Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 21

CDB 2063

SEPARATION PROCESSE II
EVAPORATION
9 June 2015
Dr Taslima Khanam
TOPIC OUTCOMES
At the end of topic, students should be able to:
 comprehend and discuss theory on evaporation
 discuss the industrial application
 equipment type
 process
 discuss and design the operation method
 Single-effect evaporators
 Multi-effect evaporators
 discuss the condensers for evaporators
 type
 operation
 heat balance calculation
 describe the operation of thermal vapor recompression &
2
mechanical vapor recompression
TODAY’S OUTCOMES

In this lesson, students should be able to:


 comprehend and discuss theory on evaporation
 explain the processing factors & their effects
 discuss the equipment type and operation methods

3
EVAPORATION
 Definition
 process where vapor (solvent) from a boiling liquid
solution is removed and a more concentrated solution
(solute) remains
 Generally refers to the removal of water from
aqueous solution
 Application
heat
 Produce concentrated aqueous solution. E.g. orange
juice, syrup, glycerol, caramel, conc. milk etc.
Product is concentrated solution; Discard is the
evaporated water. But can be other wise, e.g.
desalinated water as drinking water. 4
PROCESSING FACTORS
 Types of evaporators are selected based on the physical
and chemical properties of the solution being
concentrated and the vapor removed
Properties affecting processing methods :
1. Concentration in liquid
2. Solubility
3. Temperature sensitivity of materials
4. Foaming or frothing
5. Pressure and temperature
6. Scale deposition and materials of construction 5
PROCESSING FACTORS

Concentration in the liquid


 liquid feed is relatively dilute
 low viscosity, high heat transfer
coefficient
 solution may become very viscous
due to evaporation
 heat transfer coefficient drops
 adequate circulation and/or
turbulence must be present to keep the
coefficient moderate. 6
PROCESSING FACTORS

Solubility
 Heat is provided, Evaporation
takes place
 concentration of solute increases
 exceed solubility limit of material
 form crystals thereby limit max
concentration in solution

7
PROCESSING FACTORS

Temperature sensitivity of materials


Temperature-sensitive materials degrade at higher
temperature or prolonged heating
food & biological materials e.g. milk, vegetable
extracts
pharmaceutical products
fine organic chemicals
Degradation is a function of temperature & time
8
PROCESSING FACTORS

Foaming or frothing
Some solutions form a foam or froth during
boiling
food solutions - skim milk
fatty acid solutions

foam + vapor = entrainment losses occur


9
PROCESSING FACTORS

Pressure & Temperature


 High operating pressure cause rise in boiling point
 Heat sensitive materials are required to keep at low
temperature
 Recommended operating pressure under 1 atm
(vacuum) to keep temperature low in heat-sensitive
material

10
PROCESSING FACTORS

Scale deposition
 Some solution deposit solid materials (scale)
on heating surfaces.
Possible cause:
products decomposition
decrease in solubility
Consequences: overall heat transfer coefficient
decreases, corroded evaporator
 Materials for evaporator should be chosen to
minimize corrosion 11
PROCESSING FACTORS

Material of Construction
evaporators are made of steel (carbon steel)
many solutions attack ferrous metal and/or
contaminated by them
= use special material (nickel, stainless steel,
aluminium), however it’s expensive
 minimize corrosion
 avoid contamination

12
QUESTION?

13
TYPES OF EVAPORATION EQUIPMENT
• The evaporation equipment are classified based
on
– Configuration of heat-transfer surface
– Types of agitation or circulation system of the
liquid
• General types include
– Open pan
– Horizontal tube
– Vertical tube type
– Long tube vertical
– Forced circulation 14
OPEN PAN TYPE

 most elementary form


 open pan
 liquid is boiled
 heat supplied through
 direct fire or a steam jacket or through coils
 scrapers or paddles provide agitation
 simple and low in capital cost
 expensive in their running cost as heat economy is
poor
15
HORIZONTAL-TUBE EVAPORATORS
 Development of open pan
 pan closed in vertical cylinder
 heating tubes arranged in horizontal bundle,
immersed in liquid at bottom of cylinder Baffle

 Steam enters to the tube and condenses


and leaves out as condensate
 Baffle used as de-entrainment device
 Operates in continuous mode

 Applicable for non-viscous and non-


scale forming liquids
 Liquids circulation is poor, not suitable
for viscous liquids 16
VERTICAL-TUBE EVAPORATORS
 Tubes are arranged vertically
 liquid inside tubes, steam condenses
outside
liquid rises in the tube by natural circulation,
flows downward through central downcomer Downcomer
space
Natural circulation caused by boiling and
decrease in density
increases heat transfer coefficient
 short-tube evaporators
 Application: sugar, salt, caustic soda industries
 Not applicable for viscous liquids
17
LONG-TUBE EVAPORATORS
 3-10 m long vertical tubes are arranged to
provide high liquid velocities
 Formation of vapor bubbles inside the tubes cause
pumping action and give high liquid velocity
 Liquid flows inside the tubes and steam condenses
outside
 One way liquid circulation through the tube
providing low contact time
 For evaporation rates >> feed rate, large pipe
connection is added between concentrate outlet
and feed
 Widely used for producing condensed milk
18
FORCED CIRCULATION TYPE

 Forced circulation of feed


is performed by a pump.
 Heat transfer co-efficient
increases for forced
circulation
 Vertical tubes are usually
shorter than long-tube
type
 Useful for viscous liquids
19
REFERENCES
Books :
1. Geankoplis C. J., Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles,
4th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2003.

20
QUESTION?

21

Похожие интересы