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4

Population is the entirety of the same group. The subset of population is

sample. In research, sometimes it is impossible for the researcher to study all

elements in the population. This is because the number of elements in the

population is large and the researcher has constraints of time and resources to

study all of them. Hence, the researcher needs a sample. A sample is a

portion of elements in the population selected to represent the population

under study. The finding from a sample is generalized on the whole

population. That is why the researcher needs to apply the proper sampling

technique to obtain sample so that it is a representative of a population. There

are many sampling techniques available to help researchers obtain sample

from a population.

The main reasons for studying sample instead of the whole population:

1. Cost constraint: Working with a sample does not incur much expenses

compared to working with the whole population.

2. Time constraint: Working with sample does not require longer time

compared to working with the whole population.

manpower compared to working with the whole population.

sample increased because it involves dealing with a small number of

elements compared to elements of the whole population.

to deal with is small.

Prof Dr Zainudin Awang 82

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

destruction of sample in measuring the performance.

Elements

Elements are the selected respondents or objects from the defined target

population from which the researcher will study by collecting the required data

and information.

Sampling Units

selected randomly during the sampling process. The researcher selects the

sample for the study from the sampling units by using an appropriate sampling

technique. The sampling technique employed would ensure representativeness

of the sample towards its population.

Sampling Frame

Sampling frame is the list of all eligible sampling units and elements in the

population from where the sample can be selected. Examples of sampling

frame are a phone directory, a list of companies selling health products, a list of

diabetic patients, a list of voters in the area, a list of houses in the district, a list

of credit card holders who apply for additional credit limit, etc. Using the

appropriate sampling technique the researcher can select the sample from this

sampling frame for the study.

The choice of sampling design to be employed in the study depends very much

on certain factors deemed to be crucial. Among the factors that should be

considered are:

provides the initial guidelines for determining the appropriate sampling

design to be employed in the study. If the research objectives include the

intention to generalize the findings to the defined target population, then the

Prof Dr Zainudin Awang 83

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

method rather than a non-probability sampling method. This is because the

selection of sample using the probability sampling method occurs at random

and the representativeness of the sample on the population cannot be

questioned. However, if the researcher uses the non-probability sampling

method, the selection of sample is not at random (sometimes biased), and

hence the findings cannot be generalized on the whole population since the

sample itself is not a representative of a population in the first place.

Accuracy is the degree to which bias is absent from the sample. There is no

variation in measures due to any influences that causes skewness in the

distribution with an accurate sample. The degree of accuracy required or the

researcher’s tolerance for error may vary from one project to another. This is

true especially when cost constraint or other considerations may be traded

off for a reduction in accuracy.

3. Availability of Resources

If the researcher’s financial and human resources are restricted, these

limitations will most certainly eliminate the more sophisticated time-

consuming and complex probability sampling methods to be employed.

Marketing practitioners who are concerned by the cost versus the precision

of the information often choose the non-probability sampling method for their

study rather than do not conduct any study at all. This is because most of

marketing research projects is concerning the customers’ opinion, customers’

preference, and customers’ perception about certain product or service in the

market; and these types of researches do not require the measurement

which is too precise like the scientific research.

4. Time Constraint

Researchers who need to complete a project in a short time will be more

likely to select a simple, less time-consuming sampling method rather than a

more complex and accurate method. For instance, a telecommunication

company would like to introduce a new plan, which requires them to do a

research on that matter. If the study is too time-consuming, several

prospective customers might move away from the company to their

competitors. So, doing the research within the time frame, the company will

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

not only keep current customers coming back but also encourage

prospective customers to buy the new plan.

In many cases, a complete list of population elements or a sampling frame is

not available to the researcher. A lack of sampling frame may automatically

rule out the use of systematic random sampling, stratified random sampling,

or any other type of probability sampling method which requires the complete

list of population elements before the sample can be selected.

The researcher needs to discuss with the manager and agree on the scope

of a research project. This is important since the scope of the research

project will influence the choice of the sampling method. Be sure of the

geographical area to be covered, the demographic characteristics of the

population, and the specific focus for the study. When the target population

elements are scattered in the unequally distributed geographical area, a

cluster sampling method may become much more suitable than other

sampling methods. Generally speaking, the broader the geographical scope

of the research project, the more extensive and complex the sampling

method becomes to ensure proper representation of the target population.

In deciding the sampling method to be used in the study, the researcher

should consider the statistical analysis techniques that will be employed to

analyze the data. The choice of sampling method that does not fulfill the

requirement for the method of analysis may land the researcher into trouble

since the analysis might be invalid. This is because certain data analysis

technique is only valid under certain condition concerning the distribution of

sample. Sometimes the researchers are using the non-probability sampling

methods to collect the data, but instead, using the statistical tests which

require the distribution of sample to be randomly and normally distributed. Of

course the results will be statistically invalid since it pre-requisite is not met.

Prof Dr Zainudin Awang 85

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

sampling error can be detected by observing the difference between the sample

results and the census conducted using identical procedures. Two of the

difficulties associated with the detection of sampling errors are:

research. Hence, there will be no basis to detect the sampling error.

2. Sampling error can be determined only after the sample is drawn and data

collection has been completed.

mistakes made by the researcher either in the sampling process or the size of

sample used. Random sampling error occurs due to some random variations in

the scientific selection of sampling units.

From the principles of the Central Limit Theorem (CLT), the degree of

sampling error and its impact can be reduced by increasing the size of sample to

be taken from its population. CLT is the theorem which states that for any target

population, the sampling distribution of the mean and proportion derived from a

random sample will be approximately normally distributed provided that the

sample size is sufficiently large. The CLT plays an important role in

understanding the concepts of sampling error, the statistical significance, and the

determination of sample size.

populations perfectly, that shows why the sampling error occurs. The lack of fit

between sample and the population is expressed as sampling error. The

sampling error is the magnitude of difference between the characteristics of a

sample and the characteristics of the population. The researcher can minimize

the amount of sampling error through the following procedure:

1. By using the appropriate sampling technique when drawing the sample from

its population.

2. By increasing the size of sample or respondents to be obtained from its

population.

Prof Dr Zainudin Awang 86

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

determined using either appropriate formulas or using the experience from

previous researchers.

judgment since there is no specific formula.

researcher must consider how precise the estimates must be and how much time

and money are available to collect the required data, since data collection is

generally one of the most expensive components in the study.

SIZE:

the variability of the characteristic, the larger the size of the sample necessary

for that research.

2. The level of confidence desired in the estimate (CL). The higher the level of

confidence desired in the findings, the larger the sample size needed.

Confidence interval represents a statistical range of values within which the

true value of the target population parameter is expected to lie.

The more precise the result from the study required by the manager, the

larger the sample size need to be drawn from its population.

The non-sampling errors are biases that may occur in any research study

regardless of whether a sample or a census is used. These errors may occur at

any stage of the research process.

and non-probability sampling (See Figure 4.1). The major difference between

these two techniques is that - in the probability sampling, the sample is selected

by chance; while, in the non-probability sampling, the sample is selected based

on the personal judgment of the researcher rather than chance.

Prof Dr Zainudin Awang 87

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

Sampling Design

Probability Non-probability

Probability sampling methods are the most commonly used method because the

selection of participants is determined at random. In the probability sampling, any

element of the population has an equal chance or equal probability of being

selected as a sample. Thus the representativeness of a sample cannot be

questioned.

Probability

Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling

Proportionate Disproportionate

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

term of the characteristics of interest for the study. The characteristics of the study

can be in term of gender, socio-economic status, ethnic group, the culture, and the

religion of the potential respondents. This sampling procedure allows for the equal

chance for any element in the population to be selected as a sample for the study. In

other words, a probability sampling procedure ensures every sampling unit in the

target population has a known, equal, nonzero chance of being selected.

The process of simple random sampling consists of the following four steps:

select a sample for research.

b. The list of all elements in the population. This list is sometimes called a

sampling frame form which the sample will be selected. For example, a

complete list of marketing students in UiTM is a sampling frame.

example, the numerical list represents the member of the population

(list of marketing students).

students and select these students as the respondents for data

collection or further research activities.

d) The respondents selected this way are totally random; hence the

problem of biasness does not arise.

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

b. The sampling fails to use all the information of a population that might

result a waste of the design.

Like simple random sampling technique, the systematic sampling technique is also

applicable for the homogenous population. In this sampling technique, the element

which falls on the kth number on the list is chosen as a respondent. This sampling

procedure fixed the increment in order to determine the following respondent, for

example, every 5th person on the list is selected as respondents.

a. Selection process

iii Determine the interval (k) when k is the ratio between the size of

population and size of sample (k = N/n). For example if N = 500 and

n = 25. In this case, K = 500/25 = 20.

example from 1 to 20. Lets say, number 5 happens to be randomly

selected here. Then the first respondent for the study is person number 5

on the sampling frame.

and so on until the 20th respondent is selected since the sample size is 20.

following numbers on the sampling frame:

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

5 25 45 65 85

105 125 145 165 185

205 225 245 265 285

305 325 345 365 385

405 425 445 465 485

When the characteristic of the population under study is not homogenous, then the

researcher has to stratify them into homogenous groups. When the characteristic in

each group is homogenous, then the researcher can employ either the simple

random sampling or systematic sampling technique to randomly select the

respondents. The stratified sampling is the process of selecting a sample that

represents each stratum in a population. The researcher can stratify the

heterogeneous population into homogeneous population within a stratum in terms of

socio-economic status, ethnicity, religion, gender, marital status, type of houses, etc.

a. Specify the strata (elements within the same strata is homogenous, and

elements between strata is heterogeneous).

characteristics of interest in the study.

c. Now we can select the sample within each strata using simple random

sampling since the population is already uniform.

number of units in that stratum. For example, a study is to be conducted

on the investors who made their investment in the Amanah Saham

Bumiputera (ASB) in January 2008. The study wants to look specifically on

how the marital status of investors influences their investment decision in

ASB.

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

marital status (namely single, married, divorced, and widowed). Thus, the

researcher needs to stratify them according to their marital status before

the sample from each stratum can be selected. Now the investors in the

same stratum have similar characteristics. Suppose the researcher

decided to obtain 100 investors or 10% of the population of 1000 investors

as the respondents for his study.

Sample from

Whole Population in each stratum

Population each stratum

Single (10)

Total Single (100)

investors

who bought Married (400) Married (40)

the ASB unit

trust in Jan Divorced (300)

2008 is 1000 Divorced (30)

Widowed (200)

Total = 1000

Widowed (20)

Total = 1000

Total = 100

The advantage of stratified sampling is the estimate obtained from the sample

is more accurate since it ensures all strata are represented in the sample.

The researcher also can compare whether different strata perform differently

regarding certain variable of interest.

Cluster sampling is the probability sampling technique applicable when the study

covers a large geographical area, the population is not homogeneous, and the

sampling frame is not available. The clusters can be the area in a residential district

(section 1, section 2, etc), the growth corridor in the country (WPI, NCER, ECER,

Prof Dr Zainudin Awang 92

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

etc), or the developmental region such as eastern region, northern region, central

region, and southern region.

The process of cluster sampling is:

a. First of all, the researcher needs to specify the clusters of interest within

the population. The researcher can classify certain groups into a cluster in

one geographical area.

b. For example, UiTM has campuses scattered across the country. The spread of

UiTM campuses can be classified based on the respective region namely eastern

region (Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang), northern region (Perlis, Kedah, Penang,

Perak), central region (Shah Alam, Petaling Jaya, Meru), southern region (Johor,

Melaka, Negeri Sembilan), and east Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak). In this case,

each region is a cluster and under each cluster there are a few campuses

available.

c. In the study, firstly the researcher needs to select randomly a few clusters

from the available clusters (regions). Secondly, the researcher needs to

select randomly a few campuses among the campuses available in the

selected clusters.

d. All students in the selected campuses are taken as respondents in the

study. In this case the sampling technique is applied in the selection of

clusters and in the selection of campuses within the selected clusters.

Thus, no sampling technique is applied on the respondents in the selected

campuses since all of them will be covered in the study.

In the non-probability sampling, the element in the population does not have equal

chance of being selected as a sample. This technique is used in research where no

inference concerning the population needs to be made. This means the result of the

study is only applicable to the particular sample and does not necessarily reflect the

whole population. However, this type of sampling is very economical and easily

performed.

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

Non-probability

Sampling Sampling Sampling

Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling procedure where the selected

sample represents the captive audience. The captive audience is a very convenient

way to generate a sample. The procedure is not random whereby the respondents

are selected because they happen to be at the right place and at the right time. For

example, the researcher goes to the supermarket at noon and obtains a few

shoppers as respondents to complete the structured questionnaire.

Convenience sampling offers the least expensive and least time consuming

compared to all sampling techniques. In addition, the sampling units are accessible,

easy to measure, and cooperative. Often, it is used in exploratory research for

generating ideas on certain phenomena, insights into certain problem, to develop

hypotheses, to pre-test questionnaires, and to conduct pilot studies.

limitations. The limitations of convenience sampling can be stated as follows:

respondents. Hence, the data obtained is not randomly distributed.

generalized to any population of interest.

c. The sampling process is not appropriate for population inferences, and the

technique is not recommended for descriptive and causal research.

Prof Dr Zainudin Awang 94

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

respondents are selected based on the judgment of the researcher that they have

the required characteristics to be included in the study. In this technique, the

researcher selects respondents that meet the specified criteria for the study. For

example, a cosmetic manufacturer selects respondents from the female artists since

they believe that all female artists are consuming cosmetic products. Another

example, ASTRO selects teenagers who posses certain characteristics as

respondents in order to obtain their feedback concerning the Akademi Fantasia (AF)

program. In this case, the management of ASTRO believes that these particular

teenagers are the most likely viewers of AF programs.

stratified sampling in that a particular stratum is the focus of the study. The purpose

of quota is to ensure that various subgroups in a population possessing different

characteristics are represented in the sample. This technique selects respondents

possessing certain characteristics of interest by the researcher. The characteristics

of respondents to be selected are pre-determined by the researcher himself such as

students from urban areas and the students from rural areas. Another example of

characteristics of interest is employment status such as government staff, staff of

private firms, professionals, self-employed, etc.

Example 4.1:

Suppose a firm wishes to investigate consumers who own digital versatile disc

(DVD) players in their home. Since different brands of DVD pose different

characteristics, the researcher may wish to ensure that each brand of DVD is

included in the sample. In a quota sampling, the researcher determines the number

of respondents (quota) to obtain for each DVD brands. For example, a researcher

may choose 100 respondents to interview. The respondents must consist of

customers using the following DVD brand, 40 Sony, 30 Samsung, 20 Toshiba, and

10 of other brands.

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

In the snowball sampling, firstly the researcher selects one respondent who

fulfills certain characteristics for the study. After obtaining the required data

from the first respondent, the researcher asks this particular respondent to

locate his friends who possess the same characteristics. The second

respondent will also help the researcher to locate the next respondent.

Snowball sampling is typically used in research situation where:

a) The defined target population is very small and the characteristic of the

population is unique.

For example, the research project is to study the success story of single

mother in the direct-selling business. First of all, the researcher needs to find

the first respondent, the single mother doing direct-selling business. After

obtaining the required data (through personal interview or structured

questionnaire) from this respondent, the researcher would ask that

respondent to locate her friends who possess the same characteristics. The

researcher would stop once he has obtained enough number of respondents

required for the study.

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

Exercises

True-False Questions

STATEMENT TRUE FALSE

A list containing elements in a target population is known as a

1.

sampling frame.

A sample is any subgroup of a population selected for

2.

participation in a study.

A stratified sampling is usually the most efficient sampling

3.

technique in a statistical sense.

A sampling unit is the object in the population from which

4.

information is desired.

Resource constraints should not be used in determining sample

5.

sizes for research project.

6. Systematic sampling does not require a sampling frame.

7. Quota sampling does not guarantee representativeness.

A census involve the complete enumeration of all of the

8.

elements of a population.

The sampling system consists of a list of directions for

9.

identifying the target population.

A census can increase non-sampling error to the point that

10.

these errors exceed the sampling errors in a sample.

b. Define the population of interest

c. Define the problem statement

d. Determine the sample size

a. Population

b. Census

c. Sample

d. Sampling unit

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

a. Quota

b. Sample

c. Census

d. Panel

a. Sample

b. Quota

c. Population

d. Census

b. The sampling element

c. The target population

d. The sampling unit

__________, the sampling error is ___________, and the research budget is

__________.

b. Small; low; large

c. Large; high; large

d. Large; low; small

7. Among the factors that the researcher should consider when determining the

sample size for his research is:

b. Random error

c. Sampling error

d. All of the above are true.

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

8. A good sample is the one in which there is no bias from the sampling process.

This is defined as _____________.

a. Precision

b. Consistency

c. Accuracy

d. Random

population as a whole, he has chosen a ______________.

a. Group

b. Bi-variant population

c. Sample

d. Market

a. Sampling frame

b. Population

c. Sample size

d. Sampling unit

11. When the sampling error cannot be calculated due to the method used to

select the sample, the researcher has just used a (n) _______________.

b. Inverted sample

c. Probability sample

d. Non-probability sample

12. A researcher begins by selecting one customer from the list of 1300

customers, and then continues the process by selecting every 30th customer

on the list is using a ______________.

b. Systematic sampling

c. Stratified random sampling

d. Judgement sampling

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

under the age of 30 years, and 60 people over the age of 30 years because

that is the proportion of people with that characteristics in the population.

This is an example of a ________ sample.

a. Judgement sampling

b. Quota sampling

c. Proportional stratified sampling

d. Snowball sampling

a. Quota sample

b. Convenience sample

c. Judgement sample

d. Snowball sample

15. What type of sampling is suitable when there are great variations among the

sub-groups in the population?

a. Stratified sampling

b. Cluster sampling

c. Systematic sampling

d. Simple random sampling

16. Which of the following techniques is typically the least expensive and least

time consuming?

a. Simple random

b. Convenience

c. Stratified

d. Cluster

a. Systematic sampling

b. Proportional stratified sampling

c. Disproportionate stratified sampling

d. Quota sampling

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

Essay Question

centre through a special RM 24.00 annual fee to be paid by each student for

the next 4 years. Since the project will take 2 years to complete, the students

who are currently in the third and fourth year will not benefit from the

expansion. The survey committee believes that the opinions of students are

likely to depend on their current class status. There are currently 4000 first

year students, 3200 second year students, 2800 third year students and 2000

fourth year students enrolled in the university. The sample will contain 300

students and the size of the sample from each group is to be proportional to

the size of the particular sub-population.

b. What is the probability sampling method that is appropriate for the above

opinion poll? State your reason(s).

c. Assuming that the list of 2800 third year students is obtained from the

registrar office, the numerical list of names is between 1 and 2800. Using

the table of random numbers below, explain the procedure you would

follow to select six samples from the list.

1795 5563 9527 5830 1290 4650

4650 3185 4990 9949 2533 2020

9215 7986 8418 4596 1457 7547

1457 7627 3494 0008 0739 6679

of random numbers, state another method of drawing the random sample.

2. a. Give two main reasons for using cluster sampling over simple random

sampling.

b. What are the main reasons for using a sample rather than a census?

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

c. The 5 year old Shah Alam housing directory lists the residents’ names

alphabetically together with their addresses. TNB wishes to conduct a

research on the perception of Shah Alam’s residents towards the

campaign on using Solar Panel for house use. For the above situation:

ii. What problems could arise by using this frame?

iii. How can these problems be solved during the fieldwork?

iv. In using the directory, which probability sampling is appropriate for

the above study? State your reason(s).

sampling by discussing the sample selection methods for each technique.

Give one example for each type of sampling.

sample. Give two examples of each type of sample.

a. Convenience sampling

b. Judgmental sampling

c. Snowball sampling

b. List the advantages and disadvantages of using secondary data

For each of the following, indicate the type of sampling technique that can

be employed. A questionnaire is administered to:

ii) Every sixteen customer who enters the mall.

iii) All customers that enter a set of randomly selected stores in a 15-

minute period during the day.

iv) Customer who enter any bookstore outlet at the mall.

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Chapter 4: Sampling Design

communication method to find out students’ feelings and opinions about the

various food services available on the campus. A survey instrument was

developed for the purpose of gathering the information.

survey method.

amount of responses? Justify your answers.

c) What are the classifications of non-sampling errors that could arise from

the study?

you draw a sample from a known population using a cluster sampling?

10. A prominent bank located in Kuala Lumpur has some 400,000 users of its

credit cards scattered throughout Malaysia. The application forms for the

credit card asked for the usual information about name, address, income,

level of education and so on that is typical of such applications. The bank is

currently interested in determining if there is any directional relationship

between the frequency of card usage and the amount of credit charged on the

card for various purchases made within a month, i.e. the more frequent the

card is used, the higher is the credit amount charged on the card.

a) Identify the sampling frame that would be used by the bank to conduct the

investigation. How is the sampling frame acquired?

b) Choose a suitable sampling technique and indicate how you would draw a

sample from the target population using the sampling technique chosen.

c) Determine and describe the appropriate data collecting method for the

study. State TWO (2) advantages and disadvantages for choosing the

method.

Describe the purpose of the instrument.

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

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