classroom)

 Presenters introductions
 Questions for the parking lot?
Vibration Induced Pipe Fatigue Failure
Compressors, Pumps, Engines, Turbines and other Rotating Machines
Cause Vibration Related Problems

HIGH IMPACT FAILURES:


• Significant financial costs
• Safety/environmental liabilities
Today’s Topics

1. Vibration Overview
2. Sources of Vibration
3. Pulsation Control
4. Mechanical Resonance
5. Torsional Analysis
6. Pipe Strain
7. Small Bore Piping
8. Start-up Vibration Survey
9. Summary
1. Vibration Overview

Presented by: Chris Harper


How Equipment Fails

 Vibration is the leading cause of mechanical


problems
 Equipment and piping fail due to excessive
STRESS (fatigue failure)

Pulsation Forces Vibration Stress Failure


What is vibration?

 Vibration = periodic motion about an


equilibrium position
 Vibration can be described with:
 Amplitude and

 Frequency (number of
cycles per time) or
 Period (time to
complete one cycle)
Vibration frequency

 Number of cycles per unit of time


 CPM = cycles per minute

 Hz = cycles per second (cps)

 RPM = rotations per minute

 For simplicity, frequency is measured in Hz


 Convert from CPM or RPM to Hz by dividing
by 60
 3600 RPM  60 Hz
Vibration amplitude

 Three related units


 Displacement
(µm, mils)
 Velocity
(mm/s, in/s or
ips)
 Acceleration
(mm/s2, in/s2,
g’s)
 Only related when
vibration is simple,
like in a spring-
mass system
Two Ways to Look at Vibration
Time domain amplitude
typically higher …

Time-domain
Units = seconds
Overall vibration
… than frequency
domain amplitude

Frequency-domain
Individual vibration
Units = Hz
Time domain  frequency domain
Another way to visualize it

 Time domain and frequency domain show the


same information, just in different ways
 Frequency domain breaks out the
components of the time domain
 Time domain is
measured
 Frequency domain
is calculated
Overall time-domain vibration -
terminology

peak
peak

Peak-to-peak
Peak-to-peak
RMS

RMS

 Peak (measure of deflection) is used more


often than RMS (measure of energy)
 Frequency domain is either peak or RMS (not
peak-to-peak)
Vibration Directions (common terminology)

Vertical
Axial: along crankshaft

Horizontal: direction
of piston motion
Video #1 – Vibration Equation
Demo #1 – Scrubber Vibration
BETA guidelines - velocity

 Dashed lines
adapted from
SwRI
 Piping guideline
also applicable for
vessels, and for
small bore
piping (≤ 2“ NPS)
 At individual
frequencies, not
overall (time-
domain) vibration
Comparison

 Many different
vibration guidelines
 Remember than
vibrations over
guideline mean
more
investigation
needed
 Use 1 ips (FD) or
1.5 ips (TD) as a
screening guideline
for piping
18
2. Sources of Vibration

Presented by: Shelley Greenfield


Vibration Risk Areas
Mechanical
Pulsation Torsional
(Acoustics)

Small Bore

Skid & Foundation (Dynamics)


Risk Areas and Design Considerations

Thermal Expansion:
Piping Layout and
Supports

Off-skid Pulsations

Interaction
Between Other Units
Risk Areas and Design Considerations

Thermal Expansion;
Piping Layout and Supports

System Pressure
Drop (performance
issue, losses)
Off-skid
Pulsations
Responsibility Owner

Engineering firm
 Pulsations and thermal growth cross
Packager
boundaries of responsibility
 Vibration consultant hired by packager Vibration consultant
may be acceptable for small gathering
systems
 good specifications
and communication
 Large critical pipeline,
storage, or
offshore units -
recommend vibration
consultant hired by
owner
Dynamic force on
reciprocating compressor

Unbalanced Forces and Moments


Pulsation Shaking due to Reciprocating Motion
Forces in Piping

Crosshead Guide Gas Forces


Forces (Cylinder
Stretch)
Forces occur at “multiples of runspeed”

1x Compressor primary forces & moments


Cylinder gas forces (rod load)
Pulsation shaking forces (single-acting)
2x Compressor secondary forces & moment
Crosshead guide forces
Cylinder gas forces
Pulsation shaking forces (double-acting)
3x … Cylinder gas forces
Pulsation shaking forces
How High Can Pulsation Forces Get?

Cooler Nozzle Failure


System:
• Ariel JGK/2 compressor
• Booster service (0.605 specific gravity)
• Waukesha L7042GSI engines (700-1200
RPM)
• 880 - 1000 psig suction pressure, 1058 -
1270 psig discharge pressure
• HEVV pockets, double acting, 1 stage

Problem:
• The cooler nozzle cracked shortly after
start-up
• Many other problems

Beta Mobilized to Site


• Collected vibration and pulsation data
Pulsation Shaking Forces Can Be Very
High

Guesses as to how high force


could be in this run of piping?
6” pipe - area = 26 in2

Original
Bottles

No acoustical study had been performed

To solve problem, Beta conducted acoustical study


and recommended new bottles
As Found Unbalanced Forces

11000 lbf pk-pk at 38 Hz


What speed?

Vertical 38 Hz x 60 s/min ÷ 2
Riser to = 1140 RPM
Cooler
Gas Forces Cause Cylinder Motion

 Act on cylinder, bottles, scrubber and piping


 Create high vibrations around compressor

Example:
ODS Field Data
Vibration Risk: Compressor APPLICATION

Lower Risk Vib. Risk Factors Higher Risk

1 # of Units Online Many


Offshore or
Convenient Location
Remote
Critical to the
Not Unit Criticality
Process
Not
Efficiency Important
Important
Vibration Risk: Compressor CONFIGURATION

Lower Risk Vib. Risk Factors Higher Risk

Sweet Gas Composition Sour, Heavy


1 Step, DA Load Steps DA + SA
(>50% turndown)

Fixed Suct./Disc. Pressure Wide range;


Fixed Speed Wide Range
2 stg (4 or Compressor Stages 1 stg (many
6 cylinder) cylinders)
CR > 1.7 Compression Ratio < 1.3
< 150 HP/ Cylinder > 750
Vibration Study Scope
Compressor •Pulsation/mechanical analysis
Package •Torsional vibration analysis
•Options: thermal, skid analysis

Off-Skid Piping •Pulsations & other units


Vibration •Mechanical analysis (supports)
•Transient analysis

Foundation •Dynamic analysis to


& Structure avoid resonance

Small Bore •Design review


Piping and/or field audit
3. Pulsation Control

Presented by: Shelley Greenfield


Pulsation animation

 Pulsations in non-flowing gas


 Notice change in pressure and velocity
Video #2 - Pulsations and Other Forces
Pulsation Forces In Piping System
Example: Interstage System

Cooler

Suction
Discharge
Piping
Piping
Pulsation Forces – DA vs. SA
Cylinder vertical forces

 Can be significant
 Pulsations controlled
with orifice
plates
 Vibration controlled
with outboard
supports
Case Study:
Compressor Vibration

Before - Vibration Problem After Modifications


Compressors Installed – Vibration Problem

6 Compressors – 1700 HP each


Vibration Problems

 Customer tried to fix problem – no success


 Units not fully operational … very expensive
 … called BETA for help
Unacceptable
Vibration

Vibration Test Points (from Client)


Example: Piping to Cooler (Riser)
Excessive Pulsation Forces (lbf Pk-Pk)

As Found:
Forces > 3 time guideline

guideline
Excessive Vibration
(forced response model)
Other Problem Locations
(Unbalanced Forces, lbf pk-pk)

Suction Discharge
Bottle Forces Bottle Forces

guideline
guideline

• Excessive forces in suction & discharge system


• Major changes required
Recommendations
Modify Piping and
New Bottles
Supports (including
(Suction; Discharge)
off-skid)
Recommendations Implemented

BEFORE AFTER

Location: Piping
Riser to Cooler
Case Summary

 Vibration problems are expensive


 Small errors during design stage are avoidable
 Illustrates how vibration analysis techniques
used to solve or prevent problems (compared
to trial and error fixes)
What Happens to Pulsations if
Operating Envelope Changes?
Design Change: Increased #
Initial Operating Points of Load Steps and Ps Range

ACCEPTABLE Bottle
Shaking Forces Bottle Shaking Forces >200% of
Guideline. High Risk of Vibration
Problem
Bottle sizing

Risks of incorrect bottle sizes:


 Oversized bottles:
 Mechanical problems (i.e., low MNF  bracing)
 Expensive – materials and welding

 Undersized bottles:
 Pulsations/forces not controlled  secondary volumes
 Orifice plates  pressure drop  lost capacity, fuel
gas costs
Pulsation mitigation

 Surge volumes and resistive elements (orifice


plates) are simple but can be costly (capital
and pressure drop)

 Acoustic filtering offers much more pulsation


control with some capital cost but very little
pressure drop
Factors affecting pulsation mitigation

Difficulty Difficulty
Speed Valve
controlling controlled
range unloaders
pulsations vibration
Fixed Very low Low
Narrow Low Medium
Wide Medium High
Fixed  Medium Low
Narrow  High Medium
Wide  Very high High
For example, fixed speed =1200rpm, narrow speed range = 900 - 1200rpm,
wide speed range = 600 - 1200rpm
Optimizing Pulsation Control
Case study - Impact of off-skid piping

 Case study:
 One stage, two-throw Dresser-Rand 5BVIP2

 1200 RPM, gas speed of sound 1200 ft/s

 Both single-acting (SA) and double-acting (DA)

 Off-skid piping comes several weeks after pulsation


study was completed - two units with two coolers
 Stages of analysis:
 Bottle sizing with a “damper check”

 On-skid design with “infinite pipe” termination

 Off-skid piping added

 On-skid design is volume-choke filter


Piping layout

Damper Check Piping Layout


On-Skid Piping Layout
Off-Skid Piping Layout

Pulsations:
- Cylinder nozzle
- Bottle outlet nozzle
- Skid edge

Shaking Forces:
- Cylinder
- Bottle
- Crossover piping
Pulsations - discharge nozzle

25
Damper Check
On-Skid
Pulsations, psi pk-pk

20
Off-Skid
15

10

0
1x, SA 1x, DA 2x, SA 2x, DA
Shaking force - crossover piping

450
On-Skid
400
Shaking Forces, lbf pk-pk

Off-Skid
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2x, SA 2x, DA
What was the difference?

 Hint: the length between


the discharge bottle and the
cooler header is 15 feet
 Half-wave between bottle
and cooler header box
volume amplified pulsations
Multiple compressors – beat frequency
Unit A and B run at slightly different speeds

Because of this, the pulsations go in and


Unit A out of phase

Unit A

Unit B

Unit B

Total pulsation amplitude is sum


of pulsations from each unit

Beat frequency is related to the Combined Pulsations


speed differential between Unit A
and B Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University
Summary

 Shaking forces are more important to control


than pulsations
 Acoustic filters are more effective than orifice
plates for controlling pulsations
 More pressure drop is required to filter
pulsations when wider speed ranges are used
or unit single-acting
 The more information included in a pulsation
study improves accuracy and reduces risk
4. Mechanical Resonance

Presented by: Chris Harper


Summary
Example of Mechanical Analysis Model
Mechanical Analysis - MNFs

 Frequencies where
small forces result
in large vibration
response of
structure
Modal Analysis

 Finite Element Analysis


(FEA) used to calculate
Mechanical Natural
Frequencies (MNFs)
 Elastic Modulus

 Geometry

 Density

 Measure MNFs with Bump


Test
Demo #2 – Mechanical Natural Frequency
Mechanical Resonance

• We define resonance when force frequency is +/- 10% of MNF


• At resonance, displacement can be magnified by 40 times – can cause fatigue
failure
• What happens at 3X? What about 4X? 6X? Potential resonance,
but insufficient force
to cause problems

MNFs

Forces

| | | | | |
1x 2x 3x 4x 5x 6x
Frequency Change design to shift
MNF away from resonance
Mechanical Analysis Design Goal

Forces

MNF
| | | |
1x 2x 3x 4x
API 618 Design Goal
MNF > 2.4 x
Wide speed range

 Frequency avoidance becomes challenging as


speed range is increased
 Blocking out speeds may help avoid
resonance
Magnitude
Speed of
No room for
of Force
driver
MNF to hide
1200 rpm

700 rpm

MNF

| |
1x 2x
Frequency (orders of run speed)
MNFs of Main Components in Relation to
Compressor Harmonics

2.4 X 900 RPM 2.4 X 1200 RPM

Bottle MNFs:
40-70 Hz Typ.
Cylinder MNFs:
30-50 Hz Typ.

Scrubber Example: Scrubber Design


MNFs: Move MNF to Higher Frequency
15-30 Hz Typ. = Extra costs; design modification

20 Hz 40 Hz 50 Hz 60 Hz 70 Hz
Load Path Considerations

Poor Installation/Design: Better Design:

Cylinder compressor
and
piping

skid
Pile

foundation
Example: Mechanical Analysis

 Demonstrates MNF (Mechanical Natural


Frequency), resonance, cylinder gas loads, forced
response Analysis, LWN (Long Weld Neck) solution
for suction bottles.
 Ariel KBZ-6, Gas Load of 7,500 lbs (0-pk) at 3x on
stage 3
Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF (API 618 Step
3a)
Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF
Case Study – Cylinder Gas Loads at 3x?

TABLE L.2 - Cylinder Gas Forces (kips,0-Pk) in Horizontal direction


Unit: Ariel KBZ/6

STAGE#3 CYLINDER# 2
COND# 01X 02X 03X 04X 05X 06X 07X 08X 09X 10X
1 75.0 5.7 4.3 0.7 3.4 1.2 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.8
2 69.6 5.5 6.5 1.1 2.9 1.2 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.8
3 67.8 5.4 7.0 1.2 2.7 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8
4 65.8 5.3 7.5 1.3 2.5 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.8
5 49.1 4.5 5.2 4.1 1.6 1.1 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.6
6 48.4 4.3 5.5 4.1 1.6 1.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5

 Therefore 7500 lbs (0-pk) at 3x compressor run speed.


 (Weight of large SUV fully reversing 43.5 times per second!)
 Causes “cylinder stretch”
Case Study – Forced Response Analysis
(API 618 Step 3b1)
Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF, with LWN
Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF, with LWN
Case Study – Cylinder Gas Loads at 4x?

TABLE L.2 - Cylinder Gas Forces (kips,0-Pk) in Horizontal direction


Unit: Ariel KBZ/6

STAGE#3 CYLINDER# 2
COND# 01X 02X 03X 04X 05X 06X 07X 08X 09X 10X
1 75.0 5.7 4.3 0.7 3.4 1.2 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.8
2 69.6 5.5 6.5 1.1 2.9 1.2 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.8
3 67.8 5.4 7.0 1.2 2.7 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8
4 65.8 5.3 7.5 1.3 2.5 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.8
5 49.1 4.5 5.2 4.1 1.6 1.1 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.6
6 48.4 4.3 5.5 4.1 1.6 1.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5

 Gas Loads are less at 4x compressor run speed than at 3x


Case Study – Forced Response Analysis
Conflict Between Thermal and Dynamic Study

 Thermal solution has large distance between


clamps, thermal loops, and resting supports
 Dynamic solution has short distance between
clamps and avoids elbows
 Balanced solution has clamps
and thermal loops
 API 618 recommends same
company conduct
both studies
Solutions - Scrubber Bracing

 Increase MNF of scrubbers


to guideline levels, or
inter-tune if possible
 May be required on some
high RPM compressors
 Scrubber attachments
more likely to fail
5. Torsional Vibration

Presented by: Chris Harper


Torsional Vibration – Crank Failures
Torsional Vibration – Coupling Failures
Video #3 – Torsional Vibration
Purpose of Torsional Analysis

To predict excessive vibratory stress or amplitude


problems in driveline of driver / coupling /
compressor

 Potential Torsional Problems


 Compressor/Engine Crankshaft failure
 Motor Shaft Failures or Spider Failure (welded joints)
 Coupling Failure (Disk Pack, Rubber, Other)
 Damper/Coupling Heat Loads
 Compressor auxiliary drive amplitudes
 Engine Free End Amplitudes (Gear Problems)
 Motor Free End Amplitudes (Fan)
 Current Pulsation
Torsional Vibration - Applications

A TVA should be done for:


 Any new driver or compressor combination
 Any change in compressor configuration (different cylinders)
 Different motor (same frame rarely means same rotor inside)
 Different operating conditions (than what was originally studied)
 Drive trains experiencing failures
 VFD applications
 Critical applications

 Risk Chart May help to determine if a Study is required


http://www.betamachinery.com/uploadedFiles/001_-
_Design_Services/001_-
_Reciprocating_Compressors/Recip_RISK_Chart_Vibration_Control_3.
1.xls
Thorough Checks Required

 Analyze full operating map PLUS upset conditions


 Include tolerance band to consider fabrication and
installation uncertainty
 Motor stub shaft to be the
same diameter as the
compressor stub

Risk of Failure
at some
pressures and
speeds
6. Pipe Strain

Presented by: Chris Harper


Pipe Strain

 Several recent jobs where


we encountered unexplained
high frequency vibrations
and failures
 Isolated the cause as pipe
strain
Effects

 Pipe strain can:


 Increase natural frequencies (like a
guitar string)
 Reduce damping (high frequency
vibrations increase)
 Increase mean stress in system (making
it more likely to fail due to vibrations)
Contributing Factors

 Misaligned flanges
 Gaps between pipe and support
Flange Misalignment

 ASME B31.3 offers guidance for flange


alignment
Solutions

 Custom or modified spool pieces, orifice


plates, etc.
 Shim between piping and supports, rather
than just tightening clamp bolts
 Post-weld heat treating (e.g., vessel nozzles)
 Designing more flexibility into system

 Small details are


important!
7. Small Bore Piping Vibration

Presented by: Chris Harper


Small Bore Piping - Introduction

 Also called Branch Connections


 Generally 2 inches (50mm) or less
 Instrumentation connection (taps, thermowells, gauges), vent
lines, drains, site glasses, etc.
 Common on piping and vessels
near compressors, pumps, etc.
Demo #3 – Small Bore Piping
Video #4 – Small Bore Piping Vibration
Why is SBP a High Risk Problem?

 Small bore piping is often overlooked:


 May not be explicitly designed - field
installed
 Not shown on compressor package GAs

 Not included in typical pulsation/vibration


study
 Difficult to measure properly in the field
 Failure can lead to significant downtime
Field Measurements

 Measure Relative Vibration,


if required
 Steady State (Running)
 Transient (Start-up)
 Further check/investigation if
exceeds screening guideline
Assessment Methods

 Energy Institute
 Need dynamic force & poor design & poor
location = high likelihood of failure
 GMRC
 Tables of lengths
and weights
 FEA
 Calculate allowable
vibration before failure
8. Start-up Vibration Survey

Presented by: Chris Harper


Steps for Commissioning

 Note the operating condition (speed, loading,


pressure, temperature, SG)
 Take vibration readings (remember units!) at
consistent locations
 When to call an expert
 Solutions
Typical vibration measurement points

Scrubber: Top seam


Both ends of bottle (seam); sometimes
Bottle:
middle
Cylinder: Cylinder head end

Compressor frame Crank height drive and


& engine: non-drive ends

Pipe: Elbows, between supports


PSV: Top of valve body
Main skid: Front and rear corners
Small Bore Piping: End of cantilever; between supports

Plus other points if vibrations at above points are suspect!


Not all vibrations are alike

 Be clear what is being measured and what


guideline is being applied
 Overall vs. individual frequencies

 Units: mm/s vs. inches/second

 Peak or RMS (or pseudo RMS)

 Frequency range

 Apply appropriate guidelines (time-domain


vs. frequency domain guidelines)
When do I call an expert?

 Basic repairs/modifications do not work


 Try temporary bracing first

 Very high vibration levels


 Vibrations are high in multiple areas
 Vibrations are high for multiple operating
conditions
 Suspect pulsations are high
 High vibrations away from compressor

 Need help measuring or interpreting data


Solutions

Vibration = Dynamic Force x Dynamic Flexibility

 Control forces
 Pulsation control devices like orifice plates

 Moving acoustic natural frequencies

 Control flexibility
 Gussets

 Bracing

 Modified or additional clamping

 Moving mechanical natural frequencies


Braces – Test temporary brace

Add wooden brace


as field test
9. Summary

Presented by: Shelley Greenfield


Video #5 - Summary
Summary - Vibration

Vibration = Dynamic Force x Dynamic Flexibility


 Vibration cannot be eliminated, but can be
controlled through a balance between cost,
performance and reliability
 The earlier vibration risk is identified, the
easier (and cheaper) it is to deal with
Draft Vibration Specification (GMRC)
Scope of Work for Compressor System (Pipeline, Gas Injection/Withdrawal, Critical Application)
Study Analysis Step Description
A. Preliminary Design Review & Project Planning Stage:
Preliminary Pulsation Bottle Sizing Assess operating range, unloading plan, piping
layout options.
Provide preliminary pulsation control scheme and estimated vessel sizing.

B. Torsional Vibration Analysis (TVA) Assess stress and vibration on crankshaft(s) (driver and compressor system), and coupling dynamic torque
effects.
C Pulsation Analysis Pulsation study of compressor and piping system (including package and station piping). Provide final
recommendations on pulsation control solution.

D Pressure Drop and Performance Evaluate pressure drop of pulsation control devices and piping system concurrently. Evaluate impact on
Report compressor performance.

E Mechanical Mechanical dynamic analysis of on-skid piping, supports, and vessels. FEA modelling can be applied where
Analysis necessary.

Provide recommendations for small bore piping support and vibration control.

Optional: Forced Response Analysis of the Compressor Manifold and Vessels when necessary.
(Proper design practices using resonance avoidance can eliminate the need for this task.)

Optional: Forced Response Analysis of Off-Skid Piping System when necessary.


(Proper design practices using resonance avoidance can eliminate the need for this task.)

F Piping Flexibility (Thermal Stress) Static Analysis of piping and vessels to evaluate stress and equipment loads due to weight, pressure and
Analysis temperature changes.

G Skid Dynamic and Static Analysis Evaluate vibration of the skid and equipment mounted on the skid due to dynamic loads from the compressor
and driver. The foundation and the geotechnical properties should be considered. Evaluate skid design relative
to lifting.

H Commission Testing Evaluate vibration of compressor, piping, skid, foundation and small bore piping. Evaluate pulsation, pressure
drop, performance, and torsional vibration.
Key Take-Aways

 Properly specify vibration studies (scope, etc.)


 Assess vibrations on-skid and off-skid (across
operating envelope)
 Thermal/Mechanical: performed by same group
 Consider small bore vibration survey
 Attention to details (alignment, installation, etc.)
 Start vibration study early

Attend GMRC’s 2.5 day course, “Compressor Station


Vibration,” for more training.
Questions?

 Chris Harper (charper@betamachinery.com)


 Shelley Greenfield
 Gary Maxwell